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Lesson No.

Mark D. Dublin, DMD
Lyceum of the Philippines University – Manila
Senior High School Department
•Define Anatomy and Physiology

•Explain Homeostasis

•Describe levels of structural organization of the human body

•Discuss directional terms, anatomical position, planes and

sections used in Anatomy. Differentiate body cavities
The study of human anatomy and physiology is
designed to help student learn and understand
how the human body is organized and function.

Equipping the student with the knowledge of

anatomy and physiology will further assist the
student in understanding what happens and
what to do when the body is injured, diseased or
placed under stress.
Anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body

Physiology is the study of the function of body parts. Some

specializations within each of these sciences follow:

Gross (macroscopic) anatomy is the study of body parts visible to the naked eye, such
as the heart or bones.

Histology is the study of tissues at the microscopic level.

Cytology is the study of cells at the microscopic level.

Neurophysiology is the study of how the nervous system functions.

Living systems can be defined from various perspectives, from the broad (looking at the entire
earth) to the minute (individual atoms). Each perspective provides information about how or why
a living system functions:

Atoms, molecules and compounds: - At its simplest level, the body is composed of atoms. The
most common elements in living organism are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen phosphorus
and sulfur.

Atoms → Molecule → Compounds

Cell: The smallest independent units of
life. All life depends on the many
chemical activities of cells. Some of the
basic functions of cell are: growth,
metabolism, irritability and reproduction.
Tissue: tissue is made up of many similar cells that perform a specific
function. The various tissues of the body are divided in to four groups. These
are epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue.
Epithelial tissue: - Found in the outer layer of skin, lining of organs, blood and lymph vessels and body

Connective tissue: - Connects and supports most part of the body. They constitute most part of skin, bone
and tendons.

Muscle tissue: - Produces movement through its ability to contract. This constitutes skeletal, smooth and
cardiac muscles.

Nerve tissue: - Found in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. It responds to various types of stimuli and
transmits nerve impulses.
•Organ: - Is an integrated collection of two or more kinds of tissue that

works together to perform specific function. For example: Stomach is made

of all type of tissues

•System: Is a group of organs that work together to perform major function.

For example: Respiratory system contains several organs.

•Organism level: - The various organs of the body form the entire organism.
Levels of Structural Organization of The Body
When structure and function are coordinated, the body achieves
a relative stability of its internal environment called homeostasis /
staying the same. Although the external environmental changes
constantly, the internal environment of a healthy body remains
the same with in normal limits.

Under normal conditions, homeostasis is maintained by adaptive

mechanisms ranging from control center in the brain to chemical
substances called hormones that are secreted by various organs
directly into the blood streams. Some of the functions controlled
by homeostasis mechanisms are blood pressure, body
temperature, breathing and heart rate.

To accurately identify areas of the body, clearly defined

anatomical terms are used. These terms refer to the body in
the anatomical position—standing erect, facing forward, arms
down at the side, with the palms turned forward. In this
position, the following apply:
Directional Terms
These are used to describe the relative position of one body part to another.

Posterior At or near the back of the body (back view)

Midline An imaginary vertical line that divides the body equally (right down the middle)

Lateral Farther from midline (side view)

Medial Nearer to midline (side view)

Superior Toward the head/upper part of a structure (bird’s-eye view, looking down)

Inferior Away from the head/lower part of a structure (bottom view, looking up)

Superficial Close to the surface of the body

Deep Away from the surface of the body

Proximal Nearer to the origination of a structure

Distal Farther from the origination of a structure

Body planes and
These are used to describe how the body or
an organ is divided into two parts:
Sagittal planes divide a body or organ vertically into right
and left parts. If the right and left parts are equal, the plane
is a midsagittal plane; if they're unequal, the plane is a
parasagittal plane.

Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body or organ vertically

into front (anterior) and rear (posterior) parts.

Horizontal (transverse) plane divides the body or organ

horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) parts.
This is also known as a cross‐section.
Regional terms
It identify specific areas of the body. In some cases, a descriptive
word is used to identify the location.

For example, the axial region refers to the main axis of the body—
the head, neck, and trunk. The appendicular region refers to the
appendages—the arms and legs. Other regional terms use a body
part to identify a region of the body. For example, the nasal region
refers to the nose.
The cavities of the body house the
internal organs, which commonly
referred to as the viscera.

The two main body cavities are the

larger ventral (anterior) and the
smaller, dorsal (posterior) body
Anterior Cavity or Ventral Body Cavity
it constitutes the thoracic cavity and the abdomino-pelvic body
Thoracic Cavity – It houses lung and heart. It is protected by the rib cage & associated
musculature and the sternum anteriorly. It consists of the right and left pleural cavities and
mediastinum (the portion of tissues and organs that separates the left and right lung).
Abdomino-Pelvic Cavity – It extends from the diaphragm inferior to the floor of the pelvis. It is
divided into superior abdominal and inferior pelvic cavity by imaginary line passing at upper
Abdominal Cavity – it contains the stomach, intestine, liver, spleen and gallbladder.
Pelvic Cavity – it contains urinary bladder, rectum, and portions of the reproductive organs.
Posterior Cavity or Dorsal Body Cavity

– it constitutes the cephalic

cavity containing brain and the
vertebral canal containing the
spinal cord.
Activity no. 1
Answer the activity no 1. in your General Biology 2 Guide Book