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Water Filtration and Disinfection

2009 21
This training was prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) team of Sylvana Li (Branch Chief, Rural Development and Natural Resources - USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, email: Sylvana.Li@fas.usda.gov), Matt Murphy, and David Gallagher (both Development Resources Specialists - USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, emails: Matt.Murphy@fas.usda.gov, David.Gallagher@fas.usda.gov), George Hernandez (Forester - USDA Forest Service, email: George.Hernandez@usda.gov), and Jon Fripp (Civil Engineer USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, email: Jon.Fripp@ftw.usda.gov). The USACE provided funding support for the USDA team.

• Why filter water • Types of pollutants • Types of filtration and disinfection
– Focus on low tech methods – Fast sand filter and slow sand filter

• Test kits

Why do we filter water? • For drinking • For irrigation

Types of Pollutants
• Pathogens

Where do they come from? Why do we care?

Types of Pollutants
• Chemical

Where do they come from? Why do we care?

Types of Pollutants
• Salt

Where does it come from? Why do we care?

Types of Pollutants
• Dirt • Odor • Taste

Where does it come from? Why do we care?

Municipal Treatment
most includes these steps

Water Source

Settlement / sedimentation

Filtration

Disinfection
(chemical treatment)

Water Supply
Modified from Robert A. Perdue Water Treatment Plant

Municipal Treatment
•Can Provide Large Quantities of Safe Water •Often Big Operations •Expensive •Training Required to Operate

Treatment Plants Can Be Small
This one treats water from a small pond for a residence

Photos from Jerry Bernard

This system treats and packages water for a school

Low Cost Treatments
• • • • • • Boiling Chemical UV/Solar Distillation Filtration Biological Filtration

Water treated with any of these may need additional treatment!

Boiling
•Boil water for 10 minutes •Boiling will kill most pathogens •Does not remove salt •Does not remove sediments •Does not remove most chemicals •Does not help with much improvement of taste or smell

Chemical
•Can be added directly to the water •It will kill most pathogens •Leaves a smell •Does not remove salts •Does not remove sediments •Does not remove most chemicals •Chlorine Bleach •Chlorine Powder •Chlorine Tablets •Chlorine Liquid •Granular Calcium Hypochlorite •Iodine

These chemicals can be dangerous!

Chemical

•Can use bleach for 1%: use 10 drops/liter for 2-6%: use 2 drops/liter for 7-10% use 1 drop/liter •Double the dose if the water is cloudy

one cap of Clorox for every 2 gallons (7.5 liter) of water.

•Do not use too much •Use Regular Clorox Bleach •Do not use bleach with fabric softener or other additives

•Mix the treated water. Allow the treated water to settle for 30 minutes.

•Smell the water. The treated water should have a slight bleach odor. If it does not have an odor, repeat the treatment. •Taste a little of the treated water. If it has a strong taste of chlorine, spit the water out. Allow the container of treated water to sit uncovered for another 30 minutes or pour the water back and forth between two clean containers.

Chemical
Question: Using a 5.8% chlorine How many drops to purify water in a two liter bottle? Answer: 2 liters x 2 drops per liter = 4 drops Remember to mix it and allow it to settle
for 1%: use 10 drops/liter for 2-6%: use 2 drops/liter for 7-10% use 1 drop/liter

Do not use too much

UV/Solar
•Paint ½ bottle black •Leave in sun for 6 hours •Exposes water to ultraviolet rays from sun •Raises temperature •Kills some pathogens •Does not remove salt •Does not remove sediments •Does not remove chemicals •Does not help with much improvement of taste or smell

Distillation

•Boiling produces water vapor which leaves behind pollutants •Water vapor is allowed to cool and turn back into water

Water into vapor

Cool water turns water vapor into liquid

Boils water

Heat

•Kills most pathogens •Removes salt •Removes sediments •Removes many chemicals •Can help with improvement of taste or smell

Distillation
Can use distill water on a stove

Stove Top Distillation
1. Put the dirty water in the pot 2. Place a collection cup in the pot 3. Clean the lid and turn it upside down 4. Boil the water 5. The water condenses on the lid of the pot and falls into the collection cup.

Distillation
Stove Top Distillation •Food coloring was placed in the water to represent pollutants •Notice the water in the collection cup is clear

Slow and takes energy

Distillation
Solar Distillation Can use the sun to distill water

SolAqua Model 550 Rainmaker
Photo from Jeff Wheaton

Distillation
Solar Distillation 1. The sun heats the water 2. The water evaporates 3. The water condenses on the glass 4. The water runs down to the collection tray

Only pure water rises to the top

Distillation
Solar Distillation Must have a sunny day

•Very slow •Can take a few hours to get a small amount

Solar Distillation •In the summer, about 8 square feet of glass will produce 1 gallon per day •About half in the winter. •May need several units

Distillation

Filtration
Cloth Filter 1. Tie a cloth around the lid of a jar or bucket 2. Pour the dirty water through the cloth 3. The cloth will catch the larger dirt pieces

Filtration
Cloth Filter • A good way to remove large sediments • Does not remove small sediments • May be good enough for some sprinkler or drip irrigation • Does not kill pathogens • Does not remove salt • Does not remove chemicals • Does not help much with improving taste or smell It is often a good first step

Filtration
Fast Sand Filter
1. Clean bucket or barrel 2. Fill with 20-40 cm of sand and gravel in layers 3. The smaller material is on top and the larger material is at the bottom 4. As water flows through the sand, the sediments catch between the sand particles.

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Fast Sand Filter •A good way to remove sediments •Does not kill pathogens •Does not remove salt •Does not remove chemicals •Does not help much with improving taste or smell • Simple • Good for preparing water for drip or sprinkler irrigation • Often used as a pretreatment

Filtration

We will now go through the steps to build a fast sand filter

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

First – separate sand and gravel with sieve

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

Then wash the sand and gravel in clean water

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•Select a clean bucket or barrel •Drill a hole on the side at the bottom •Put a pipe or hose through the hole – this is the outlet pipe •This pipe or hose must have many small holes in it

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•Seal the end of the outlet pipe or hose to force the water through the small holes •Seal around the hole in the bucket

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•You can wrap the outlet pipe or hose with fabric

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•Place a few centimeters of small rocks on the bottom, covering the pipe •Then place a layer of small pebbles on the rocks

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•Place a few inches of coarse sand on the small pebbles •Then place a 20-30 cm of finer sand on top of that

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•Place a layer of the small rocks on top •Install the inlet pipe •This pipe should also have holes. •Cap the end of this pipe

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

•Pour the water through inlet pipe •It will go through the filter •And out the outlet pipe

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

Do not drink it!

•Most of the sediments are collected in the top layers •You will need to periodically scrape away this layer and clean the sand

Filtration
Construction of a fast sand filter

Water flows rapidly through the fast sand filter – 2 to 5 meters per hour

Question: If we have a fast sand filter that has a 30 cm diameter opening. How many liters of water can be filtered in 1 hour? Answer: 15cm x 15 cm x 3.14 = 729 square cm 729 square cm X 2 m/hr = 145.8 liters in one hour

Filtration
Slow Sand Filter •Removes sediments •Will kill many pathogens •Does not remove salt •Will remove some chemicals •Will help some with improving taste or smell • Simple • Slow – mainly for drinking water • Some additional treatment may be necessary • Used all over the world (Nicaragua, Honduras, Mozambique. Nepal, Cambodia, Kenya, Haiti, etc)
Photo from CMS /Connor

We will now go through the steps to build a slow sand filter

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•A slow sand filter is built very similar to a fast sand filter. •The big difference is that the outlet pipe goes out of the top

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•This keeps the good microbes wet. •They must not dry out •Be sure that the outlet pipe is 5 to 10 cm above the sand •It is also a good idea to use finer sand in the upper layers •Do not use dust – it may clog it

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•The dirty water must be gradually put through the filters so to not disturb the good microbes. •In this example, it is done with many small holes put in the lid. •A small trickle of water brings air to the microbes

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•The good microbes are already present in dirty water •In 2 to 3 weeks, they will colonise the upper few centimetres of the sand and begin to eat the pathogens •New water must be added daily. •This feeds the good microbes, brings them air, and makes sure they do not dry.

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter Dirty water in

•Do not put chlorine in the water that goes into the filter – it may kill the good microbes •But adding a little chlorine to the outflow water may be a good idea

Clean water out

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•Eventually, the water flow will slow down •The upper layer of sand will be clogged with dirt and too many good microbes •Scoop out the top layer and replace the sand •Run water through the slow sand filter for 2 to 3 weeks to reintroduce the good microbes

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•Can be combined with a fast sand filter to make two stage treatment. •This will extend the life of the good microbes by removing the larger pieces of dirt

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

Can use different materials to make a slow sand filter
Clay pots are good

Construction Steps

Filtration
Construction of a slow sand filter

•It takes some time to filter water. •Water slowly flows through the slow sand filter - 10 to 20 cm per hour. Question: If we have a slow sand filter that has a 30 cm diameter opening. How many liters of water can be filtered in 1 hour? Answer: 15cm x 15 cm x 3.14 = 729 square cm 729 square cm X 10 cm/hr = 7.29 liters in one hour 1 gal = 3.78 liter
1 in = 2.54 cm

Photo from CAWST

Summary Low Cost Treatments
Pollutant
Method Boiling Chlorine UV/Solar Distillation / still Solar Still Stovetop Distillation Cloth Filter Fast Sand Filter Slow Sand Filter Method is effective at removing many of these pollutants Method provides some removal of pollutant Method is not effective at removing pollutant Pathogens Chemical Salt Sediments Odour and / dirt Taste

Water treated with any of these may need additional treatment!

Test Time •What Pollutants might be here? •If we wanted to use this water for drip irrigation, what filtration would be useful?

Answer: for sediment/ dirty water use a cloth filter or a fast sand filter

Test Time •What Pollutants might be here? •If we wanted to use this water for drip irrigation, what filtration would be useful?

Answer: for sediment/ dirty water use a cloth filter or a fast sand filter

Test Time •What Pollutants might be here? •If we wanted to use this water for drinking, what filtration would be useful?

Answer: for sediment/ dirty water and for pathogens, use •A fast sand filter then a slow sand filter •Fast sand then chlorine •Fast sand then boiling. •Fast sand then distillation ….all may need additional treatment

Test Time •What Pollutants might be here? •Could we use this water for drinking?

Answer: This water is probably contaminated with pathogens, chemical and other pollutants. It can probably not be safely treated with the techniques we discussed.

Test the water!
•Indicator tests •Rapid – quick results •Simple •Detailed tests •More precise •Required more expertise and time

Do not recontaminate filtered or disinfected water
• Make sure you use clean containers that have not been used to store chemicals • Store water carefully • Use tops on containers • Monitor distribution

Clean Water has a lot of good uses

The End