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Helmy, K. A.

: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 665

ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10, 665±±680

Helmy, K. A.

On Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Flow


of Viscous Conducting Fluid

This paper deals with the flow of an incompressible, viscous, and electrically conducting fluid over a non-conducting infinite
porous flat plate started impulsively into motion in its own plane in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and the plate
is subjected to suction. Approximate and exact solutions have been obtained for the governing equations. Induced magnetic
field distributions are obtained for any value of the magnetic Prandtl number and magnitude of the suction velocity. The
energy equation, including viscous and Joule dissipation, has also been integrated. Analytic solutions of the resulting linear
non-homogeneous boundary value problem corresponding to the case of exact solution of the momentum equation are pre-
sented. An expression for the skin friction has been obtained. Numerical results are presented graphically and discussed.

MSC (1991): 76R10, 76W05, 76S05

1. Introduction

In recent years, the subject of hydromagnetics has attracted the attention of many authors, due not only to its own
interest, but also to many applications to problems of geophysical and astrophysical significance. Magnetohydrodynamic
boundary layer flow of an incompressible electrically conducting Newtonian viscous fluid has attracted the attention of
many authors [1±±20]. The magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid in the presence of
an external magnetic field due to the impulsive motions of an infinite flat plate has been discussed in [2], the author has
obtained an exact solution of the modified Navier-Stokes' equations and Maxwell's equation for the particular case when
c …ˆ ‰m0 vSŠ 1 †, the ratio of the viscous and magnetic Reynolds number, is unity. In [3], the effect of a transverse mag-
netic field on the steady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an infinite porous flat plate when
the plate is subjected to either suction or injection has been discussed. The exact solution for the modified Navier-Stokes
and Maxwell equations under the usual assumptions of magnetohydrodynamics has also been obtained. The equations
of heat transfer including viscous and Joule's dissipation terms have also been integrated. As result, it was concluded
that the steady solution does exist for both cases of suction and injection when the magnetic pressure number
S…ˆ m0 H02 =V02 r† is greater than unity. When S < 1, there does not exist a steady solution. This is in contradiction to
the result obtained in [4], which concluded that a steady solution does not exist for the case of uniform injection. The
validity of the obtained solution depends on the magnetic pressure number S, based upon the suction velocity and the
intensity of the applied magnetic field, being smaller than unity or not. The solution given in [3] is valid only for
particular values of the magnetic field whose x-wise component in the direction of the non-conducting wall must be
identical with the boundary value given by this solution. In [5], the same problem was reconsidered under different
boundary conditions. Using Laplace transform technique the asymptotic solutions for the velocity and magnetic field
have been obtained for c 6ˆ 1 during the initial stage of motion. Exact solutions have also been obtained for c ˆ 1. In [6]
the effects of harmonic oscillations of amplitude e in the magnitude of the magnetic field on the steady boundary layer
flow, due to a uniform free stream past a semi-infinite magnetized flat plate have been discussed. It is observed that the
magnetic field distribution does not affect the surface current distribution. The extension of Rayleigh's problem [1] to
magnetohydrodynamics with suction for an infinite porous flat plate started impulsively into motion in its own plane
with constant velocity has been investigated in [7]. The solution has been obtained for the case of a non-conducting
plate with suction velocity varying as (time) 1=2 by means of time series expansion. The equations of motion are then
solved in terms of hypergeometric functions for any value of the magnetic Prandtl number and magnitude of the suction
velocity. An MHD asymmetric flow past a semi-infinite moving plate is considered and solutions are obtained numerically
in [8]. In [9], the stability of stratified shear flow in a perfectly conducting fluid in the presence of an external magnetic
field aligned with the flow has been studied. A semi-circle theorem for the present hydromagnetic case is proved. The
magnetic field is found to have a stabilizing effect on the flow. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem in stratified
conducting fluid is discussed. Finally, the absorption of wave energy was studied by considering a shear flow with an
antisymmetric velocity profile given by U ˆ tanh z. Unlike the hydrodynamic case, it is found that, in the critical layer
at U ˆ 0, the transfer of the wave energy to the mean flow occurs for any value of the Richardson number. This result
implies again the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field on the shear flow. In [10] the effect of uniform suction or injec-
tion on the flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid past a flat plate with pressure gradient in the presence
of a transverse magnetic field has been theoretically investigated. The boundary layer equations were transformed into
non-similar ones, and the numerical calculations of the resulting equations were performed by the difference differential
method. The velocity profiles, the coefficient of skin fraction and the displacement thickness were given for various
values of the pressure gradient, the magnetic and suction/injection parameters. The neutral stability curves for wave-
666 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

like disturbances of Tollmien-Schliching type and the critical Reynolds number were then presented for the velocity
profiles obtained above. In [11] the author has considered the behavior of a three dimensional laminar boundary layer
flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Newtonian fluid past a plane wall in the presence of a transverse
suction velocity distribution applied at the wall. The shear stress and heat transfer, using the method of perturbation, is
obtained. The variations of these quantities with the Prandtl number and a magnetic parameter are also investigated.
In [12] the laminar flow of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting fluid impinging normal to a plane in the
presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Using finite difference quasilinearization, an exact numerical
solution is presented which takes into account the asymptotic boundary condition. It is demonstrated that if f denotes
the dimensionless stream function, the value of f 00 …0† increases monotonically with M, the Hartmann number, where
prime denotes the derivative normal to the plane. This conclusion is supported by deriving a perturbation solution valid
for small M. Also, an analytical solution is obtained valid for large M. Finally, an approximate solution is given which
is simple and sufficiently accurate for the entire range of values of M. In [13] a boundary layer solution for the heat
transfer of an electrically conducting fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field
has been studied. The heat due to viscous dissipation and stress work was also included in the energy equation. The
governing nonsimilar partial differential equation is transformed into ordinary differential ones by means of difference
differential method. The temperature profiles and heat transfer coefficient are obtained for various values of the param-
eters entering the problem. The MHD boundary layer flow over a flat plate is examined in [14] for two cases, viz.
uniform free stream velocity and a uniform hydrostatic pressure. The nonlinear boundary layer equations are solved
using a reliable finite-difference method. The boundary layer physical parameters such as skin-friction coefficient, displace-
ment, momentum, and energy thickness of the boundary layer are determined. It is found that the normal surface
velocity gradient decreases with the local magnetic interaction parameter for the cases of a uniform hydrostatic pres-
sure, whereas in the case of a uniform free stream velocity it increases with the interaction parameter. Viscous flow past
a stretching sheet in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is considered in [15]. An exact similarity solution for
velocity and pressure of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is presented, which is formally valid for all Rey-
nolds numbers. In [16] the boundary layer flow over a moving continuous flat plate in an electrically conducting ambi-
ent fluid with a step change in the applied magnetic field is considered. The governing equations are solved numerically
using the Keller box method. It is shown that the skin-friction decreases as the magnetic parameter increases. The non-
linear boundary layer equations of the title problem are solved numerically for obtaining the coefficient of skin-friction
in [17]. It is found that the magnitude of the normal surface velocity gradient increases with the magnetic interaction
parameter. In [18] the effect of an oblique magnetic field on the growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RT) at the
interface of a finite thickness layer of a viscous electrically conducting fluid in the presence of surface tension has been
analytically studied. The effects of aligned and transverse magnetic fields on the coupled differential equations for the
velocity and the magnetic field are discussed separately. The numerical results reveal that the nature and strength of
the magnetic field and the layer thickness exacerbate or ameliorate the instability characteristic of such a layer. The
solution of the energy equation for the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a
constant transverse magnetic field over a linearly stretching non-isothermal flat sheet has been investigated in [19].
Effects due to dissipation, stress work, and heat generation is considered. Analytical solutions of the resulting linear non-
homogeneous boundary value problem, expressed in terms of Kummer's functions, are presented for the case of pre-
scribed surface temperature as well as the case of prescribed wall heat flux, both of which are assumed to be quadratic
functions of distance. The boundary value problems are also solved by direct numerical integration, yielding results in
excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. In [20], the fluid flow problem of an oscillating flat plate (II-Stokes
problem) in two directions has been generalized. They have discussed first the oscillating porous flat plate with super-
imposed blowing or suction. The second generalization is concerned with an increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude
of the oscillating flat plate. Finally they have shown that a combination of both effects is also possible.
The aim of this paper is to study the magneto hydrodynamic flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid
in the presence of an external magnetic field due to the impulsive motions of an infinite porous non-conducting flat
plate when the plate is subjected to suction. An approximate solution is obtained for the modified Navier-Stokes and
Maxwell equations when the suction velocity v varies inversely with the square root of the time t. An exact solution is
also obtained for a particular case. The energy equation, including viscous and Joule dissipation, has also been inte-
grated. Analytical solutions of the resulting linear non-homogeneous boundary value problem corresponding to the case
of exact solution of the momentum equation are presented. An expression for the skin friction has been obtained.
Numerical computations are presented graphically and discussed.

2. Mathematical formulation
The basic equations of magnetohydrodynamic flow for unsteady two-dimensional, electrically conducting, incompressi-
ble, viscous fluid flows are [22]
@ V~ 1 m
‡ …V~  r† V~ ˆ ~ ^ HŠ
rP ‡ vr2 V~ ‡ 0 ‰…r ^ H† ~ ; …2:1†
@t r r
Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 667

r  V~ ˆ 0 ; …2:2†
@H~
ˆ ‰r ^ …V~ ^ H†Š
~ ‡ vm r2 H
~; …2:3†
@t
rH ~ ˆ 0; …2:4†
where P is the fluid pressure, r the density of the fluid, …v ˆ m=r† and …vm ˆ 1=m0 s† the kinematic and magnetic
coefficients of viscosity of the fluid, respectively, and m0 , s are the magnetic permeability and the electrical conductiv-
ity of the fluid, respectively.
We will consider unsteady flow of electrically conducting, incompressible, viscous fluid bounded by an infinite
porous non-conducting flat plate. The x-axis is taken along the plate in the direction of the flow and the y-axis is taken
normal to the plate. Constant magnetic field of strength H0 acts in the direction of the y-axis; no electric field is
applied. The plate is suddenly set in motion with velocity U0 …t† along the x-axis. The generated motion is then two-
dimensional in the xy-plane but all the physical variables, except pressure P , are not dependent on the coordinate x, as
they are all functions of y and t only. Since we have assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting, no electric
current flows in the plate. Therefore, the magnetic field in the plate should be curlfree, that is …r ^ H ~ ˆ 0†. Thus,
~
taking into account that H is a function of y and t, we obtain @Hx =@y ˆ 0. We shall take Hx ˆ 0, since the applied
magnetic field acts in a direction normal to the surface of the plate. On the other hand, by virtue of the continuity of
the magnetic field …r  H ~ ˆ 0† implies that @Hy =@y ˆ 0 or Hy is constant in the plate. This constant must be identical
with the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Therefore, we have
Hx ˆ 0; Hy ˆ H0 at y ˆ 0 ; …2:5†
where H0 is the intensity of the applied magnetic field.
The governing equations (2.1)±±(2.4) under the stated assumptions, which describe the hydromagnetic flow for
an infinite porous plate, neglecting pressure gradient, thus become
@u @u @ 2 u m0 H0 @Hx
‡V ˆv ‡ ; …2:6†
@t @y @y2 r @y
@Hx @Hx @ 2 Hx @u
‡V ˆ vm 2
‡ H0 ; …2:7†
@t @y @y @y
@V
ˆ 0; …2:8†
@y
where u; V are the velocity components along the flow direction (x-axis) and normal to the flow direction (y-axis) and
Hx is the induced magnetic field component.
Integration of eq. (2.8) gives V as a function of t or constant and we will take it as a function of t in the form
p
V ˆ V0 …t† ˆ a v=t ; …2:9†
where a is a real positive constant.
Substituting from (2.9) in (2.6) and (2.7), we obtain
r
@u v @u @2u @h
a ˆv ‡ VH ; …2:10†
@t t @y @y2 @y
r
@h v @h v @2h @u
a ˆ ‡ VH ; …2:11†
@t t @y Prm @y2 @y
where
q
h ˆ m0 =r Hx ; …2:12†
q
VH ˆ m0 =r H0 ; …2:13†
Prm ˆ v=vm …2:14†
are Alfven velocity and the magnetic Prandtl number, respectively.
The relevant boundary conditions are
u ˆ 0; h ˆ 0; t  0;
)
y ˆ 0: u ˆ U0 …t† ˆ atn=2 ; h ˆ 0;
t > 0; …2:15†
y ! 1: u ˆ 0; h ˆ 0;

where U0 …t† is the velocity on the plate, a is constant, and n is a real number.
668 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

3. Approximate solution

For the approximate solution, we introduce the similarity variable


p
h ˆ y=2 tv : …3:1†

Inserting (3.1) in (2.10) and (2.11) gives

u00 ‡ 2…a ‡ h† u0 ‡ 2N…t† h0 ˆ 0 ; …3:2†


h00 ‡ 2Prm …a ‡ h† h0 ‡ Prm N…t† u0 ˆ 0 ; …3:3†

where
p
N…t† ˆ VH t=v ; …3:4†

and the primes denote differentiation with respect to h.


We seek the solution for u and h for small values of an interaction parameter N…t† in the form
P
1
u ˆ U0 …t† N k uk …h† ; …3:5†
kˆ0
P
1
h ˆ U0 …t† N k‡1 hk …h† : …3:6†
kˆ0

Introducing eqs. (3.5) and (3.6) in eqs. (3.2) and (3.3), taking into account that U0 …t† ˆ atn=2 , and comparing
harmonic terms, and neglecting coefficients of N 4 and higher powers of N, we obtain the following differential equa-
tions for u0 ; u1 ; u2 ; h0 ; h1 ; h2 ; h3 ; . . . etc.:

u000 ‡ 2…a ‡ h† u00 2nu0 ˆ 0 ;


u001 ‡ 2…a ‡ h† u01 2…n ‡ 1† u1 ˆ 0 ; …3:7†
u002 ‡ 2…a ‡ h† u02 2…n ‡ 2† u2 ˆ 2h00 :

The same is true for other values, and in the same way

h00k ‡ 2Prm …a ‡ h† h0k 2Prm …n ‡ 1 ‡ k† hk ˆ 2Prm u0k ; k ˆ 0; 1; 2; 3; . . . : …3:8†

The boundary conditions relevant to uk and hk are


u0 …0† ˆ 1 ; uk‡1 …0† ˆ 0 ; hk …0† ˆ 0 ; …3:9†
uk …1† ˆ 0 ; hk …1† ˆ 0 ; k ˆ 0; 1; 2; 3; . . . : …3:10†

The solution of eqs. (3.7) and (3.8) satisfy the boundary conditions (3.9) and (3.10) is given in terms of the hyper-
geometric function in the form:

(i) For Prm ˆ 1 (i.e. v ˆ vm †, we obtain

Hhn …z†
u0 …h† ˆ p ; …3:11†
Hhn … 2 a†
u1 …h† ˆ 0 ;
p ! " # p ! " #
Hhn 2 … 2 a† Hhn 2 …z† Hhn‡2 …z† Hhn 1 … 2 a† Hhn‡2 …z† Hhn …z†
u2 …h† ˆ p p p ‡ p p p ;
4Hhn … 2 a† Hhn 2 … 2 a† Hhn‡2 … 2 a† 2Hhn‡1 … 2 a† Hhn‡2 … 2 a† Hhn … 2 a†
…3:12†
u3 …h† ˆ 0 ;

while for Prm 6ˆ 1, we have


 " #
PrmHhn …z† Hhn‡2 …z†
u2 …h† ˆ p p
Prm 1 Hhn … 2 a† Hhn‡2 … 2 a†
! p !  p  " p #
3=2
2Prm Hhn‡1 … 2 a† Hhn‡2 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡2 … Prm z† Hhn‡2 …z†
‡ p p p p : …3:13†
…Prm 1†2 Hhn … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡2 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡2 … 2 a†
Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 669

(ii) For Prm ˆ 1, we have h0 ; h1 ; h2 in the form


p ! " #
Hhn 1 … 2 a† Hhn‡1 …z† Hhn 1 …z†
h0 …h† ˆ p p p p ; …3:14†
2 Hhn … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … 2 a† Hhn 1 … 2 a†
h1 …h† ˆ 0 ;" # " #
Hhn‡3 …z† Hhn‡1 …z† Hhn 1 …z† Hhn‡3 …z†
h2 …h† ˆ A p p ‡B p p
Hhn‡3 … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … 2 a† Hhn 1 … 2 a† Hhn‡3 … 2 a†
" #
Hhn‡3 …z† Hhn 3 …z†
‡C p p ; …3:15†
Hhn‡3 … 2 a† Hhn 3 … 2 a†
where
" p p ! p !#
Hhn 1 … 2 a† Hhn 2 … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … 2 a†
Aˆ p p p p p ;
2 2 Hhn‡2 … 2 a† 4 2 Hhn … 2 a† Hhn‡2 … 2 a†
1
Bˆ p p p ; …3:16†
4 2 Hhn‡1 … 2 a† Hhn … 2 a†
p
Hhn 3 … 2 a†
Cˆ p p ;
12 2 Hhn … 2 a†
while for Prm 6ˆ 1, we have
 p  p ! " p #
2 Prm Hhn‡1 … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … Prm z† Hhn‡1 …z†
h0 …z† ˆ p p p ; …3:17†
Prm 1 Hhn … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡1 … 2 a†
 p p  " p #
Hhn‡3 … Prm z† Hhn‡1 … Prm z† Hhn‡3 … Prm z† Hhn‡1 …z†
h2 …z† ˆ A1 p p ‡ B1 p p
Hhn‡3 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡1 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡3 … 2Prm a† Hhn‡1 … 2 a†
" p #
Hhn‡3 …z† Hhn‡3 … Prm z†
‡ C1 p p ; …3:18†
Hhn‡3 … 2 a† Hhn‡3 … 2Prm a†
where
 2 " p #
p Prm Hhn‡1 … 2 a†
A 1 ˆ B1 ˆ 2 p ; …3:19†
Prm 1 Hhn … 2 a†
 2 " p #  3 " p #
p Prm Hhn‡3 … 2 a† p Prm Hhn‡3 … 2 a†
C1 ˆ 2 p ‡2 2 p
Prm 1 Hhn‡2 … 2 a† Prm 1 Hhn … 2 a†
 p  " p # " p #
Prm Hhn‡3 … 2 a† Hhn‡2 … 2Prm a†
‡ 2A1 p p ; …3:20†
Prm 1 Hhn‡2 … 2 a† Hhn‡1 … 2Prm a†
where
p
zˆ 2 …a ‡ h† ; …3:21†
and the hypergeometric function Hhn …x† is defined in [21]:
… n
1 " # …
1  2
t …t ‡ x†2 …u x†2 u
Hhn …x† ˆ exp dt ˆ exp du ; …3:22†
n! 2 n! 2
0 x

n is a positive integer.

4. Exact solution

Now, we will obtain an exact solution for the problem.


Introduce the non-dimensional quantities
u0 ˆ u=U ; V00 ˆ V =U ; t0 ˆ …U 2 =v† t ;
…4:1†
y0 ˆ Uy=v ; h0 ˆ h=VH ˆ Hx =H0 ;
where U is the reference velocity.
670 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

In terms of these non-dimensional variables eqs. (2.6)±±(2.8) are reduced to the non-dimensional equations
(dropping primes for convenience)

@u @u @ 2 u @h
‡ V0 ˆ ‡ M2 ; …4:2†
@t @y @y2 @y
@h @h 1 @ 2 h @u
‡ V0 ˆ ‡ ; …4:3†
@t @y Prm @y2 @y
where
M 2 ˆ VH2 =U 2 ˆ S …4:4†
is the magnetic pressure number.
The reduced boundary conditions (2.15) are

y ˆ 0: u ˆ b…t†n=2 ; h ˆ 0;
…4:5†
y ! 1: u ˆ 0; h ˆ 0;

where b ˆ a…v†n=2 =U n‡1 is an absolute constant.


The fact that u and h, which are non-dimensional variables, satisfy simultaneous second order differential equa-
tions of essentially similar form suggests that we should seek to separate the variables by following Shercliff [23] and
[22], we introduce the following non-dimensional variables instead of u and h:
F ˆ u ‡ Mh ;
…4:6†
Gˆu Mh ;
where M (the magnetic pressure number) is a non-dimensional constant. Substituting the variables F and G in eqs.
(4.2) and (4.3), the independent pairs of equations for F and G are obtained, considering Prm ˆ 1, the equations

@2F @F @F
…V0 M† ˆ 0; …4:7†
@y2 @y @t
@2G @G @G
…V0 ‡ M† ˆ 0; …4:8†
@y2 @y @t

subject to the boundary conditions


F ˆ 0; Gˆ0 at t ˆ 0 ;
y ˆ 0: F ˆ G ˆ b…t†n=2 ; …4:9†
y ! 1: F ˆ G ˆ 0:

Introducing the new similarity variable


p
h ˆ y=2 t ; …4:10†
we will look for the similarity solution in the form
F …y; t† ˆ b…t†n=2 F…h† : …4:11†
For the similarity solutions, the function F…h† should satisfy an ordinary differential equation. This is achieved if the
velocity of injection is chosen in the form
p
V0 …t† ˆ M a0 = t ; …4:12†
where a0 is a constant.
On substituting from (4.10)±±(4.12) in (4.7), we get for the function F…h† the ordinary differential equation
F00 …h† ‡ 2…a0 ‡ h† F0 …h† 2nF…h† ˆ 0 ; …4:13†
subject to the boundary conditions
h ˆ 0: F…h† ˆ 1 ;
…4:14†
h ! 1: F…h† ˆ 0 :

The solution of eq. (4.13) satisfying the boundary conditions (4.14) is given in terms of the hypergeometric function as
p
Hhn … 2 …h ‡ a0 ††
F…h† ˆ p : …4:15†
Hhn … 2 a0 †
Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 671

Then from (4.11) and (4.15), we have


p
Hhn … 2 …h ‡ a0 ††
F …h; t† ˆ btn=2 p : …4:16†
Hhn … 2 a0 †
By the same argument the solution of eq. (4.8) subject to the boundary conditions (4.9) has the form
p
Hhn … 2 …h ‡ b††
G…h; t† ˆ btn=2 p ; …4:17†
Hhn … 2 b†
this similar solutions is achieved if the velocity of injection is taking in the form
p
V0 …t† ˆ M b= t ; …4:18†
where b is a constant.
By knowing F and G, we can find u and h throughout the eq. (4.6) as
" p p #
btn=2 Hhn … 2 …h ‡ a0 †† Hhn … 2 …h ‡ b††
u…h† ˆ p ‡ p ; …4:19†
2 Hhn … 2 a0 † Hhn … 2 b†
" p p #
btn=2 Hhn … 2 …h ‡ a0 †† Hhn … 2 …h ‡ b††
h…h† ˆ p p : …4:20†
2M Hhn … 2 a0 † Hhn … 2 b†

The total shear stress on the plate is given by the sum of the viscous and Maxwell stress in the form [7]
tw ˆ m @u=@y ‡ m0 H0 Hx ˆ ‰rv @u=@yŠyˆ0 ; …4:21†

taking into account that Hx ˆ 0 at y ˆ 0.


Thus, the shear stress acting upon the plate is given by
 
rv du
tw ˆ p :
2 tv dh hˆ0
Firstly, for the case of the approximate solution, we obtain
 r 
ar v
tw ˆ tn=2 ‰u00 …0† ‡ Nu01 ‡ N 2 u02 ‡ . . .Š :
2 t
From (3.11) and (3.12), we obtain at Prm ˆ 1, tw in the form
 r 
v
tw ˆ ar …tn=2 †
2t
   
Hhn 1 …g† VH2 Hhn 3 …g† Hhn 1 …g† Hhn 2 …g† Hhn‡1 …g† Hh2n 1 …g†
 ‡ t ‡ ‡ ... ;
Hhn …g† v 4Hhn …g† 2Hhn‡2 …g† 4Hhn …g† Hhn‡2 …g† 2Hhn …g† Hhn‡1 …g†
…4:22†
where
p
gˆ 2 a: …4:23†
For the case of no suction, i.e. a ˆ 0, eq. (4.22) yields
p !  
n!ar vptn 1 VH2
tw ˆ 1 ‡ t ‡ . . . ; …4:24†
2n ‰G…n ‡ 10 =2†Š2 4v…n ‡ 1†

„
1
t n 1
where G…n† ˆ e t dt is the Gamma function.
0
Secondly, for the case of exact solution, from eqs. (4.19) and (4.21) the shear stress acting upon the plate is
given by
r " p p #
tn 1 Hhn 1 … 2 a0 † Hhn 1 … 2 b†
tw ˆ b p ‡ p ; …4:25†
8 Hhn … 2 a0 † Hhn … 2 b†

and for the case of no suction, i.e. a0 ˆ b, eq. (4.25) yields


r  
tn 1 Hhn 1 …g0 † Hhn 1 … g0 †
tw ˆ b ‡ ; …4:26†
8 Hhn …g0 † Hhn … g0 †
p
where g0 ˆ 2 a0 .
672 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

For the case of an infinite porous flat plate, as a special case, started impulsively into motion in its own plane
with a constant velocity in the absence of the magnetic field, the shearing stress at the plate is given from (4.26) in the
form
p
tw ˆ b= pt for t > 0 : …4:27†
This result agrees with that of Rayleigh [1] exactly.

5. Temperature distribution

For the unsteady motion of an infinite porous flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field and unsteady
suction/injection, the boundary layer equation governing the energy equation is [22]
   
@T @T @2T v @u 2 vm @h 2
‡ V0 …t† ˆl 2 ‡ ‡ …5:1†
@t @y @y Cp @y Cp @y

where T …y; t† is the temperature in the ambient fluid, l is the thermal diffusivity of the fluid, and Cp is the specific
heat at constant pressure.
The relevant boundary conditions are
y ˆ 0: T ˆ T 1 ‡ T 0 tn ;
…5:2†
y ! 1: T ! T1 :
We introduce the dimensionless temperature T 0 , Prandtl number P , and Eckert number E as

T 0 ˆ …T T1 †=T0 ; P ˆ v=l ; E ˆ U 2 =Cp T0 ; …5:3†

where T0 is the reference temperature, T1 is a constant temperature of the ambient fluid far from the plate. With the
help of the non-dimensional quantity (4.1) and (5.3), eq. (5.1) is reduced to the non-dimensional equation (dropping
primes for convenience)
 2  2
@T @T 1 @2T @u 2 @h
‡ V0 …t† ˆ ‡ E ‡EM ; …5:4†
@t @y P @y2 @y @y
while the corresponding boundary conditions are
y ˆ 0: T ˆ tn ;
…5:5†
y ! 1: T ! 0:
For the similar solution we introduce the similarity variable h defined in eq. (4.10) and the temperature in the form

T …y; t† ˆ tn q…h† : …5:6†


For similar solutions one requires that the governing equation for q…h† becomes an ordinary differential equation. This
is certainly true if the velocity of injection, which is function of t in the form
p p
V0 …t† ˆ …a0 ‡ b†=2 t ˆ c= t ; …5:7†

the boundary conditions (5.5) now reduced to


y ˆ 0: q…h† ˆ 1 ;
…5:8†
y ! 1: q…h† ! 0 :
Substitution from (5.6) and (5.7) in the differential equation (5.4) implies
"    #
00 0 n du 2 dh 2
q …h† ‡ 2…c ‡ h† P q …h† 4nP q ˆ EPt ‡ : …5:9†
dh dh

Substituting u…h† and h…h† for the exact solution, one can obtain
" p p #
2
00 0 2 Hhn 1 … 2 …a0 ‡ h†† Hh2n 1 … 2 …b ‡ h††
q …h† ‡ 2…c ‡ h† P q …h† 4nP q…h† ˆ EP b p ‡ p ; …5:10†
Hh2n … 2 a0 † Hh2n … 2 b†

where primes denote differentiation with respect to h.


Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 673

The solution of eq. (5.10) at a0 ˆ b ˆ c and P ˆ 1 is obtained as


!   
Eb2 Hh2n 1 …g0 † Hh2n …z0 † Hh2n 1 …z0 † Hh2n …z0 †
q…h† ˆ ‡ ; …5:11†
2Hh2n …g0 † Hh2n …g0 † Hh2n 1 …g0 † Hh2n …g0 †
p
where z0 ˆ 2 …a0 ‡ h†, upon using the boundary condition q…0† ˆ 1.

Fig. 1a. Velocity distribution over the plate without suction for different values of n, N at t ˆ 1

Fig. 1b. Velocity distribution over the plate without suction for different values of n, N at t ˆ 2
674 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 1c. Velocity distribution over the plate without suction for different values of n, N at t ˆ 3

6. Results and discussions

The investigation of the velocity, induced magnetic field, and heat transfer of the flow of a viscous incompressible,
electrically conducting fluid over an infinite porous flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field has been
carried out in the preceding paragraphs. Two solutions are obtained for the velocity and the induced magnetic field;
one is an approximate solution for small values of an interaction parameter N and the other is an exact solution.
Numerical computations are presented graphically and discussed in the following points:
(1) The velocity profiles of the fluid over the plate without suction …a ˆ 0† for different values of n and the mag-
netic parameter N at …t ˆ 1; 2; 3† for magnetic Prandtl number Prm ˆ 1 are shown in Figs. 1a±±1c. From these

Fig. 2a. Velocity distribution with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of n, N at t ˆ 1
Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 675

Fig. 2b. Velocity distribution with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of n, N at t ˆ 2

Fig. 2c. Velocity distribution with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of n, N at t ˆ 3

figures it is evident that the increase of the magnetic parameter N decreases the velocity when the flat plate is
started impulsively into motion in its own plane with a constant velocity …n ˆ 0†. For the impulsively unsteady
motion …n ˆ 2† the same result is true for small values of dimensionless distance h, but the velocity increases
with increasing parameter N for large values of h. Generally the velocity in the case …n ˆ 0† is less than the
velocity in the case …n ˆ 2†. By increasing the time the velocity in the state …n ˆ 2† surpasses that of the state
…n ˆ 0†:
(2) In Figs. 2a±±2c the velocity profiles are plotted versus h, for several values of n, t and N at a ˆ 1 (with suction)
and Prm ˆ 1. As can be seen from figures, with suction, the velocity decreases. The behavior of the velocity in the
case of increasing the magnetic field is the same as the case when no suction is applied.
676 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 3a. The time evolution of the velocity profile without suction for different values of n, N

Fig. 3b. The time evolution of the velocity profile without suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of n, N

(3) In Figs. 3a, 3b the velocity profiles are described against the time. It is clear from these graphs that the velocity of
the fluid, for a plate moving with uniform velocity increases, until it approaches a limit than one. Whereas the
velocity for the case of accelerated plate increases without being bound by the increase of time. Moreover for the
plate moving with uniform velocity, it is clear that the increase in the applied magnetic field leads to an increase in
velocity. For the accelerated plate the change is insignificant.
(4) In Figs. 4a, 4b the induced magnetic field h is plotted Vs h, for t ˆ 1 and t ˆ 2, respectively. Fig. 5a shows h
versus h when n ˆ 0 for any value of t. In Fig. 5b the induced magnetic field h is plotted against h for a uniformly
accelerated plate for t ˆ 1 and t ˆ 2. Fig. 6a shows h versus t in the case when there is no suction whereas Fig. 6b
Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 677

Fig. 4a. Induced magnetic field as a function of h without suction for different values of n, N at t ˆ 1

Fig. 4b. Induced magnetic field as a function of h without suction for different values of n, N at t ˆ 2

shows h against t for a plate moving with uniform velocity in the presence of suction. Finally, Fig. 6c shows h Vs h
in the case of the uniformly accelerated plate. We see from these figures the following observations:
(i) An increase in the applied magnetic field causes an increase in the induced magnetic field in all cases.
(ii) For the accelerated plate the induced magnetic field increases from a negative value to zero by increasing h.
Whereas for the uniformly moving plate the induced magnetic field decreases with an increase of h and ap-
proaches zero as h ! 1 in the absence of suction.
678 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 5a. Induced magnetic field as a function of h with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of N at n ˆ 0 and any time t

Fig. 5b. Induced magnetic field as a function of h with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of N at n ˆ 2 and t ˆ 1; 2

(iii) In case of constant suction the induced magnetic field in all cases is positive. It starts from 0 at h ˆ 0,
increases to a maximum value, and then approaches zero as h ! 1.
(iv) For the uniformly accelerated plate the induced magnetic field decreases with t until it reuses a certain asymp-
totic value dependent on the applied magnetic field, in the absence of suction. In the presence of suction, the
induced magnetic field, for the plate moving with uniform velocity, increases to a positive maximum value
dependent on N and then decreases with the increase of time to a positive asymptotic value also dependent
on N.
Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 679

(5) The total shear stress tw is given in eq. (4.24). It is clear that the shear stress increases with n, i.e., the increase of
velocity increases the shear stress on the plate. The obtained shear stress at an infinite porous flat plate is exactly
obtained by [1].
(6) For the case of an infinite porous flat plate moving with constant velocity the shear stress decreases with time in
the absence of the magnetic field.

Fig. 6a. The time evolution of the induced magnetic field profile without suction for different values of n, N

Fig. 6b. The time evolution of the induced magnetic field profile with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of N at n ˆ 0
680 ZAMM  Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 6c. The time evolution of the induced magnetic field profile with suction for Prm ˆ 1 and different values of N at n ˆ 2

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Received June 2, 1999, revised December 22, 1999, accepted January 11, 2000
Address: Prof. Dr. Kamal Anwar Helmy, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, El shatby,
Alexandria, Egypt