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Chapter I: Introduction

Background of the Study

Bacteria are prokaryotes that thrive in diverse environments such as land, ocean,
and even inside a host organism. Bacteria can be both beneficial and harmful to other
organisms, sometimes they contribute to the digestion of organisms and sometimes they
causes diseases which can potentially be life-threatening to other organisms. Most
bacteria reproduce by a process called binary fission while some bacteria reproduce
through budding, both processes result to the daughter cell having the same DNA
structure as its parent cell. Bacteria reproduces and starts to spread throughout the body
which can cause fatal diseases and illnesses. This is the reason antibiotics are being
produced in the present day so that bacteria can be inhibited which means saving the
life of an infected organism. Antibiotics contain anti-bacterial properties from extracts of
fruits, leaves, herbs, and even some metals. These sources of antibacterial properties
undergo processes which allow extracts to be obtained for use on inhibiting the growth
of bacteria and treating bacterial infections or diseases. Although antibiotics have been
improperly and unnecessarily used to treat infections which results to the spread of
several strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, sources of anti-bacterial properties have
been found that are able to treat these antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a bacterium that is
resistant to antibiotics. It can cause a variety of infections ranging from skin infections,
sepsis, pneumonia, to bloodstream infections. This proves for this strain of bacterium to
be deadly to humans especially that it is antibiotic resistant. The MRSA strain emerges
from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, it is the result of misuse and unnecessary use
of antibiotics. The Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is frequently found in the nose,
respiratory tract, and the skin. Studies show that 1 in 3 people contain S. aureus while 2
in 100 people contain MRSA. Mandal (2012) stated that Staphyloccocus aereus is one of
the most common infections after injury or surgery.
Modern medicinal treatments in the present day are costly even for those who
are classified as mid-class citizens, this study aims to find alternative antibiotics sourced
from crude extracts. This alternative source of antibiotics will be found by testing the
efficacy of crude extracts on the inhibition of staphylococcus aureus. The crude extract
to be used will be from pineapple leaves, whose efficacy will be compared to (antibiotic
we’ll use).
Conceptual Framework
IV Process DV

Effect of Diffusion Inhibition

crude of leaf zone of
extracts extract bacteria
onto agar

Statement of the Problem

This Research aims to compare the effects of the crude extracts from the pineapple
plant to the bacteria staphylococcus aureus.

Research Questions:
1) How effective is the crude extract in terms of inhibition zones?
2) What ingredient in that fruit made it the most effective?
3) What is/are the effect/s of the crude extract to the bacteria?
Scope and Limitations
The main objective of this study is to identify the effects of the crude extracts on the
inhibition of staphylococcus aureus. This study will focus on the usage of only one crude
extract coming from the leaves of the pineapple plant. Pineapple was chosen because of
its antibacterial properties. Due to the limited time given, The experiment will not be
replicated. Because of this, the results may not be 100% accurate.It might not be as
accurate as well due to the lack of several high tech machines which can help when it
comes to getting the results for the experiment. The experiment for this research will be
performed in the laboratory with the assistance of a professional to help in the disposal
of the bacteria.