Questions: 1)Write a short research paper on the following: A) Copper cables (Twisted pair cables and Coaxial cables
) B) Write a full page on fiber optic cables 2) Write a two page on satellite communications and include in your answer LEO satellites and Geostationary satellites.
TWISTED PAIR CABLES: Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two conductors (two halves of a single circuit) are wound together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs. Twisting wires decreases interference because the loop area between the wires (which determines the magnetic coupling into the signal) is reduced. In balanced pair operation, the two wires typically carry equal and opposite signals (differential mode) which are combined by addition at the destination. The common-mode noise from the two wires (mostly) cancels each other in this addition because the two wires have similar amounts of EMI that are 180 degrees out of phase. This results in the same effect as subtraction. Differential mode also reduces electromagnetic radiation from the cable, along with the attenuation that it causes. The twist rate (also called pitch of the twist, usually defined in twists per meter) makes up part of the specification for a given type of cable. Where pairs are not twisted, one member of the pair may be closer to the source than the other, and thus exposed to slightly different induced electromotive force (EMF). Where twist rates are equal, the same conductors of different pairs may repeatedly lie next to each other, partially undoing the benefits of differential mode. For this reason it is commonly specified that, at least for cables containing small numbers of pairs, the twist rates must differ. In contrast to FTP (foiled twisted pair) and STP (shielded twisted pair) cabling, UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable is not surrounded by any shielding. It is the primary wire type for telephone usage and is very common for computer networking, especially as patch cables or temporary network connections due to the high flexibility of the cables. Twisted pair cables were first used in telephone systems by Alexander Graham Bell in 1881. By 1900, the entire American telephone line network was either twisted pair or open wire with similar arrangements to guard against interference. Today, most of the millions of kilometers of twisted pairs in the world are outdoor landlines, owned by
UTP cables are found in many Ethernet networks and telephone systems. blue/white. Pairs having the same twist rate within the cable can still experience some degree of crosstalk. Within a few years the growing use of electricity again brought an increase of interference. shared the route with electrical power lines. UTP is also finding increasing use in video applications. hence increasing range. UTP is often grouped into sets of 25 pairs according to a standard 25-pair color code originally developed by AT&T. For urban outdoor telephone cables containing hundreds or thousands of pairs. which induced noise into these circuits. primarily in security cameras. the two wires would receive similar EMI from power lines. In this way. orange/white) shows up in most UTP cables. UTP cables are often called Ethernet cables after Ethernet. Wire pairs are selected carefully to minimize crosstalk within a large cable. the wires exchange position once every several poles. Much middle to high-end cameras includes a UTP output with setscrew terminals. Lawsuits being unavailing. so engineers devised a method called wire transposition.telephone companies. the telephone companies converted to balanced circuits. As electrical power distribution became more commonplace. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial cable. such open-wire lines with periodic transpositions
. this measure proved inadequate. the most common data networking standard that utilizes UTP cables. a balun is used to convert from 100-ohm balanced UTP to 75-ohm unbalanced. This is made possible by the fact that UTP cable bandwidth has improved to match the baseband of television signals. Only one pair is necessary for each video signal. to cancel out the interference. white/orange. or open-wire single-wire earth return circuits. The bundles are in turn twisted together to make up the cable. Two wires. Today. A typical subset of these colors (white/blue. the cable is divided into smaller but identical bundles. Each bundle consists of twisted pairs that have different twist rates. used for voice service. UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. A balun can also be used at the camera end for ones without a UTP output. strung on either side of cross bars on utility poles. While the video recorder most likely still has unbalanced BNC connectors for standard coaxial cable. History Wire transposition on top of pole The earliest telephones used telegraph lines. In the 1880s electric trams were installed in many cities. In wire transposition. and only handled or even seen by telephone workers. which had the incidental benefit of decreasing attenuation. For indoor telephone applications.
this is referred to as screening. Shielded twisted pair (STP or STP-A) STP cabling includes metal shielding over each individual pair of copper wires. Screened shielded twisted pair (S/STP or S/FTP) S/STP cabling.
Twisted pair¶s susceptibility to the electromagnetic interference greatly depends on the pair twisting schemes (usually patented by the manufacturers) staying intact during the installation. When shielding is applied to the collection of pairs. This type of shielding protects cable from external EMI (electromagnetic interferences). This
. or to the collection of pairs. The shielding must be grounded for the shielding to work. This type of cabling offers the best protection from interference from external sources. also known as Screened Fully shielded Twisted Pair (S/FTP). UTP costs less per foot than any other type of LAN cable. twisted pair cables usually have stringent requirements for maximum pulling tension as well as minimum bend radius. Because UTP is small. it may also serve as a ground. is a screened UTP cable (ScTP). STP has been used to denote both STP-A. e. However.  is both individually shielded (like STP cabling) and also has an outer metal shielding covering the entire group of shielded copper pairs (like S/UTP). Advantages
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It is a thin. As a result. This shielding can be applied to individual pairs. This represented an early implementation of twisting. and also eliminates alien crosstalk Note that different vendors and authors use different terminology (i. usually a shielded or a screened twisted pair cable has a special grounding wire added called a drain wire. or six per mile. S/STP. with a twist rate of about four twists per kilometer.e. Cable shielding Twisted pair cables are often shielded in attempt to prevent electromagnetic interference. and S/UTP) . the 150 ohm shielded twisted pair cables defined by the IBM Cabling System specifications and used with token ring networks.g.can still be found in rural areas. Screened unshielded twisted pair (S/UTP) Also known as fully shielded (or Foiled) Twisted Pair (FTP). Because the shielding is made of metal. flexible cable that is easy to string between walls. it does not quickly fill up wiring ducts.
In a hypothetical ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. Coaxial cable design choices affect physical size. Periodically along the ribbon there are short sections with no twisting to enable connectors and PCB headers to be terminated using the usual ribbon cable IDC techniques. A common choice is a solid polyethylene (PE) insulator. frequency performance. The twisted pairs are then lightly bonded to each other in a ribbon format. Pioneered by Belden. Practical cables achieve this objective to a high degree. power handling capabilities. flexibility. Solid Teflon (PTFE) is also used as an insulator. the inner conductor may be silver plated. Sometimes copper-plated iron wire is used as an inner conductor. or of a thin metallic foil). or may be air with spacers supporting the inner wire. Bonded twisted pair: A twisted pair variant in which the pairs are individually bonded to increase robustness of the cable.
COXIAL CABLES: Coaxial cable is a cable consisting of an inner conductor. all of which is then surrounded by another conductive layer (typically of fine woven wire for flexibility. Coaxial cables are often used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. stranded is more flexible. it means the electrical specifications of the cable are maintained despite rough handling. except those carrying higher than voice band frequencies. The insulator surrounding the inner conductor may be solid plastic. A coaxial cable provides protection of signals from external electromagnetic interference. used in lower-loss cables. The added inductors are known as load coils and reduce distortion. Unloaded twisted pair: A twisted pair that has no added load coils. and then finally covered again with a thin insulating layer on the outside. The properties of dielectric control some electrical properties of the cable. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis.relative fragility of twisted pair cables makes the installation practices an important part of ensuring the cable¶s performance. a foam plastic. Twisted ribbon cable: A variant of standard ribbon cable in which adjacent pairs of conductors are bonded and twisted together. attenuation. Minor twisted pair variants
Loaded twisted pair: A twisted pair that has intentionally added inductance. surrounded by a tubular insulating layer typically made from a flexible material with a high dielectric constant. The inner conductor might be solid or stranded. To get better high-frequency performance. and cost. common practice on telecommunication lines. and effectively guides signals with low emission along the length of the cable.
transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes can also propagate. and they can be strapped to conductive supports without inducing unwanted currents in them. as they do in a waveguide. Some cables may invest in more than two shield layers. These lines have low loss. but some applications may require fire-resistant materials. In radiofrequency applications up to a few gigahertz. which means that the electric and magnetic fields are both perpendicular to the direction of propagation. and the inner dimension of the shield varies slightly because the braid cannot be flat. There is also a lot of variety in the shield. the wave propagates only in the transverse electric magnetic (TEM) mode.
. For better shield performance. The insulating jacket can be made from many materials. Many Cable television (CATV) distribution systems use such "hard line" cables. interfering with each other. causing losses in the cable. Sometimes the braid is silver plated. Coaxial lines can therefore be bent and moderately twisted without negative effects. above a certain cutoff frequency. The transmission of energy in the line occurs totally through the dielectric inside the cable between the conductors. Other shield designs sacrifice flexibility for better performance. Connections at the ends of coaxial cables are usually made with RF connectors. as the extended fields will induce currents in the nearby conductors causing unwanted radiation and detuning of the line.Some coaxial lines use air (or some other gas) and have spacers to keep the inner conductor from touching the shield. some shields are a solid metal tube. as they provide a lower signal loss. between the center conductor and the shield. but also have undesirable characteristics. Coaxial lines solve this problem by confining the electromagnetic wave to the area inside the cable. but it is more common now to have a thin foil shield covered by a wire braid. Outdoor applications may require the jacket to resist ultraviolet light and oxidation. They cannot be bent. since it may cause multiple modes with different phase velocities to propagate. as the shield will kink. The shield might be just two braids. However. For internal chassis connections the insulating jacket may be omitted. Those cables cannot take sharp bends. but it also means there are gaps in the shield layer. twisted or otherwise shaped without changing their characteristic impedance. A common choice is PVC. Conventional coaxial cable has braided copper wire forming the shield. They also cannot be run along or attached to anything conductive. It is usually undesirable to transmit signals above the cutoff frequency. Signal propagation Open wire transmission lines have the property that the electromagnetic wave propagating down the line extends into the space surrounding the parallel wires. The outer diameter is roughly inversely proportional to the cutoff frequency. some cables have a double-layer shield. This allows the cable to be flexible.
Coaxial cables require an internal structure of an insulating (dielectric) material to maintain the spacing between the center conductor and shield. Most varieties of hardline used for external chassis or when exposed to the elements have a PVC jacket. air or a pressurized gas such as nitrogen or desiccated air (dried air). braid. as well as a reduced risk of internal arcing. or copper plated aluminum. Smaller varieties of hard
. typically at least a half inch or 13 mm and up to several times that. polyethylene foam. copper plating provides sufficient surface for an effective conductor. multistranded conductors or a corrugated tube as a conductor) and impurities especially oxygen in the metal (due to a lack of a protective coating). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In typical applications the loss in polyethylene is comparable to the ohmic loss at 1 GHz and the loss in PTFE is comparable to ohmic losses at 10 GHz. It is further increased by impurities like water. or antenna to receiver applications. vacuum. provides a stable dielectric constant. These large scale hard lines are almost always used in the connection between a transmitter on the ground and the antenna or aerial on a tower. lateral: current hot spots. superconductor. Hard line can be very thick. or Cablewave (RFS/Cablewave). It is further increased by rough surface (in the order of the skin depth. An inhomogeneous dielectric needs to be compensated by a noncircular conductor to avoid current hot-spots. Hard line is used in broadcasting as well as many other forms of radio communication. In gas-charged lines. Although in the microwave region waveguide is more often used than hard line for transmitter to antenna. Therefore all connections must be air and water tight. Since skin effect is an issue with RF. copper. A low dielectric constant allows for a greater center conductor: less ohmic losses. military transmitters. The dielectric in hard line may consist of polyethylene foam. and has low loss even at high power. The dielectric losses increase in this order: Ideal dielectric (no loss). or pipe. Some lower quality hard line may use aluminum shielding. as well as high powered Amateur radio applications but may also be used on some critical lower powered applications such as those in the microwave bands. others may use a corrugated tubing which makes bending easier. The ohmic losses in the conductor increase in this order: Ideal conductor (no loss). some forms use rigid tubing. silver. The addition of these gases into the dielectric space reduces moisture contamination. longitudinal: long current path) for example due to woven braid. aluminum however is easily oxidized and unlike silver or gold oxide. however. Hard line may also be known by trademarked names such as Heliax (Andrew). some internal applications may omit the insulation jacket. air.
Types Hard line is often confused with waveguide but the two are not the same. wound foil. woven tape. Litz wire is used between 1 kHz and 1 MHz to reduce ohmic losses. hard plastics such as nylon are used as spacers to separate the inner and outer conductors. and solid polyethylene. silver or gold tubing or a combination of such metals as a shield. aluminum oxide drastically loses effective conductivity. as well as reduces kinking when the cable is bent to conform. Larger varieties of hardline may consist of a center conductor which is constructed from either rigid or corrugated copper tubing. It is a coaxial cable constructed using round copper. The various shields used in hardline also differ. Gas-filled hardlines are usually used on high powered RF transmitters such as television or radio broadcasting. The center conductor may consist of solid copper.The outer conductor can also be made of (in order of decreasing leakage and in this case degree of balance): double shield.
This type of coax offers superior screening compared to cables with a braided outer conductor. T1/E1. satellite). twisted pair within a cylindrical shield. Biax is used in some proprietary computer networks. and is not intended to be flexed after initial forming. particularly in equipment within the microwave range. This type of cable is to provide a tuned bi-directional "desired" leakage effect between transmitter and receiver. It is often used in elevator shafts. Biaxial cable or biax is a figure-8 configuration of two 50 coaxial cables. to reduce interference between stages of the device. especially at higher frequencies. "Plain" or "house" wire is designed for indoor or external house wiring. They used to be common for implementing computer networks. is not very flexible. externally resembling that of lamp cord. The outer shield. but twisted pair cables have replaced them in most applications except in the growing consumer cable modem market for broadband Internet access. "Flooded" cable is infused with heavy waterproofing for use in underground conduit (ideally) or direct burial. Twin-axial cable or twinax is a balanced. in ham radio setups. however it is constructed with tuned slots cut into the shield. and this purpose consumes the majority of coaxial cable production. Long distance coaxial cable is used to connect radio networks and television networks. Radiating or Leaky Cable is another form of coaxial cable which is constructed in a similar fashion to hardline. transportation tunnels and in other areas where an antenna is not feasible. or speaker wire. (See "hard line")
Short coaxial cables are commonly used to connect home video equipment. Triaxial cable or triax is coaxial cable with a third layer of shielding. Semi-rigid cable is a coaxial form using a solid copper outer sheath. and in measurement electronics. It still carries cable television signals to the majority of television receivers. in particular Ethernet. insulation and sheathing. Others may be familiar with 75 biax which at one time was popular on many cable TV services. underground. as its name implies. One example of this type of cable is Radiax (Andrew) RG/6 is available in three different types designed for various applications. though this has largely been superseded by other more high-tech methods (fibre optics. It allows a nearly perfect differential signal which is both shielded and balanced to pass through. "Messenger" may contain some waterproofing but is distinguished by the addition of a steel messenger wire along its length to carry the tension involved in an aerial drop from a utility pole. Multiconductor coaxial cable is also sometimes used. The major disadvantage is that the cable. protects the inner shield from electromagnetic interference from outside sources.
. which is earthed (grounded).line may be used internally in some high frequency applications. These slots are tuned to the specific RF wavelength of operation or tuned to a specific radio frequency band.
or reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging applications. The most common impedances that are widely used are 50 or 52 ohms. because its component hydrogen (hydronium) and hydroxyl ions can diffuse into the fiber. to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. Finally. military equipment. These layers add strength to the fiber but do not contribute to its optical wave guide properties.
FIBRE OPTIC CABLES An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. Twaron or Kevlar). usually plastic. The 50 / 52 ohm cables are widely used for industrial and commercial two-way radio frequency applications (including radio. the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer. although 75 ohms is commonly used for broadcast television and radio. These fiber units are commonly bundled with additional steel strength members. such as construction work or gnawing animals. which may be further surrounded by a jacket layer. In loose-tube construction the fiber is laid helically into semi-rigid tubes. This protects the fiber from tension during laying and due to temperature changes. the cable may be armored to protect it from environmental hazards. surrounding the fiber. with a bundle of flexible fibrous polymer strength members like Aramid (e. This reduces cross-talk between the fibers. Water is kept out of the cable by use of solid barriers such as copper tubes.Micro coaxial cables are used in a range of consumer devices. Design In practical fibers. Each end of the cable may be terminated with a specialized optical fiber connector to allow it to be easily connected and disconnected from transmitting and receiving equipment. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. or more recently water absorbing powder. and also in ultra-sound scanning equipment. A critical concern in cabling is to protect the fiber from contamination by water. water-repellant jelly. commonly called "tight buffer" construction. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-absorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers. For use in more strenuous environments. again with a helical twist to allow for stretching.g. in a lightweight plastic cover to form a simple cable. reducing the fiber's strength and increasing the optical attenuation. a much more robust cable construction is required. Undersea cables are more heavily armored in
. and 75 ohms. the jacketed fiber is generally enclosed. Alternatively the fiber may be embedded in a heavy polymer jacket. and telecommunications). allowing the cable to stretch without stretching the fiber itself. although other impedances are available for specific applications. For indoor applications.
The first satellite equipped with on-board radio-transmitter that worked on two frequences. so the performance of optical networks easily accommodates even today's demands for bandwidth on a point-to-point basis. unused point-to-point potential bandwidth does not translate to operating profits. submarine installation. the first
. for which application of other technologies. lashing to aerial telephone poles. direct relay communications satellite. The first American satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958. For fixed (point-to-point) services. Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor. which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. the 100-foot aluminized PET film balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. 1962. such as cable. NASA launched an Echo satellite in 1960. In recent years the cost of small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high Japanese and South Korean demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) installations. and the French National PTT (Post Office) to develop satellite communication. was the world¶s first active repeater satellite. President Dwight D. communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complementary to that of submarine communication cables. Eisenhower. Courier 1B.
A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsats) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. vehicles. launched in 1957. the British General Post Office. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits. and it is estimated that no more than 1% of the optical fiber buried in recent years is actually 'lit'. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U. designed for applications such as direct burial in trenches. (built by Philco) also launched in 1960.002 MHz was the Soviet Sputnik 1. it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10. and for TV and radio broadcasting. or insertion in paved streets.their near-shore portions to protect them from boat anchors. However. They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships. and even sharks. and installation in conduit. Telstar was the first active. Modern fiber cables can contain up to a thousand fibers in a single cable. other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits. Bell Telephone Laboratories. which may be attracted to the electrical power signals that are carried to power amplifiers or repeaters in the cable. is impractical or impossible.005 and 40. NASA. Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T. Molniya orbits. dual use as power lines.S. 20. fishing gear. planes and hand-held terminals.
launched on August 19. the first television transmission sent over the Pacific Ocean. Clarke. but because it still had north-south motion.
A Low Earth Orbit (LEO) typically is a circular orbit about 400 kilometres above the earth¶s surface and. The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based antennas. building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Poto nik (writing as Herman Noordung) Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums . Japan to the United States. launched on July 26. It was used that same year to relay experimental television coverage on the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground position quickly. The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals.
A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to an earth-based observer.privately sponsored space launch. 1963. Syncom 2 revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed. special equipment was needed to track it. rotating at a 45° angle above the equator. Because of their low altitude. require lower signal strength (Recall that
. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite. The first truly geostationary satellite launched in orbit was the Syncom 3. It was placed in orbit at 180° east longitude. which must be directed toward the satellite. A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over the equator. because of their closer proximity to the ground. the savings in ground equipment can more than justify the extra cost and onboard complexity of lifting a satellite into the relatively high geostationary orbit. Thus Arthur C. In addition. 1964. In October 1945 Clarke published an article titled ³Extra-terrestrial Relays´ in the British magazine Wireless World. Especially for applications that require a large number of ground antennas (such as direct TV distribution). Low earth orbiting satellites are less expensive to position in space than geostationary satellites and. An immediate antecedent of the geostationary satellites was Hughes¶ Syncom 2. So even for local applications. The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. these satellites are only visible from within a radius of roughly 1000 kilometres from the sub-satellite point. Telstar was placed in an elliptical orbit (completed once every 2 hours and 37 minutes). correspondingly. a period (time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes. over the International Date Line.der Raketen-motor. a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires uninterrupted connectivity. can operate effectively without the need for expensive equipment to track the satellite¶s motion.
Diego Garcia.signal strength falls off as the square of the distance from the source. The Iridium system has 66 satellites. The fixed Public Switched Telephone Network relays telephone calls from land line telephones to an earth station. Most satellites used for direct-to-home television in Europe have the same
. was to have over 840 satellites. There are also regions of some continents and countries where landline telecommunications are rare to nonexistent. where no submarine cables are in service. Russia. Satellite phones connect directly to a constellation of either geostationary or low-earth-orbit satellites. This was later scaled back to 288 and ultimately ended up only launching one test satellite. especially in Europe. Canada. Saint Helena. So there is a tradeoff between the number of satellites and their cost. for example large regions of South America.
Television became the main market. Another LEO satellite constellation known as Teledesic. were the Iridium and Globalstar. but they still serve remote islands such as Ascension Island. primarily to remote areas. Two satellite types are used for North American television and radio: Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS). through the use of fiber-optics. A group of satellites working in concert thus is known as a satellite constellation. China. It is also possible to offer discontinuous coverage using a low Earth orbit satellite capable of storing data received while passing over one part of Earth and transmitting it later while passing over another part. Calls are then forwarded to a satellite teleport connected to the Public Switched Telephone Network or to another satellite phone system. and Australia. where they are then transmitted to a geostationary satellite. Improvements in submarine communications cables. and Easter Island. In addition. are a bit more ambiguous. The downlink follows an analogous path. with backing from Microsoft entrepreneur Paul Allen. there are important differences in the onboard and ground equipment needed to support the two types of missions. its demand for simultaneous delivery of relatively few signals of large bandwidth to many receivers being a more precise match for the capabilities of geosynchronous comsats. Another system using this store and forward method is Orbcomm
The first and historically most important application for communication satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony. Satellite communications also provide connection to the edges of Antarctica and Greenland. This will be the case with the CASCADE system of Canada¶s CASSIOPE communications satellite. Two such constellations which were intended for provision for satellite phone services. and Fixed Service Satellite (FSS) The definitions of FSS and DBS satellites outside of North America. so the effect is dramatic). Africa. caused some decline in the use of satellites for fixed telephony in the late 20th century.
such as DirecTV's SPACEWAY-1 satellite. Eutelsat. live shots.6m) or larger for C band). NASA as well has launched experimental satellites using the Ka band recently. and 12 feet (3. and general commercial telecommunications. and for more bandwidth to carry HDTV channels. Galaxy 10R and AMC 3 satellites over North America provide a quite large amount of FTA channels on their Ku band transponders. the Republic of Ireland. the terms FSS and DBS are more so used throughout the North American continent. FSS satellites are also used to distribute national cable channels to cable television headends. It was also used in its Ku band form for the now-defunct Prime star satellite TV service. but this is a minor technical difference that users don't notice. and backhauls). Operating at lower frequency and lower power than DBS. They are normally used for broadcast feeds to and from television networks and local affiliate stations (such as program feeds for network and syndicated programming. as well as being used for distance learning by schools and universities. They use linear polarization for each of the transponders' RF input and output (as opposed to circular polarization used by DBS satellites). Free sat in the UK and Sky Digital in the UK. Direct broadcast satellites generally operate in the upper portion of the microwave Ku band. The American Dish Network DBS service has also recently utilized FSS technology as well for their programming packages requiring their SuperDish antenna.high power output as DBS-class satellites in North America. Because of this. such as DirecTV and DISH Network in the United States. Examples of these are the Astra. and Anik F2. and the lower portions of the Ku bands. business television (BTV). due to Dish Network needing more capacity to carry local television stations per the FCC's "must-carry" regulations. Satellites for communication have nowbeen launched that have transponders in the Ka band. Bell TV And Star Choice in Canada. The Intelsat Americas 5. FSS satellite technology was also originally used for DTH satellite TV from the late 1970s to the early 1990s in the United States in the form of TVRO (TeleVision Receive Only) receivers and dishes. FSS satellites require a much larger dish for reception (3 to 8 feet (1 to 2. DBS technology is used for DTHoriented (Direct-To-Home) satellite TV services.
. and are uncommon in Europe. and Hotbird spacecraft in orbit over the European continent.
Fixed Service Satellite
Fixed Service Satellites use the C band. Free-to-air satellite TV channels are also usually distributed on FSS satellites in the Ku band. and New Zealand.5m) in diameter for Ku band. but use the same linear polarization as FSS-class satellites. Videoconferencing.
Direct broadcast satellite
A direct broadcast satellite is a communications satellite that transmits to small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 to 24 inches or 45 to 60 cm in diameter).
and satellites of the former Soviet Union. and cannot access a broadband connection. Such mobile DBS antennas are also used by JetBlue Airways for DirecTV (supplied by LiveTV. and some also use UHF radio links
After the 1990s. Some manufacturers have also introduced special antennas for mobile reception of DBS television. United Kingdom satellites. Due to the limitations of ground-based amateur equipment.Mobile satellite technologies
Initially available for broadcast to stationary TV receivers. a subsidiary of JetBlue). satellite communication technology has been used as a means to connect to the Internet via broadband data connections. by 2004 popular mobile direct broadcast applications made their appearance with that arrival of two satellite radio systems in the United States: Sirius and XM Satellite Radio Holdings. This can be very useful for users who are located in very remote areas. Some satellites also provide data-forwarding services using the AX. Examples of military systems that use communication satellites are the MILSTAR. NATO satellites. and are generally accessed by amateurs equipped with UHF or VHF radio equipment and highly directional antennas such as Yagis or dish antennas. Many military satellites operate in the X-band. most amateur satellites are launched into fairly low Earth orbits. which passengers can view on-board on LCD screens mounted in the seats.
Amateur radio operators have access to the OSCAR satellites that have been designed specifically to carry amateur radio traffic. Most such satellites operate as space borne repeaters. These mobile satellite antennas are popular with some recreational vehicle owners.25 or similar protocols. Using GPS technology as a reference. these antennas automatically re-aim to the satellite no matter where or how the vehicle (that the antenna is mounted on) is situated. and the FLTSATCOM of the United States. such as Global Command and Control Systems. and are designed to deal with only a limited number of brief contacts at any given time.
Communications satellites are used for military communications applications.