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Biology II Final Exam Review


Chapter Nine: Frontiers of Biotechnology

1. What are restriction enzymes and how do they work? What do we use them for in genetic

Restriction enzymes are DNA-cutting enzymes. Each enzyme recognizes one or a few target
sequences and cuts DNA at or near those sequences. In DNA cloning, restriction enzymes and
DNA ligase are used to insert genes and other pieces of DNA into plasmids. In DNA cloning,
researchers make many copies of a piece of DNA, such as a gene.

2. What is gel electrophoresis and how does it work? What is it used for?

Gel electrophoresis is used to separate macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins. DNA
fragments are separated according to their size. Proteins can be separated according to their size
and their charge (different proteins have different charges). A solution of DNA molecules is
placed in a gel. Because each DNA molecule is negatively charged, it can be pulled through the
gel by an electric field. Small DNA molecules move more quickly through the gel than larger
DNA molecules.

The result is a series of ‘bands’, with each band containing DNA molecules of a particular size.
The bands furthest from the start of the gel contain the smallest fragments of DNA. The bands
closest to the start of the gel contain the largest DNA fragments.

Gel electrophoresis can be used for a range of purposes, for example:

 To get a DNA fingerprint for forensic purposes

 To get a DNA fingerprint for paternity testing
 To get a DNA fingerprint so that you can look for evolutionary relationships among

3. How is DNA fingerprinting done? What can we learn from it?

The procedure for creating a DNA fingerprint consists of first obtaining a sample of cells, such
as skin, hair, or blood cells, which contain DNA. The DNA is extracted from the cells and
purified. In Jeffrey’s original approach, which was based on restriction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP) technology, the DNA was then cut at specific points along the strand
with proteins known as restriction enzymes. The enzymes produced fragments of varying
lengths that were sorted by placing them on a gel and then subjecting the gel to an electric
current (electrophoresis): the shorter the fragment, the more quickly it moved toward the
positive pole (anode). The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments were then subjected to a
blotting technique in which they were split into single strands and transferred to a nylon sheet.
The fragments underwent autoradiography in which they were exposed to DNA probes—pieces
of synthetic DNA that were made radioactive and that bound to the minisatellites. A piece
of X-ray film was then exposed to the fragments, and a dark mark was produced at any point
where a radioactive probe had become attached. The resultant pattern of marks could then be

DNA fingerprinting is a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information-

called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-in a person's cells. It is called a "fingerprint" because it is very
unlikely that any two people would have the same DNA information, in the same way that it is very
unlikely that any two people would have the same physical fingerprint. The test is used to
determine whether a family relationship exists between two people, to identify organisms causing a
disease, and to solve crimes.

4. What are the basic steps in genetic engineering? What is the goal/purpose of genetic

Genetic engineering, also called transformation, works by physically removing a gene from one
organism and inserting it into another, giving it the ability to express the trait encoded by that
gene. It is like taking a single recipe out of a cookbook and placing it into another cookbook.

Genetic engineering is the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to
add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. Examples of genetically
engineered (transgenic) organisms currently on the market include plants with resistance to
some insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides, and crops with modified oil content.

Chapters Ten, Eleven, and Twelve: Evolution

1. What are the four main principles of the theory of evolution by means of natural selection?

(1) Individuals within populations are variable (2) Variation is heritable (3) Organisms differ in
their ability to survive and reproduce (4) Survival & reproduction are non-random

2. Explain how each of these types of evidence supports the theory of evolution by means of
natural selection (including the concept of common ancestry): Fossil evidence,
biogeography, embryology, anatomy, vestigial structures, biochemical evidence (DNA and
protein comparison).

a. Fossil Evidence: The fossil record reveals that, over time, changes have occurred in features
of organisms living on the planet (evolution). Moreover, different kinds of organisms do
not occur randomly but are found in rocks of ages in a consistent order (law of fossil
succession). This suggests that changes to an ancestral species was likely responsible for
the appearance of subsequent species (speciation via evolution)
b. Biogeography describes the distribution of lifeforms over geographical areas, both in past
and present times. Biogeographical distribution supports the theory of evolution as it is
found that closely related species are usually found in close physical proximity to one
another, and that fossils from these regions resemble modern organisms. This suggests that
these species share a common lineage (if speciation was random, distribution would be
expected to be scattered).
c. Studying the growing embryo in animals and plants shows that closely related organisms go
through similar stages of development. All terrestrial animals have non-functional gill slits
(pharyngeal slits) as early embryos (indicating an aquatic origin). Many vertebrates
(including humans) demonstrate a primitive tail at certain stages of embryonic
d. A comparison of the anatomic features of different species provides further evidence of
evolution. The presence of homologous structures and shared embryonic development
between species indicates descent from common ancestors. The presence of analogous
structures and vestigial organs highlight the role of environmental influences in the process
of natural selection.
e. Some organisms show the presence of functionless and reduced remnants of organs that
were once present and functional in their ancestors. Changes to the environment have
rendered these organs redundant and so over time they have lost their functionality. These
structures are called vestigial organs and demonstrate the evolutionary divergence of a
species from a past behavior or activity.
f. Biochemical evidence involves identifying conservation in DNA and protein sequences as a
basis for determining evolutionary relationships. One technique used to enable comparison
is DNA-DNA hybridization is double-stranded, but the strands can be separated with
sufficient heat and will reform (re-anneal) as the temperature falls. Single-stranded DNA
from different species can be mixed together to identify the degree of similarity (as
measured by complementary base pairs). Closely related sequences will join (hybridise)
more strongly as they share more complementary base pairs. The strength of the hybrid
molecule (and degree of similarity) can be measured by how much heat is required to
separate the strands. Closely related (conserved) sequences will have a higher melting
temperature (TM) than distantly related sequences.

3. What is a homologous structure? Homologous structures possess a similar underlying

anatomy because of a shared evolutionary origin, but have evolved into a variety of distinct
forms due to the presence of different selective pressures. An example is the pentadactyl
limb structure in vertebrates, whereby many animals show a common bone composition,
despite the limb being used for different forms of locomotion (e.g. whale fin for swimming,
bat wing for flying, human hand for manipulating tools, horse hoof for galloping, etc.)

How is it different from an analogous structure? Analogous structures are adaptations that
possess similar features and functionality because of exposure to a common selective
pressure, but have different underlying anatomies due to having unrelated evolutionary
origins. An example is the formation of a streamlined body shape in aquatic animals,
regardless of ancestral origin (e.g. sharks are fish, dolphins are mammals, penguins are
birds, etc.). This illustrates convergent evolution as unrelated species have become
structurally more alike due to exposure to shared selection pressures

4. What is the gene pool of a population? The gene pool of a population consists of all the
copies of all the genes in that population. What does allele frequency mean? Allele
frequency refers to how common an allele is in a population. It is determined by counting
how many times the allele appears in the population then dividing by the total number of
copies of the gene.
5. Why is it advantageous for a population to have a large gene pool (i.e. a high degree of
genetic variability)? First, when a population of an organism contains a large gene pool—
that is, if the genetic blueprints of individuals in the population vary significantly—the
group has a greater chance of surviving and flourishing than a population with limited
genetic variability. Why is this so? Because some of the individuals may have inherited
traits making them particularly resistant to disease or tolerant of cold, for example. Or they
may possess other traits that increase their chance for survival. In nature, the "fittest"
individuals succeed and go on to reproduce—Darwin termed this process "natural
selection." Suppose there’s an outbreak of a disease that threatens to wipe out an entire
species. The more genetic variability there is within that species, the higher the likelihood
that at least some of the individuals will be resistant, and will survive.

6. What are some sources of genetic variation? There are three primary sources of genetic
variation: Mutations are changes in the DNA. A single mutation can have a large effect, but
in many cases, evolutionary change is based on the accumulation of many mutations. Gene
flow is any movement of genes from one population to another and is an important source
of genetic variation. Sex can introduce new gene combinations into a population. This
genetic shuffling is another important source of genetic variation.

7. Explain how directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection change the distribution of
characteristics in a population. Stabilizing selection results in a decrease of a population's
genetic variance when natural selection favors an average phenotype and selects against
extreme variations. In directional selection, a population's genetic variance shifts toward a
new phenotype when exposed to environmental changes. Diversifying or disruptive
selection increases genetic variance when natural selection selects for two or more extreme
phenotypes that each have specific advantages. In diversifying or disruptive selection,
average or intermediate phenotypes are often less fit than either extreme phenotype and are
unlikely to feature prominently in a population.

8. What are the five factors that can cause populations to evolve? Genetic mutation is the
production and distribution of trait variations via genetic mutation. Genetic recombination
produces variation by the splitting of a sex cell during its first meiotic division after being
produced by either a male testes or female ovary. Gene flow occurs when members of one
population migrate and interbreed with another population. Genetic drift is produced by
small populations. It is the change of allele frequencies produced by random factors that
results in an increased proportion of certain traits in a small interbreeding population.
Natural Selection is the factor that causes a “directional change in allele frequency” because
of environmental pressures.

9. What is speciation? Speciation is a lineage-splitting event that produces two or more

separate species. Imagine that you are looking at a tip of the tree of life that constitutes a
species of fruit fly. Move down the phylogeny to where your fruit fly twig is connected to
the rest of the tree. That branching point, and every other branching point on the tree, is a
speciation event. At that point, genetic changes resulted in two separate fruit fly lineages,
where previously there had just been one lineage.

10. Explain and give an example of each of these types of reproductive isolation: behavioral,
geographic, and temporal.
Behavioral: Courtship rituals that attract mates and other behaviors unique to a species are
effective reproductive barriers, enabling mate recognition.
Geographic: Two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may
encounter each other rarely, even though they are not isolated by physical barriers.

Temporal: Species that breed during different times of the day, different seasons, or
different years cannot mix their gametes.

11. What are convergent and divergent evolution? Divergent evolution occurs when two
different species share a common ancestor but have different characteristics from one
another. Convergent evolution occurs when two different species do not share a common
ancestor but have developed similar characteristics through adaption to similar
environmental conditions.

12. Describe Stanley Miller and Harold Urey’s experiment on the origin of life. What did they
find? In the 1950's, biochemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey, conducted an experiment
which demonstrated that several organic compounds could be formed spontaneously by
simulating the conditions of Earth's early atmosphere. They designed an apparatus which
held a mix of gases like those found in Earth's early atmosphere over a pool of water,
representing Earth's early ocean. Electrodes delivered an electric current, simulating
lightning, into the gas-filled chamber. After allowing the experiment to run for one week,
they analyzed the contents of the liquid pool. They found that several organic amino acids
had formed spontaneously from inorganic raw materials. These molecules collected
together in the pool of water to form coacervates.

13. Explain the theory of endosymbiosis. Endosymbiotic theory proposes that these organelles
were once prokaryotic cells, living inside larger host cells. The prokaryotes may initially
have been parasites or even an intended meal for the larger cell, somehow escaping

Chapter Seventeen: The Tree of Life

1. Give an example of a scientific name. Name the two parts of the name and describe (in detail)
how we write them. Scientific names are also designed to tell you something about the animal's
relationships with other animals. The scientific name of each species is made up of a generic
name (generic epithet) and a specific name (specific epithet). In our bluegill sunfish example the
generic epithet is Lepomis and the specific epithet is macrochirus. The generic epithet is the
name of the genus (singular of genera) to which bluegill sunfish belong, the genus Lepomis.
Some genera contain only one species but most genera are made up of many species. There are
other species of sunfish in the genus Lepomis, examples are Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish),
Lepomis megalotis (longear sunfish), and Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed sunfish). Notice that
these species share the same generic epithet, this indicates that they are all thought to be more
closely related to each other than to any other species of fish. The genus is the first level of
taxonomic organization, in a way, because all species that are thought to be most closely related,
are placed together in a genus.

2. What is the commonly accepted definition of a species? A species is often defined as a group of
individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature. In this sense, a species is the biggest
gene pool possible under natural conditions.
3. Name the levels of the scientific classification system in order from most general to most
specific? How are the different levels related to one another? Every organism can be classified
at 7 different levels - kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. Each level
contains organisms with similar characteristics. The kingdom is the largest group and very
broad. Each successive group contains fewer organisms, but the organisms are more similar.
The species is the smallest group and is very narrow. Organisms within a species are able to
mate and produce fertile offspring.

4. What (three types) of evidence are used to figure out evolutionary relationships? The three
major types of evidence that organisms have changed over time include fossils, patterns of early
development, and similar body structures. Evolutionary biologists compare organisms to
determine how closely related they are. They do this by comparing body structures,
development in the uterus, and DNA sequences to determine evolutionary relationships.

5. Describe the basic characteristics of each of the three Domains. Archaea, Bacteria, and
Eukarya. Archaea are VERY similar bacteria, they both do not have a cell nucleus (most
importantly), are single celled, but some of them have a different or weird shape. They
reproduce asexually by binary fission ("splitting in half"). Many can survive extreme
temperatures or conditions. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that reproduce by binary fission
and do not have a nucleus. Eukaryota are single- and multicellular organisms, but they all have a
cell nucleus.

6. What kingdoms belong to the Eukarya domain? Describe the characteristics of each kingdom.
The Eukarya domain includes eukaryotes, or organisms that have a membrane bound nucleus.
This domain is further subdivided into the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
Eukaryotes have rRNA that is distinct from bacteria and archaeans. Plant and fungi organisms
contain cell walls that are different in composition than bacteria. Eukaryotic cells are typically
resistant to antibacterial antibiotics. Organisms in this domain include protists, fungi, plants, and
animals. Examples include algae, amoeba, fungi, molds, yeast, ferns, mosses, flowering plants,
sponges, insects, and mammals.

Chapter Eighteen: Viruses and Prokaryotes

1. What are the parts of a virus? All viruses contain nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (but not
both), and a protein coat, which encases the nucleic acid. Some viruses are also enclosed by an
envelope of fat and protein molecules. In its infective form, outside the cell, a virus particle is
called a virion. Each virion contains at least one unique protein synthesized by specific genes in
its nucleic acid. Viroids (meaning "viruslike") are disease-causing organisms that contain only
nucleic acid and have no structural proteins. Other viruslike particles called prions are
composed primarily of a protein tightly integrated with a small nucleic acid molecule.

2. Why is a virus not considered a living organism? Viruses, like bacteria, are microscopic and
cause human diseases. But unlike bacteria, viruses are acellular particles (meaning they aren't
made up of living cells like plants and animals are), consisting instead of a central core of either
DNA or RNA surrounded by a coating of protein. Viruses also lack the properties of living
things: They have no energy metabolism, they do not grow, they produce no waste products,
and they do not respond to stimuli. They also don't reproduce independently but must replicate
by invading living cells.
3. How does a vaccine work? Vaccines are like a training course for the immune system. They
prepare the body to fight disease without exposing it to disease symptoms. When foreign
invaders such as bacteria or viruses enter the body, immune cells called lymphocytes respond
by producing antibodies, which are protein molecules.

4. What are the two domains that include prokaryotes? The Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

5. How do prokaryotes reproduce? Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce asexually

through binary fission. Most prokaryotes reproduce rapidly. ... In the laboratory, a gene can be
transferred into E. coli bacteria on a small, circular DNA molecule called a plasmid. The
plasmid is taken up by the bacteria in a process called transformation.

6. Describe the key structures of a prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic cells lack a defined nucleus, but
have a region in the cell, termed the nucleoid, in which a single chromosomal, circular, double-
stranded DNA molecule is located. Therefore, they do not have a nucleus, but, instead,
generally have a single chromosome: a piece of circular, double-stranded DNA located in an
area of the cell called the nucleoid. Most prokaryotes have a cell wall outside the plasma

Chapter Nineteen: Protists and Fungi

1. What characteristics do all protists have in common? All protists are eukaryotic, meaning they
feature a cellular structure with nuclei to contain their genetic material. Also called protozoans,
which means "first animals," all protists prefer a moist environment and are found where there
is perpetually moist soil or in freshwater and saltwater bodies of water.

2. Describe the basic characteristics of each of these groups of animal-like protists: flagellates,
pseudopodia, cilia, sporozoans. Flagellates have long flagella, or tails. Flagella rotate in a
propeller-like fashion, pushing the protist through its environment. An example of a flagellate
is Trypanosoma, which causes African sleeping sickness. Other protists have what are called
transient pseudopodia, which are like temporary feet. The cell surface extends out to form feet-
like structures that propel the cell forward. An example of a protist with pseudopodia is the
amoeba. The ciliates are protists that move by using cilia. Cilia are thin, very small tail-like
projections that extend outward from the cell body. Cilia beat back and forth, moving the
protist along. Paramecium has cilia that propel it. The sporozoans are protists that produce
spores, such as the toxoplasma. These protists do not move at all. The spores develop into new

3. Describe the key anatomical features of a protist (food vacuole, contractile vacuole, oral
groove). Food vacuole- eat by engulfing food in a food vacuole. Contractile vacuole- adapt to
the aquatic environment by aiding in the removal of excess water. Oral groove- mouth.

4. Describe (and be able to label) the important anatomical features of a fungus. The main body of
most fungi is made up of fine, branching, usually colorless threads called hyphae. - Each
fungus will have vast numbers if these hyphae, all intertwining to make u a tangled web called
the mycelium- The mycelium is generally too fine to be seen by the naked eye, except where
the hyphae are very closely packed together- The picture on the left was taken through a
microscope. - The hyphae are magnified 100 times life size.
5. How do most fungi reproduce? By releasing tiny spores that then sprout and grow into new

6. How do fungi eat/digest food? The hyphae digests food into small organic molecules allowing
the fungi to absorb it.

Chapter Thirteen – Sixteen: Ecology

1. What are the different levels of organization in an ecosystem? organism, population,

community (group of different species living together), ecosystem (all living and nonliving
things in an area), biome (the regional or global community).

2. What is biodiversity? The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.

3. Compare and contrast producers and consumers in terms of how they get energy. Producers:
(autotroph) make their own food by harnessing energy from their *non-living environment, the
way plants use sunshine to make sugars via photosynthesis- Consumers: (heterotroph) obtain
energy from the *living part of their environment (i.e. by eating other organisms) Decomposers
are consumers that break down remains of dead organisms

4. Describe the different types of consumers. - Eats other organisms

- Primary Consumers: eat primary producers; herbivores
- Secondary Consumers: eat primary consumers; carnivores
- Detritivores: eat detritus (unconsumed plants, remains of animals, and waste products)

5. Name the various trophic levels in a food chain/web. Producers, primary consumers, secondary
consumers, and tertiary consumers.

6. What does “matter cycles in an ecosystem” mean? The hydrologic, or water, cycle is the
circular pathway of water on earth.

7. Explain the basic features of the following biogeochemical cycles: water, oxygen, carbon,
nitrogen, phosphorous. Water cycle: up to sky, rains down. Oxygen: carbon dioxide goes
through plants and gets turned into oxygen. Carbon: Carbon is passed from one organism to
another, then the abiotic community, and back to plants. Nitrogen: takes place primarily
underground. Phosphorus: takes place at and below ground level.

8. Explain the pyramids of energy, biomass, and numbers. - Energy pyramid shows the relative
contribution to energy flow made by each trophic level in an ecosystem. - A biomass pyramid
is a diagram that compares the biomass of different trophic levels within and ecosystem. -
Unlike an energy pyramid, which represents energy use. - a biomass pyramid provides a picture
of consumers, the mass of primary consumers required to support secondary consumers.

9. Explain the 10% rule of energy flow in a food web. - 10% of usable energy is transferred to
next trophic level. - 90% lost as heat (2nd law of thermodynamics)

10. What is the difference between a habitat and a niche? Habitat: the general place where an
organism lives niche: describes where the organism lives and how it interacts with its
11. Explain the following types of symbiotic relationships in terms of benefit/harm: mutualism,
commensalism, parasitism. Give an example of each. - Mutualism: organism live in an
obligatory but mutually beneficial relationship- i.e.: dogs and humans.

12. - Commensalism: a relationship between two organisms in which one receives an ecological
benefit while the other one is harmed- i.e.: a fish and a shark- parasitism: relationship like
predation where one organism benefits while the other is harmed- i.e.: tick and a human

13. What are the main factors that change the size of a population over time? Immigration, Births
,Emigration, Deaths

14. What is the carrying capacity of an ecosystem and where on a graph of logistic growth do you
find it? The maximum number of individuals the environment can support It will be along the
top of the graph where it evens out.

15. Explain ecological succession and the difference between primary and secondary succession. -
Primary succession: begins from ground zero. - Secondary succession: usually occurs after a
natural disaster wipes much of the environment out, but some materials remain.

16. What is biomagnifications? Which trophic levels are most impacted by it? Each organism that
eats the bottom level is getting whatever toxins the producers has had. The largest animals are
most affected by this (Eat low on the food chain).

17. Why is preservation of biodiversity important? - Moral and aesthetic reasons

Chapters Twenty-three – Twenty-six: Animal Diversity

1. What are the key features that all animals share? 1. Eukaryotes (which means have a
nucleus) 2. Are all multicellular 3. Must obtain food and water 4. Are all Heterotrophs 5.
Have cell membranes; NOT cell walls 6. CAN ALL MOVE!!!! 7. Embryonic Development

2. What are the four characteristics found in all chordates at some point in their life cycle? A
notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits of clefts, and a muscular post anal

Chapters Twenty-eight – Thirty-four: Animal Systems

1. What is homeostasis? What parts of the body are involved in maintaining homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the maintenance (via the body's physiological mechanisms) of relatively
stable conditions within the body's internal environment e.g. conditions such as body
temperature, blood pressure, pH, concentrations of chemicals such as specific hormones in
the blood, etc. despite changes occurring both inside and outside the body e.g. due to eating,
exercise, pregnancy, variations in external conditions, etc.

2. Explain how the major systems of the human body work together to maintain homeostasis.
These chemical signals travel through the circulatory system to organ systems such as the
digestive and muscular systems. ... The endocrine, nervous, and muscular systems work
together and maintain temperature homeostasis.

3. Know the major functions of each of the systems of the human body.

The job of the circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and
hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels, arteries and veins.

The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that together, allow the body
to break down and absorb food, and remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play
a role in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices.

The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood.
These hormones, in turn, travel to different tissues and regulate various bodily functions,
such as metabolism, growth and sexual function.

The immune system is the body's defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that
may be harmful. It includes lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including
B-cells and T-cells), the thymus and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.

The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts and lymph vessels, and also
plays a role in the body's defenses. Its main job is to make is to make and move lymph, a
clear fluid that contains white blood cells, which help the body fight infection. The
lymphatic system also removes excess lymph fluid from bodily tissues, and returns it to the

The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious movement) and
involuntary actions (like breathing), and sends signals to different parts of the body. The
central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system
consists of nerves that connect every other part of the body to the central nervous system.

The body's muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that aid in movement, blood
flow and other bodily functions. There are three types of muscle: skeletal muscle which is
connected to bone and helps with voluntary movement, smooth muscle which is found
inside organs and helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is
found in the heart and helps pump blood.

The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system
includes the penis and the testes, which produce sperm. The female reproductive system
consists of the vagina, the uterus and the ovaries, which produce eggs. During conception, a
sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, which creates a fertilized egg that implants and grows in
the uterus. [Related: Awkward Anatomy: 10 Odd Facts About the Female Body]

Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones that are
connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The skeleton not only helps us move, but it's
also involved in the production of blood cells and the storage of calcium. The teeth are also
part of the skeletal system, but they aren't considered bones.
The respiratory system allows us to take in vital oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in a
process we call breathing. It consists mainly of the trachea, the diaphragm and the lungs.

The urinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea from the body, which is
produced when certain foods are broken down. The whole system includes two kidneys,
two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles and the urethra. Urine produced by the
kidneys travels down the ureters to the bladder, and exits the body through the urethra.

The skin, or integumentary system, is the body's largest organ. It protects us from the
outside world, and is our first defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Our
skin also helps regulate body temperature and eliminate waste through perspiration. In
addition to skin, the integumentary system includes hair and nails.

Vital organs

Humans have five vital organs that are essential for survival. These are the brain, heart,
kidneys, liver and lungs.

The human brain is the body's control center, receiving and sending signals to other organs
through the nervous system and through secreted hormones. It is responsible for our
thoughts, feelings, memory storage and general perception of the world.

The human heart is a responsible for pumping blood throughout our body.

The job of the kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The kidneys take
urea out of the blood and combine it with water and other substances to make urine.

The liver has many functions, including detoxifying of harmful chemicals, breakdown of
drugs, filtering of blood, secretion of bile and production of blood-clotting proteins.

The lungs are responsible for removing oxygen from the air we breathe and transferring it
to our blood where it can be sent to our cells. The lungs also remove carbon dioxide, which
we exhale.

Chapters Twenty – Twenty-two: Plants

1. List and describe adaptations that plants have evolved to survive on land. Be sure to note
which types of plants have each adaptation. Also describe the challenges faced by plants on
land that caused them to evolve each adaptation. land plants have made adaptions to retain
moisture, transport water and other resources between plant parts, grow up right, and reproduce
without free-standing water. (Read additional notes in your text).

2. Describe the key characteristics of each of the four main plant groups (nonvascular plants,
seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms). Describe the sub-groups that belong to
each plant group and give examples of each. Study your plant organization chart and plant
diversity lab. (bryophytes) seedless, live in damp forests don't have vascular systems and they
rely on seeds. -liverworts -hornworts-mosses. Seedless: have a vascular system but they also
rely on water for reproduction. -club mosses (phylum lyccophyta)-ferns (phylum pterophyte).
Angiosperms: flowers protect a plants gametes and fertilized egg, the fruit is the mature ovary
of a flower-dicots-foxglove-oak-monocots-wheat-iris-big blue stem

3. How does each type of plant disperse to new habitats (i.e. seed vs. spore)? Seed dispersal is the
movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Plants have very limited mobility
and consequently rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their propagules,
including both abiotic and biotic vectors. Seeds can be dispersed away from the parent plant
individually or collectively, as well as dispersed in both space and time. The patterns of seed
dispersal are determined in large part by the dispersal mechanism and this has important
implications for the demographic and genetic structure of plant populations, as well as
migration patterns and species interactions. There are five main modes of seed dispersal:
gravity, wind, ballistic, water, and by animals. Some plants are serotinous and only disperse
their seeds in response to an environmental stimulus.

4. How do flowers and fruits allow angiosperms to grow in a wider variety of land habitats? a
seed consists of a protective coat that contains a plant embryo and a food supply. a seed can
survive for many months, or even years, in a dormant state. During this time, the seed can
withstand harsh conditions that might kill an adult plant.

5. What is the main function of the leaves of a tree? To photosynthesize.

6. What is the purpose of stomates and guard cells in a leaf? Regulate water loss by opening and
closing the stomata. Transpiration.

7. What are the main “ingredients” for photosynthesis? (Hint: there are three of them.) How does
each of these ingredients get into the leaf where photosynthesis occurs? Water, C02 and
sunlight. Water through the roots Co2- leaves

All Chapters -- Science Skills

1. Know the steps of the Scientific Method.

2. Be able to identify the parts of a controlled experiment such as: independent (experimental)
variable, dependent variable, controlled variables, control group.
3. Be able to read and interpret data presented in a graph.
4. Be able to construct a graph from a set of data including: appropriate title, labeled axes
(with units), even scale, points plotted, lines connecting data points.