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Introduction:

The earth is unique because it is only known planet that


supports life. The earth’s surface consists of only both
land and water. A blanket of air is surrounding the earth.
It is inhabited of living organism, both plants and animals.
The environment on the earth consists of only three
realms, namely land or lithosphere, water or hydrosphere,
and air or atmosphere. All these three domains combine to
form the life-giving domain of the earth, called the
biosphere. The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact
between land, water, and air where life exists.
Lithosphere:
The surface of the earth is made up of solid rock and soil
is called the crust or lithosphere. The lithosphere,
sometimes called the geosphere, refers to all of the rocks
of the earth. It includes the planet's mantle and crust, the
two outermost layers. It comprises the seven continents
and the rocky ocean beds. The actual thickness of the
lithosphere varies considerably and can range from
roughly 40 km to 280 km. The lithosphere ends at the
point when the minerals in the earth's crust begin to
demonstrate viscous and fluid behaviors. The exact depth
at which this happens depends on the chemical
composition of the earth, and the heat and pressure acting
upon the material.
Continents are large land masses on the surface of the
earth. They are usually separated from each other by
water called oceans. Together the continents and the
ocean floor form the lithosphere. The boulders of Mount
Everest, the sand of Miami Beach and the lava erupting
from Hawaii's Mount Kilauea are all components of the
lithosphere.
Hydrosphere:
The hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found
on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor
planet or natural satellite. It occupies about 71 per cent of
the earth’s surface, which is why the earth is also called
the watery planet. The hydrosphere
It has been estimated that there are 1386 million cubic
kilometers of water on Earth. This includes water in liquid
and frozen forms in groundwater, oceans, lakes and
streams. Saltwater accounts for 97.5% of this
amount. Fresh water accounts for only 2.5%. Of this fresh
water, 68.9% is in the form of ice and permanent snow
cover in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and mountain glaciers.
30.8% is in the form of fresh groundwater.
The hydrological cycle transfers water from one state or
reservoir to another. Reservoirs include atmospheric
moisture (snow, rain and clouds), streams, oceans, rivers,
lakes, groundwater, subterranean aquifers, polar ice caps
and saturated soil. Solar energy, in the form of heat and
light (insulation), and gravity cause the transfer from one
state to another over periods from hours to thousands of
years. Most evaporation comes from the oceans and is
returned to the earth as snow or rain. Sublimation refers to
evaporation from snow and ice. Transpiration refers to the
expiration of water through the minute pores or stomata
of trees. Transpiration is the term used by hydrologists in
reference to the three processes together, transpiration,
sublimation and evaporation.

Atmosphere:
An atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or
other material body, is held in place by the gravity of that
body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the
gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the
atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth is mostly
composed of nitrogen about 78%, oxygen about
21%, argon about 0.9% with carbon dioxide and other
gases in trace amounts. Oxygen is used by
most organisms for respiration, nitrogen is fixed by
bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the
construction of nucleotides and amino acids and
dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyan bacteria
for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps protect living
organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet
radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays. Its current
composition is the product of billions of years of
biochemical modification of the pale atmosphere by
living organisms.
Troposphere:
The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's
atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather takes
place. It contains approximately 75% of the
atmosphere's mass and 99% of the total mass of water
vapor and aerosols. The lowest part of the troposphere,
where friction with the Earth's surface influences air flow,
is the planetary boundary layer. This layer is typically a
few hundred meters to 2 km (1.2 mi) deep depending on
the landform and time of day. The tropopause is
an inversion layer, where the air temperature ceases to
decrease with height and remains constant through its
thickness.
Stratosphere:
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's
atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below
the mesosphere. About 20% of the atmosphere's mass is
contained in the stratosphere. The stratosphere
is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher and
cooler layers closer to the Earth. The increase of
temperature with altitude is a result of the absorption of
the Sun's ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer.
Temperature vary within the
stratosphere with the polar night
winter
Mesosphere:
The mesosphere is the layer of
the Earth's atmosphere that is
directly above the stratosphere
and directly below the mesopause.
In the mesosphere, temperature
decreases as the altitude increases.
The upper boundary of the
mesosphere is the mesopause,
which can be the coldest naturally
occurring place on Earth with
temperatures below −143 °C. The
exact upper and lower boundaries of
the mesosphere vary with latitude
and with season, but the lower
boundary of the mesosphere is
usually located at heights of about
50 kilometers above the Earth's
surface and the mesopause is
usually at heights near 100
kilometers except at middle and high latitudes in summer
where it descends to heights of about 85 kilometers.
Thermosphere:
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere
directly above the mesosphere. The exosphere is above
that but is a minor layer of the atmosphere. Within this
layer of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation causes
photo ionization of molecules, creating ions in the
ionosphere. The radiative properties of UV rays cause an
imbalance of positive and negative energy, creating ions.
The thermosphere begins about 85 kilometers above the
Earth. Temperatures are highly dependent on solar
activity, and can rise to 2,000 °C. Radiation causes the
atmosphere particles in this layer to become electrically
charged enabling radio waves to be refracted and thus be
received beyond the horizon.
Exosphere:
The exosphere is a thin, atmosphere-like volume
surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules
are gravitational bound to that body, but where the
density is too low for them to behave as a gas
by colliding with each other. In the case of bodies with
substantial atmospheres, such as Earth's atmosphere,
the exosphere is the uppermost layer, where the
atmosphere thins out and merges with interplanetary
space. It is located directly above the thermosphere.
Biosphere:
The biosphere also known as the ecosphere is the
worldwide sum of all ecosystems. The two joined words
are "bio" and "sphere". It can also be termed as the zone
of life on Earth, a closed system and largely self-
regulating. By the most general biophysiological
definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system
integrating all living beings and their relationships,
including their interaction with the elements of
the lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.