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10

IN AN ANNULAR CHANNEL

by M. L. MITTAL

Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India

Summary

The unsteady hydrodynamic viscous flow in an annular channel in the

presence of a time varying pressure gradient in the direction of the axis has

been considered by the application of the Laplace transform. The case of a

constant axial pressure gradient has been taken into account as a special case.

of a viscous incompressible fluid in a circular pipe under a time

varying pressure gradient. The wellknown Poiseuille flow appears

to be a special case of his analysis when the pressure gradient along

the axis is made constant and the time that has elapsed since the

commencement of the motion is infinite.

The same problem has been extended in the present paper to

the case of flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in a channel

bounded by two coaxal circular cylinders under a pressure gradient

along the axis which decays exponentially with time. By choosing

a parameter, which characterizes the nature of variation of the

pressure gradient along the axis as zero, the pressure gradient

becomes constant and the flow tends to the expected steady flow

after an infinite time.

The analysis has been made by the application of the Laplace

transform.

the z-axis be along the common axis of the infinite cylinders, a

point 0 on it being the origin. The radial coordinate is taken as r

and the boundaries of the cylinders are r = a and r----b. The

annular region between the cylinders is occupied by a viscous

-- 86 --

U N S T E A D Y VISCOUS A N N U L A R F L O W 87

a time varying pressure gradient ~p/Oz = - p/(t) is established

in the direction of the common axis of the cylinders, p being the

pressure and p the density. The velocity v is assumed to be in the

z-direction at all times and all places. The equations of motion

in the absence of external forces then are:

0v (02u 1 0v)

= v + -- + l(t) (2. l)

St \ 0r 2 r -~r

and

0- 0p

Or ' (2.2)

conditions are:

v=0 for r : a , t > ~ O ,

v=0 for r = b , t ~>0, (2.3)

v=0 for t = 0 , a ~<r ~<b.

of v and [(t) by:

oo

~J = f v e -~t dt (3.1)

0

and

0

to t from t = 0 to t = oo and using the third condition from

(2.3) we obtain:

d2~ 1 d~ t 1_

dr 2 + r dr - v- ~ v f(;t). (3.3)

= 0 for r = a,

~J = 0 for r = b. (3.4)

The solution of (3.3) is

A

88 M.L. MITTAL

leads to"

~5= f(2)

I 1

Yo(irv'2/v)[Jo(ibvq~/v) -- Jo(ia~/J~/v)] -

- f o ( i r ~ / 2 / v ) [ Y o ( i b ~ / 2 / v ) - Yo(iaV2/v)]

~- - Y o ( i a V X / v ) j o ( i b v / 2 / v ) _ j o ( i a V 2 / v )Yo(ibV2/v) (3.6)

the expression for the velocity

v -- 2hi

a/ v eat d2. (3.7)

P

ponentially decaying function of time, namely:

1 0p

. . . . . P e -st, (4.1)

p 0x

where ~ is a constant, we have:

oo

P

f(2) = f P e -(~+a~t dt --

~+~ (4.2)

0

1 /~ P e zt d2

v --

F

- Jo(irv/~l~)[Yo(ibv'X/~) - Yo(iaV~l~)]

}

poles at 2 -= 0, 2 = -- ~ and the roots of the equation

which has simple roots, all on the negative real axis. For simplicity

it is presumed that ~ does not coincide with any of the roots of (4.4).

The contour P of integration is taken as follows. Take a line

UNSTEADY" VISCOUS A N N U L A R FLOW 89

at a distance c from the imaginary axis and parallel to it. The line

is of length 2R and is bisected by the real axis. With this point of

bisection as centre and R as radius describe a semicircle towards

the negative part of the real axis. The contour thus consists of a

semi-circular arc bounded by its diameter as described above.

The q u a n t i t y c is selected so t h a t all the singularities ot the inte-

grand lie to its left and R tends to infinity through a sequence

of such values t h a t the semicircle never passes through a pole of

the integrand. Thus v is given by

P

v -- 2~i × 2Jri [Sum of the residues at the poles of the integrand].

2 = -- ~ and the zeros of (4.4) we obtain:

Yo(rVo<lv ) [Jo(bVo,/v ) - Jo(a@x/v)] - I

v= - - J°(rV°<iv) [Y°(bV°</v) - Y°(a'v/°</v)]l -

Po, e-°'t 1 - Yo(aVo:/v) jo(bVo~/v) _ j o ( a V o @ ) Yo(bVo~/v) ]

--2P E ×

[ Yo(rfn)[fo(bfn) -- lo(afln)] - ]

i . - Jo(rfln) [Y0(bf.) - Y o ( a f . ) l[. (4.5)

X g[ll(bfn) Yo(afn) -- lo(afn) Yl(bfn)] @ [

+ a[Jo(bfln) Yl(afln) -- Jl(afln) Yo(bZn)~J

The s u m m a t i o n extends over the roots of (4.6). The integral round

the semi-circular contour vanishes z) as R -+ oo. Here fin has been

used to represent a root of the equation

W h e n e = O, the pressure gradient in (4. l) becomes constant and

the expression for the velocity given by (4.5) becomes:

P [ a21nb-b21na

v = 4-~ In (b/a) +

(b2--a2) l n r

In (b/a) -- r2 --

1

Yo(rfln) [Jo(bfln) -- Jo(afin)] -

2P co e-.tl.u -- Jo(rfln) [Yo(bfln) -- Yo(afln)]

Z . (4.7)

Y n=l ffn b[Jl(bfln) Yo(afl.) -- Jo(afln) Yl(bfln)] +

+ a[Jo(bfln) Yl(afln) -- Jl(atSn) Yo(bfln)]

90 U N S T E A D Y VISCOUS ANNULAR FLOW

As t --> oo, this solution tends to the solution of the steady case

for an annular region.

The case when the pressure gradient is periodic can be discussed

b y taking a suitable form of/(t). The extension to the flow of non-

Newtonian fluids in the annular channel can be carried out in the

same manner as in 1).

helpful discussions and to Mr. S. C. G u p t a for suggesting this

problem to me.

REFERENCES

2) T r a n t e r , C. J., Integral Transforms in Mathematical Physics, Methuen, 1956,

p. 15.

3) T h o m s o n , W. T., Laplace Transformation, p. 208, 1950.

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