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Chemical En&wring Science. Vol. 41. NO. 11. pp. 2715-2721. 1986. 0009-2509/86 S3.00 + 0.

Printed in GreatBritain. Pergamon Journals Ltd.



INTEC (UNXJCONICET), CC.91 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina



IN&AR (ARCIEN/CONICET), C.C.348 3090, Santa Fe, Argentina

(Received 22 October 1984)

Abstract-Experimental and theoretical analyses of the flow of two immiscible fluids on the outside surface
of a horizontal rotating cylinder show three regions of well-defined behaviour separated by two, catastrophic-
like transitions. These regions of flow are: (a) low removal velocities-there is a moving, dynamiccontact line
on the cylindersurface,betweenthe two fluid regions;only the top, tighter fluid is coated; (b) intermediate
removal vehxities-the moving contact line disappears, and is “sucked up” by the movement of the solid
surface; both fluids are coated, and (c) large removal velocitiesthe lighter fluid layer cannot approach the
surface of the cylinder and only the bottom, heavier layer is coated.

1. INTRODUCTION (W Intermediate removal velocities [Fig. 2(b)]. Due to

There are few reported instances of the adjacent flow the increased speed, the contact line loses stability
of immiscible fluids (Bird et al., 1960). Only simple, and is “sucked up” by the solid surface. Both fluids
laminar cases of viscous liquid layers can be success- are coated on top of the cylinder.
fully analysed. The flow on the outside of a horizontal P-1 Large removal velocities [Fig. 2(c)]. The lighter,
rotating cylinder has the benefit of a simple geometry top fluid layer looses stability and cannot ap-
as well as accumulated knowledge on the flow of single proach the solid surface. Only the bottom, heavier
viscous layers (Campanella and Cerro, 1984) and non- fluid is coated on top of the cylinder.
Newtonian fluids (Campanella et al., 1986). Moreover,
the flow of two immiscible fluids on the outside of a
horizontal rotating cylinder is of conceptual as well as
of practical interest. Offset printing and oil recovery
from spills in water streams and oceans are two of the Depending on the thickness of the top fluid layer,
many interesting cases where this particular flow this flow regime can be described as unobstructed dip-
geometry apphes. coating flow or as dip-coating flow with a limitation
The overall flow geometry is shown in Fig. 1. We due to a shallow pool of liquid (Lee and Tallmadge,
assume the cylinder to be of finite radius, but con- 1972). The dip-coating regime is successfully described
siderably larger than the coated film thickness. Thus, for small Reynolds and capillary numbers by the
although cylindrical geometry and immersion angle Landau-Levich solution (Landau and Levich, 1942)
could be considered, for immersion angles of about 90” and for large Reynolds and capillary numbers by the
the geometry can be assumed to be planar (Campanella rapid-flow solution (Cerro and Striven, 1980).
and Cerro, 1984). The thickness of the top fluid layer is For the range of our experiments, there were no
known to be kept constant through experiments. In limitations due to the shallow layer of the lighter fluid.
fact, a device was used in our experimental apparatus Moreover, coated film thickness was described well by
that guaranteed a constant top fluid layer thickness. the Landau-Levich solution and by the White and
The regions of well-defined flow behaviour are: Tallmadge modification (White and Tallmadge, 1965).
The first transition occurs due to a loss of stability of
(a) Low removal velocities. This flow situation cor- the moving contact line. The movement of dynamic
responds to Fig. 2(a). Both phases wet the solid contact lines has been studied both theoretically and
surface, but there is a moving contact line between experimentally by Huh and Striven (197 I), Dussan and
the two fluid phases and the solid substrate. The Davis (1974), Burley and Kennedy (1976), Kennedy
bottom, heavier fluid is displaced from the solid and Burley (1977) and more recently by Gutoff and
surface and the flow stability depends on the Kendrick (1982). Of particular interest to our problem
dynamic stability of the contact line. is the limiting behaviour of the moving contact line
prior to it being sucked up by the movement of the
solid surface.
tTo whom correspondence should be addressed. Gutoffand Kendrick (1982) showed the dependence
2716 0. CAMPANELLA and R. L. CERRO

where the solid surface is moving up, out of a pool of

Gutoff and Kendrick’s (1982) equation for VI so
denoting the onset of instability of the moving contact
line can be written as:
V 180 = 0.00019 c(;-6’ &o-33 @,/pd”.‘“c (1)
where b and t denote the bottom and top phases,


For removal velocities larger than that at which the
first transition occurs, both fluids are coated on top of
the cylinder surface. The flow geometry close to the top
fluid datum line is shown in Fig. 1. However, as the
PHASE I solid surface moves up, the two adjacent fluid layers
may be unstable and break down, thus creating the
two-phase equivalent of dry patches. Since the removal
Fig. 1. General flow geometry.
speeds are already large enough to be well inside the
rapid-flow regime (Cerro and Striven, 1980) even when
REGION I the two-layer geometry breaks down, ours is an initial
value problem and there is no backflow towards the
t UW
liquid pool. Thus, the rapid-flow equations can be

developed for the case of two adjacent liquid layers
assuming generalized parabolic velocity profiles, no
slip at the solid surface, no shear stresses at the air
interface, and continuity of velocities and stresses at
the fluid-fluid interface.
The dimensionless forms of the boundary layer
equations for both fluid layers and the continuity
equation are:

: .:
. .
au au
:: .I uax+v=aY+l= =ay2 0 < Y<H1(X) (2)
: :’

REGION 3 ‘::.:_
; :-,. .:
au au 1d2U
=SaYZ H,(X) G YGH~(X)
._. .;.‘.,
, “,x&
O=Y=H,(X) (4)

and are subject to the following boundary conditions:

U=l at Y=O (5)

~‘~=~(2~ at Y= H,(X) (6)

Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the three regions of flow.

Region 1: low removal velocities; region 2: intermediate
au 0
ay= at Y= H*(X) (7)
removal velocities;region 3: large removal velocities.
U(r) = UC’) = U, at Y= H,(X) (8)
where the characteristic parameters have been defined
of the transition speed of the solid surface, VI se, on the
relevant flow parameters through a dimensional re- 1/z
gression analysis. The transition speed is denoted as u*=u. W> h*= 1I,v1
the speed where the dynamic contact angle reaches ( 9 >
180”. Although these authors’ results were performed
with a polyester tape moving down into a pool of
liquid, such that the displaced fluid was the lighter fluid
(in this case, air), a simple balance of forces indicates
the reversibility of their results to include the case
Viscous flow on the outside of a horizontal rotating cylinder-III 2717

and the dimensionless variables as: the rapid-flow equation for the bottom, heavier fluid:

(J’(B) - l)H, - W9Q: s = -H: + r@)H,

- @)QI (19)
h(x) N _ U,h* N Uz
ww=h* Re Fr = 7 (10) where
Vl gh
N‘_/y x+-- ‘=(‘) = fl+2/3
1 Re

Following a procedure formalized by Cerro and 4/3j32-+5/3~+8f15

P(B) = (21)
Striven (1980), eqs (2) and (3) are integrated across the (B+2/3)2
film thickness to obtain the integral form of the rapid-
Equation (19) must be solved subject to the following
flow equations:
initial condition:

U’dY+H,W) = -~;),=,
(g)y=H, whenx=O HI = EQ,. (22)

The initial condition given by eq. (22) has been
a HI(X)
u*dY+(H,(X)-HI(x)) developed assuming the existence of a stagnation line
ax H,(X) at the fluid-fluid interface, as indicated in Fig. 1.
Physically admissible solutions are those evolving to a
= %S),_,,
-(%)_}. (12) final film thickness.

Hi --+Tl when X -+ 00. (23)

Next, a velocity profile must be assumed in order to
perform the integration indicated in eqs (11) and (12). For a given value of /3, a solution is possible for a
The velocity profiles must satisfy the continuity equa- critical flow regime when both the left- and right-hand
tion and at least some of the boundary conditions side polynomials of eq. (19) have zeros at exactly the
C(5)-(8)]. For this particular case we assume: same place. For details of the critical flow regime

u = 1 +f(X) 0 < Y< H,(X) (13)

Y< H2(-W (14)

where determinations see Cerro and Striven (1980) and

Campanella and Cerro (1984).
The critical flow regime takes place at a value of Q i
given by the following equation:
QI = {p(pB;p;l
r(B)( 1 - (P;;; l)“z)>“z. (24)

Q2 Terminal film thickness can also be computed using

the integrated form of the continuity equation:
and Q1 and Q2 are the dimensionless flow rates of -T:+r(p)T, -r(B)QI = 0. (25)
phases 1 and 2, respectively, defined through the
continuity equation as The top fluid layer rapid-flow equation is found by
substituting eq. (14) into eq. (12) and integrating the
Q,=&= UdY velocity profile:


Notice the introduction of an adjustable dimension-
less parameter, 8, which is a measure of the lift the E(X) = H,(X) -H,(X). (27)
viscous forces provide across the fluid-fluid interface
in order to raise the top fluid layer. Substituting eq. (13) Equation (27) is a highly non-linear ordinary dif-
in eq. (11) and performing the integration, we obtain ferential equation and can be solved only by numerical
2718 0. CAMPANELLA and R. L. CERRO

integration. However, information can be drawn from This parameter can be computed following an iterative
the equations if we introduce the assumption that at scheme, using eqs (24), (25), (31), (32) and (33), and eq.
the region where the second fluid layer starts to (34) or (35), to generate a new value of /3.
develop, the first fluid layer is already flully developed. A number of computed values of /? and the cor-
Define responding dimensionless flow rates and film thickness
are shown in Table 1. Notice that when fl -S 0, i.e. when
u** =uwur (X-00) (28) the viscous shear at the fluid-fluid interface is null, the
u** v2 112
bottom fluid layer behaves as a regular rapid-flow
h** =
( B > coating layer. This situation occurs when the top fluid
layer is inviscid or its viscosity is negligible in com-
Qt=42--_ 0.5439 . . . . parison with the bottom fluid viscosity.
u** h*
From eq. (30) it can be assumed that the top fluid
layer behaves as a non-obstructed coating flow layer in
a critical regime (Cerro and Striven, 1980). Finally, an From an analysis of the rapid-flow equations [eqs
expression for Q2 is obtained by combining eqs (28), (19) and (26)], we cannot obtain information about the
(29) and (30): second transition, when the top fluid layer is prevented
from reaching the lifting surface and only the bottom
U,(B)O.5439.. . fluid layer remains adhered to the solid surface.
Q2 = (31)
(y&y’2 . However, a qualitative explanation can be given taking
into account the fact that there is a stagnation point in
An asymptotic fluid thickness is obtained in a similar
both fluid surfaces, as indicated in Fig. 1. Obviously the
way to eq. (25); in this case for the top fluid layer
two-fluid coating situation is valid as long as the
LG(;)% _ Q* = 0 stagnation point at the fluid-fluid interface is below
2 the stagnation point at the fluid-air interface. As the
where solid surface moves faster, the fluid-fluid stagnation
TE=E (X-m) (33) point moves upward. Eventually, a point is reached
where the assumptions implicit in eqs (28) and (30) no
longer hold. The accelerating region for the top fluid
A further relationship can be obtained for X + co if becomes smaller and finahy the stagnation point for
we add eqs (11) and (12). The viscous force exerted on the fluid-air interface drops below the stagnation
the fluid layer adjacent to the solid surface must be point of the fluid-fluid interface. Beyond this velocity,
counterbalanced by the weight of the two fluid layers: there is no way, from a kinematic point of view, that the
upper fluid surface could gather enough momentum
y=o. for lift.
YT:,+T,U-Y)= - Wf
Much effort is needed to try to model this region of
flow; research is already under way in our laboratory.
Without losing generality, we can assume y= 1 such
The experimental apparatus for the horizontal
(35) rotating cylinder has been described elsewhere
(Campanella and Cerro, 1984). A modification of the
fluid-level control was introduced to keep the levels of
The only remaining unknown parameter is the both fluids constant simultaneously. The fluids coated
dimensionless parameter B defined to take into ac- on top of the cylinder were scraped on the falling side,
count the viscous forces across the fluid-ff uid interface. and the total and separate flow rates for each fluid were

Table 1. Computed values for fi, Q, and Q2

E B Q1 T2 u, (00) Q2 TE
0.01 64.4312 0.0619 0.07665 0.6204 2.6578 4.9265
0.01 7.3327 0.1753 0.2153 0.6370 0.8744 1.7939
0.6 1.7631 0.3120 0.3771 0.6781 0.3921 0.6649
0.8 1.4429 0.3333 0.4016 0.6867 0.3460 0.5795
2.0 0.7957 0.3939 0.4697 0.7142 0.2321 0.3737
5.0 0.4616 0.4412 0.5210 0.7390 0.1545 0.2405
10 0.3127 0.4682 0.5494 0.7547 0.1128 0.1718
50 0.1323 0.5081 0.5902 0.7797 0.0530 0.0781
100 0.0924 0.5180 0.7865 0.0379 0.0555
-00 0 0.5439 0.8044 0 0
Viscous 000~ on the outside of a horizontal rotating cylinder-III 2719

measured. Fluid parameters such as apparent viscosity the top, lighter fluid is coated. As the capillary number
and density and interfacial tension were determined from Table 3 indicates, the rapid-flow regime (N,
for each fluid and are shown in Table 2. The range of > 0.5) is not reached for the top fluid, and the White
variation of the main dimensionless numbers, N,, and and Tallmadge solution holds (White and Tallmadge,
N ca, for both fluid layers is given in Table 3. 1965). In a general situation this will always be the case,
Figure 3 shows the experimental results for a system as can be shown by rearrangement of eq. (1):
of silicone oil (light fluid: 2) and water (heavy fluid: 1).
Nca (at Vlao) = 0.00019e-“~33yo-74. (36)
For small removal velocities (up to about 2 cm/s), only
Thus, for a ratio of specific gravities of about 1, as is
almost always the case, the large values of capillary
Table 2. Relevant parameters for the two-fluid system number can be reached only for very small ratios of the
apparent viscosities, i.e. E -C lo-‘. For the expected
Density Viscosity Interfacial range of experimental parameters, transition to the
two-fluid coated region oazurs before the rapid-flow
Layer (kg/m31 (mpa s) (mN/m)
regime for a single fluid is reached.
1. Bottom Water loo0 1 The first transition occurs at the removal velocity
23.74 indicated by the onset of collection of the heavier fluid.
2. Top Silicone oil 960 104
Also, the transition velocity computed using eq. (1) is
y = 0.96 E = 0.01
shown as an arrow in Fig. 3. Thus, the experimental

Table 3. Range of variation of dimensionless numbers

Region 1 Region 2 Region 3

Reynolds number

N ne= -
[ 8PI
Capillary number, lower
o-o.92 0.924.72 > 6.72

N, = K u-Jai (t1x10-3 1 x 10-3-1 x 10-z >1x10-2
Capillary number, upper
N, = f12 u,Ja, o-o.1 0.1-0.34 w 0.34

Fig. 3. Flow rate as a function of removal velocities for a silicone oil-water system.
2720 0. CAMPANELLA and R. L. CERRO

regression analysis of Gutoff and Kendrick (1982) is in Acknowledgemenrs-Thisresearch was done with the support
very good agreement with our experimental results, of the National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET)
indicating the reversibility of the instability mechanism under the BIDXONICET Program, Project IIa.
for the moving contact line.
At removal velocities above the first transition, NOTATION
experimental results show overall good agreement for E dimensionless film thickness function defined
the lighter fluid and very good agreement for the by eq. (27)
bottom, heavier fluid. The theoretical line was gener- hi(x) film thickness of phase i, m
ated using the theoretically computed value of Q1 and h* (u,vJs)“2, characteristic film thickness, m
QZ from Table 1 for E = 0.01. This is a region of h** (u** v2/8)“2, characteristic film thickness, m
considerable practical interest since it implies that we ff,(-w dimensionless film thickness of phase i
can conceive a way to meter the ratio of the two-fluid Nca p, 11,/u, capillary number
coating, by adjusting the speed, viscosity ratio and NF, &gh*. Froude number
density ratio of the two fluids involved. NR, u, h*/v,, Reynolds number
At larger removal velocities, although there are still P(B) dimensionless function defined by eq. (21)
two fluids being coated and the second transition is not flow rate, m2/s
reached, the metered flow rates diverge from our Zi dimensionless flow rate of phase i
experimental results. It is possible to explain the r(B) dimensionless function defined by eq. (20)
disagreement between experimental and theoretical T dimensionless terminal film thickness
results on the grounds that the assumptions made to 7-E dimensionless terminal film thickness, defined
develop our equations no longer hold. This is the case by eq. (33)
of the terminal fluid interface velocity which is as- u velocity component in the main direction of
sumed to be fully developed for the lifting of the top flow, m/s
lighter fluid film [eqs (28) and (3O)J % velocity of the solid substrate, m/s
For even larger removal velocities, a transition u* characteristic velocity, eq. (9)
occurs towards the third flow region. Although the u** characteristic velocity, eq. (28)
change from a smooth lifting surface to the ridge u dimensionless velocity component in the main
depicted schematically in Fig. l(c) is rather sharp flow direction
even catastrophic-like, the flow-rate results show a V velocity component in the direction normal to
much more gradual behaviour. However, even after the flow, m/s
ridge-like configuration occurs, some of the top lighter V dimensionless velocity component in the direc-
fluid is still being entrained, as shown in Fig. 3. This is tion normal to flow
due to very uneven behaviour of the interface and to V 180 velocity of the solid substrate at the point of
some small drops of lighter fluid being eventually entrainment (Gutoff and Kendrick, 1982),
trapped and lifted by the heavier fluid film. m/s
X main coordinate in the direction of flow, m
6. CONCLUSIONS Y coordinate direction normal to flow, m
The experiments show a two-fluid system of non- x, y dimensionless coordinate directions
trivial geometry and of a very interesting complex
behaviour. There is a marked transition involving Greek letters
three different flow regimes which has been character- parameter defined by eq. (13)
ized, and was undetected up until our experiments. density ratio (pz/pl)
One of the transitions, the first that marks the change kinematic viscosity ratio (v,/v2)
from the slow removal velocities to the intermediate dynamic viscosity ratio @,/p2)
removal velocities, indicates the similarity between density of phase i, kg/m3
these phenomena and the instability associated with dynamic viscosity of phase i, Pa s
the dynamic contact line between two viscous fluids. kinematic viscosity of phase i, m2/s
Dimensionless results obtained for a totally opposite interfacial tension, N/m
geometry describe this transition very well. Finally,
very good agreement is found between the experiments Subscripts
and theoretical results that model the two-fluid coating 1, b bottom phase
situation as a rapid-flow, quasi-fully developed dip- 2, t top phase
coating flow. The theoretical results were used to
compute a wide range of film thickness ratios, ma-
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E. and Lightfoot, E. N., 1960,
nipulated by changing the speed, viscosity and density
Transport Phenomena, pp. 54-55. Wiley, New York.
ratios of the fluid systems. Burley, R. and Kennedy, B. S., 1976, An experimental study of
Much work is needed to describe theoretically the air entrainment at a solid/liquid/gas interface. Chem.
more complicated areas of flow, such as the upper Engng Sci. 31, 901-91 I.
intermediate and the large removal velocity region. Campanda, 0. and Cerro, R. L., 1984, Viscous flow on the
outside of a horizontal rotating cylinder: the roll coating
Also, it is important to develop a theoretical expla- regime with a single fluid. Chem. Engw Sci. 39, 1445.
nation for the second flow transition. Campanella, O., Galazzo, J. and Cerro, R. L., 1986, Viscous
Viscous flow on the outside of a horizontal rotating cylinder--III 2721

flow on the outside of a horizontal rotating cylinder-II. steady movement of a solid/liquid/fluid contact line. .I.
Roll coating with a non-Newtonian fluid. Chem. Engng Sci. Coiloid Inte@.ce Sci. 35. 85-101.
41, 2707. Kennedy, B. S. and Burley, R., 1977, Dynamic fluid interface
Cerro. R. L. and Striven. L. E.. 1980. Rabid free surface flows: disolacement and nrediction of air entrainment. J. Colloid
an integral approach: I.E.&. Fun&k. 19,40. In&face Sci. 62, 4862.
Dussan, V. E. and Davis, S. H., 1974, On the motion of a Landau, L. D. and Levich, V. G., 1942, Dragging of a liquid by
fluid-fluid interface along a solid surface. J. Fluid Mech. 65, a moving plate. Acre Physicochim. 17. 42.
71-95. Lee, C. Y. and Tallmadge, J. A., 1972, Meniscus vortexing in
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angles. A.1.Ch.E. J. 28, 459-466. White, D.A. and Talhnadge, J. A., 1965, Theory ofdrag out of
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