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# CONTENTS

AIM
INTRODUCTION
THEORY
BASIC GATES
THE NOR GATE
THE NAND GATE
BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE No.-1

"TODESIGN AN APPROPRIATE OR & AND LOGIC GATE FOR A GIVEN TRUTH TABLE" PAGE No.-2 .

RIGHT/WRONG. TRUE/FALSE. The logic gates are building blocks at digital electronics. It is a digital circuit which either allows a signal to pass through as stop. CLOSED/OPEN. it is called a gate. A logic gate may have one or more inputs. They are used in digital electronics to change on voltage level (input voltage) into another (output voltage) according to some logical statement relating them. A logical statement can have only two values. The relationship between the possible values of input and output voltage is expressed in the form of a table called truth table or table of combinations. this algebra of logic called BOOLEAN ALGEBRA.-3 . but it has only one output. The binary number 1 is used to denote the high value. YES/NO. INTRODUCTION A gate is defined as a digital circuit which follows some logical relationship between the input and output voltages. The logical statements that logic gates follow are called Boolean expressions PAGE No. Truth table of a Logic Gates is a table that shows all the input and output possibilities for the logic gate. CONDUCTING/NON-CONDUCTING etc. George Boole in 1980 invented a different kind of algebra based on binary nature at the logic. The two values of logic statements one denoted by the binary number 1 and 0. such as HIGH/LOW. ON/OFF.

fluids.-4 . Although these circuits may be complex. the OR gate and the NOT gate. We have three different types of logic gates . Any Boolean algebra operation can be associated with inputs and outputs represent the statements of Boolean algebra. LOGIC STATES 1 0 HIGH LOW +v -v ON OFF CLOSE OPEN RIGHT WRONG TRUE FALSE YES NO PAGE No.Logic gates or logic gate is an entity in electronics and mathematics Boolean that turns one or more logic inputs to a logic output signal.These are the AND gate. they may all be constructed from three basic devices. optical or even mechanical. but can also be built using the arrangement of components that utilize the properties of electromagnetic (relay). Logic gate is mainly implemented electronically using diodes or transistors.

The AND gate has two or more inputs and one output.(a) THE OR GATE is a device that combines A with B to give Y as the result. The logic gate of OR gate with A and B input and Y output is shown below: In Boolean algebra. indicates Y equals A OR B. The Boolean expression: A+B=Y. The logic gate of AND gate with A and B input and Y output is shown below: PAGE No.-5 . The OR gate has two or more inputs and one output. (b) THE AND GATE is a device that combines A with B to give Y as the result. addition symbol (+) is referred as the OR.

indicates Y equals NOT A. indicates Y equals A AND B.B=Y. The Boolean expression: A. (c) THE NOT GATE is a device that inverts the inputs. The Boolean expression: Ã =Y. In Boolean algebra.) is referred as the AND. The NOT is a one input and one output. PAGE No. bar symbol (_) is referred as the NOT. The logic gate of NOT gate with A and Y output is shown below: In Boolean algebra. multiplication sign (either x or.-6 .

Truth table for an OR gate Input A Input B Output false false false false true true true false true true true true Symbols The symbols below can be used to represent an OR gate. If all of an OR gate's inputs are false. The output of an OR gate is true when one or more of its inputs are true.OR Gate An OR gate is a digital logic gate with two or more inputs and one output that performs logical disjunction. then the output of the OR gate is false. The truth table for an OR gate with two inputs appears to the right. and one may preferred over the other in your region of the world. Live Example PAGE No. There are multiple international standards defined.-7 .

d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1. hence Y=1.t.e. making use of two diodes D1 and D2 as shown in the figure. voltage 5V in the present case) corresponds to level 1. c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1. Components: Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2). B=0) Lamp glow. B=1) Lamp glow. earth. hence Y=1. b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0. B=1) Lamp glow.r. hence Y=0. Here the negative terminal of the battery is grounded and corresponds to the 0 level. Input A Input B Output Y Truth Table: 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 PAGE No. The output Y is voltage at C w. hence Y=1.-8 . B=0). and the positive terminal of the battery (i. The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit is: a) If switch A & B are open lamp do not glow (A=0. Theory and Construction: An OR gate can be realize by the electronic circuit.Aim: TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE OR GATE CIRCUIT.

Example PAGE No.-9 . There are multiple international standards defined. The output of an AND gate is true only when all of the inputs are true.AND Gate An AND gate is a digital logic gate with two or more inputs and one output that performs logical conjunction. Truth table for an AND gate Input A Input B Output false false false false true false true false false true true true Symbols The symbols below can be used to represent an AND gate. and one may preferred over the other in your region of the world. If one or more of an AND gate's inputs are false. The truth table for an AND gate with two inputs appears to the right. then the output of the AND gate is false.

Aim:TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE AND GATE CIRCUIT. and the positive terminal of the battery (i.-10 . B=1) then Lamp will not glow. hence Y=0. Here the negative terminal of the battery is grounded and corresponds to the 0 level. a resistance R. voltage 5V in the present case) corresponds to level 1.t.e. B=0) then lamp will not glow. Theory and Construction: An AND gate can be realize by the electronic circuit. Components: Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2). 1 0 0 d) If switch A & B both closed 0 1 0 (A=1. The resistance R is connected to the positive terminal of a 5V battery permanently. B=0) then Lamp will not glow. hence Y=0. B=1) then Lamp will glow. making use of two diodes D1 and D2 as shown in the figure.r. earth. 1 1 1 hence Y=1. b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1. The output Y is voltage at C w. Input A Input B Output Y 0 0 0 hence Y=0. c) If switch A open & B closed (A=0. The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0. Truth Table PAGE No.

PAGE No.-11 . Conclusion IC CONSISTS OF SOME LOGIC GATE LOGIC GATE CAN USED TO CREATE MANY IC.

co.com PAGE No. icbse. scribd. Bibliography I would like to acknowledge the following sources through which I obtained vital information which contributed in the completion of this project: I.-12 . wikipedia.com II. slideshare.in IV.org III.