The Miracle and Challenge of the Quran «.

prove the opposite if you can

With an introduction by Magdy Abd AlSHafy
The Holy Quran is a miracle that beggars description , words fail to describe this miracle , it is a miracle in the full sense of the term . Different specialists , according to the branch of science they are specialized in , find it miraculous . Prophet Mohummed said commenting on the Holy Quran saying " it unfolds the secrets of the nations that preceded you , and secrets of the future treasured in it " It is the Holy Book that Jinnee , on hearing to it , did not leave their place till they believed in it . It is the book which unbelievers gave positive witness to . Dr. Keith L. Moore is a Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. He is a world renowned scientist and a distinguished researcher in the fields of anatomy and embryology, he has published more than 150 research articles, chapters and books in this field. He is the author of several medical textbooks, such as the widely used and acclaimed "The Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology" (now in it's fifth edition, and translated into eight different languages), "Before We Are Born" and "Clinically Oriented Anatomy." He has also recently co-authored "Qur'an and Modern Science, Correlation Studies." Dr. Moore is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including, in 1984, the J.C.B. Grant Award, which is the highest honor granted by the Canadian Association of Anatomists. He has served in many academic and administrative positions, including the President of the Canadian Association of Anatomists, 1968-1970. Let us see what Dr. Moore's opinion is on the scientific statements regarding embryology to be found in the Qur'an:
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Dr. Moore was contacted by a Muslim scholar by the name of Abdul-Majeed Azzindani. He was asked to participate in a three-year study of around twenty-five verses of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (sayings of Muhammad, pbuh) which speak about embryology, and to determine the their correspondence to modern scientific discoveries. Dr. Moore's conclusion regarding this matter was: "For the past three years, I have worked with the Embryology Committee of King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, helping them to interpret the many statements in the Qur'an and the Sunnah referring to human reproduction and prenatal development. At first I was astonished by the accuracy of the statements that were recorded in the seventh century AD, before the science of embryology was established. Although I was aware of the glorious history of Muslim scientists in the 10th century AD, and of some of their contributions to Medicine, I knew nothing about the religious facts and beliefs contained in the Qur'an and Sunnah. It is important for Islamic and other students to understand the meaning of these Qur'anic statements about human development, based on current scientific knowledge. The interpretations of the "verses" in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, translated by Shaikh Azzindani, are to the best of my knowledge accurate." From the forward of "The Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology," third edition, by Dr. Keith L. Moore. The Qur'an and the Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Salam) provide a very detailed description of the microscopic development of the human embryo from a mere sperm drop up to the stage of a completely formed human being. It is well known that microscopes were not developed until the sixteenth century AD, and even at that were very crude in design. Zacharias Janssen is credited with having invented the compound microscope in about 1590. With it, remarkable scientific discoveries were made in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Dutch naturalist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek produced lenses powerful enough to prove that many tiny creatures are not spontaneously generated but come from eggs.

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Before this period, theories on human reproduction ran rampant. Some scientist believed that the menstrual blood itself developed into the fetus. Later on, a new theory was developed wherein the sperm drop was popularly believed to contain a completely developed miniature human (homunculus) which later grew to the size of a baby. The science of embryology as we know it today did not discover many of the detailed aspects of human development which are taken for granted today until only about twenty years ago, or 1973 to be precise. Now we must ask the question: where did Muhammad (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) get such detailed knowledge of the microscopic development of the human embryo in the 6th century AD without a microscope, technical training, a laboratory of any kind, or even the ability to write his own name? The only logical conclusion is that it came from exactly where he claimed it did. From the one who created mankind, God Almighty! Prof. Moore has since given numerous lectures on the topic of embryology in the Qur'an. He is quoted in one of these lectures as saying: "It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah, because most of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God, or Allah." Prof. Moore was so impressed with the Qur'anic classification of the stages of development of the human embryo, that he suggested the adoption of the Qur'anic system in place of the system currently in use by scientists today. Prof. Moore said: "Because the staging of the human embryo is complex owing to the continuous process of change during development. It is therefore suggested that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge." When Dr. Moore first presented his findings in Toronto it caused quite a stir throughout Canada. It was on the front pages of some of the newspapers across Canada . One newspaper reporter asked Professor Moore,
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"Don't you think That maybe the Arabs might have known about these things - the description of the embryo, its appearance and how it changes and grows? Maybe there were not scientists, but maybe they did some crude dissections on their own - carved up people and examined these things." Professor Morre immediately pointed out to him, however, that he had missed a very important point. All of the slides of the embryo that Dr. Moore had based his study upon had come from pictures taken through a microscope. He said, "It does not matter if someone had tried to discover embryology fourteen centuries ago, they could not have seen it!." Dr. Moore taunted, "Maybe fourteen centuries ago someone secretly had a microscope and did this research, making no mistakes anywhere. Then he somehow taught Muhammad and convinced him to put this information in his book. Then he destroyed his equipment and kept it a secret forever?. Do you believe that? You really should not unless you bring some proof because it is such a ridiculous theory." When he was asked "How do you explain this information in the Qur'an?" Dr. Moore's reply was, "It could only have been divinely revealed." Iterated by Br. Mohamed Rawat

Medical Phenomenon Confuse American Scientists

Translated by Bayan Taleb Revised by Magdy Abd Al-Shafy
Skeptics had always tried to criticize the Holy Koran and prove for their followers that the Koran is scientifically contradicted with the already

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discovered facts and full of legends that are far away from the scientific logic; in their attempts, they brought several examples such as the story of the people of the Cave. They are asking in their skeptical sites: how could they sleep for such long years with their eyes open then wake up? They are saying that is against medicine laws, this phenomenon cannot be medically realized. Glory is to Allah the Greatest! Whenever you read a criticism of the Koran, you find in the scientists' discoveries what verity the Koran and refute the claims of the opposites. That's because Allah the Exalted said in his glorious book: (and never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers) Al-Nisa'a 141. Ernest Kretschmer discovered a relatively new phenomenon in the year 1940, and then came the Spanish scientist Bryan Jennett and the American scientist Fred Plum to accurately describe this phenomenon, they called it the vegetative state. In this state, the patient enters a state of lethargy but with the eyes open, he can sometimes smile and feel what is going on around him, he can also swallow his saliva. He is in a partial state of consciousness, he looks as if he is awake but actually he is lethargic. This state happens because of an injury or a disease.

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The study indicated, using FMRI(Functional magnetic resonance imaging), that the brain is active during the coma or lethargy the patient suffers which can last for years. This is what confused the scientists: what stimulates this brain? What inspires the patient to stay alive even though he is completely unconscious? And what makes him wake up suddenly and talk as if nothing happened? In the beginning, scientists thought that this phenomenon is deep sleep, but then it became evident that it is not sleep but a unique unexplained phenomenon. We'd like to indicate that the patient in this state needs nutrition injected with special means. Scientists say that the brain releases signs indicating its reaction to the surrounding; the patient can move and respond to outer effects but he is unconscious. If you look at him during the lethargy state, he seems awake; when you talk to him, his brain will respond to the orders, but he is lethargic and unconscious.The people of the cave Allah Almighty tells us about a few young men who believed in their Lord and escaped the unjust king to win their religion and their afterlife. They took refuge in a cave, and Allah honored them with a
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great miracle so that they would be an example for their people at that time, Allah Almighty said what means : ((Remember) when the young men fled for refuge (from their disbelieving folk) to the Cave, they said: "Our Lord! Bestow on us mercy from Yourself, and facilitate for us our affair in the right way!" Therefore We covered up their (sense of) hearing (causing them, to go in deep sleep) in the Cave for a number of years. Then We raised them up (from their sleep), that We might test which of the two parties was best at calculating the time period that they had tarried.) Al-Kahf 10-12. If we meditate on this story, we will find it similar the scientific medical phenomena in the way the people of the cave slept and the way they were turned from the left side to the right side. Scientists that made a brain scan for the patients that are in the vegetative state said that the results of the scan showed that the activity of their brain is similar to that of a normal one. These patients look very normal, and you would think they are awake. Here we remember Allah the Exalted saying about the people of the cave: (and you would have thought them awake, while they were asleep) Al-Kahf 18. And describing their turning from the right side to the left side which is a normal reaction that the sleeper would respond to, Allah the Exalted says: (and We turn them on their right and on their left sides) Al-Kahf 18. From here we conclude that the Koran is very logical in describing this story, but the miracle here is that these young men slept for a very long time, 309 years, without food or water; this is a divine miracle that we believers should be sure of . Medically speaking sleeping of long years is something completely normal. Scientists confused A few days before writing this article, an American patient with the vegetative state who had been six years in this state suddenly woke up and started talking with her family as if nothing had happened; she remained awake for three days talking with the people around her then went back to her first state! Doctors say that she woke up four times during her lethargy. The thing that confuses about this state is that it's
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neither sleep nor coma. What is wondrous, dear reader, is that Allah the Exalted called a similar state that happened to the people of the cave sleep saying: (and you would have thought them awake, while they were asleep) Scientists consider the fact that she came back to life a miracle!! This phenomenon confused the American scientists because they couldn¶t explain it, they consider such cases miracles. The question is: if the westerner scientists see with their own eyes people sleeping for long years, why aren¶t they convinced that the Holy Koran is truthful when talking about the people of the cave? The second question: how could Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him had he not been a messenger from Allah describe accurately the state of these sleepers and say: (and you would have thought them awake, while they were asleep). The Koran is the creation of Allah, and Allah had put in it evidences proving its truthfulness (and who is truer in statement than Allah?) Al-Nisa'a 87. References 1- Major Brain Activity Found in Vegetative Patient, www.foxnews.com, September 08, 2006. 2- Coma and Persistent Vegetative State, www.healthlink.mcw.edu. 3http://arabic.cnn.com/2007/scitech/3/8/vegetativestate.lilly/index.htm l

The Holy Quran on the darkness of the universe
By Magdy Abdalshafy

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After man landed on the moon and pictures were sent to the earth, it has become certain that the earth and the whole of the universe are immersed in darkness and that light is just a thin layer that envelops the half part facing the sun and that the general role is darkness and light is something accidental connected with the day layer. Man's thirst for more and more about the universe is never quenched. So, among the many discoveries that man reached after long observations and calculations is that whole of the universe is a huge building and that there is nothing in the universe could be called" empty place" as the matter and all the different kinds of energy fill the universe.( Professor Zagloul Al-Nagar) In the Holy Quran, God's final word to humanity, there are scientific statements that are completely in agreement with modern science; among these are scientific statement about most of discoveries man made as regard the universe. It is noteworthy that most of the cosmos verses in the Holy Quran always correlate between the universe and atheists- the universe and its wonders are compelling evidence to the existence of God. Modern astrophysics statements about the universe are found in the Holy Quran, The Holy Quran gives new evidence to the modern atheists that this universe has a Creator and moreover these are evidences to non-Muslims that this book was revealed by God and that Mohammed was a real prophet. We will select verse number"15" from chapter"14" and you will be astonished at the number of the scientific facts mentioned in it and how this verse is compatible with the science, so what does this verse say: "Even if We opened out to them a gate from heaven, and they were to continue (all day) ascending ( in a curve line) therein, (14) They
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would only say: "Our eyes have been covered: Nay, we have been bewitched by sorcery." (14:14-15) So what can we conclude from reading this verse: Man will someday conquer the universe The universe is a huge structure Motion in the universe can't be in straight line The universe is engulfed by darkness When we finish discussing this verse we will move to another verse that gives the following scientific facts: (1) The day layer turns the invisible sun light into visible light (2) The size of the day layer to the darkness of the universe. Let's discuss the first verse in the light of the new scientific discoveries Man will travel into space The verse says: Even if We open a door in the heavens and they ascend through it in broad daylight, (14) They will say all the same: "Our eyes were dazed (and clouded over). We were a people ensorcelled." (14:14-15) The few words shaded with yellow implies that man will conquer the universe and this prophecy was fulfilled as in late 1960s, man landed on the moon and many space travels followed to study the universe. The Holy Quran, God last word to humanity, predicted this great incident. The Universe is a huge building The scientific fact implied in the first few words shaded in yellow also implies that the universe is building. "Even if We open a door in the heavens«"Have you ever seen gates without building, the fact that
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the universe is building is stressed in many other verses, the use of the words" gates" is significant, Dr Zagloul Al-Nagar says that the universe does have what look like gates. Does science refer to the universe as a building? The answer is plain" yes" It is now scientifically established that no place in the universe that can be empty, the universe is filled with the different kinds of energy and matter that resulted from the big bang, scientists calculate the rate of the dark and energy matter to be a little over (90%) of the whole mass of the universe. Moreover, the way that galaxies are formed and arranged emphasizes that the universe is a huge building.

Scientists say that today's huge galaxies are the result of merging small building-block galaxies in the early Universe. Now, they have detected for the first time such "bricks" with the Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer.

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http://news.softpedia.com/news/Astronomers-Have-Discovered-theBuilding-Blocks-of-the-Universe-64919.shtml

Motion into space Einstein theory of relativity has predicted that light curves in space, and moreover; modern astrophysical studies have proved that motion into space should be in a curve course not straight course because of gravity in the universe. The Holy Quran uses the Arabic word´ Ya¶erogoun´ , the word is used in Arabic when we refer to a walk which is not in straight line, also, the Holy Quran always uses the word when referring to ascending into space.

So the Holy Quran and science are in agreement
The darkness of the universe The verse says " Even if We opened out to them a gate from heaven, and they were to continue (all day) ascending therein, (14)They would only say: "Our eyes have been covered: Nay, we have been bewitched by sorcery."(14:14-15) The verse means if God opens a gate into sky for the disbeliever, they will say that our eyes are covered, that is, they are unable to see«why? Because of the darkness that engulfs the whole of the universe, the Holy verse says" «our eyes are covered"« what can you see when you cover your eyes«just try« it is darkness«what does modern science say about the darkness of the universe? When the first space ship was launched for the first time, it carried back, among its findings, one of the most important discoveries; this was´ thewhole of the universe is completely immersed in darkness." Pictures of the earth from the moon shows that the earth is hanging in darkness, even pictures for the sun shows that it is hanging in the darkness of the universe. So how can light be produced in the earth day and is there any reference to this in the Holy Quran?
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The earth is engulfed by darkness of the universe, just a thin layer of light can be seen It has become scientifically known that light travels from the sun to the earth invisible, it only turns into light when it begin to penetrate our atmosphere where water vapours and solid tiny matters hanging in the atmosphere and this helps in fractioning and reflecting this invisible rays and thus these rays turn into light. The sun, along with the stars, is seen as blue dots when moving out the atmosphere because the universe is completely engulfed with darkness.

So it became an established fact that the thin layer that surround the earth is responsible for ´LIGHT´ Dr. Alfandi, an Egyptian expert in this field, says the sun rays can¶t be seen unless dispersed by air and dust particles when penetrating the atmosphere. This explains why the sun rays can't be seen in the outer space where there is no atmosphere, moreover the whole of the universe is completely dark, even the center of the sun is dark despite the high temperature. Rays travel from the center of the sun unseen and can be only distinguished into light in the outer layer of the sun then travel to the earth unseen and can only be seen when it penetrates the atmosphere.
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The Holy Quran, 1400 years before science refers to these facts: How? Gate ways into heaven refers to the universe structure or building. Have you ever seen gates without a building? They ascend (in curve course) into heaven refers to the movement into space which must be in curve course owing to the gravity. They would certainly say: "Only our eyes have been covered over refers to the fact that the universe is immersed in darkness, The first man landed on the moon describes the darkness of the universe using the same words used in the Holy verse. Compatibility between science and Quran And even if we open to them a gateway of heaven, so that they ascend( in a curve line) into it all the while, (14) They would certainly say: Only our eyes have been covered over, rather we are an enchanted people. (15:14) The words marked in yellow refer to the darkness in the universe, the first astronaut who travelled into space, when describing the darkness of the universe, used the same words of the holy Quran, he said it was as if my eyes were covered or I was under magic spell." The same fact is stressed in many other verses with some scientific additions, God says in the Holy Quran what means: "Are you the harder to create or the heaven? He built it. (27) He raised( increased) its thickness , then put it into a right good state. (28) And He made dark its night and brought out its light. (27:29) On reading the above mentioned verse again you will notice four scientific statements that are completely compatible with the scientific discoveries: " He built it" is a another reference to the universe being a building

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"..He raised its thickness .." is a reference to the expansion of the universe and this fact is stressed also in the following verse: "The heaven, We have built it with power. Verily. We are expanding it((sura 51, verse 47) "He made dark its nigh" is a reference to the creation of the universe darkness in the successive stages of the universe creation, note the pronoun" its" refers to the universe, so we can say that this Holy verse refers to the darkness of the universe; in a later stage the celestial entities began to shrink and the in-between dusts began to be swept and thus the light of the sun began to be sent and be seen as the second pronoun" its" points out. The day layer turns the invisible sun light into visible light The Holy Quran determines the Day Layer By the sun and its brightness (1) And [by] the moon when it follows it (2) And [by] the day when it displays it (3) And [by] the night when it covers it (4) And [by] the sky and He who constructed it (91:1-5) This verse wonderfully expresses one of the amazing facts that was only reached during the last few decades; according to this verse it is not the sun which makes the day with its beautiful light. Then what? The verse says´ it is the day (atmosphere) which makes the sun light visible or the light. It is scientifically known that ³day layer´ is the one which makes the sun visible and it is, too, the one which makes it invisible. So the Holy Quran is an agreement with science. So, according to Dr Nohammed Gamal Al-Fandy, the day layer is so thin( 200km) and this separate the darkness of the universe from us. The Holy Quran determines the size of the day layer to the size of the universe. "And a sign to them is the night: We skin from it the day, then lo! they are in the dark" (36:36-37)
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The verse emphasizes the previously discussed scientific statements, the verse implies that the general rule is darkness, darkness that everywhere. The Holy verse likens the darkness to a slaughtered animal and the day light to the skin of the slaughtered animal. The light of sun, being likened to the skin of a slaughtered animal, is so thin to the darkness of the universe being likened to the huge body of the slaughtered animal if compared to its skin. So you have to imagine the darkness of the universe under it is a layer of light---what if you draw this layer? Surely it is darkness.

THE ROUNDNESS OF THE EARTH He has created the Heavens and the Earth for Truth. He wraps the night up in the day, and wraps the day up in the night. (Qur'an, 39:5) In the Qur'an, the words used for describing the universe are quite remarkable. The Arabic word which is translated as "to wrap" in the above verse is "takwir." In English, it means "to make one thing lap over another, folded up as a garment that is laid away." For instance, in Arabic dictionaries this word is used for the action of wrapping one thing around another, in the way that a turban is put on. The information given in the verse about the day and the night wrapping each other up includes accurate information about the shape
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of the world. This can be true only if the Earth is round. This means that in the Qur'an, which was revealed in the 7th century, the roundness of the world was hinted at. However, it should be remembered that the understanding of astronomy of the time perceived the world differently. It was then thought that the world was a flat plane and all scientific calculations and explanations were based on this belief. However, the Glorious Qur'an has employed the most definitive words when it came to describing the universe. These facts, which we could only correctly fathom in our century, have been in the Qur'an for a vast length of time.

The Description of the Barrier Between Two Seas
Oceanographers, in the wake of the scientific progress in this age, have discovered the barrier between two seas. They have found that a barrier separates two neighboring seas. The barrier moves between them, and it is called by scientists ³a front´ compared to the front between two armies. By virtue of this barrier each sea retains its own characteristics which Allah (SWT) has assigned to it and which are suitable for the organisms living in that environment.

Because of this barrier, the two neighboring seas mingle so slowly that the amount of water that passes from one sea to the other acquires the
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characteristics of the other sea while crossing the barrier which overturns the waters crossing from one sea to the other, keeping each sea with its own characteristics.

The gradual progress of human knowledge about the fact of the differences between seawater masses and the existence of barriers between them :
Oceanographers discovered that there were certain differences between water samples taken from various seas in 1284 AH/1873 AD, by the British Marine Scientific Expedition of the Challenger Voyage. It was discovered that masses of sea water vary in their composition, in respect of salinity, water temperature, density and types of marine organisms. The data were obtained from 362 oceanographic stations. The report of the expedition filled 29,500 pages in 50 volumes and took 23 years to complete. One of the great achievements of scientific exploration, the expedition also showed how little man knew about the sea. After 1933 AD another American expedition set out in the Mexican Gulf and installed hundreds of sea stations to study the characteristics of seas. It found out that a large number of stations in a certain area gave similar information about the characteristics of the water in that area, whether in respect of salinity, density, temperature, marine organisms or solubility of oxygen in water, while another group of stations in another area gave a different set of data about that area. So, oceanographers concluded that there were two distinctive seas with different characteristics, and not just limited samples as the Expedition of Challenger showed. Man installed hundreds of marine stations to study the characteristics of various seas. Scientists have found out that the differences in these characteristics distinguished one sea from another. But why do these seas not mix and become homogeneous in spite of the effect of tide and ebb that moves sea water twice a day, and causes seas to move forward and backward turbulently, besides other factors that cause sea water to be in continuous movement and turbulence, such as surface and internal waves and sea currents?
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The answer appeared for the first time in scientific books in 1361 AH/1942 AD. Extensive studies of marine characteristics revealed that there are water barriers separating neighboring seas and maintaining the distinctive properties of each sea with respect to density, salinity, marine life, temperature and solubility of oxygen in water.

There are large waves, strong currents, and tides in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic by Gibraltar. But their temperature, salinity, and densities do not change, because of the barrier that separates them. After 1962 AD there was known the role of sea barriers in modifying the properties of the water masses that pass from one sea to another, to prevent one sea from overwhelming the other. So salty seas retain their own properties and boundaries by virtue of these barriers. A field study comparing the waters of Oman Gulf and those of the Arabian Gulf has shown the difference between them regarding their chemical properties, the prevalent vegetation and the barrier separating them. About a hundred years of research and study has been required to discover the fact of the existence of barriers between sea water masses and their role in making each sea retain its own properties. Hundred of researchers took part and numerous precise scientific instruments and equipment were used to achieve that. Fourteen centuries ago the Holy Qur¶an revealed this fact. Allah (SWT) says: (He has let free (MARAJA) the two sees meeting together. Between them is a barrier that they do not transgress. Then
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which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (Jinn and men) deny? Out of them both come out pearls and carol.´ (LV: 19-22) Allah (SWT) also says: ³And He made a barrier between the two seas.) (XXVII: 61)

Linguistic meanings and the commentators¶ sayings: Maraja (let free):
Ibn Faris said: ³¶maraja¶: The consonants m, r and j form a root indicating a movement of going and coming and turbulence.´

Al-Bahrayn (the two seas):
Al-Asfahani said: ³Some say that the word ³bahr´ (sea) is usually used to mean salt water rather than fresh water.´ Ibn Manzursaid: ³¶Bahr¶ is more frequently used to describe salt water than fresh water.´ If the word ³bahr´ is used without qualification it means salt water; otherwise, it means the thing qualified.´ The Holy Qur¶an uses ³nahr´ (river) to indicate abundant running fresh water, while it uses ³bahr´ (sea) to indicate salt water. Allah (SWT) says: (And He has made the ships to be of service to you that they may sail through the sea by His Command; and He has made rivers (also) to be of service to you.)(XIV: 32) In the hadith, ³bahr´ (sea) is also used to mean salt water. Allah¶s Messenger (Peace be upon him) was asked by a man who said: ³O Allah¶s Messenger! We travel by sea and carry with us a little fresh water. If we should use it for wudu (ablution) we would get thirsty. May we use seawater for wudu? Allah¶ Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: ³Its water is pure and its dead (animals) are lawful (to eat).´

Al-Barzakh: It is the barrier. Most commentatorssuggest that it is invisible.

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Al-baghi: Ibn Manzur said: ³¶Al-Baghi¶ means transgression, exceeding the limits.´
Al-Jawhari and Al-Asfahani said the same.

Al-Marjan: Ibn Al-Jawzi said: ³Al-Qadi Abu Ya¶li says that AlMarjan is a kind of bar-like pearls. Al-Zajjajsaid: ³Al-Marjan is white, very white.´ Ibn Mas¶ud said: ³Al-Marjan is red beads.´ Abu Hayyan said that to some people Al-Marjan is red stone. Al-Qurtubi said: ³It is said that Al-Marjan is the big pearls. The same is also said by µAli and Ibn µAbbas (May Allah bestow His Mercy on them both). The small pieces of Marjan are the small pearls. It is also reported on their authority the opposite: the big pieces are called pearls and the smaller are called Marjan. Al-Dahhak and Qatadah said the same.´
Al-Alusi said: ³If we take into consideration the connotation of brilliance and glitter which the Arabic word ³pearls´ carries, and the connotation of movement and mixing that the word ³Marjan´ carries, we can say that ³pearls´ is used for big pieces and ³Marjan´ for small ones.´ Anyhow, Marjan is a kind of ornament that is found in various colors: white and red. It may be in big or small pieces. It is bar-like stone. In the Verse it is something other than pearls, for the conjunction ³and´ implies talking bout two different things. Marjan (carol), however, is found in salt seas only. The Verse shows us the minute secrets which oceanography has revealed only recently. They describe the meeting between salt seas. Following is the evidence to that:

First: The Verse uses the word ³bahrayn´ (two seas) without any qualification. This means that salt seas are intended here. Second: The Verses in Surat Al-Rahman show that the two seas yield pearls and ³Marjan´(carol). It has become evident that Marjan is found in salt seas only. This indicates that the Verse is referring to two salt seas. Allah (SWT) says: ³Out of them both come out pearls and carol,´ i.e. out of each of them.
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Who knew in the past that salt seas differ in many respects in spite of their apparent similarity to the observer? (They all taste salt, look blue, have waves, contain fish, etc.) How can they differ although they meet each other? We know that when two amounts of water are mixed in a container they get homogenous. How can seas remain differentiated even in the presence of the factors of mixing, such as the ebb and flow of the sea, currents and storms? The Verse mentions the meeting of two salt seas that differ from one another. If the two seas were similar to one another, they would be one sea. However, differentiating between them in the Qur¶anic utterance implies the difference between them although they are both salt. (He has let free (Maraja) the two seas meeting together) means that the two seas are mixed; they are in the state of backward and forward movements, of mixing and turbulence at the site of the meeting, as is understood from the literal meaning of ³Maraja´. This is the fact that science has discovered, that is to say, the barrier is described as being zigzag or wavy and shifting in position during the various seasons because of the tide and winds. This Verse by itself implies the presence of so much mixing and merging between these seas as would deprive them of their distinctive properties. But Allah (SWT), the All-Knower, shows in the following Verse that ³between them is a barrier which they do not transgress´, i.e. In spite of this state of merging and turbulence that characterizes the seas there is a barrier between them preventing them from transgressing or exceeding their limits. This is what man has discovered as a result of the advances achieved in his sciences and instruments. It has been found that a third water mass separates the two seas and it has such properties as are different from those of each of the two seas separated by it. Yet, in spite of the presence of the barrier, the waters of the two adjacent seas mix very slowly without one sea encroaching upon the other through carrying over its own properties to it, for the barrier zone is a region for changing the water crossing from one sea to the
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other so that it gradually acquires the properties of the sea that is going to enter and loses the properties of the sea it has come form. Thus neither of the two seas transgresses by carrying its own properties to the other, although they mix during the process of meeting. How truthful is Allah¶s Saying: (He has let free (maraja) the two seas meeting together. Between them is a barrier which they do not transgress.) Most commentators suggest that the barrier that separates the two seas referred to here is an invisible barrier created by Allah. Some commentators find it difficult to reconcile the idea of the seas being merging and the presence of a barrier at the same time, for the presence of a barrier entails the prevention of merging. So the mention of merging (maraja) entails the absence of a barrier. This apparent contradiction has been resolved by discovering the secrets of the seas.

The Miraculous Aspects of the Previous Verses:
We can conclude the following from the discussion above: The Holy Qur¶an, which was revealed more than 14 centuries ago, includes very precise pieces of information and knowledge about marine phenomena that have been discovered only recently by means of very sophisticated equipment. An instance in this respect is the existence of water barriers between seas. Allah (SWT) says: (He has let free (maraja) the two seas meeting together. Between them is a barrier which they do not transgress.) The historical development of Oceanography shows that no precise information had been available on seas before Challenger Expedition (in 1873 AD), let alone at the time when the Holy Qur¶an was being revealed 14 centuries ago to an illiterate Prophet that lived in a desert environment and never traveled by sea. Oceanography has witnessed no advances except in the last two centuries, particularly in the latter half of the twentieth century. Prior to that a sea was considered as something fearful and mysterious. Myths and superstitions were fabricated about it. Sea voyagers were only interested in their own safety and how to find the correct routes
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during their long journeys. Man discovered that salt seas are different only in the thirties of the twentieth century, after thousands of marine stations had been established by researchers to analyze samples of sea water to measure the differences between the degrees of temperature, salinity, density and oxygen dissolubility in the sea water recorded at all those stations, and then realize that salt seas are different. Man did not know anything about the barrier that separates between salt seas till the establishment of the aforesaid stations, and after spending a long time tracing these wavy moving barriers that change their geographical locations with the change of seasons. Man did not know that the water masses of the two seas are separated by a water barrier and are mixed at the same time till he started studying with his ships and equipment the water movement in the meeting region of the seas and analyzing the water masses in those regions. Man did not apply this rule to all seas that meet together except after vast scientific surveying, investigation and verification of this phenomenon, which occurs between each pair of adjacent seas in the world. Now then, did Allah¶s Messenger (Peace be upon him) own stations and equipment for analyzing water and the ability to trace the movement of various water masses? Did he carry out a comprehensive surveying process, although he never sailed the sea and lived at a time when superstitions were prevalent, particularly in the field of seas? Were, at the time of Allah¶s Messenger (Peace be upon him) such researches, instruments and studies as are available for the oceanographers of today who have discovered all these secrets by means of research and study? This knowledge, which the Qur¶an came with, included a precise description of the subtlest secrets at a time when humanity could never have known them, which indicates that its source is Divine, as Allah (SWT) says: (Say: ³the (Qur¶an) was sent down by Him Who knows the secret (that is) in the heavens and the earth: Verily He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (XXV: 6)
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It also indicates that the one to whom the Book was sent down was a Messenger inspired. Allah (SWT) but says the Truth in the Verse: (Soon will We show Our Signs in the Universe and in their own selves, until it becomes manifest to them that this the Truth. Is it not sufficient that your Lord does witness all things?)

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