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Helmy, K. A.

of Viscous Conducting Fluid

This paper deals with the flow of an incompressible, viscous, and electrically conducting fluid over a non-conducting infinite

porous flat plate started impulsively into motion in its own plane in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and the plate

is subjected to suction. Approximate and exact solutions have been obtained for the governing equations. Induced magnetic

field distributions are obtained for any value of the magnetic Prandtl number and magnitude of the suction velocity. The

energy equation, including viscous and Joule dissipation, has also been integrated. Analytic solutions of the resulting linear

non-homogeneous boundary value problem corresponding to the case of exact solution of the momentum equation are pre-

sented. An expression for the skin friction has been obtained. Numerical results are presented graphically and discussed.

1. Introduction

In recent years, the subject of hydromagnetics has attracted the attention of many authors, due not only to its own

interest, but also to many applications to problems of geophysical and astrophysical significance. Magnetohydrodynamic

boundary layer flow of an incompressible electrically conducting Newtonian viscous fluid has attracted the attention of

many authors [1±±20]. The magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid in the presence of

an external magnetic field due to the impulsive motions of an infinite flat plate has been discussed in [2], the author has

obtained an exact solution of the modified Navier-Stokes' equations and Maxwell's equation for the particular case when

c
m0 vS 1 , the ratio of the viscous and magnetic Reynolds number, is unity. In [3], the effect of a transverse mag-

netic field on the steady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an infinite porous flat plate when

the plate is subjected to either suction or injection has been discussed. The exact solution for the modified Navier-Stokes

and Maxwell equations under the usual assumptions of magnetohydrodynamics has also been obtained. The equations

of heat transfer including viscous and Joule's dissipation terms have also been integrated. As result, it was concluded

that the steady solution does exist for both cases of suction and injection when the magnetic pressure number

S
m0 H02 =V02 r is greater than unity. When S < 1, there does not exist a steady solution. This is in contradiction to

the result obtained in [4], which concluded that a steady solution does not exist for the case of uniform injection. The

validity of the obtained solution depends on the magnetic pressure number S, based upon the suction velocity and the

intensity of the applied magnetic field, being smaller than unity or not. The solution given in [3] is valid only for

particular values of the magnetic field whose x-wise component in the direction of the non-conducting wall must be

identical with the boundary value given by this solution. In [5], the same problem was reconsidered under different

boundary conditions. Using Laplace transform technique the asymptotic solutions for the velocity and magnetic field

have been obtained for c 6 1 during the initial stage of motion. Exact solutions have also been obtained for c 1. In [6]

the effects of harmonic oscillations of amplitude e in the magnitude of the magnetic field on the steady boundary layer

flow, due to a uniform free stream past a semi-infinite magnetized flat plate have been discussed. It is observed that the

magnetic field distribution does not affect the surface current distribution. The extension of Rayleigh's problem [1] to

magnetohydrodynamics with suction for an infinite porous flat plate started impulsively into motion in its own plane

with constant velocity has been investigated in [7]. The solution has been obtained for the case of a non-conducting

plate with suction velocity varying as (time) 1=2 by means of time series expansion. The equations of motion are then

solved in terms of hypergeometric functions for any value of the magnetic Prandtl number and magnitude of the suction

velocity. An MHD asymmetric flow past a semi-infinite moving plate is considered and solutions are obtained numerically

in [8]. In [9], the stability of stratified shear flow in a perfectly conducting fluid in the presence of an external magnetic

field aligned with the flow has been studied. A semi-circle theorem for the present hydromagnetic case is proved. The

magnetic field is found to have a stabilizing effect on the flow. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem in stratified

conducting fluid is discussed. Finally, the absorption of wave energy was studied by considering a shear flow with an

antisymmetric velocity profile given by U tanh z. Unlike the hydrodynamic case, it is found that, in the critical layer

at U 0, the transfer of the wave energy to the mean flow occurs for any value of the Richardson number. This result

implies again the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field on the shear flow. In [10] the effect of uniform suction or injec-

tion on the flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid past a flat plate with pressure gradient in the presence

of a transverse magnetic field has been theoretically investigated. The boundary layer equations were transformed into

non-similar ones, and the numerical calculations of the resulting equations were performed by the difference differential

method. The velocity profiles, the coefficient of skin fraction and the displacement thickness were given for various

values of the pressure gradient, the magnetic and suction/injection parameters. The neutral stability curves for wave-

666 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

like disturbances of Tollmien-Schliching type and the critical Reynolds number were then presented for the velocity

profiles obtained above. In [11] the author has considered the behavior of a three dimensional laminar boundary layer

flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Newtonian fluid past a plane wall in the presence of a transverse

suction velocity distribution applied at the wall. The shear stress and heat transfer, using the method of perturbation, is

obtained. The variations of these quantities with the Prandtl number and a magnetic parameter are also investigated.

In [12] the laminar flow of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting fluid impinging normal to a plane in the

presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Using finite difference quasilinearization, an exact numerical

solution is presented which takes into account the asymptotic boundary condition. It is demonstrated that if f denotes

the dimensionless stream function, the value of f 00
0 increases monotonically with M, the Hartmann number, where

prime denotes the derivative normal to the plane. This conclusion is supported by deriving a perturbation solution valid

for small M. Also, an analytical solution is obtained valid for large M. Finally, an approximate solution is given which

is simple and sufficiently accurate for the entire range of values of M. In [13] a boundary layer solution for the heat

transfer of an electrically conducting fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

has been studied. The heat due to viscous dissipation and stress work was also included in the energy equation. The

governing nonsimilar partial differential equation is transformed into ordinary differential ones by means of difference

differential method. The temperature profiles and heat transfer coefficient are obtained for various values of the param-

eters entering the problem. The MHD boundary layer flow over a flat plate is examined in [14] for two cases, viz.

uniform free stream velocity and a uniform hydrostatic pressure. The nonlinear boundary layer equations are solved

using a reliable finite-difference method. The boundary layer physical parameters such as skin-friction coefficient, displace-

ment, momentum, and energy thickness of the boundary layer are determined. It is found that the normal surface

velocity gradient decreases with the local magnetic interaction parameter for the cases of a uniform hydrostatic pres-

sure, whereas in the case of a uniform free stream velocity it increases with the interaction parameter. Viscous flow past

a stretching sheet in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is considered in [15]. An exact similarity solution for

velocity and pressure of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is presented, which is formally valid for all Rey-

nolds numbers. In [16] the boundary layer flow over a moving continuous flat plate in an electrically conducting ambi-

ent fluid with a step change in the applied magnetic field is considered. The governing equations are solved numerically

using the Keller box method. It is shown that the skin-friction decreases as the magnetic parameter increases. The non-

linear boundary layer equations of the title problem are solved numerically for obtaining the coefficient of skin-friction

in [17]. It is found that the magnitude of the normal surface velocity gradient increases with the magnetic interaction

parameter. In [18] the effect of an oblique magnetic field on the growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RT) at the

interface of a finite thickness layer of a viscous electrically conducting fluid in the presence of surface tension has been

analytically studied. The effects of aligned and transverse magnetic fields on the coupled differential equations for the

velocity and the magnetic field are discussed separately. The numerical results reveal that the nature and strength of

the magnetic field and the layer thickness exacerbate or ameliorate the instability characteristic of such a layer. The

solution of the energy equation for the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a

constant transverse magnetic field over a linearly stretching non-isothermal flat sheet has been investigated in [19].

Effects due to dissipation, stress work, and heat generation is considered. Analytical solutions of the resulting linear non-

homogeneous boundary value problem, expressed in terms of Kummer's functions, are presented for the case of pre-

scribed surface temperature as well as the case of prescribed wall heat flux, both of which are assumed to be quadratic

functions of distance. The boundary value problems are also solved by direct numerical integration, yielding results in

excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. In [20], the fluid flow problem of an oscillating flat plate (II-Stokes

problem) in two directions has been generalized. They have discussed first the oscillating porous flat plate with super-

imposed blowing or suction. The second generalization is concerned with an increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude

of the oscillating flat plate. Finally they have shown that a combination of both effects is also possible.

The aim of this paper is to study the magneto hydrodynamic flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid

in the presence of an external magnetic field due to the impulsive motions of an infinite porous non-conducting flat

plate when the plate is subjected to suction. An approximate solution is obtained for the modified Navier-Stokes and

Maxwell equations when the suction velocity v varies inversely with the square root of the time t. An exact solution is

also obtained for a particular case. The energy equation, including viscous and Joule dissipation, has also been inte-

grated. Analytical solutions of the resulting linear non-homogeneous boundary value problem corresponding to the case

of exact solution of the momentum equation are presented. An expression for the skin friction has been obtained.

Numerical computations are presented graphically and discussed.

2. Mathematical formulation

The basic equations of magnetohydrodynamic flow for unsteady two-dimensional, electrically conducting, incompressi-

ble, viscous fluid flows are [22]

@ V~ 1 m

V~ r V~ ~ ^ H

rP vr2 V~ 0
r ^ H ~ ;
2:1

@t r r

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 667

r V~ 0 ;
2:2

@H~

r ^
V~ ^ H

~ vm r2 H

~;
2:3

@t

rH ~ 0;
2:4

where P is the fluid pressure, r the density of the fluid,
v m=r and
vm 1=m0 s the kinematic and magnetic

coefficients of viscosity of the fluid, respectively, and m0 , s are the magnetic permeability and the electrical conductiv-

ity of the fluid, respectively.

We will consider unsteady flow of electrically conducting, incompressible, viscous fluid bounded by an infinite

porous non-conducting flat plate. The x-axis is taken along the plate in the direction of the flow and the y-axis is taken

normal to the plate. Constant magnetic field of strength H0 acts in the direction of the y-axis; no electric field is

applied. The plate is suddenly set in motion with velocity U0
t along the x-axis. The generated motion is then two-

dimensional in the xy-plane but all the physical variables, except pressure P , are not dependent on the coordinate x, as

they are all functions of y and t only. Since we have assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting, no electric

current flows in the plate. Therefore, the magnetic field in the plate should be curlfree, that is
r ^ H ~ 0. Thus,

~

taking into account that H is a function of y and t, we obtain @Hx =@y 0. We shall take Hx 0, since the applied

magnetic field acts in a direction normal to the surface of the plate. On the other hand, by virtue of the continuity of

the magnetic field
r H ~ 0 implies that @Hy =@y 0 or Hy is constant in the plate. This constant must be identical

with the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Therefore, we have

Hx 0; Hy H0 at y 0 ;
2:5

where H0 is the intensity of the applied magnetic field.

The governing equations (2.1)±±(2.4) under the stated assumptions, which describe the hydromagnetic flow for

an infinite porous plate, neglecting pressure gradient, thus become

@u @u @ 2 u m0 H0 @Hx

V v ;
2:6

@t @y @y2 r @y

@Hx @Hx @ 2 Hx @u

V vm 2

H0 ;
2:7

@t @y @y @y

@V

0;
2:8

@y

where u; V are the velocity components along the flow direction (x-axis) and normal to the flow direction (y-axis) and

Hx is the induced magnetic field component.

Integration of eq. (2.8) gives V as a function of t or constant and we will take it as a function of t in the form

p

V V0
t a v=t ;
2:9

where a is a real positive constant.

Substituting from (2.9) in (2.6) and (2.7), we obtain

r

@u v @u @2u @h

a v VH ;
2:10

@t t @y @y2 @y

r

@h v @h v @2h @u

a VH ;
2:11

@t t @y Prm @y2 @y

where

q

h m0 =r Hx ;
2:12

q

VH m0 =r H0 ;
2:13

Prm v=vm
2:14

are Alfven velocity and the magnetic Prandtl number, respectively.

The relevant boundary conditions are

u 0; h 0; t 0;

)

y 0: u U0
t atn=2 ; h 0;

t > 0;
2:15

y ! 1: u 0; h 0;

where U0
t is the velocity on the plate, a is constant, and n is a real number.

668 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

3. Approximate solution

p

h y=2 tv : 3:1

h00 2Prm a h h0 Prm N t u0 0 ; 3:3

where

p

N
t VH t=v ;
3:4

We seek the solution for u and h for small values of an interaction parameter N t in the form

P

1

u U0 t N k uk h ; 3:5

k0

P

1

h U0 t N k1 hk h : 3:6

k0

Introducing eqs. (3.5) and (3.6) in eqs. (3.2) and (3.3), taking into account that U0
t atn=2 , and comparing

harmonic terms, and neglecting coefficients of N 4 and higher powers of N, we obtain the following differential equa-

tions for u0 ; u1 ; u2 ; h0 ; h1 ; h2 ; h3 ; . . . etc.:

u001 2 a h u01 2 n 1 u1 0 ; 3:7

u002 2 a h u02 2 n 2 u2 2h00 :

The same is true for other values, and in the same way

u0 0 1 ; uk1 0 0 ; hk 0 0 ; 3:9

uk 1 0 ; hk 1 0 ; k 0; 1; 2; 3; . . . : 3:10

The solution of eqs. (3.7) and (3.8) satisfy the boundary conditions (3.9) and (3.10) is given in terms of the hyper-

geometric function in the form:

Hhn
z

u0
h p ;
3:11

Hhn
2 a

u1
h 0 ;

p ! " # p ! " #

Hhn 2
2 a Hhn 2
z Hhn2
z Hhn 1
2 a Hhn2
z Hhn
z

u2
h p p p p p p ;

4Hhn
2 a Hhn 2
2 a Hhn2
2 a 2Hhn1
2 a Hhn2
2 a Hhn
2 a

3:12

u3
h 0 ;

" #

PrmHhn z Hhn2 z

u2 h p p

Prm 1 Hhn 2 a Hhn2 2 a

! p ! p " p #

3=2

2Prm Hhn1 2 a Hhn2 2Prm a Hhn2 Prm z Hhn2 z

p p p p : 3:13

Prm 12 Hhn 2 a Hhn1 2Prm a Hhn2 2Prm a Hhn2 2 a

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 669

p ! " #

Hhn 1 2 a Hhn1 z Hhn 1 z

h0 h p p p p ; 3:14

2 Hhn 2 a Hhn1 2 a Hhn 1 2 a

h1 h 0 ;" # " #

Hhn3 z Hhn1 z Hhn 1 z Hhn3 z

h2 h A p p B p p

Hhn3 2 a Hhn1 2 a Hhn 1 2 a Hhn3 2 a

" #

Hhn3 z Hhn 3 z

C p p ; 3:15

Hhn3 2 a Hhn 3 2 a

where

" p p ! p !#

Hhn 1 2 a Hhn 2 2 a Hhn1 2 a

A p p p p p ;

2 2 Hhn2 2 a 4 2 Hhn 2 a Hhn2 2 a

1

B p p p ; 3:16

4 2 Hhn1 2 a Hhn 2 a

p

Hhn 3 2 a

C p p ;

12 2 Hhn 2 a

while for Prm 6 1, we have

p p ! " p #

2 Prm Hhn1 2 a Hhn1 Prm z Hhn1 z

h0 z p p p ; 3:17

Prm 1 Hhn 2 a Hhn1 2Prm a Hhn1 2 a

p p " p #

Hhn3 Prm z Hhn1 Prm z Hhn3 Prm z Hhn1 z

h2 z A1 p p B1 p p

Hhn3 2Prm a Hhn1 2Prm a Hhn3 2Prm a Hhn1 2 a

" p #

Hhn3 z Hhn3 Prm z

C1 p p ; 3:18

Hhn3 2 a Hhn3 2Prm a

where

2 " p #

p Prm Hhn1 2 a

A 1 B1 2 p ; 3:19

Prm 1 Hhn 2 a

2 " p # 3 " p #

p Prm Hhn3 2 a p Prm Hhn3 2 a

C1 2 p 2 2 p

Prm 1 Hhn2 2 a Prm 1 Hhn 2 a

p " p # " p #

Prm Hhn3 2 a Hhn2 2Prm a

2A1 p p ; 3:20

Prm 1 Hhn2 2 a Hhn1 2Prm a

where

p

z 2 a h ; 3:21

and the hypergeometric function Hhn x is defined in [21]:

n

1 " #

1 2

t t x2 u x2 u

Hhn x exp dt exp du ; 3:22

n! 2 n! 2

0 x

n is a positive integer.

4. Exact solution

Introduce the non-dimensional quantities

u0 u=U ; V00 V =U ; t0 U 2 =v t ;

4:1

y0 Uy=v ; h0 h=VH Hx =H0 ;

where U is the reference velocity.

670 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

In terms of these non-dimensional variables eqs. (2.6)±±(2.8) are reduced to the non-dimensional equations

(dropping primes for convenience)

@u @u @ 2 u @h

V0 M2 ;
4:2

@t @y @y2 @y

@h @h 1 @ 2 h @u

V0 ;
4:3

@t @y Prm @y2 @y

where

M 2 VH2 =U 2 S
4:4

is the magnetic pressure number.

The reduced boundary conditions (2.15) are

y 0: u b
tn=2 ; h 0;

4:5

y ! 1: u 0; h 0;

The fact that u and h, which are non-dimensional variables, satisfy simultaneous second order differential equa-

tions of essentially similar form suggests that we should seek to separate the variables by following Shercliff [23] and

[22], we introduce the following non-dimensional variables instead of u and h:

F u Mh ;

4:6

Gu Mh ;

where M (the magnetic pressure number) is a non-dimensional constant. Substituting the variables F and G in eqs.

(4.2) and (4.3), the independent pairs of equations for F and G are obtained, considering Prm 1, the equations

@2F @F @F

V0 M 0;
4:7

@y2 @y @t

@2G @G @G

V0 M 0;
4:8

@y2 @y @t

F 0; G0 at t 0 ;

y 0: F G b tn=2 ; 4:9

y ! 1: F G 0:

p

h y=2 t ; 4:10

we will look for the similarity solution in the form

F y; t b tn=2 F h : 4:11

For the similarity solutions, the function F h should satisfy an ordinary differential equation. This is achieved if the

velocity of injection is chosen in the form

p

V0 t M a0 = t ; 4:12

where a0 is a constant.

On substituting from (4.10)±±(4.12) in (4.7), we get for the function F h the ordinary differential equation

F00 h 2 a0 h F0 h 2nF h 0 ; 4:13

subject to the boundary conditions

h 0: F h 1 ;

4:14

h ! 1: F h 0 :

The solution of eq. (4.13) satisfying the boundary conditions (4.14) is given in terms of the hypergeometric function as

p

Hhn
2
h a0

F
h p :
4:15

Hhn
2 a0

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 671

p

Hhn 2 h a0

F h; t btn=2 p : 4:16

Hhn 2 a0

By the same argument the solution of eq. (4.8) subject to the boundary conditions (4.9) has the form

p

Hhn 2 h b

G h; t btn=2 p ; 4:17

Hhn 2 b

this similar solutions is achieved if the velocity of injection is taking in the form

p

V0 t M b= t ; 4:18

where b is a constant.

By knowing F and G, we can find u and h throughout the eq. (4.6) as

" p p #

btn=2 Hhn 2 h a0 Hhn 2 h b

u h p p ; 4:19

2 Hhn 2 a0 Hhn 2 b

" p p #

btn=2 Hhn 2 h a0 Hhn 2 h b

h h p p : 4:20

2M Hhn 2 a0 Hhn 2 b

The total shear stress on the plate is given by the sum of the viscous and Maxwell stress in the form [7]

tw m @u=@y m0 H0 Hx rv @u=@yy0 ;
4:21

Thus, the shear stress acting upon the plate is given by

rv du

tw p :

2 tv dh h0

Firstly, for the case of the approximate solution, we obtain

r

ar v

tw tn=2 u00 0 Nu01 N 2 u02 . . . :

2 t

From (3.11) and (3.12), we obtain at Prm 1, tw in the form

r

v

tw ar tn=2

2t

Hhn 1 g VH2 Hhn 3 g Hhn 1 g Hhn 2 g Hhn1 g Hh2n 1 g

t ... ;

Hhn g v 4Hhn g 2Hhn2 g 4Hhn g Hhn2 g 2Hhn g Hhn1 g

4:22

where

p

g 2 a: 4:23

For the case of no suction, i.e. a 0, eq. (4.22) yields

p !

n!ar vptn 1 VH2

tw 1 t . . . ; 4:24

2n G n 10 =22 4v n 1

1

t n 1

where G
n e t dt is the Gamma function.

0

Secondly, for the case of exact solution, from eqs. (4.19) and (4.21) the shear stress acting upon the plate is

given by

r " p p #

tn 1 Hhn 1
2 a0 Hhn 1
2 b

tw b p p ;
4:25

8 Hhn
2 a0 Hhn
2 b

r

tn 1 Hhn 1 g0 Hhn 1 g0

tw b ; 4:26

8 Hhn g0 Hhn g0

p

where g0 2 a0 .

672 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

For the case of an infinite porous flat plate, as a special case, started impulsively into motion in its own plane

with a constant velocity in the absence of the magnetic field, the shearing stress at the plate is given from (4.26) in the

form

p

tw b= pt for t > 0 :
4:27

This result agrees with that of Rayleigh [1] exactly.

5. Temperature distribution

For the unsteady motion of an infinite porous flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field and unsteady

suction/injection, the boundary layer equation governing the energy equation is [22]

@T @T @2T v @u 2 vm @h 2

V0
t l 2
5:1

@t @y @y Cp @y Cp @y

where T
y; t is the temperature in the ambient fluid, l is the thermal diffusivity of the fluid, and Cp is the specific

heat at constant pressure.

The relevant boundary conditions are

y 0: T T 1 T 0 tn ;

5:2

y ! 1: T ! T1 :

We introduce the dimensionless temperature T 0 , Prandtl number P , and Eckert number E as

where T0 is the reference temperature, T1 is a constant temperature of the ambient fluid far from the plate. With the

help of the non-dimensional quantity (4.1) and (5.3), eq. (5.1) is reduced to the non-dimensional equation (dropping

primes for convenience)

2 2

@T @T 1 @2T @u 2 @h

V0
t E EM ;
5:4

@t @y P @y2 @y @y

while the corresponding boundary conditions are

y 0: T tn ;

5:5

y ! 1: T ! 0:

For the similar solution we introduce the similarity variable h defined in eq. (4.10) and the temperature in the form

For similar solutions one requires that the governing equation for q h becomes an ordinary differential equation. This

is certainly true if the velocity of injection, which is function of t in the form

p p

V0 t a0 b=2 t c= t ; 5:7

y 0: q h 1 ;

5:8

y ! 1: q h ! 0 :

Substitution from (5.6) and (5.7) in the differential equation (5.4) implies

" #

00 0 n du 2 dh 2

q h 2 c h P q h 4nP q EPt : 5:9

dh dh

Substituting u
h and h
h for the exact solution, one can obtain

" p p #

2

00 0 2 Hhn 1
2
a0 h Hh2n 1
2
b h

q
h 2
c h P q
h 4nP q
h EP b p p ;
5:10

Hh2n
2 a0 Hh2n
2 b

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 673

!

Eb2 Hh2n 1 g0 Hh2n z0 Hh2n 1 z0 Hh2n z0

q h ; 5:11

2Hh2n g0 Hh2n g0 Hh2n 1 g0 Hh2n g0

p

where z0 2 a0 h, upon using the boundary condition q 0 1.

Fig. 1a. Velocity distribution over the plate without suction for different values of n, N at t 1

Fig. 1b. Velocity distribution over the plate without suction for different values of n, N at t 2

674 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 1c. Velocity distribution over the plate without suction for different values of n, N at t 3

The investigation of the velocity, induced magnetic field, and heat transfer of the flow of a viscous incompressible,

electrically conducting fluid over an infinite porous flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field has been

carried out in the preceding paragraphs. Two solutions are obtained for the velocity and the induced magnetic field;

one is an approximate solution for small values of an interaction parameter N and the other is an exact solution.

Numerical computations are presented graphically and discussed in the following points:

(1) The velocity profiles of the fluid over the plate without suction
a 0 for different values of n and the mag-

netic parameter N at
t 1; 2; 3 for magnetic Prandtl number Prm 1 are shown in Figs. 1a±±1c. From these

Fig. 2a. Velocity distribution with suction for Prm 1 and different values of n, N at t 1

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 675

Fig. 2b. Velocity distribution with suction for Prm 1 and different values of n, N at t 2

Fig. 2c. Velocity distribution with suction for Prm 1 and different values of n, N at t 3

figures it is evident that the increase of the magnetic parameter N decreases the velocity when the flat plate is

started impulsively into motion in its own plane with a constant velocity
n 0. For the impulsively unsteady

motion
n 2 the same result is true for small values of dimensionless distance h, but the velocity increases

with increasing parameter N for large values of h. Generally the velocity in the case
n 0 is less than the

velocity in the case
n 2. By increasing the time the velocity in the state
n 2 surpasses that of the state

n 0:

(2) In Figs. 2a±±2c the velocity profiles are plotted versus h, for several values of n, t and N at a 1 (with suction)

and Prm 1. As can be seen from figures, with suction, the velocity decreases. The behavior of the velocity in the

case of increasing the magnetic field is the same as the case when no suction is applied.

676 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 3a. The time evolution of the velocity profile without suction for different values of n, N

Fig. 3b. The time evolution of the velocity profile without suction for Prm 1 and different values of n, N

(3) In Figs. 3a, 3b the velocity profiles are described against the time. It is clear from these graphs that the velocity of

the fluid, for a plate moving with uniform velocity increases, until it approaches a limit than one. Whereas the

velocity for the case of accelerated plate increases without being bound by the increase of time. Moreover for the

plate moving with uniform velocity, it is clear that the increase in the applied magnetic field leads to an increase in

velocity. For the accelerated plate the change is insignificant.

(4) In Figs. 4a, 4b the induced magnetic field h is plotted Vs h, for t 1 and t 2, respectively. Fig. 5a shows h

versus h when n 0 for any value of t. In Fig. 5b the induced magnetic field h is plotted against h for a uniformly

accelerated plate for t 1 and t 2. Fig. 6a shows h versus t in the case when there is no suction whereas Fig. 6b

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 677

Fig. 4a. Induced magnetic field as a function of h without suction for different values of n, N at t 1

Fig. 4b. Induced magnetic field as a function of h without suction for different values of n, N at t 2

shows h against t for a plate moving with uniform velocity in the presence of suction. Finally, Fig. 6c shows h Vs h

in the case of the uniformly accelerated plate. We see from these figures the following observations:

(i) An increase in the applied magnetic field causes an increase in the induced magnetic field in all cases.

(ii) For the accelerated plate the induced magnetic field increases from a negative value to zero by increasing h.

Whereas for the uniformly moving plate the induced magnetic field decreases with an increase of h and ap-

proaches zero as h ! 1 in the absence of suction.

678 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 5a. Induced magnetic field as a function of h with suction for Prm 1 and different values of N at n 0 and any time t

Fig. 5b. Induced magnetic field as a function of h with suction for Prm 1 and different values of N at n 2 and t 1; 2

(iii) In case of constant suction the induced magnetic field in all cases is positive. It starts from 0 at h 0,

increases to a maximum value, and then approaches zero as h ! 1.

(iv) For the uniformly accelerated plate the induced magnetic field decreases with t until it reuses a certain asymp-

totic value dependent on the applied magnetic field, in the absence of suction. In the presence of suction, the

induced magnetic field, for the plate moving with uniform velocity, increases to a positive maximum value

dependent on N and then decreases with the increase of time to a positive asymptotic value also dependent

on N.

Helmy, K. A.: Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscous Conducting Fluid 679

(5) The total shear stress tw is given in eq. (4.24). It is clear that the shear stress increases with n, i.e., the increase of

velocity increases the shear stress on the plate. The obtained shear stress at an infinite porous flat plate is exactly

obtained by [1].

(6) For the case of an infinite porous flat plate moving with constant velocity the shear stress decreases with time in

the absence of the magnetic field.

Fig. 6a. The time evolution of the induced magnetic field profile without suction for different values of n, N

Fig. 6b. The time evolution of the induced magnetic field profile with suction for Prm 1 and different values of N at n 0

680 ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 80 (2000) 10

Fig. 6c. The time evolution of the induced magnetic field profile with suction for Prm 1 and different values of N at n 2

References

1 Rayleigh, L.: On the motion of solid bodies through the viscous liquid. Philos. Mag., Ser. 21 (1911), 697±±711.

2 Rossow, V. J.: On flow for electrically conducting fluid over a flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. NACA

Techn. Note. 3971 (1957), 1±±54.

3 Gupta, A. S.: Flow of an electrically conducting fluid past a porous flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. Z. Angew.

Math. Phys. 11 (1960), 43±±50.

4 Kakutani, T.: Hydromagnetic flow over a plane wall with uniform suction. Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 12 (1961), 219±±230.

5 Rattan, S. N.; Adinarayan, K. S.: Boundary layer growth of an infinite flat plate in magnetohydrodynamics. Z. Angew. Math.

Phys. 13 (1962), 483±±489.

6 Mohanty, H. K.: The effects of magnetic field oscillations on the boundary layer flow past a magnetized plate. Z. Angew. Math.

Phys. 23 (1972), 325±±332.

7 Brar, G. S.; Rowe, R. D.: Rayleigh's problem magnetohydrodynamics for a nonconducting plate. ZAMM 62 (1982), 208±±210.

8 Takhar, H. S.; Raptis, A. A.; Perdikis, C. P.: MHD asymmetric flow past a semi-infinite moving plate. Acta Mech. 65

(1986), 287±±290.

9 Shivamoggi, B. K.; Debnath, L.: Stability of magnetohydrodynamic stratified shear flows. Acta Mech. 68 (1987), 33±±42.

10 Watanabe, T.: Effect of uniform suction or injection on a magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow along a flat plate with

pressure gradient. Acta Mech. 73 (1988), 33±±44.

11 Helmy, K. A.: On the flow of an electrically conducting fluid and heat transfer along a plane wall with periodic suction. Internat.

J. Meccanica 28 (1993), 227±±232.

12 Ariel, P. D.: Hiemenz flow in hydromagnetics. Acta Mech. 103 (1994), 31±±43.

13 Watanabe, T.; Pop, I.: Thermal boundary layers in magnetohydrodynamic flow over a flat plate in the presence of a transverse

magnetic field. Acta Mech. 105 (1994), 233±±238.

14 Sam Lawrence, P.; Nageswara Rao, B.: Effect of pressure gradient on MHD boundary layer over a flat plate. Acta Mech.

113 (1995), 1±±7.

15 Andersson, H. I.: An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Acta Mech. 113 (1995),

241±±244.

16 Na, T. Y.; Pop, I.: MHD flow over a moving flat plate with a step change in the magnetic field. Acta Mech. 116 (1996), 235±±238.

17 Sam Lawrence, P.; Nageswara Rao, B.: Magnetohydrodynamic flow past a semi-infinite moving plate. Acta Mech. 117

(1996), 159±±164.

18 Rudraiah, N.; Krishnamurthy, B. S.; Mathad, R. D.: The effect of an oblique magnetic field on the surface instability of a

finite conducting fluid layer. Acta Mech. 119 (1996), 165±±180.

19 Chiam, T. C.: Magnetohydrodynamic heat transfer over a non-isothermal stretching sheet. Acta Mech. 122 (1997), 169±±179.

20 Turbatu, S.; Buhler, K.; Zierep, J.: New solutions of the II. Stokes problem for an oscillating flat plate. Acta Mech. 129

(1998), 25±±30.

21 Jeffreys, H.; Jeffreys, B.: Methods of mathematical physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1972.

22 Shih Pai: Magnetogasdynamics and plasma dynamics. Springer-Verlag, Wien 1962.

23 Shercliff, J. A.: Steady motion of conducting fluids in pipes under-transverse magnetic fields. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 49

(1953) 1, 136±±144.

Received June 2, 1999, revised December 22, 1999, accepted January 11, 2000

Address: Prof. Dr. Kamal Anwar Helmy, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, El shatby,

Alexandria, Egypt

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