Scouting

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This article is about the Scout Movement. For other meanings, see Scout (disambiguation).

Scouting

Country Founded Founder

Worldwide 1907 Lord Baden-Powell

Scouting portal Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, so that they may play constructive roles in society. Scouting began in 1907 when Robert Baden-Powell, Lieutenant General in the British Army, held the first Scouting encampment at Brownsea Island in England. BadenPowell wrote the principles of Scouting in Scouting for Boys (London, 1908), based on his earlier military books, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham (Chief of Scouts in British Africa), Seton of theWoodcraft Indians, Smith of the Boys' Brigade, and his publisher Pearson. During the first half of the 20th century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups each for boys (Cub Scout, Boy Scout, Rover Scout) and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls (Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide). The movement employs the Scout method, a program of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities,

including camping, woodcraft, aquatics, hiking, backpacking, andsports. Another widely recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable head wear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as merit badges and other patches. In 2007, Scouting and Guiding together had over 38 million members in 216 countries. The two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girlsonly organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. That year marked the centenary of Scouting world wide, and member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion.

Contents
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1 History 1.1 Origins 1.2 Growth 1.3 Influences 2 Movement characteristics 2.1 Scout method 2.2 Activities 2.3 Uniforms and distinctive insignia 3 Age groups and sections 4 Adults and leadership 5 Around the world 5.1 Co-educational 5.2 Membership 5.3 Nonaligned and Scout-like organizations 6 Controversy and conflict 7 In film and the arts 8 References

helping in the defense of the town (1899–1900).[1] In South Africa during the Second Boer War.[6] In the United Kingdom. The Cadet Corps performed well. and—as part of their training—showed his men how to survive in the wilderness. Aids to Scouting. He noticed that it helped the soldiers to develop independence rather than just blindly follow officers' orders. Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafeking by a much larger Boer army (the Siege of Mafeking). and when the siege was broken. Baden-Powell was stationed in British India and Africa in the 1880s and 1890s. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis that Scouting later adopted as its international symbol. he had become a national hero. the public followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking through newspapers. which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. Since his youth.[7] .[3][4][5] Each member received a badge that illustrated a combined compass point and spearhead. and were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement. [2] The Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages. This rise to fame fueled the sales of a small instruction book he had written about military scouting.• • 9 Further reading 10 External links [edit]History [edit]Origins Stone on Brownsea Island commemorating thefirst Scout camp As a military officer. he had been fond of woodcraft and military scouting.

and they shared ideas about youth training programs.[12] His organizational method. Arthur Pearson. Baden-Powell went on an extensive speaking tour arranged by his publisher. parts of which he used for Scouting. now known as the Patrol System and a key part of Scouting training. to test his ideas. and Winton Boys' Brigade units) and held a week-long camp in August on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour.[10][11] In 1907 Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols. to promote his forthcoming book. especially during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade. Seton. Dorset. Bournemouth. Scouting for Boys. England.[9] He studied other schemes. explorers (and later on. allowed the boys to organize themselves into small groups with an elected patrol leader.[8] He was suggested by several to rewrite this book for boys. a British-born Canadian living in the United States. Baden-Powell thought this would not be attractive and suggested that it could grow much larger when scouting would be used. but left out the military aspects and transferred the techniques (mainly survival) to non-military heroes: backwoodsmen. In the same year. Parkstone. he noticed that boys showed considerable interest in the book.[11] .On his return to England. He had not simply rewritten his Aids to Scouting. Ernest Thompson Seton sent Baden-Powell a copy of his book The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. met Baden-Powell in October 1906.[13] In the autumn of 1907. a large youth movement drilled with military precision. Hamworthy. he gathered 21 boys of mixed social backgrounds (from boy's schools in the Londonarea and a section of boys from the Poole. sailors and airmen). which was used by teachers and youth organizations.[1] He also added innovative educational principles (the Scout method) by which he extended the attractive game to a personal mental education. A 2007 British fifty pence coin commemorating the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Scout Movement In July 1906.

He encouraged them. in particular the Boys' Brigade. followed by Australia.[17][18] [edit]Growth Olave Baden-Powell The Boy Scout movement swiftly established itself throughout the British Empire soon after the publication ofScouting for Boys. and the United States had Boy Scouts. India. Air Scout. Malaya. Chile was the first country outside the British dominions to have a recognized Scouting program. Baden-Powell intended that the scheme would be used by established organizations. Germany. the need became apparent for leader training and programs for younger boys.[19][20] The program initially focused on boys aged 11 to 18. boys spontaneously formed Scout patrols and flooded BadenPowell with requests for assistance. Sweden.[15] At the time. older . because of the popularity of his person and the adventurous outdoor game he wrote about. The book is now the fourth-bestselling title of all time. held in 1909 at The Crystal Palace in London. Norway. Greece.000 boys and a number of girls. and other specialized units were added to the program. France. Denmark.Scouting for Boys first appeared in England in January 1908 as six fortnightly installments. and was published in England later in 1908 in book form.[14] and is now commonly considered the first version of the Boy Scout Handbook. theNetherlands. Mexico. Finland. [16] However. The first recognized overseas unit was chartered in Gibraltar in 1908. followed quickly by a unit in Malta. Canada became the first overseas dominion with a sanctioned Boy Scout program. attracted 10. Russia. The first Scout rally.New Zealand and South Africa. from the founder William A. and the Scouting movement developed momentum. As the movement grew. but as the movement grew. By 1910. Sea Scout. Smith. Argentina.

a parallel movement for girls. sometimes named Girl Scouts. She stepped down as president of the Girl Guides in 1920 in favor of Robert's wife Olave Baden-Powell. and girls.boys. including the Wood Badge training. and wrote other handbooks for the use of the new Scouting sections. [24] Wood Badge is used by Boy Scout associations and combined Boy Scout and Girl Guide associations in many countries. Agnes Baden-Powell became the first president of the Girl Guides when it was formed in 1910. The development of the training was delayed by World War I. [edit]Influences . They operated independently until they obtained official recognition from their home country's Scouting organization. from basic to program-specific. Gilwell Park near London was purchased in 1919 on behalf of The Scout Associationas an adult training site and Scouting campsite. though co-educational youth groups did exist. two thirds of the Scout organizations belonging to WOSM had become co-educational. at the request of the girls who attended the Crystal Palace Rally. so the Wood Badge course was developed to recognize adult leadership training. written for Rover Scouts in 1922. she started Rosebuds—later renamed Brownies—for younger girls. In the United States. One of these was Rovering to Success. attempts at Cub programs began as early as 1911. Early Scoutmaster training camps were held in London in 1910 and in Yorkshire in 1911.[25] Baden-Powell wrote a book. but official recognition was not obtained until 1930. to help Scouting Leaders. In 1914.[23] Baden-Powell could not single-handedly advise all groups who requested his assistance. A wide range of leader training exists in 2007. The first Cub Scout and Rover Scoutprograms were in place by the late 1910s. such as Cub Scouts and Girl Guides. By the 1990s. At that time. girls were expected to remain separate from boys because of societal standards. so the first Wood Badge course was not held until 1919.[20][21][22] Girls wanted to become part of the movement almost as soon as it began. who was named Chief Guide (for England) in 1918 and World Chief Guide in 1930. Aids to Scoutmastership. BadenPowell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell introduced the Girl Guides in 1910. Baden-Powell wanted the training to be as practical as possible to encourage other adults to take leadership roles.

S. frontier experience. and his revolutionary ideas inspired thousands of young people. By adopting and modifying local ideologies. Comparable organizations in the English-speaking world are the Boys' Brigade and the non-militaristic Woodcraft Folk.U.[26] Aspects of Scouting practice have been criticized as too militaristic. but the underlying assumption that American native peoples are more closely connected with nature and therefore have special wilderness survival skills which can be used as part of the training program. because that region was a significant . flag ceremonies. they never matched the development and growth of Scouting. however. Australian Scouts attend Scouts' Own. He was a 50-year-old retired army general when he founded Scouting. British Scouting makes use of imagery drawn from the Indian subcontinent. In the United States. Scouting uses images drawn from the U. badges of rank. 1927 Important elements of traditional Scouting have their origins in Baden-Powell's experiences in education and military training. to get involved in activities that most had never contemplated. By contrast. but since then have diminished or been abandoned in both Scouting and society. from all parts of society. and brass bands were commonly accepted in the early years because they were a part of normal society. This includes not only its selection of animal badges for Cub Scouts. an informal.[27] Military-style uniforms. spiritual Scouting ceremony Local influences have also been a strong part of Scouting.S. Scouting has been able to find acceptance in a wide variety of cultures. President Calvin Coolidgegreeting 1500 Boy Scouts making an annual pilgrimage to the Capitol.

The book's popularity with young boys surprised him. excluding atheists. In fact. Akela (whose name was also appropriated for theWebelos). though it is applied differently in various countries. particularly in initiative. Baden-Powell's personal experiences in India led him to adopt Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book as a major influence for the Cub Scouts.[33] Scouts Canada defines Duty to God broadly in terms of "adherence to spiritual principles" and leaves it to the individual member or leader whether they can follow a Scout Promise that includes Duty to God. because he saw the need for the improved training of British militaryenlisted scouts. self-reliance. Aids To Scouting.[35] [36] [edit]Scout method . inter alia. it seems natural that the movement adopted the names Scouting andBoy Scouts.[32] The Scout Association in the United Kingdom requires adult leaders to implement the Association's religious policy which. encourages members to belong to some religious body. for example. Programs exist for Scouts ranging in age from 6 to 25 (though age limits vary slightly by country). the name used for the Cub Scout leader.[28] The name "Scouting" seems to have been inspired by the important and romantic role played by military scouts performing reconnaissance in the wars of the time. Baden-Powell wrote his original military training book.focus in the early years of Scouting.[30][31] The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) take a strong position. is that of the leader of the wolf pack in the book.[29] "Duty to God" is a principle of Scouting. As he adapted the book as Scouting for Boys. which incorporates an informal educational system that emphasizes practical activities in the outdoors. and program specifics target Scouts in a manner appropriate to their age. and observational skills.[34] [edit]Movement characteristics Scouting is taught using the Scout method.

intellectual. selfreliance. and readiness. The Scout method is a progressive system designed to achieve these goals.."[35] It is the goal of Scouting "to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical.. and adult support. and a close-knit fraternal atmosphere.. in accordance with the purpose. Scouts worldwide have taken a Scout Promise to live up to ideals of the movement. personal progression. boy and girl. Activities and games provide an enjoyable way to develop skills such as dexterity. which eventually lead tocollaboration and leadership. The emphasis on "learning by doing" provides experiences and hands-on orientation as a practical method of learning and building self-confidence. symbolic framework. In an outdoor setting. nature. help to develop responsibility. and bind all Scouting associations together. and characterize the movement. camaraderie. Small groups build unity. The form of the promise and laws have varied slightly by country and over time. WAGGGS includes it as an extra element of the Scout method: service in the community.[35] .[38] The Scout Law and Promise embody the joint values of the Scouting movement worldwide. but must fulfil the requirements of the WOSM to qualify a National Scout Association for membership. reliability. social and spiritual potentials as individuals. operate their units. team system. [37] While community service is a major element of both the WOSM and WAGGGS programs. learning by doing. and subscribe to the Scout Law. national and international communities. principles and method conceived by the Founder. comprising seven elements:law and promise. These experiences..[36] Since the birth of Scouting in 1907. WOSM describes Scouting as "."[35] The principles of Scouting describe a code of behavior for all members. A program with a variety of progressive and attractive activities expands a Scout's horizon and bonds the Scout even more to the group. character. as responsible citizens and as members of their local. race or creed. self-confidence.Scouting Statue at the Cockrell Scout Center of the Boy Scouts of America in Houston Main article: Scout method The Scout method is the principal method by which the Scouting organizations.a voluntary nonpolitical educational movement for young people open to all without distinction of origin. along with an emphasis on trustworthiness and personal honor. they also provide contact with the natural environment.

hiking. rituals. 'Be Prepared'. Jamborees are large . but there are periodic camps (known in Australia as "jamborettes" and in the US as "camporees") and "jamborees". backpacking. such as one Scout troop. The events usually have a theme. aquatics. originally for Rover Scouts. Cultivating a love and appreciation of the outdoors and outdoor activities is a key element. has been used in various languages by millions of Scouts since 1907. Less well-known is the Scout Slogan.The Scout Motto. Weekly meetings often take place in local centres known as Scout dens. and activities. but mainly focused on Scout Leaders.Poland Sculpture erected in 1982 to commemorate the 1979 Jamboree at Perry Lakes Western Australiaand 75 years of Scouting Common ways to implement the Scout method include having Scouts spending time together in small groups with shared experiences.[39] [edit]Activities Girl Guides in front of aCatholic church in Łosiniec. and sports.[40][41] Camping is most often arranged at the unit level. woodcraft. and emphasizing good citizenship and decision-making by young people in an ageappropriate manner. Camps occur a few times a year and may involve several groups from a local area or region camping together for a weekend. Primary activities includecamping. 'Do a good turn daily'. such as pioneering. World Scout Moots are gatherings.

Scouts attending a summer camp work on merit badges. The R. and perfecting scoutcraft skills. sailing. archeryand activities related to the theme of the event.[46] [edit]Uniforms and distinctive insignia Individual national or other emblems may be found at the individual country's Scouting article. such as sailing. hiking. and fishing. pin or patch trading. advancement. during which thousands of Scouts camp together for one or two weeks.[42] In some countries a highlight of the year for Scouts is spending at least a week in the summer engaging in an outdoor activity. but.national or international events held every four years. Activities at these events will include games. or provincial level). scoutcraft competitions. aquatics. In the words of Baden-Powell at the 1937 World Jamboree. or other trip with the unit. more important still. This can be a camping. and makes all feel that they are . state. woodcarving. caving. Such programs include cooperation with non-scouting organisations including various NGOs.[45] Various initiatives are in train towards achieving this aim including the development of activities that benefit the wider community. the United Nations and religious institutions as set out in The Marrakech Charter. canoeing and whitewater. it covers differences of country and race and creed. Tait McKenziesculpture Ideal Scoutdepicts a Scout in proper uniform The Scout uniform is a widely recognized characteristic of Scouting. Summer camps can operate specialty programs for older Scouts. backpacking.[43][44] At an international level Scouting perceives one of its roles as the promotion of international harmony and peace. challenge prejudice and encourage tolerance of diversity. badge. or a summer camp with broader participation (at the council. it "hides all differences of social standing in a country and makes for equality.

[50] Lord Baden-Powell's 1922 design for the Medal of Merit added a swastika to the Scout fleur-de-lis to symbolize good luck for the recipient. Scouters requested a change to the design because of the later use of the swastika by the National Socialist German Workers Party. include the Wood Badge and the World Membership Badge. The leather straps and toggles of the campaign hats or Leaders' Wood Badges could be used as emergency tourniquets. red or green and shorts are frequently replaced by long trousers all year or only in winter.[47] Distinctive insignia for all are Scout uniforms. a traditional but deprecated item. Shirts traditionally have thick seams to make them ideal for use in makeshift stretchers—Scouts were trained to use them in this way with their staves. he would have come across this symbol in India. A new British Medal of Merit was issued in 1935. consisted of a khakibutton-up shirt.[48][49] The swastika was used as an early symbol by the British Boy Scouts and others.members with one another of the one great brotherhood". because he believed that being dressed like a Scout helped to reduce the age-imposed distance between adult and youth. still widely recognized. Neckerchiefswere chosen as they could easily be used as a sling or triangular bandage by a Scout in need. Its earliest use in Scouting was on the Thanks Badge introduced in 1911. and a broad-brimmed campaign hat. the Scout uniform is also practical. Like Rudyard Kipling. recognized and worn the world over. While designed for smartness and equality. Baden-Powell also wore shorts. or anywhere that string was needed in a hurry. Uniform shirts are now frequently blue. orange. [50] [edit]Age groups and sections Main article: Age Groups in Scouting and Guiding . Scouts were encouraged to use their garters for shock cord where necessary. shorts. In 1934.[47] The original uniform. Scouting has two internationally known symbols: the trefoil is used by members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) and the fleur-de-lis by member organizations of the WOSM and most other Scouting organizations.

In most member organizations. The exact age ranges for programs vary by country and association. and later up to 25). Programs were developed to meet the needs of young children (generally ages 6 to 10) and young adults (originally 18 and older. Brownies. Programs for post-adolescents and young adults include the Senior Section. Senior Scouts. and Teddies. Daisies. Joey Scouts. Scouts and Guides were later split into "junior" and "senior" sections in many member organizations.[55] Rover Scouts. and . this age group composes the Scout or Guide section.[52][53][54] Original age groups as developed by Baden-Powell: Age range 7 to 10 11 to 17 18 and up Scouting section Cub Scout Boy Scout Rover Scout Guiding section Brownie Guide Girl Guide or Girl Scout Ranger Guide The national programs for younger children include Tiger Cubs. Explorer Scouts.A group of Hong Kong Cub Scouts Scouting and Guiding movements are generally divided into sections by age or school grade.[51] Scouting was originally developed for adolescents—youths between the ages of 11 and 17. allowing activities to be tailored to the maturity of the group's members. Rainbow Guides. Beaver Scouts.Keas. and some organizations dropped the young adults' section. Cub Scouts. Venture Scouts. These age divisions have varied over time as they adapt to the local culture and environment.

[57] [edit]Adults and leadership Robert Baden-Powell. units are supported by lay . though there are a small number of full-time lay professionals. Rider Guides and Scoutingbands . In the United Kingdom. Lay members commonly hold part-time roles such as meeting helpers. such as the Wood Badge. Uniformed leaders have received formal training. In some countries. often join organizations such as theInternational Scout and Guide Fellowship. The Scout Method has been adapted to specific programs such as Air Scouts. sections are divided according to age. In the United States and the Philippines. former Scouts. which contain one or more sections. including teachers and religious leaders. and after graduation. but sometimes has other names. Scouting is organized into neighborhood Scout Groups. students. university students might join the co-ed service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega. each having their own terminology and leadership structure. Many organizations also have a program for members with special needs. founder of the Scouting movement Adults interested in Scouting or Guiding. This is usually known as Extension Scouting. Sea Scouts.[58] A unit has uniformed positions—such as the Scoutmaster and assistants—whose titles vary among countries. committee members and advisors. including former Scouts and Guides. Scout Leadership positions are often divided into 'uniform' and 'lay' positions. and community leaders.the Scout Network.[56] In many countries. Under the umbrella of the Scout Group. and have received a warrant for a rank within the organization. such as Scoutlink. the Scout and Guide Graduate Association. such as parents and carers. or Districts. university students might join the Student Scout and Guide Organisation. Scout units are usually operated by adult volunteers.

Commissioners work with lay teams and professionals. council or province.members. Training teams and related functions are often formed at these levels. it organizes the World Scout Jamboree every four years. The first association outside the UK was opened in Malta. but international cooperation continues to be seen as part of the Scout Movement. and Sangam in India. the committee members may also wear uniforms and be registered Scout leaders. the most senior uniformed member. [63] In 1928 the WAGGGS started as the equivalent to WOSM for the then femaleonly national Scouting/Guiding organizations. there is now at least one Scouting (or Guiding) organization. depending on the structure of the national organization. In addition to being the governing policy body. It is also responsible for its four international centres: Our Cabaña in Mexico. the two largest umbrella organizations are: . Pax Lodge in the United Kingdom. In the UK and in other countries. Each is independent. which is independent now but was a British colony at the time. In some Scout associations. at levels such as district.[60][61][62] [edit]Around the world Scouting 'round the world. In 1922 the WOSM started as the governing body on policy for the national Scouting organizations (then male only). called Commissioners. Our Chalet in Switzerland.[64] Today at the international level. the national Scout organization appoints the Chief Scout. who range from acting as meeting helpers to being members of the unit's committee. 1977 edition Following its foundation in the United Kingdom (UK). Scouting spread around the globe. In most countries of the world.[59] Above the unit are further uniformed positions. county.

for youths age 14 and older. for boys-only and co-educational organizations. Scouting and Guiding have merged. the year of Scouting's centenary.  World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS). primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations. the national Scout association accepts both boys and girls but they function as different organizations.[69] In the United States. and there is a single organization for boys and girls. while the national Guide association has remained as a separate movement and member of the WAGGGS. both admitting boys and girls. Venturing is co-educational. In Greece it is the opposite.[68] The Scout Association in the United Kingdom has been co-educational at all levels since 1991. World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). such as Australia and the United Kingdom. In some countries like Slovenia and Spain there are separate associations of Scouts (members of WOSM) and guides (members of WAGGGS). and currently 52% of groups have at least one female youth member. the national Scout association has opted to admit both boys and girls. but is only a member of the WOSM. as the national Guide association has opted to admit both boys and girls. the Cub Scout and Boy Scout programs of the BSA are for boys only. but this has been optional for groups. Countries such as the United States have maintained separate Scouting organizations for boys and girls. however. 1996 There have been different approaches to co-educational Scouting.[65] In other countries. which is a member of both the WOSM and the WAGGGS. Since 2000 new sections have been required to accept girls. especially Europe. [edit]Co-educational Scouts and Guides from several different countries meet at World Scout Moot in Sweden. The Scout Association has decided that all Scout groups and sections will become co-educational by January 2007. .[66][67] In others.

4] Nigeria 240.[76][77] Top 20 countries with Scouting and Guiding. . sorted by membership.000.000 1910 1912 States India 4.100. 3] Uganda France[n.500.000 1909 1911 Philippines 2.[73][74][75] [edit]Membership As of 2008.000 210.000 1922 1946 [n.000 1920 1928 Pakistan 590.000. from 216 countries and territories.000 160.000 1910 1920 Korea 280.000 1910 1912 2] Canada Japan Italy[n. 122 belonged only to WOSM.250. and 34 belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS. there are over 28 million registered Scouts and 10 million registered Guides around the world.000 1911 1957 United 1.b. of the 155 WOSM member National Scout Organizations (representing 155 countries). Germany 250.000 220. 95 were open to boys and girls in some or all program sections. and 20 were only for boys. Of these 110.[72] WAGGGS had 144 Member Organizations in 2007 and 110 of them belonged only to WAGGGS.000.The Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) is an independent organization for girls and young women only.b.[70][71] In 2006.300.000 200. Of the 122 which belonged only to WOSM. 1][23][78][79] Scouting Guiding [76][77] Country Membership introduced introduced Indonesia 8. All 34 that belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS were open to boys and girls.000 1907 1909 Kingdom Bangladesh 1.000 1908 1913 1910 1915 1910 1915 1910 1919 1912 1914 1911 1919 .000 1912 1912 United 7.000 1910 1918 Thailand 1. 17 were coeducational and 93 admitted only girls.000 210.b.[n.000 1909 1911 Kenya 420.b. Adult leadership positions in the BSA and GSUSA are open to both men and women.

^ Including 60. 6] 160. ^ Including 20.[80][81] Alternative groups have formed since the original formation of the Scouting "Boy Patrols". Scouting was the purview of the world's youth. ^ Including 90. and millions of copies had been sold in dozens of languages. 2.[84] . see Scouting in Belgium [edit]Nonaligned and Scout-like organizations Main article: Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations Girl Guides from the Polish ZHR. They can be a result of groups or individuals who maintain that the WOSM and WAGGGS are currently far more political and less youth-based than ever envisioned by Lord Baden-Powell.000 1914 1910 1915 1916 Hong Kong 1. By that point.b. simplest methods.000 1911 150. 5] Belgium[n. see Scouting in Italy 4. see Scouting in Poland 6. and want to return to the earliest.000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides. ^ Including 5.000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides. ^ Full tables on List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members and List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members.Poland[n. an associate member of the CES Fifteen years passed between the first publication of Scouting for Boys and the creation of the current largest supranational Scout organization. see Scouting in France 5.b.[82][83] Others do not want to follow all the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities. and several Scout associations had already formed in many countries.000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides.000 1910 160. WOSM.000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides. They believe that Scouting in general has moved away from its original intent because of political machinations that happen to longstanding organizations. see Scouting in Germany 3. ^ Including 30.000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides.

 World Federation of Independent Scouts. Scouting was introduced to Africa by British officials as a way to strengthen their rule. Germany. as African Scouts used the Scout Law's principle that a Scout is a brother to all other Scouts to collectively claim full imperial citizenship.[74] 367 of them were a member of either WAGGGS or WOSM. agnostics. an independent faith-based Scouting organization founded in 1956. About half of the remaining 172 Scouting organizations are only local or national orientated. Scouting organizations that do not allow the participation of atheists. the movement has sometimes been entangled in social controversies such as the civil rights struggle in the American South and in nationalist resistance movements in India. About 90 national or regional Scouting associations have felt the need to create alternative international Scouting organizations to set standards for Scouting and to coordinate activities among member associations. founded in 1911. Some Scout-like organizations are also served by international organizations for example:   Pathfinders Royal Rangers [edit]Controversy and conflict Main article: Scouting controversy and conflict Since the inception of Scouting in the early 1900s. but turned to challenge the legitimacy of the British Empire. formed in Laubach. Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe. or homosexuals have been publicly criticized.[87][88] [edit]In film and the arts .In 2008. established in 1978. Those are served by four international Scouting organizations:[74]  Order of World Scouts – the first international Scouting organisation.[85][86] More recently.   Confédération Européenne de Scoutisme. there were at least 539 independent Scouting organizations around the world. in 1996.

fictional Indiana Jones is portrayed as a Life Scoutin Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. and is often fictionalized so that the audience knows the topic is Scouting without any mention of Scouting by name.[90] The works of painters Norman Rockwell. In 1980.[91] . Main article: Scouting in popular culture Scouting has been a facet of culture during most of the 20th century in many countries. where Scouting is tied closely to the ideal of Americana. as in the 1989 film Troop Beverly Hills and the 2005 film Down and Derby. Scottish singer and songwriter Gerry Rafferty recorded I was a Boy Scout as part of his Snakes and Ladders album. numerous films and artwork focus on the subject. discovers the Cross of Coronado in the movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Scouting is often dealt with in a humorous manner. Indiana Jones. Pierre Joubert and Joseph Csatari and the 1966 film Follow Me.[89] It is especially prevalent in the United States. Movie critic Roger Ebert mentioned the scene in which the young Boy Scout.The young. as "when he discovers his life mission". Boys! are prime examples of this idealized American ethos.