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North Korea

North Korea

Profile
• Capital: Pyongyang. • Government: Juche Republic, Single-party system, Military dictatorship. • Eternal President: Kim Il-sung (deceased). • Supreme Leader: Kim Jong-Il • Independence declared: March 1, 1919. • Liberation: August 15, 1945. • Formal declaration: September 9, 1948.

Juche
• Official state ideology of North Korea. • First known reference given by Kim Il-sung in 1955. • Literally means "main body" or "subject”. Also translated as "independent stand" and the "spirit of self-reliance". • Teaches that "man is the master of everything and decides everything," and that the Korean people are the masters of Korea's revolution.

Juche
• Three fundamental principles, as given by Kim Ilsung on April 14, 1965:
– "independence in politics" (chaju) – "self-sustenance in the economy" (charip) – "self-defense in national defense" (chawi).

History
• Korea was independent until the late 19th century. At that time, China sought to block growing Japanese influence on the Korean peninsula and Russian pressure for commercial gains there. This competition produced the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. • Japan emerged victorious from both wars and in 1910 annexed Korea as part of the growing Japanese empire • Japan remained firmly in control until the end of World War II in 1945.

History
• Japan surrendered in August 1945, and Korea was liberated. • Early surrender of Japan led to the immediate division of Korea into two occupation zones:
– U.S. administered southern half – U.S.S.R administered northern half

• Division was meant to be temporary and to facilitate the Japanese surrender until the US, UK, Soviet Union, and China could arrange a trusteeship administration.

History
• Division made permanent with the establishment of the separate regimes of North and South Korea.

Korean War
• First armed confrontation of the Cold War and set the standard for many later conflicts. • Created the idea of a proxy war, where the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that nation to suffer the bulk of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations.

Korean War
• 25 June 1950—present (ceasefire signed on 27 July 1953). • Conflict arose from the division of Korea by the UN and the attempts of the two Korean powers to reunify Korea under their respective governments. • Period immediately before the war was marked by escalating border conflicts at the 38th parallel and attempts to negotiate elections for the entirety of Korea.

Korean War
• Negotiations ended when the military of North Korea invaded the South on June 25, 1950. Under the aegis of the United Nations, nations allied with the United States intervened on behalf of South Korea. • After rapid advances in a South Korean counterattack, North-allied Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war and ultimately leading to an armistice that approximately restored the original boundaries between North and South Korea.

Korean War
• Heavily guarded demilitarized zone on the 38th parallel continues to divide the peninsula today with anti-Communist and anti-North Korea sentiment still remaining in South Korea. • Since ceasefire, the relations between North Korea and South Korea, the EU, Canada, the US, and Japan have remained tense. • Fighting halted in the ceasefire, but both Koreas still technically at war.

Sanctions
• Following 9/11 attacks, Washington put North Korea on the "axis of evil" list. Has contended that North Korea's possession of nuclear weapons poses serious threat to world. • Following North Korea's nuclear test in October 2006, SC members imposed sanctions on Pyongyang including embargo on military and technological materials and luxury goods, and a set of financial sanctions.

Sanctions
• President Obama has slapped additional sanctions on North Korea aimed at choking off the regime’s arms trade and illicit business. • The sanctions are specifically targeted against Office 39 - a secretive branch of the North Korean government that manages slush funds and raises money for the leadership, including by trafficking drugs. These sanctions also target North Korea's infrastructure for importing and exporting conventional arms.

“Axis of Evil”
• September 2002: Government acknowledges that it kidnapped about a dozen Japanese in the ‘70s and ‘80s for the purposes of training North Korean spies. • October 2002: Admits that it violated a 1994 agreement freezing its nuclear weapons program and has been developing nuclear bombs. Since 2002, North Korea has oscillated between affirming and denying that it already has nuclear weapons.

“Axis of Evil”
• July 2006: Launches 7 missiles—long-range Taepodong-2 missile (failed) and six medium-range weapons—roiling its neighbours and much of the rest of the world. North Korea's first major weapons test in 8 years. • October 2006: Again sparks international outrage when it tests a nuclear weapon. • February 2007: Agrees to dismantle its nuclear facilities & allow international inspectors to enter the country in exchange for about $400 million in oil and aid.

Human Rights
• Multiple international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, accuse North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation. • North Koreans have been referred to as "some of the world's most brutalized people" by Human Rights Watch, due to the severe restrictions placed on their political and economic freedoms.

Human Rights
• Defectors testify to the existence of prison and detention camps with estimated 150,000 to 200,000 inmates (~0.85% of the population). Have reported torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labor, and forced abortions. • After the FIFA 2010 debacle, claims surfaced of the team and coach (Kim Jong-Hun) being publicly humiliated.