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Hydrodynamics of

Offshore Structures

S. K. Chakrabarti

Bibliothek des Fachgebletes


Hydraulik und Hydrologie
Technische Hochschule Darmstadt
D-6100 Darmstadt/PetersenstraBe

Computational Mechanics Publications


Southampton Boston

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York


London Paris Tokyo
Table of Contents

Dedication x
Preface ' xi
Acknowledgements xiv
Definition of Symbols Used xv

Chapter 1 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 1


1.1. Fourier Series 1
1.2. Complex Variable 4
1.2.1. Singularity 5
1.2.2. Complex Integration : . 6
1.3. Hyperbolic Function 7
1.3.1. Catenary Equation 8
1.4. Bessel Functions 10
1.5. Partial Differential Equation 11
1.6. References 15

Chapter 2 INTRODUCTION TO OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . . 16


2.1. Types and Functions of Offshore Structures 17
2.1.1. Exploratory Structures 18
2.1.2. Production Structures 19
2.1.3. Oil Storage Structure 19
2.1.4. Oil Loading Structure 19
2.1.5. Installation Operations 20
2.2. Fixed Jacket Platforms 21
2.2.1. Gulf of Mexico Platforms 21
2.2.2. Southern California-West Coast Platforms 23
2.2.3. North Sea Platforms 25
2.3. Single Point Mooring Systems 29
2.4. Tension Leg Platform 30
2.5. Arctic Structures 33
2.6. Future Offshore Structure Concepts 34
2.7. References 37

Chapter 3 WAVE THEORIES 41


3.1. Stream Function 43
3.2. Potential Function 43
vi Contents

3.3. Bernoulli Equation 44


3.4. Boundary Conditions 45
3.5. Common Wave Theories 46
3.5.1. Linear Airy Wave Theory 48
3.5.2. Stokes Finite Amplitude Wave Theory 55
3.5.3. Cnoidal Wave Theory 61
3.5.4. Stream Function Wave Theory 69
3.5.5. Standing Wave Theory 75
3.5.6. Application of Theories 77
3.6. References 84

Chapter 4 DESIGN WAVE ENVIRONMENT 86


4.1. Wave Energy Spectral Density 87
4.1.1. Autocorrelation Method 90
4.1.2. Fast Fourier Transform Method 91
4.2. Smoothing of Energy Spectra 93
4.3. Filtering of Energy Spectra 94
4.4. Limitation of Energy Spectral Approach 97
4.5. Variation in Spectral Representation 97
4.6. Mathematical Spectrum Models 102
4.6.1. Phillips 102
4.6.2. General Form ; . . . . 102
4.6.3. Neumann Spectrum 103
4.6.4. Pierson-Moskowitz Spectrum 105
4.6.5. Bretschneider Spectrum 107
4.6.6. ISSC Spectrum 109
4.6.7. ITTC Spectrum 109
4.6.8. Unified Form . 110
4.6.9. JONSWAP Spectrum 113
4.6.10. Scott Spectrum 116
4.6.11. Liu Spectrum 116
4.6.12. Mitsuyasu Spectrum 117
4.6.13. Ochi-Hubble Spectrum 118
4.6.14. Variation in Spectrum Models 120
4.7. Simulation of Wave Profile from Spectra 122
4.8. References 125

Chapter 5 WAVE STATISTICS 128


5.1. Short Term Statistics 128
5.1.1. Significant Wave Heights 130
5.1.2. Root Mean-Square Wave Heights 132
5.1.3. Maximum Wave Heights 133
5.1.4. Average Wave Periods 133
5.1.5. Spectral Width Parameters 134
Contents vii

5.1.6. Probability Distribution and Probability Density . . . . 135


5.1.6.1. Probability Density of r\ 140
5.1.6.2. Probability Distribution of H 141
5.1.6.3. Wide Band Extreme Value Prediction 145
5.1.6.4. Probability Distribution of T 150
5.1.6.5. Joint Distribution of H and T 152
5.2. Long Term Distribution of Wind and Wave 154
5.2.1. Return Periods of Local Storms 155
5.2.2. Wave Height Long-Term Distribution 156
5.2.3. GumbeFs Standard Skewed Distribution 158
5.2.4. Weibull Distribution 158
5.2.5. Frechet Distribution 162
5.2.6. Log-Normal Distribution 163
5.2.7. Discussion of Long Term Probability Distribution . . . . 165
5.3. References 165

Chapter 6 WAVE FORCE ON SMALL STRUCTURES 168


6.1. Wave Force Formulations 168
6.2. Morison Equation 169
6.2.1. Development of Morison Equation 170
6.2.2. Inclined Cylinder 174
6.2.3. Oscillating Cylinder 178
6.2.4. Oscillating Cylinder in Current 179
6.2.5. Fixed Cylinder in Waves and Current 183
6.2.6. Oscillating Cylinder in Waves 187
6.2.7. Oscillating Cylinder in Waves and Current 188
6.2.8. Method of Coefficient Computation 189
6.3. Transverse Force 194
6.4. Hydrodynamic Coefficients 197
6.4.1. Smooth Cylinders 197
6.4.2. Rough Cylinder 203
6.4.3. Inclined Cylinders 205
6.4.4. Wall Proximity Effects 206
6.4.5. Interference Effects 209
6.5. Discussion on Appropriate Design Values of Coefficients . . . . 212
6.5.1. Certifying Agency Guidelines 213
6.5.1.1. American Petroleum Institute 213
6.5.1.2. British Standard Institution 214
6.5.1.3. Det Norske Veritas 215
6.5.1.4. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate . . . . . . . . 215
6.5.2. Ocean Tests in Waves 216
6.5.3. Use of Laboratory Coefficients in Design 221
6.6. Free Surface Effects 223
6.7. References 227
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Chapter 7 WAVE FORCE ON LARGE STRUCTURES 232


7.1. Froude-Krylov Force 232
7.1.1. General Theory 233
7.1.1.1. Horizontal Cylinder 234
7.1.1.2. Horizontal Halfcylinder 236
7.1.1.3. Sphere 238
7.1.1.4. Hemisphere 240
7.1.1.5. Vertical Cylinder 241
7.1.1.6. Rectangular Block 242
7.1.1.7. Circular Disc 242
7.1.1.8. Force Coefficients 243
7.2. Diffraction Theory 244
7.2.1. Closed Form Solution 250
7.2.1.1. Large Fixed Vertical Cylinder 250
7.2.1.1.1. First-Order Theory 250
7.2.1.1.2. Second-Order Theory 260
7.2.1.1.2.1. Free Surface Component . . 262
7.2.1.1.2.2. Velocity-Squared
Component 263
7.2.1.1.2.3. Second Order Incident Vel-
ocity Potential 265
7.2.1.2. Bottom Seated Horizontal Halfcylinder 266
7.2.1.3. Bottom Seated Hemisphere 270
7.2.1.3.1. Application of Stokes Fifth Order Theory 274
7.2.1.4. Multiple Vertical Cylinders 279
7.2.2. Two Dimensional Source-Sink Method 286
7.2.2.1. Half Submerged Cylinder 295
7.2.2.2. Fully Submerged Cylinder 297
7.2.2.3. Half Cylinder on Bottom 301
7.2.3. Three Dimensional Source-Sink Method 301
7.2.4. Open-Bottom Structures 312
7.3. Application of Wave Force Regime 322
7.4. References 324

Chapter 8 FLOATING STRUCTURE DYNAMICS 329


8.1. Added Mass and Damping Coefficients 330
8.2. Single Degree of Freedom System 332
8.3. Articulated Tower Analysis 338
8.4. Floating Storage Vessel Analysis 346
8.5. Tower-Tanker System Analysis 351
8.6. Six Degrees of Freedom System 356
8.7. Wave Drift Oscillation 362
8.8. Multi-Body Structure 367
8.9. Two Floating Structures 368
Contents ix
8.10. Tension Leg Platform 371
8.10.1. Set-Down Effect 374
8.11. Guyed Tower 379
8.12. Slender Body Dynamics 383
8.13. References 386

Chapter 9 STRUCTURE RESPONSE STATISTICS 391


9.1. Short-Term Response Statistics 391
9.1.1. Response Amplitude Operators 392
9.1.2. Linear Response Spectra 392
9.1.2.1. Dynamic Pressure RAO 393
9.1.2.2. Inertial Force RAO 395
9.1.3. Nonlinear Drag Force 397
9.1.3.1. Linearization of Drag Force 397
9.1.3.2. Nonlinear Drag Force Spectrum 399
9.1.3.3. Total Morison Force Spectrum 403
9.1.3.4. Extreme Morison Force Statistics 405
9.1.3.5. Linearization of Coupled Current and Wave Drag 407
9.1.3.6. Nonlinear Coupled Current and Wave Drag Force
Spectrum :•• 409
9.1.3.7. Extreme Wave Current Force Statistics 411
9.1.4. Inertia Force Spectrum Coupled with Current 415
9.1.5. Motion Response and Spectrum 416
9.1.6. Response to Short Crested Waves 420
9.2. Long Term Distribution 421
9.3. Short Term Vs. Long Term Prediction 427
9.3.1. Short Term Prediction 427
9.3.2. Long-Term Prediction 429
9.4. Fatigue Analysis 431
9.5. References 434

Author Index 436


Subject Index 439