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Bending, Flanging and

Hemming

October 15 th , 2014

Hyunok Kim, EWI Forming Center

Taylan Altan, OSU - Center for Precision Forming (CPF)

Bending, Flanging and Hemming October 15 , 2014 Hyunok Kim, EWI Forming Center Taylan Altan, OSU

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Bending, Flanging and Hemming October 15 , 2014 Hyunok Kim, EWI Forming Center Taylan Altan, OSU

Introduction - Bending

  • Bending is usually defined as "the plastic deformation of a sheet metal along a straight line".

Introduction - Bending  Bending is usually defined as " the plastic deformation of a sheet

Sample part made by various sheet bending operation

Introduction - Bending  Bending is usually defined as " the plastic deformation of a sheet
Introduction - Bending  Bending is usually defined as " the plastic deformation of a sheet

[Courtesy of Eaton Corp]

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Introduction - Bending  Bending is usually defined as " the plastic deformation of a sheet

Bending Terminology

q
q

Bend Angle

[Kalpakjian,1997]

Bending Terminology q Bend Angle [Kalpakjian,1997] 3
Bending Terminology q Bend Angle [Kalpakjian,1997] 3

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Bending Terminology q Bend Angle [Kalpakjian,1997] 3

Bending of Sheet with Pure

Moment

Bending of Sheet with Pure Moment Stress-strain distribution 4
Bending of Sheet with Pure Moment Stress-strain distribution 4

Stress-strain distribution

Bending of Sheet with Pure Moment Stress-strain distribution 4

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Bending of Sheet with Pure Moment Stress-strain distribution 4

Types of Bending Air Bending

In air bending, there is no need to change any equipment or dies to obtain

different bending angles because the bend angles are determined by

punch stroke. The forces required to form the parts are relatively small, but

accurate control of the punch stroke is necessary to obtain the desired bend angle.

Types of Bending – Air Bending In air bending, there is no need to change any
Types of Bending – Air Bending In air bending, there is no need to change any
Types of Bending – Air Bending In air bending, there is no need to change any
Types of Bending – Air Bending In air bending, there is no need to change any

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Types of Bending – Air Bending In air bending, there is no need to change any

Estimation of Bending Force

The bending force is dependent on the sheet thickness and

material. A good approximation of the required force is:

F

2

(

Lt UTS

)

W

where F: force required to bend L: length of the sheet t: thickness of the material UTS: ultimate tensile strength of the material W: die-opening clearance

Estimation of Bending Force The bending force is dependent on the sheet thickness and material. A
Estimation of Bending Force The bending force is dependent on the sheet thickness and material. A

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Estimation of Bending Force The bending force is dependent on the sheet thickness and material. A

Air Bending Simulation

Air Bending Simulation 7
Air Bending Simulation 7
Air Bending Simulation 7

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Air Bending Simulation 7

Types of Bending V Die Bending

In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is constant (equal to

the thickness of sheet blank). The thickness of the sheet ranges from

approximately 0.5-mm to 25-mm.

Types of Bending – V Die Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is
Types of Bending – V Die Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is
Types of Bending – V Die Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is
Types of Bending – V Die Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is

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Types of Bending – V Die Bending In V-bending, the clearance between punch and die is

V Bending Simulation

V Bending Simulation 9
V Bending Simulation 9
V Bending Simulation 9

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V Bending Simulation 9

Types of Bending U Die Bending

U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes are produced in the same operation. A backing pad is used to force the sheet contacting with the punch bottom. It requires about 30% of the bending force for the pad to press the sheet contacting the punch.

Types of Bending – U Die Bending U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes
Types of Bending – U Die Bending U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes
Types of Bending – U Die Bending U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes
Types of Bending – U Die Bending U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes

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Types of Bending – U Die Bending U-die bending is performed when two parallel bending axes

U Bending Simulation

U Bending Simulation 11
U Bending Simulation 11
U Bending Simulation 11

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U Bending Simulation 11

Types of Bending Wiping Die Bending

Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One edge of the sheet is

bent to 90 while the other end is restrained by the material itself and by the

force of blank holder/pad . The flange length can be easily changed and the bend angle can be controlled by the stroke of the punch.

Types of Bending – Wiping Die Bending Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One
Types of Bending – Wiping Die Bending Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One
Types of Bending – Wiping Die Bending Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One
Types of Bending – Wiping Die Bending Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One

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Types of Bending – Wiping Die Bending Wiping die bending is also known as flanging. One

Wiping Die Bending Simulation

Wiping Die Bending Simulation 13
Wiping Die Bending Simulation 13
Wiping Die Bending Simulation 13

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Wiping Die Bending Simulation 13

Types of Bending Double Die Bending

Double die bending can be seen as two wiping operations acting on the

workpiece one after another. Double bending can enhance strain

hardening to reduce springback.

Types of Bending – Double Die Bending Double die bending can be seen as two wiping
Types of Bending – Double Die Bending Double die bending can be seen as two wiping
Types of Bending – Double Die Bending Double die bending can be seen as two wiping
Types of Bending – Double Die Bending Double die bending can be seen as two wiping

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Types of Bending – Double Die Bending Double die bending can be seen as two wiping

Double Die Bending Simulation

Double Die Bending Simulation 15
Double Die Bending Simulation 15
Double Die Bending Simulation 15

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Double Die Bending Simulation 15

Types of Bending Bottom Bending

In bottom bending, the final position of the punch is set such that the

clearance between the punch and die surface is less than the blank thickness. As a result, the material yields slightly and reduce the springback. Bottom bending requires considerably more force (about

50%~60% more) than air bending.

Types of Bending – Bottom Bending In bottom bending, the final position of the punch is
Types of Bending – Bottom Bending In bottom bending, the final position of the punch is
Types of Bending – Bottom Bending In bottom bending, the final position of the punch is
Types of Bending – Bottom Bending In bottom bending, the final position of the punch is

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Types of Bending – Bottom Bending In bottom bending, the final position of the punch is

Bottom Bending Simulation

Bottom Bending Simulation 17
Bottom Bending Simulation 17
Bottom Bending Simulation 17

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Bottom Bending Simulation 17

Types of Bending Rotary Bending

Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead of the punch. The advantages of rotary bending are:

no need for blank holder

springback compensation by overbending

less force

available for more than 90 degree bending angle.

Types of Bending – Rotary Bending Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead
Types of Bending – Rotary Bending Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead
Types of Bending – Rotary Bending Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead
Types of Bending – Rotary Bending Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead
Types of Bending – Rotary Bending Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead

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Types of Bending – Rotary Bending Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead

Types of Bending - Coining

In coining, compressive stress is applied to bending region to increase the amount of plastic deformation. This reduces the amount of springback.

Types of Bending - Coining In coining, compressive stress is applied to bending region to increase
Types of Bending - Coining In coining, compressive stress is applied to bending region to increase
Types of Bending - Coining In coining, compressive stress is applied to bending region to increase
Types of Bending - Coining In coining, compressive stress is applied to bending region to increase

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Types of Bending - Coining In coining, compressive stress is applied to bending region to increase

Issues with Bending Process

Design

For industrial applications, the following predictions are

important during process design:

Bendability assessment (e.g. minimum bending radius without fracture)

Control of the shape and quality of the bent part (springback, residual stresses, etc.)

Prediction of bending force

Issues with Bending Process Design For industrial applications, the following predictions are important during process design:
Issues with Bending Process Design For industrial applications, the following predictions are important during process design:

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Issues with Bending Process Design For industrial applications, the following predictions are important during process design:

Bendability of Material

  • Bendability (the smallest achievable bending radius without failure) of material is improved by heating or application of hydrostatic pressure. Cracks can also be eliminated by inducing compression in the bending direction.

Bendability of Material  Bendability (the smallest achievable bending radius without failure) of material is improved
Bendability of Material  Bendability (the smallest achievable bending radius without failure) of material is improved

Cracks

Effect of directionality on bending

[Kalpakjian,1997]

Bendability of Material  Bendability (the smallest achievable bending radius without failure) of material is improved
Bendability of Material  Bendability (the smallest achievable bending radius without failure) of material is improved

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Bendability of Material  Bendability (the smallest achievable bending radius without failure) of material is improved

Minimum Bending Radius

Bendability for Low Carbon Steel

Minimum Bending Radius Bendability for Low Carbon Steel r: percent reduction of area in a tensionan , 1997] 22 " id="pdf-obj-21-6" src="pdf-obj-21-6.jpg">

r: percent reduction of area in a tension test

Minimum Bending Radius Bendability for Low Carbon Steel r: percent reduction of area in a tensionan , 1997] 22 " id="pdf-obj-21-10" src="pdf-obj-21-10.jpg">

[Kalpakjian,1997]

Minimum Bending Radius Bendability for Low Carbon Steel r: percent reduction of area in a tensionan , 1997] 22 " id="pdf-obj-21-17" src="pdf-obj-21-17.jpg">

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Minimum Bending Radius Bendability for Low Carbon Steel r: percent reduction of area in a tensionan , 1997] 22 " id="pdf-obj-21-21" src="pdf-obj-21-21.jpg">

V-Bend Testing

Useful for screening different suppliers and materials.

  • Quick, easy, inexpensive, and effective,…

  • Beneficial for shop floor industrial use.

  • Crack severity judgment is visual and cab be subjective.

V-Bend Testing Useful for screening different suppliers and materials.  Quick, easy, inexpensive, and effective,… 
V-Bend Testing Useful for screening different suppliers and materials.  Quick, easy, inexpensive, and effective,… 
V-Bend Testing Useful for screening different suppliers and materials.  Quick, easy, inexpensive, and effective,… 

[Courtesy to J. Dykeman, 2013]

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V-Bend Testing Useful for screening different suppliers and materials.  Quick, easy, inexpensive, and effective,… 

Wedge Bend Testing

Provides quantitative measure of bendability

  • Crack determined by load drop.

  • Final outside bend angle is measure of bending performance.

Wedge Bend Testing Provides quantitative measure of bendability  Crack determined by load drop.  Final
Wedge Bend Testing Provides quantitative measure of bendability  Crack determined by load drop.  Final
Wedge Bend Testing Provides quantitative measure of bendability  Crack determined by load drop.  Final

[Courtesy to J. Dykeman, 2013]

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Wedge Bend Testing Provides quantitative measure of bendability  Crack determined by load drop.  Final

Springback

  • Springback is the elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools.

  • Types of Springback

Angular change Sidewall curl Twist (Distortion)

  • Influencing Factors:

Sheet material properties Sheet thickness Punch / die radius Friction / lubrication

Springback  Springback is the elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools. 
Springback  Springback is the elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools. 
Angular change and sidewall curl
Angular change and sidewall curl
Springback  Springback is the elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools. 

Twist caused by torsion moment at flange or sidewall

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[Source: IISI, 2006]

Springback  Springback is the elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools. 

Issues with Springback

  • Prediction tools

Analytical equation Numerical solution FEM

  • Reduction / Minimization

Over-bending Bottoming Coining Stretch bending Rotary bending Double bending Tractrix die bending

Issues with Springback  Prediction tools ─ Analytical equation ─ Numerical solution ─ FEM  Reduction
Issues with Springback  Prediction tools ─ Analytical equation ─ Numerical solution ─ FEM  Reduction

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Issues with Springback  Prediction tools ─ Analytical equation ─ Numerical solution ─ FEM  Reduction

Springback Estimation

Springback Estimation 27 Springback ratio (K): K   r   r i  s
Springback Estimation 27 Springback ratio (K): K   r   r i  s
Springback Estimation 27 Springback ratio (K): K   r   r i  s

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Springback ratio (K):

K

r

r

i

s

0

/ 2

r

i r

,

s

0

/ 2

[Lange, 1985]

Springback Estimation 27 Springback ratio (K): K   r   r i  s

Methods of Reducing

Springback (1) Bottoming Over-bending Coining Rotary Bending
Springback (1)
Bottoming
Over-bending
Coining
Rotary
Bending
Methods of Reducing Springback (1) Bottoming Over-bending Coining Rotary Bending 28 [Kalpakjian,1997]
Methods of Reducing Springback (1) Bottoming Over-bending Coining Rotary Bending 28 [Kalpakjian,1997]

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[Kalpakjian,1997]

Methods of Reducing Springback (1) Bottoming Over-bending Coining Rotary Bending 28 [Kalpakjian,1997]

Methods of Reducing

Springback (2)

Methods of Reducing Springback (2) Coining Double Bending 29

Coining

Methods of Reducing Springback (2) Coining Double Bending 29

Double Bending

Methods of Reducing Springback (2) Coining Double Bending 29
Methods of Reducing Springback (2) Coining Double Bending 29

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Methods of Reducing Springback (2) Coining Double Bending 29

Flanging

Flanging is a process of bending the sheet edges

The workpiece may has a plane or a curved surface.

The edge may be a straight line or a curve.

Flanging
Flanging
Flanging Flanging is a process of bending the sheet edges • The workpiece may has a
Flanging Flanging is a process of bending the sheet edges • The workpiece may has a

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Flanging Flanging is a process of bending the sheet edges • The workpiece may has a

Flange Types

Flange Types Stretch Flange Shrink Flange Jogged Flange [Kalpakjian,1997] 31 Straight Flange Reverse Flange Hole Flange
Stretch Flange Shrink Flange
Stretch Flange
Shrink Flange

Jogged Flange

[Kalpakjian,1997]

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Straight Flange

Reverse Flange

Hole Flange

Flange Types Stretch Flange Shrink Flange Jogged Flange [Kalpakjian,1997] 31 Straight Flange Reverse Flange Hole Flange
Flange Types Stretch Flange Shrink Flange Jogged Flange [Kalpakjian,1997] 31 Straight Flange Reverse Flange Hole Flange

Hemming

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3

Hemming operations are usually performed in three stages:

Stage 1: Bending or flanging to 90 º ,

Stage 2: Pre-hemming to approximately 135 º ,

Stage 3: Hemming to 180º or more.

Hemming Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Hemming operations are usually performed in three stages: •
Hemming Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Hemming operations are usually performed in three stages: •

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Hemming Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Hemming operations are usually performed in three stages: •

Various Geometric

Configurations of Hems

Convex edge-

Convex surface

Various Geometric Configurations of Hems Convex edge- Convex surface Inner Panel Concave edge- Convex surface Outer
Various Geometric Configurations of Hems Convex edge- Convex surface Inner Panel Concave edge- Convex surface Outer
Various Geometric Configurations of Hems Convex edge- Convex surface Inner Panel Concave edge- Convex surface Outer

Inner Panel

Concave edge-

Convex surface

Outer Panel

Straight edge-

CORNER

(Convex edge)

Inside View

Straight surface

Side View

Various Geometric Configurations of Hems Convex edge- Convex surface Inner Panel Concave edge- Convex surface Outer
Various Geometric Configurations of Hems Convex edge- Convex surface Inner Panel Concave edge- Convex surface Outer

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Various Geometric Configurations of Hems Convex edge- Convex surface Inner Panel Concave edge- Convex surface Outer

Summary

  • Bending process design should consider:

Bendability assessment (i.e. minimum bend radius w/o fracture) Control of springback Prediction of bending force

  • Springback can be minimized with additional tensile stress through the thickness by using:

Over-bending Bottoming Coining Stretch bending Rotary bending Double bending Tractrix die bending

Summary  Bending process design should consider: ─ Bendability assessment (i.e. minimum bend radius w/o fracture)
Summary  Bending process design should consider: ─ Bendability assessment (i.e. minimum bend radius w/o fracture)

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Summary  Bending process design should consider: ─ Bendability assessment (i.e. minimum bend radius w/o fracture)

Questions & Contacts

Taylan Altan

614.292.5063

Hyunok Kim

614.688.5239

Questions & Contacts Taylan Altan 614.292.5063 <a href=altan.1@osu.edu Hyunok Kim 614.688.5239 hkim@ewi.org " id="pdf-obj-34-17" src="pdf-obj-34-17.jpg">
Questions & Contacts Taylan Altan 614.292.5063 <a href=altan.1@osu.edu Hyunok Kim 614.688.5239 hkim@ewi.org " id="pdf-obj-34-19" src="pdf-obj-34-19.jpg">
Questions & Contacts Taylan Altan 614.292.5063 <a href=altan.1@osu.edu Hyunok Kim 614.688.5239 hkim@ewi.org " id="pdf-obj-34-21" src="pdf-obj-34-21.jpg">