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21, 1970 Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief Reports - Communications br~ves 1093

U41 M. MUSKAT, The Flow o/Homogeneous Fluids through Porous Media (Michigan 1946).
[5] ST. I. GHEORGHITZA,Mathematical Methods in Underground Hydrogasdynamics (Bucarest
1966) (in Rumanian).
[6] ELENAUNGUREANU-DAvID, Inverse Problem in Fluid Motion through Inhomogeneous Porous
Media, will he published in J. Math. Phys. Sci. (1970).
[71 CAIUSIACOB, Introduction mathdmatique ~ la mdcanique des fluides (Bucarest-Paris 1959).
[8] F.D. GAKHOV, Boundary Value Problems (Pergamon Press 1966).


Le mouvement plan d'un fluide incompressible est consid6r6 dans un milieu poreux non-
homogbne. Une courbe ferm~e C divise le plan en deux domaines. Les coefficients de filtration du
milieu poreux de ces domaines respectifs ont les valeurs constantes kI e t k2. On trouve que C est
un cercle ou une ellipse quand le courant est uniforme A grande distance et que le fluide a une
vitesse constante ~ l'int6rieur de C.
(Received: March 31, 1970)

Unsteady Viscous Rotational Stragnation-Point Flow

B y Alan S. Hersh, Bolt Beranek and N e w m a n Inc., Canoga Park, California, USA

1. I n t r o d u c t i o n

The present paper is m o t i v a t e d b y the work of Hayes [1] a n d R o t t [2]. Hayes

investigated the behavior of a c o n s t a n t density, steady-state, inviscid, vortical flow
in the neighborhood of a s t a g n a t i o n - p o i n t on a plane wall. His solutions show t h a t the
d i s t r i b u t i o n of lateral vorticity is amplified b y stretching of vortex filaments and
becomes singular at the wall. R o t t solved for the m o t i o n of a vortex flow being
convected inwards towards a s t a g n a t i o n axis.
The purpose of this paper is to e x t e n d Hayes' work b y p e r m i t t i n g the lateral
vorticity to be t i m e - d e p e n d e n t a n d viscous. The m e t h o d of solution is similar to the
approach used b y Rott. This solution is of interest as it represents a n exact solution
of the vorticity t r a n s p o r t equation.

2. Fundamental Equations

Consider the collision of two identical, inviscid, steady-state, irrotational flows

in space each of which carries a vortical secondary flow. The surface formed b y the
collision of the flows represents the intersection plane.
W e use the flow field a n d n o t a t i o n of Hayes. The space of interest is the part of
the physical space with Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) for which z ~ 0 with the
intersection surface the plane z -- 0. The velocity field has the form

U' a
2 [F(z,t)+(1--Oto)X, G(z,t)+(l+~o)y, - - 2 z 1, (1)
1094- Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief Reports - Communications br~ves ZAMP

where F and G represent the vortical secondary flow, and the quantities U' and a'
are the reference velocity gradient characterizing the normal flow and the reference
length, respectively. The flow is characterized b y the basic p a r a m e t e r a0, 0 ~< eo ~< 1,
which is a measure of its departure from axial s y m m e t r y . For ~-o - 0, the flow is
axisymmetric or almost axisymmetric (i.e., the basic flow is axisymmetric, but the
combined basic and secondary flow m a y be asymmetric); for 0 < ~o < 1, it is
asymmetric; and for e0 = 1, it is p l a n a r or almost-planar.
The vorticity corresponding to (1) is

~o=(o)x,%,o)= 2 Oz ' Oz' 0 . (2)

Inserting (2) into the vorticity transport equation

0~- + ( ~ p) go = (g,. ~) ~ + ~ ~ , , (3)

leads to the following equations

R_ 1 C)2g~
0co~ 0o)~
Oz~ - + 2 z O z z + (1 - ~o) ~. Ot o, (4)

R _ 10~c~
. . Oz
.. 2 +2z Oz +(1+~o)% Ot -0, (5)

where R = U' a2/v.

3. S e l f - S i m i l a r S o l u t i o n s

To solve (4) and (5), we adopt the approach used b y R o t t [2] and look for self-
similar solutions which will reduce the partial differential equations to ordinary
differential equations. We note t h a t the solution to (4) follows immediately from a
solution to (5) b y replacing ~0 with - ~ o . Thus we will solve only (5).
To solve (5) we look for solutions of the form
% ( z , t) = g(t) F(a) , (6)

a ~/R z T ( t ) . (7)

Substituting (6) and (7) into (5) yields

Y"+~ T3 F'+ g T2g F=0. (8)

A well known solution to (8) is possible if we set

2T-- T'=2 T ~, (9)

Vol. 21, 1970 Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief Reports - Communications br~ves 1095

g(l+%)-g'=(l+s0) T2g. (10)

Integrating (9) yields the required form for T(t),

T(t) = (1 + c1 e-4t) -lm, (11)

where q is a constant of integration. Substituting (11) into (10) and integrating yields
for the quantity g,
g([) ~ C2 (1 -~ C1 e -4t) -(1+c~~ (12)

where again ca is a constant of integration.

Equation (8) may be written, upon substitution of (11) and (12), as

/'" + 2 a F ' + (1 + ~0)/' = 0. (13)

Equation (13) may be subsequently transformed into a confluent hypergeometric

differential equation by the transformation

= -- 6 2 . (14)

Thus (13) is transformed into the form

~F"+ ( 1 ~)F-(--1-+~~ /'--0, (15)

where the dependent variable/' is unaffected by the transformation.

The solution to (t5), expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions [3], is

l ' ( ~ ) - - A e ~ M I 1 - 1~/~2 " -'"4 , ~] + B ~ lmeeM [~3-4-c% 3 / 2 " - ~ , ] . (16)

Thus the solution to the vorticity o)v may be written

+ (1 + c 1 e-4t) 1/2 M . ~ ' 2 1 + c1 e -4t ' (17)

where A and B are arbitrary constants.

We require as one of the boundary conditions governing equation (17) that the
vorticity be bounded. From [31, the asymptotic behavior of the function M(a, b, z) is
M(a, b, z) --~ e~ z a-b as z--~oo . (18)

To satisfy the constraint that the vorticity be bounded at infinity requires

B = 0. (19)
1096 Kurze Mitteilungen - Brief R e p o r t s - Communications br~ves ZAMP

Thus the final expression for the y-component of vorticity is

-Rz~ ] [1-~o 1 Rz 2 ]
my(z, t) = A (1 + q e,40-(1+~~ exp il + q e_4t ) M [ - 2 I - - - ; ~ ; 1 + c--e2~i-j 9
The solution (20) shows that above a height given by

z*(t) = [v/U' (1 + c 1 e - 4 t ) l l / ~ , (21)

the lateral vorticity is convected towards the intersection plane z = 0 in an almost
inviscid manner until a boundary-layer region of height of order l/v/U' is reached. At
this point, the steady-state solution is quickly reached. Below this height, the vorticity
is dominated b y viscous diffusion. A representative example of this behavior is shown
in Figure 1 for the case e0 = 0.2, c1 = 99, and A = 1.



~3,(~, t)

Figure 1
T i m e - d e p e n d e n t behavior of the
y - c o m p o n e n t of vorticity, N ~ g 10 12 1~ 16 18 20

This work represents part of the author's P h . D . dissertation at the University
oi California at Los Angeles (U CLA) under the direction ol Protessor Nikolans Rott
(present address: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland).


[1] W . D . HAVES, Rotational Stagnation Point Flow, J. Fluid. Mech. 19, 366 (1964).
I2~ N. ROTT, On the Viscous Core of a Line Vortex, Z. angew. Math. Phys. 9b, 543 (1958).
I3~ L. SEATER, Confluent Hypergeometric Functions, H a n d b o o k of M a t h e m a t i c a l Functions,
U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 503-514 (1964).


Eine exakte L6sung der zeitabh~ngigen Wirbeltransportgleichung wird fiir das Zusammen-
treffen zweier S t a u p u n k t s t r 6 m u n g e n angegeben, welche beide sekund~re Wirbelverteilungen
fiihren. Die L6sungen zeigen, dass die WirbelstXrke in beinahe zXhigkeitsloser Weise bis zur Grenz-
fl~che zwischen den beiden Flflssigkeitsgebieten k o n v e k t i v t r a n s p o r t i e r t wird, wo schliesslich ein
Grenzschichtgebiet erreicht wird. I n n e r h a l b dieses Gebiets wird die Wirbe~st~rke dutch z~he
Diffusion beherrscht.

(Received: August 8, 1970)