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Content-based instruction

Communicative approach: strong and weak version.

Weak version- learning to use English:

-recognises the importance of providing learners with opportunities to practice English for
communicative purposes.

Strong version- using English to learn it :

-asserts that language is aquired through communication

Strong version category- teaching through communication not for it:

-content-based instruction,
-task-based ,
-participatory approaches

Students learn to communicate by communicating.

Rationale for content-based instruction.

-language for specific purposes

-language for academic purposes

In competency-based instruction (CBI) adults learn language skills by studying vital 'life-coping'
skills. It integrates the learning of language with the learning of some other content.

Instructiors teach academic subjects where teaching the language is related to the content. Language
becomes the medium for learning content.
In the European context this instructional approach is content and language integrated learning

Marsh defines CLIL as:

-dual-focused educational context in which an additional language is used as a medium in the
teaching and learning of non-language content.
Goals of teachers using CBI:
-teachers want to master both language and content, they encourage both simultaneously.

The role of the teacher:

-to scaffold the language needed for study of the content.

Teacher guides student's learning and students are using the language they are studying.

Whole language approach (WL):

-calls for language to be regarded holistically (vocabulary, grammar, pronuncuation)

Top-down approach:
-first to understand the meaning of the overall text before they work on the linguistic forms
comprising it.

Bottom-up approach:
-students learn a language piece by piece and then work to put the pieces in place, constructing texts
out of the pieces.


-dictogloss: first time through, students listen for the main idea, and then the second time they listen
for details.

-graphic organizers: visual displays that help students to organize and remember new information.

-language experience approach: students take turns dictating a story about their life experiences to
the teacher who writes it down in the target language.

-process writing: brainstorming, pre-writing phase, but there is no teacher involvement in writing.

-dialogue journals: students writing in their journals in class or for homework regularly.