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Newton’s Second Law – Constant Mass, Changing Force

(Motion Sensor)

Mechanics: Newton’s 2nd Law, constant mass DataStudio file: 15A Newton’s 2nd Law 1.ds
Equipment List

Qty Items Part Numbers


1 PASCO Interface (for one sensor)
1 Motion Sensor CI-6742
1 1.2 m Dynamics Track ME-9435A
1 Dy ME-9430
namics Cart
1 Mass and Hanger Set ME-9348
1 Balance SE-8723
1 Super Pulley with Clamp ME-9448
1m String SE-8050
Introduction
Una de las mas importantes ecuaciones fisicas es . tambien conocida como la segunad ley de
newton. La cual describe el comportamiento de cada cambio en el movimiento debido a la
fuerza.
El proposito de esta practica es encontrar que sucede con la asceleracion de un objeto One of
the important equation in physics is a = F/m, also known as Newton's Second Law of motion.
Newton's Second Law describes the behavior of everything that changes its motion due to a
net force -- from the trajectory of a baseball to the motion of a planet.
The purpose of this exploration is to find out what happens to an object's acceleration when
the net force applied to the object increases and the mass of the system is constant.
Use a Motion Sensor to measure the motion of an object that is accelerated by a net force.
Use DataStudio to record the motion. Determine what happens to the acceleration of the cart
when the net force is increased and the mass stays constant.
Background
Newton's First Law of motion states that if no net force acts on an object, then the velocity of
the object remains unchanged. The Second Law of motion deals with what happens when a
net force does act.
As long as a net force acts, the velocity of an object changes - in other words, it accelerates. If
more force is applied, the greater force produces a greater acceleration. Twice the force
produces twice the acceleration.
a  Fnet
Often, several forces act on an object simultaneously. In such cases, it is the net force,
1
or the vector sum of all the forces acting, that is important. Newton's second law a
states that the acceleration is proportional to the net force acting on the object. m
F
Newton's Second Law also states that the acceleration is inversely proportional to the a  net
mass. m

SAFETY REMINDER.
 Follow directions for using the equipment.
Prediction
1. What happens to an object when you apply a net force to it?
2. What happens to the motion of an object if it has a constant mass but you change the
magnitude of the net force on it?
Setup
1. Set up the PASCO Interface and computer and start DataStudio. Connect the Motion
Sensor into the interface.
2. Open the DataStudio file: 15A Newton’s 2nd Law 1.ds
 The DataStudio file has a Graph display of Velocity versus Time. Data recording is set
at 20 Hz (20 measurements per second).
3. Place the track on a horizontal surface. Level the track by placing the cart on the track.
If the cart rolls one way or the other, use the leveling screw at one end of the track to
raise or lower that end until the track is level and the cart does not roll one way or the
other. (Note: It is very important the track is level to get the best results.)
4. Set up the equipment as shown in the figure.

5. The track has fixed end stop at one end. Place the Motion Sensor on the track in front
of the fixed end stop. Set the ‘Range Switch’ on the Motion Sensor to the ‘Cart’ icon.
6. Attach the pulley to the other end of the track. (Hint: Place a piece of wood in front of
the pulley to stop the cart before it hits the pulley.)
7. Attach a piece of string about 1.2 m long to one end of the cart.
8. Add a 20-gram mass to the mass hanger and weigh the hanger plus the mass. Record
the mass of the hanger plus 20-g in the data table in the Lab Report section.
9. Put two 20-gram masses into the accessory tray on top of the cart.
10. Weigh the cart plus the two 20-gram masses and record the total mass of the cart and
masses.
11. Attach the mass hanger to the other end of the string, and put the string in the pulley’s
groove.
12. Adjust the pulley up or down so the string is parallel to the track.
13. Hold the cart in front of the Motion Sensor but no closer than 15 cm from the sensor.
Procedure
Record Data: Constant Total Mass and Increasing Net Force

 You will take three runs of data. For Run #1, use the arrangement described above (one
20-g mass on the mass hanger and two 20-g masses on top of the cart).
 For Run #2, transfer one 20-g mass from the tray of the cart to the mass hanger before
you record data. The total mass of the system is constant, but the net force is increased.
 For Run #3, transfer a second 20-g mass from the tray of the cart to the mass hanger
before you record data. As in Run #2, the total mass of the system is constant, but the
net force is increased.
Note: Catch the cart before it hits the pulley or you could damage the pulley.
1. Click ‘Start’. Release the cart. Stop the cart before it hits the pulley and click ‘Stop’.
2. For Run #2, move a 20-g mass from the cart to the hanger. Record the total mass of the
hanger. Record data as before.
3. For Run #3, move the remaining 20-g mass from the cart to the hanger. Record the total
mass of the hanger. Record data as before.
Analyze
Find the experimental values for the acceleration.
1. Click the ‘Data’ button and choose Run #1.
2. Click ‘Scale to Fit’ to rescale the graph if needed. Use the cursor to highlight a smooth
part of the graph.
3. Click the ‘Fit’ menu and choose ‘Linear Fit’.
4. Record the value for the slope “m” as the acceleration for Run #1.
5. Select Run #2. Find the slope and record it as the acceleration for Run #2.
6. Repeat the process for Run #3.
Calculations
Calculate the theoretical acceleration when the mass is constant and the net force is changed
and record the calculations in the data table on the Student Response Sheet.
 The acceleration is the ratio of the net force divided by the total mass.
mhanger g
a
mcart  mhanger

 For runs #1, #2, #3, the total mass of the system (mass of cart plus mass of hanger) is
constant and the net force (mass of hanger x 9.8) increases.
 Assuming no friction, the net force is the weight of the hanger (mass x 9.8 N/kg).
Find the percent difference between the theoretical and experimental acceleration and record
it in the data table.
Lab Report: Newton’s Second Law – Constant Mass, Changing Force
Name:
________________________________________________________________
Prediction
1. What happens to an object when you apply a net force to it?
Depende de la fuerza que se aplique y si la sumatoria de esta fuerza con las ya precentes es
distinta de cero. esta puede perder o aumentar su velocidad dentro del sistemas
estudiado adquiriendo de esta manera una asceleracion.

2. Que sucede en el mvimineto de un objeto si tiene masa constante pero cambia la


magnitud de la fuerza ejercida sobre el ?
Existe un cambio en la asceleracion del Sistema fisico.

Data
Make a sketch of your graph of velocity versus time for the first run of data.

Data Table 1

Item Mass (kg)


Run #1: Total mass of the hanger and 20-g mass (mH): 0.025
Run #1: Total mass of the cart and two 20-g masses (mC): 0.54
Run #2: Total mass of hanger plus masses: 0.45
Run #3: Total mass of hanger plus masses: 0.65
Data Table 2

Run Acceleration (m/s2)


#1 0.270
#2 0.646
#3 1.18
Data Table 3

Run Mass, hanger (kg) Fnet (N)


#1 0.025 0.245
#2 0.045 0.441
#3 0.065 0.637
Data Table 4
Run Acc., theory (m/s2) Acc., exp. (m/s2) % difference
#1 0.245 0.270
#2 0.646 0.78 17.1
#3 1.18 1.12 5
Questions
1. Why did the slope change for each run?
Por que la pendiente cambia en cada corrida?
Debido a que hay un cambio de masa entre el auto y el cargador cuya variazon modifica su
asceleracion con respeco a la variacion de velociada en el interval de tiempo transcurrido.
2. For runs #1, #2, #3, what did you observe about the slope of the Linear Fit as the net
force increased but the total mass was kept constant?
Para la corrida 1 2 y 3 que fue lo que observo acerca de la pendiente en el ajuste lineal
como la fuerza neta incrementa pero el total de masa se mantuvo constant?
La fuera neta incrementa puesto que las masas son las mismas en todo el Sistema lo que
cambia es la disposicion de las mismas ya sea en el auto o en el cargador y miesntras mas
masa se le agrege al al cargador mayos sera su asceleracion por esta razon incrementa
3. What are the units for the slope for each graph? Explain.
Cuales son las unidades de las pendinetes de cada grafica explique?
Las unidades de cada pendiente son m/s^2 puesto que la derivada de la velocidad con respect
al tiempo nos da una asceleracion.

Que sucede con la asceleracion de un objeto si la fuerza neta aplicada en el objeto


incrementa pero la masa del objeto se mantiene constante ?

𝑓
Si tenemos la ecuacion. 𝑎 = 𝑚 por lo tanto si se incremnta la fuerza neta la asceleracion de
esta aumentara tambien.