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Contents

8COVER STORY
Purchasing Lubricants Based on Performance
Learn the pros and cons of using a specification system to purchase lubricants, how to launch such a system and
make it work, and how to handle exceptions.
November-December 2013

2 AS I SEE IT
Demand ‘Reliability Readiness’
from Equipment Builders
34 OIL ANALYSIS
6 Ways to Maximize Your
Oil Analysis Software Value
Reliability should have shared responsibility. It must be fixed in the DNA Selecting the proper oil analysis software and maximizing its features
of the machine as well as in the minds of operators and maintainers. can provide a huge payback for the user through reduced machinery

6
maintenance expenses.

44
FROM THE FIELD
How Lubricant Suppliers Impact LESSONS IN LUBRICATION
Machine Reliability Anatomy of an Oil Analysis Report
Plants often don’t take into account the effect that the lubricant In order to properly interpret an oil analysis report and make sense
of all the test data, you must understand a few important principles.

56
supplier can have on machine reliability. If left unchecked, the results
can be catastrophic.

16
CERTIFICATION NEWS
LUBE-TIPS World-Class Reliability Starts
Our readers offer excellent advice on a host of lubrication-related with a Solid Foundation
issues, including safety tips for oil storage areas. Technicians are the human foundation of any reliability-improve-

18
ment program and should be respected and supported in their
TURBINE LUBRICATION professional development.
Hydrodynamic Cleaning and Flushing
of Turbine Oil Systems
Discover how the technology of hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing
of oil systems can be an effective method of preparing new oil systems
60 HYDRAULICS
Become an Expert through Certification
Getting certified and holding multiple certifications demonstrates
that you take your career seriously and can be the key component to
and restoring operated oil systems.

28
increasing your worth to your employer.

GREASES
Using a Grind Gage for In-Service Grease Analysis
A quick and simple field test utilizing a fineness of grind gage can
provide immediate results on the overall contamination of grease.
62 BACK PAGE BASICS
How to Change Your Lubrication Culture
Changing your facility’s lubrication culture may take time, patience
and commitment, but the rewards will be well worth the effort.

More Editorial Features


40 GET TO KNOW
Departments
14 PRODUCT NEWS
32 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
42 CROSSWORD PUZZLER
52 NOW ON MACHINERYLUBRICATION.COM 26 PRODUCT SUPERMARKET 54 BOOKSTORE
Maintenance and Reliability

AS I SEE IT JIM FITCH NORIA CORPORATION

Demand ‘RELIABILITY
READINESS’ from
Equipment BUILDERS
When it comes to modern concepts Users not only have a significant influence on • Design for functional robustness
in the field of lubrication and machine reliability during operation but also (functional design, material selection,
applied tribology, many users these days are by what is being done (or not done) by lab and field testing)
far more sophisticated than those who are equipment builders to “ready” machines for • Design for optimum maintainability by
designing and building the machines they optimum reliability. They want the machine’s the user (ease and effectiveness)
operate. This lack of sophistication by orig- design to have an implanted genetic code • Quality manufacturing to reduce defects
inal equipment manufacturers (OEMs) is that enables reliability. and other anomalies (e.g., Six Sigma)
very evident when you see what’s not Users define what’s expected from OEMs • Provide a documented equipment
included with the sale of new machinery. and the machines they deliver. Of course, maintenance plan (EMP) (see sidebar
One could assume that what’s missing from meeting the minimum required operating on page 3)
the machine and its documentation is func- performance is a basic need of every
• Training and education of field-service
tionally missing from the knowledge and machine, but prolonged sustainability of
technicians, operators and main-
awareness of the engineers and builders of that performance is also important. This is tainers to execute the EMP
this equipment. Ignorance is not bliss. The not simply a matter of quality manufacturing
same is true for complacency. to a design specification in order to avoid Developing Reliability Readiness
Reliability needs to have shared responsi- defects. From the standpoint of reliability, Investments in machine reliability should
bility. It must be fixed in the DNA of the it’s more about including design features be purposeful. Certainly, there will be costs
machine as well as in the minds of operators that have little to do with the machine’s and even risks associated with reliability
and maintainers. It’s like a reliability chain; functional performance. At first, this may initiatives. You aren’t trying to maximize
every link in the chain must be equally strong seem unnecessary and wasteful, but when reliability but rather optimize it in the
in order for the chain’s full length to bear the viewed over a timespan of several years, context of the user organization. OEMs
load. Machinery Lubrication magazine is these “extra features” could translate to must be keenly aware of how their machines
primarily devoted to advanced concepts in huge financial benefits. will be deployed, the operating environ-
lubrication from a user’s perspective, more In sum, OEMs can achieve machine reli- ment and the minimum needs for reliability.
specifically lubrication-enabled reliability. ability in the following ways (used collectively): Ideally, they should follow these steps:

MAINTAINABILITY STABILIZED ADEQUATE AND


MACHINE DESIGN CORRECT LUBRICANT CONTAMINATION SUSTAINED
FEATURES LUBRICANT HEALTH CONTROL LUBRICANT SUPPLY
Seals and Leakage
Avoids lubricant Reduces the severity of
Use of labyrinth and
distress from contaminant ingression Reduces leakage-induced
other premium seal N/A
contamination and (dirt, water, process starvation
technologies
low lubricant levels chemicals, etc.)

Reduces excessive Reduces the ingress of


Proper selection and May reduce leakage,
heat, churning and certain contaminants
installation of bearing N/A starvation and
contaminant-induced including heat, water
seals and shields overlubrication issues
grease degradation and dirt

2| November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Machinery
Lubrication
PUBLISHER
Mike Ramsey - mramsey@noria.com

GROUP PUBLISHER
Brett O’Kelley - bokelley@noria.com

Topics for a Machine Lubrication Manual EDITOR-IN-CHIEF


Jason Sowards - jsowards@noria.com

SENIOR EDITOR
• Detailed and illustrated lubrication procedures (oil change, grease change, grease Jim Fitch - jfitch@noria.com
addition, oil top-up, etc.)
TECHNICAL WRITERS
• Detailed and illustrated flushing procedures and listing of suitable fluids for flushing Jeremy Wright - jwright@noria.com
Wes Cash - wcash@noria.com
• Oil change interval/regrease interval Bennett Fitch - bfitch@noria.com
Loren Green - lgreen@noria.com
• List of all lube points
• Recommended lubricants (performance specification) for all lube points and CREATIVE DIRECTOR
Ryan Kiker - rkiker@noria.com
operating conditions (speeds, loads, etc.)
GRAPHIC ARTISTS
• Brand/type cross-reference for all lubricants Julia Backus - jbackus@noria.com
• Equipment storage protection practices/products, including the use of fogging Terry Kellam - tkellam@noria.com
Josh Couch - jcouch@noria.com
agents, shaft extension sprays, breathers and vapor-phase rust inhibitors Patrick Clark - pclark@noria.com
• Contamination control guidelines including target cleanliness/dryness needs ADVERTISING SALES
Tim Davidson - tdavidson@noria.com
• Run-in procedures for gears and similar equipment 800-597-5460, ext. 224
• Seal compatibility information for system lubricants and other fluids
MEDIA PRODUCTION MANAGER
• Frequency and procedural information for all necessary PMs and inspections Ally Katz - akatz@noria.com

• Comprehensive oil analysis and other condition-based maintenance guidelines CORRESPONDENCE


You may address articles, case studies,
special requests and other correspondence to:
Editor-in-chief
1. Determine the overall machine criticality. This While this is the critical beginning of the reli- MACHINERY LUBRICATION
Noria Corporation
process weighs both the probability of failure ability life cycle, there are many stages that follow 1328 E. 43rd Court • Tulsa, Oklahoma 74105
and the consequences of failure. For more to the end of the machine’s life. These stages are Phone: 918-749-1400 Fax: 918-746-0925
described at http://www.machinerylubrication. Email address: jsowards@noria.com
information on quantifying machine criticality,
see http://www.machinerylubrication.com/ com/Read/2471/reliability-engineers-holistic-phy-
Read/29346/machinery-criticality-analysis. sicians-of-machine-care. Again, this article
2. Rank the most likely failure modes. This is addresses only the first design stage.
MACHINERY LUBRICATION Volume 13 - Issue 6 November-December
2013 (USPS 021-695) is published bimonthly by Noria Corporation,
often done using failure modes effects anal-
ysis (FMEA). If you don’t know how the Designing for Maintainability 1328 E. 43rd Court, Tulsa, OK 74105-4124. Periodicals postage paid at
Tulsa, OK and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send
address changes and form 3579 to MACHINERY LUBRICATION, P.O.
Maintainability is typically defined as the BOX 47702, Plymouth, MN 55447-0401. Canada Post International
machine is likely to fail, you won’t know how Publications Mail Product (Canadian Distribution) Publications Mail
ease, economy, safety and accuracy with which
to control it. Criticality defines the risk, while Agreement #40612608. Send returns (Canada) to BleuChip Interna-
tional, P.O. Box 25542, London, Ontario, N6C 6B2.
the necessary maintenance of a machine can be
FMEA reveals the de-risking opportunities
effectively undertaken. When machines are SUBSCRIBER SERVICES: The publisher reserves the right to accept or
that bring focus and strategy to reliability. reject any subscription. Send subscription orders, change of address and
designed and built for optimized maintainability, all subscription-related correspondence to: Noria Corporation, P.O. Box
47702, Plymouth, MN 55447. 800-869-6882 or Fax: 866-658-6156.
3. Based on criticality and FMEA, develop the many benefits are realized including:
specific attributes of the optimum reference Copyright © 2013 Noria Corporation. Noria, Machinery Lubrication
• Increased reliability and associated logos are trademarks of Noria Corporation. All rights
state (ORS). As described previously in reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium
without express written permission of Noria Corporation is prohibited.
Machinery Lubrication magazine, the ORS is • Lower overall costs of enabling reliability Machinery Lubrication is an independently produced publication of
Noria Corporation. Noria Corporation reserves the right, with respect to
defined as the prescribed state of machine • Decreased time to complete maintenance tasks submissions, to revise, republish and authorize its readers to use the tips
and articles submitted for personal and commercial use. The opinions
configuration, operating conditions and • Fewer maintenance errors of those interviewed and those who write articles for this magazine are
not necessarily shared by Noria Corporation.
maintenance activities required to achieve • Reduced maintenance injuries
CONTENT NOTICE: The recommendations and information provided in
and sustain specific reliability objectives. In Machinery Lubrication and its related information properties do not
• Less training required to perform tasks purport to address all of the safety concerns that may exist. It is the respon-
the context of this article, the ORS defines the sibility of the user to follow appropriate safety and health practices. Further,
need for equipment modifications and acces- • Improved troubleshooting effectiveness Noria does not make any representations, warranties, express or implied,
regarding the accuracy, completeness or suitability of the information or
sories that optimize the state of lubrication. In seeking lubrication-enabled reliability (LER), recommendations provided herewith. Noria shall not be liable for any inju-
ries, loss of profits, business, goodwill, data, interruption of business, nor
for incidental or consequential merchantability or fitness of purpose, or
damages related to the use of information or recommendations provided.

Every link in the chain must be equally strong in order for the chain’s full length to bear the load.
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 |3
AS I SEE IT

the vast majority of the opportunity comes from paying close attention 1. Correct lubricant in use (meets reliability objectives)
to the “Big Four.” These are vital attributes to the optimum reference
state needed to achieve lubrication excellence. The “Big Four” individu- 2. Stabilized lubricant health (physical and chemical properties)
ally and collectively influence the state of lubrication and are largely 3. Contamination control
controllable by machinery maintainers, especially if a machine is
designed and built for optimum maintainability. The “Big Four” are: 4. Adequate and sustained lubricant level/supply

MAINTAINABILITY ADEQUATE AND


MACHINE DESIGN CORRECT STABILIZED CONTAMINATION SUSTAINED
FEATURES LUBRICANT LUBRICANT HEALTH CONTROL LUBRICANT SUPPLY
General Lubrication System Maintainability
Optimum selection/use
Enables consistent and
of a lubrication device May help stabilize May help reduce the ingress
N/A sufficient supply of healthy
(spray, mist, circulation, lubricant health and removal of contaminants
and clean lubricant
grease, bath, etc.)
Type on machine
Lubricant type Lower risk of mixed,
matches type on N/A N/A
identification labels incompatible lubricants
lubricant package
Water, sediment and other
Reduced residual,
Fully swept (purged) drain low-lying contaminants are
N/A degraded oil (previous oil) N/A
sump bottoms swept out during drains
from last oil change
(minimal fishbowl effect)
Reduced oil aeration and
Return-line diffusers and Reduced aeration Fewer oil starvation issues
N/A foaming, enables more efficient
tank baffles prolongs oil life related to aeration and foam
and rapid contaminant settling
Ensures adequate Keeps oil at a stable tem- Reduces the risks of heat
viscosity to perature for optimum service
contamination effects on Ensures proper fluid flow at
Heat exchangers/coolers enable required life and reduces premature
additive depletion (dropout, additive depletion and base cold ambient temperatures
film strength in
oxidation, etc.) oil oxidation
frictional zones
Use of engine prelube Reduces engine dry-starts
N/A N/A N/A
systems causing momentary starvation
Pressure, flow and May indicate lubricant- May indicate heat May signal oil flow alarm
N/A
temperature sensors damaging conditions contamination causing starvation

Inspection Hardware Maintainability


Sediment, water emulsions,
Bottom sediment and Oil color, clarity, sediment,
Oil color free water, glycol (antifreeze), N/A
water (BS&W) sight glass sludge
biomass, varnish
Bull’s-eye 3-D oil Water emulsions, oil color,
Oil color Oil color, clarity, varnish Oil level, aeration, foam
level gauges aeration, foam
Visual confirmation of
Correct oil level markings N/A N/A N/A
correct oil level
Visual inspection for bath- Visual inspection for bathtub
Helps detect foam/aera-
Easy-open inspection tub rings, floating debris, rings, floating debris, foam,
N/A tion-induced oil starvation
hatches/ports foam, aeration, emulsions, aeration, emulsions, corrosion,
risks
corrosion, varnish varnish
Well-filtered lubricants
Gauges help ensure filters
Pressure differential Gauges help ensure filters are are less likely to cause
are working properly,
gauges on filters (includ- N/A working properly to control the excessive wear on seals,
potentially prolonging
ing engine oil filters) concentration of contaminants which can cause leakage
lubricant service life
and starvation issues
Expanded-metal guards Visible inspection of leakage
Visible inspection of potential
and view windows for N/A N/A areas and lubricant-delivery
contaminant ingression sites
easy inspection methods

4| November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


MAINTAINABILITY ADEQUATE AND
MACHINE DESIGN CORRECT STABILIZED CONTAMINATION SUSTAINED
FEATURES LUBRICANT LUBRICANT HEALTH CONTROL LUBRICANT SUPPLY
Oil Analysis
Properly selected and More accurate oil More accurate oil analysis More accurate oil analysis
More accurate oil analy-
located primary and analysis confirms detects and quantifies the can detect air entrainment
sis confirms the health of
secondary live-zone oil the right lubricant is presence of a range of issues and thermal degrada-
the lubricant
sampling valves in use contaminants tion/wear conditions
May reveal inade- May reveal inadequate
May reveal inadequate May reveal inadequate film
Proper installation of quate film strength film strength in machine
film strength in machine strength in machine fric-
magnetic wear debris from wrong oil in frictional zones from
frictional zones from tional zones from lubricant
inspection plugs machine frictional degraded lubricant
contaminated lubricant starvation
zones (additives, viscosity, etc.)
Sensors can confirm Sensors can detect
Online oil analysis Sensors can report the
the use of the right degrading lubricant N/A
sensors concentration
lubricant properties

Contamination Control Maintainability


Quick-connects for adding Minimal use of funnels,
or draining oil, periodic Contamination control contaminated fill ports, etc.; Simplified oil change and
N/A
portable filtration and prolongs lubricant life contamination control from control of oil level
flushing requirements flushing and filtration
Quality headspace
Reduced contaminant
management (breathers, Reduced water, dirt and
N/A ingression extends oil N/A
headspace purge, process contaminants
service life
dehydration, etc.)
Reduced risk of contami-
Suitable performance, Faster and more effective
Contamination control nant-induced internal and
quality and location N/A removal of damaging
prolongs lubricant life external lubricant leakage
of filters contaminants
causing starvation issues

While it may seem to be an oversimplification to reduce lubrica- Consider having the specification carefully reviewed by an
tion excellence to just four basic objectives, as a practical matter, outside lubrication consultant, especially for the most reliability-
not much else is required. See the tables on pages 2, 4 and 5 to critical machines. Remember that the cost of retrofitting needed
learn how machine maintainability can be applied in the context of maintainability hardware will be many times the cost of the same
the Big Four. hardware when installed at the factory (as part of the original
bill-of-material).
Role of Buyers/Purchasing Conversely, buying machines stripped to the bones in an attempt
Before buying new machinery, an engineering specification to reduce costs is almost always false economy. The astute reli-
should be carefully and thoroughly developed. Engineers charged ability professional views new equipment in terms of the cost of
with writing these specifications should be educated on modern ownership, not simply the cost of purchase. Most important is the
concepts in machinery lubrication. Simply working as an engi- overall machine reliability, which includes repair costs but also
neer or having an engineering degree alone does not qualify. equipment utilization (uptime), maintainability (PMs, inspections,
Instead, training by leading consultants and instructors is etc.), safety and other factors. All of these should drive the business
strongly advised. decision to invest in reliability readiness.
Training should be followed by certification compliant to ISO About the Author
18436-4 and similar standards. Noria recommends that engineering Jim Fitch has a wealth of “in the trenches” experience in lubrication,
specifications for new equipment only be written by professionals oil analysis, tribology and machinery failure investigations. Over the past
with Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level II and III certification two decades, he has presented hundreds of courses on these subjects.
credentials. A specification should address many, if not all, of the Jim has published more than 200 technical articles, papers and publica-
maintainability features shown in the preceding tables. It must also tions. He serves as a U.S. delegate to the ISO tribology and oil analysis
address hardware and design features that are not permitted. These working group. Since 2002, he has been director and board member of
might include ring oilers, drip oilers, screen filters, snorkel vents, the International Council for Machinery Lubrication. He is the CEO and
high-watt-density tank heaters, long pump suction lines, etc. a co-founder of Noria Corporation. Contact Jim at jfitch@noria.com.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 |5


Lubrication Programs

JEREMY WRIGHT | NORIA CORPORATION


FROM THE
FIELD
How LUBRICANT
SUPPLIERS Impact
Machine RELIABILITY

62%
Plants often do not take into account the effect that the kept (even when in the sealed
lubricant supplier can have on machine reliability. If left drum), the longer it will last.
unchecked, the results can be catastrophic. If you can witness the handling
You might be surprised what you can learn from a quick visit to and transferring of lubricants
your lubricant supplier. Does your supplier know your reliability during your supplier visit, watch
and lubrication goals? How can suppliers help you succeed if they for instances of cross-contamina- of lubrication professionals
have no idea that you are playing for the same team? tion. Make sure that all transport never visit their lubricant
supplier, according to a
Supplier audits are a small part of Noria’s service offerings. In lines are product-dedicated or at
recent survey at Machinery-
this article, I will share a few key tips that have been learned over the least flushed well between uses. Lubrication.com
years so you can be better informed when visiting your supplier. For bulk incoming transfers,
I like to use a simple checklist when conducting a supplier audit. It check if samples are taken to verify compliance for both properties
helps remind me to be vigilant on key practices and physical attri- and performance. These samples should be kept on record for at
butes that are associated with the optimum reference state of least six months. Also, see if you can find current seals on all meters
handling lubricants. I usually start with an overview of the storage showing calibrations within the last year.
facility and how lubricants are handled. The first observation should In the packaging area of the plant, you will want to make certain
be related to the identification of lubricant-handling equipment. Are that at a minimum the supplier is filtering the incoming oil through a
all lines and tanks clearly marked for a specific lubricant? If not, the 60-mesh screen. Again, confirm that meters and scales are up to date
likelihood of cross-contamination becomes significantly higher. on their calibration. Inspect the condition of the drums prior to being
The warehouse should also be in good condition. It must be free filled. Are they reconditioned? If so, what processes do they have in
of spilled oil, settled water and dust. The building should be place to prevent clean oil from being put into a dirty drum?
enclosed and, if possible, climate-controlled. All products should Ensure that the empty drum inventory is stored appropriately as
be in sealed containers, stored indoors away from direct sunlight well. Every particle that contaminates the drum from this point will
and not allowed to collect rain water on the top edge. have an effect on your program. You will either have to remove it
The inventory in the warehouse should be rotated so that the oldest through filtration or suffer the consequences of particle contamina-
containers are being used first, while the newest containers are sent to tion in your machine. Keep in mind that the cleaner the supplier can
the back. Remember that the cleaner, cooler and drier the lubricant is keep the oil, the less time, energy and money you will have to spend
later in its life cycle to get it to an acceptable level for your machines.
Your lubrication knowledge will be a tremendous asset when
visiting your supplier. If you are not confident in your knowledge,
5 Tips for Dealing with Your just remember “clean, cool and dry.” Look at everything with this in
Lubricant Supplier mind and ask yourself if the lubricant is being kept as clean, cool
and dry as possible. You then will have your answer as to how well
1. Audit your oil supplier routinely. your supplier is helping you achieve your reliability initiatives.
2. Establish clear parameters and work with suppliers to help About the Author
them achieve the improvements that are necessary. Jeremy Wright is vice president of technical services for Noria
Corporation. He serves as a senior technical consultant for Lubrication
3. Expect the lubricant supplier to conform to new, higher- Program Development projects and as a senior instructor for Noria’s
quality expectations. Fundamentals of Machinery Lubrication and Advanced Machinery
4. Include mill mechanics and lube technicians in the process. Lubrication training. He is a certified maintenance reliability profes-
sional through the Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals,
5. Provide training to reinforce the necessity and benefit of and holds Machine Lubricant Analyst Level III and Machine Lubrication
the new measures. Technician Level II certifications through the International Council for
Machinery Lubrication. Contact Jeremy at jwright@noria.com.
6| November b 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
b - December hi l b i i
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 |7
ML COVER STORY

8| November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Purchasing
Performance
Lubricants Based on

BY THOMAS L. L ANTZ , L ANTZ CONSULTING SERVICES

Lubricants initially arrive in industrial plants usually via one ification was then written around those test results that could be
of two methods: placed out for bid by the purchasing department. If a lower bid was
1. New equipment generally comes with a “lubricant list” from received, the competitor was asked to submit a sample to an inde-
the equipment supplier with a few recommendations for each pendent lab to verify a few very important requirements. If
application. Brand names are typically listed, a selection is successful, the lowest bidder was awarded the business for a
made and, if it works satisfactorily, it is chosen. specific period.
Lubricants are unique in that objective lab tests are available to
2. Maintenance personnel express concern to a supplier or a
the user that will predict field performance. Very few maintenance
competitor about a lubricant’s performance, and a change
products have this advantage.
is made.
This article will outline the pros and cons of using a specification
There are other ways lubricants are acquired, but in each case,
system, how to launch such a system and make it work, and how to
maintenance personnel don’t know why a product does or does not
work; they simply accept the outside expert’s opinion. In these situ- handle exceptions. If a company’s lubricant purchases are substan-
ations, maintenance workers may not realize there are several tial and could benefit from a 10- to 15-percent reduction in costs,
products in the plant with different brand names but similar char- this system may offer an advantage while assuring only the highest
acteristics. They may be unknowingly contributing to the quality lubricants are used in the equipment.
proliferation of products in the plant. Without understanding what
makes the products work, the maintenance person may be reluc- What is a Performance Specification?
tant to consolidate. In this case, there is little encouragement for Every lubricant and hydraulic fluid has a detailed list of tests that
competition and no reason for any oil company to lower its prices. must be passed at the oil company before it is released for shipment.
Naturally, maintenance personnel want their equipment to have the The experts at the oil company know how the fluid must perform in
highest quality lubricants but at a reasonable price. How can this your equipment. Several organizations (ASTM, SAE, etc.) have devised
be accomplished? lab tests that will measure various aspects of this performance.
Jim Fitch’s “Hazards of Changing Lubricant Brands” article in For instance, because viscosity and viscosity index are very
the November-December 2013 issue of Machinery Lubrication put important in most lubricants, numerous tests have been devised
the maintenance person’s concerns in perspective. The article and agreed upon by industry experts to measure these parameters.
brought to mind a system that was developed and used for many Figure 1 provides a list of some of the more common tests for oil
years at a U.S. steel company. In order to address the concerns and grease.
discussed in Fitch’s article, the company established a system Once a list of important performance specifications is compiled
whereby lubricants and hydraulic fluids were purchased by perfor- for a given product such as a gear oil, any successful product must
mance specifications. If a product worked in an application be tested to determine the numbers or evaluation for each test.
satisfactorily, it was tested to determine which ASTM tests (or Compatibility is always a concern when switching products. The
others) it would pass that were relevant to the application. A spec- steel company’s solution was to give the competing supplier the

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 |9


COVER STORY

TEST NO. NAME APPLICATION How a Performance Specification is Written


While the above information offers details on how to assemble
GREASE TESTS the essential data, writing the specification is more involved.
D-2596 4-Ball EP Measures film strength of base oil Plant personnel often see lubricants as their domain. They issue
requisitions to the purchasing department and expect all the
D-2266 4-Ball Wear Measures wear resistance of greases
details to be taken care of, including the issuing of a purchase
Measures tendency of grease base oil order to the supplier of the plant’s choice. The purchasing depart-
D-1742 Oil Separation
to separate from soap ment often will talk to competitors about supplying a comparable
Measures grease tendency to corrode product. This is a common source of conflict between the plant
D-4048 Copper Corrosion
copper, bronze and brass and the purchasing department. Both groups should have input
into these decisions.
Measures grease tendency to combine
D-942 Oxidation Stability The steel company’s solution to this problem was to form a
with oxygen
committee composed of both plant and purchasing personnel who
D-217 Penetration Measures the stiffness of grease worked on the specification together. The procedures for qualifying
Measures resistance of grease to new suppliers and the bidding process were agreed on by both
D-1831 Roll Stability
change stiffness after working parties and strictly followed. Each plant in the corporation was
Measures resistance of grease to
represented on the committee, and all parties kept a three-ring
D-4049 Water Sprayoff binder of all the specifications.
resist heavy water spray
Even after the specifications were written, meetings were held
Measures film strength of base oil
D-2509 Timken Test periodically to consider any new information acquired, problems
in grease
encountered that might be due to a product or changes that a
OIL TESTS supplier thought was necessary.
Measures an oil’s resistance to flow The science of lubricant testing is constantly evolving, and
D-445 Viscosity staying up to date is imperative. The steel company also learned
(indicator of film strength)
that most oil suppliers take great pride in their quality control,
Measures change of viscosity with
D-2270 Viscosity Index and problems that initially were attributed to the oil company
temperature
often were the result of something the plant had done or an
Flash and Fire equipment malfunction.
D-92 Indicates dilution by volatile fluids
Points
Lowest usable temperature without
Importance of Code Numbers
D-97 Pour Point In order to wean everyone in the maintenance department away
heating
from brand names, it is imperative to establish a coding system.
Indicates corrosive action of an oil on Every performance specification written may have a name, but it
D-130 Copper Corrosion
copper, bronze or brass
also needs a number.
Measures the ability of an oil to The steel company’s system involved all maintenance products
D-2711 Demulsibility
separate from water (gears, bearings, couplings, lubricants, etc.) and thus required
Measures wear prevention ability long numbers, but the last three digits were unique to a specific
D-4172 4-Ball Wear product. For lubricants and hydraulic fluids, those three digits
of a lubricant
acquired the title “maintenance code” or MC number. All drums,
Elastomer Measures effect of a lubricant on
D-3604 in-plant tanks, supplier paperwork and written specifications had
Compatibility elastomers at static conditions
to have these code numbers. Although the drums and paperwork
Measures the tendency of a lubricant from a supplier might have brand names on them, the MC number
D-892 Foam Resistance
to foam in systems
had to appear as well.
Figure 1. Common tests for oil and grease There are four basic reasons for this strict adherence to code
numbers:
responsibility of assuring that its product would mix properly with
1. To prevent maintenance personnel from thinking in terms of
the incumbent product. Any problems in this area were the respon-
brand names.
sibility of the new supplier. Removal and disposal of the
contaminated tank contents were also part of their job. Of course, 2. To simplify computer systems that record the lubricants to be
this rarely needed to be done. used in a given piece of equipment. If a change must be made,
Figure 2 is a typical performance specification for a gear oil. A a new brand name is brought in under the existing code and no
complete written specification from which the summary sheet is change in the computer is required.
derived is too extensive to be reproduced here. A comprehensive set 3. Survey sheets and routing lists used by the lubrication techni-
of summary sheets for several types of oil and grease may be cian would require constant updating if brand names were
obtained by contacting the author at tomlantz1@yahoo.com. used. MC numbers eliminate this problem.

10 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION
PRODUCT: EXTREME PRESSURE LUBE OIL MAINTENANCE CODE NUMBER: MC - 43, 51, 87, 21, 93, 71 & 31
Test No. Description Test Limits Comments
D-2270 Viscosity Index Minimum=85
D-445 Viscosity See Figure 3
D-92 Flash and Fire Points
D-97 Pour Point See Figure 3
D-189 Conradson Carbon Should contain no more than 2.5% residue
D-130 Copper Corrosion No worse than Class1-b 3 hours at 212°F
D-874 Sulphated Ash Matter of record
D-892 Foam Characteristics Less than a trace after 10 minutes
D-665 Rust Prevention No rust after 24 hours Procedure A
D-2711 Demulsibility See Figure 3
D-1298 API Gravity Matter of record
D-1500 Color Matter of record
D-3604 Elastomer Compatibility Weight change +2% -1%; Volume change +5% -2%
D-4172 4-Ball Wear Limit is 0.35 mm with 40 kg load
ISO 4606 ISO Cleanliness Cleaner than 21/18 on delivery
D-2893 Oxidation Test Viscosity increase less than 5% 312 Hours (13 days) at 100°C
D-664 Neutralization Number Not to exceed 1.0
D-2782 Timken Test Pass 60-pound load
D-2783 4-Ball EP Weld=250 kg; LWI=45 kg
FZG Gear Tooth Wear 9 stages; wear less than 10 mg

Figure 2. A typical performance specification for a gear oil

4. Tanks permanently installed in the plant may have the MC developments in the field. New tests may be devised that assess a
number stenciled on them if there is little chance a change will parameter better than previous versions. The consensus of opinion
be required. among industry experts might also change regarding which param-
eters are important or which test provides the best measurement.
Vendor Relationships Therefore, vendors are encouraged to offer suggestions on ways to
One of the main reasons for the specification system is to improve the specifications. Their input can be valuable.
prevent “cozy” relationships between vendors and plant personnel.
When this situation occurs, prices tend to rise whether quality rises Exceptions
or not. Conflicts then occur between plant personnel and the It does not pay to employ performance specifications on low
purchasing department, as the latter attempts to stabilize prices. volume items. Below a certain dollar amount, the use of specifica-
Using the specification system allows an “arm’s length” relation- tions is a waste of time. Simply find something that works and use
ship. Looking primarily at the test results promotes objectivity. Of it if the cost is not excessive. However, in a multi-plant organization,
course, quality consistency, dependable deliveries and knowledge- small quantities in several plants can add up to enough money to
able service are considered as well. No one likes vendors who make using a specification worthwhile. Every situation is different,
provide inconsistent quality, unreliable deliveries or spotty service. and good judgment must be used.
One of the questions that might be asked when considering the
Adjusting Specifications use of specifications is: “Do we need to consolidate our products?”
The performance specification should be considered a “living” According to the Pareto principle (80/20 rule), 80 percent of the
document. It must be periodically adjusted to reflect new knowl- lubricant volume in a plant should be concentrated in 20 percent of
edge. Once written, the specification may become outdated by new the individual products. Take a survey of the products and the
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 11
COVER STORY

Viscosity Viscosity Pour Point °F Demulsibility Characteristics ASTM D-2711


Maintenance Limits (cSt Limits (SSU (Maximum % Water in Oil Total mL Free mL Emulsion
Code No. ISO VG @ 40° C) @ 100° F) ASTM D-97) (Maximum) Water (Minimum) (Maximum)
MC-43 68 61.2-74.8 284-347 -15° F (-26° C) 1 80 2
MC-51 150 135-165 625-764 -10° F (-23° C) 1 80 2
MC-87 220 198-242 917-1121 -10° F (-23° C) 1 80 2
MC-21 320 288-352 1334-1631 0° F (-17.8° C) 1 80 2
MC-93 460 414-506 1918-2344 0° F (-17.8° C) 1 80 4
MC-71 680 612-748 2834-3465 10° F (-12° C) 1 80 4
MC-31 1000 900-1100 4169-5095 20° F (-6.7° C) 1 80 4

Figure 3. Examples of maintenance codes assigned for various lubricant tests

volume used of each. If the results do not conform to the 80/20 products you obtain while forcing oil companies to compete.
rule, your plant might be a candidate for lubricant consolidation. In However, by instituting a specification system, plant maintenance
other words, if relatively equal volumes of many products are in use, people are compelled to learn what works and why. This may be a
duplication might exist. challenge in some plants.
The willingness to perform testing is critical. You do not need
Benefits and Disciplines of to have an onsite laboratory, but you must find a quality offsite
the Specification System lab. While a few tests can be performed onsite with inexpensive
The most obvious benefit of the specification system is lower equipment, most require expensive equipment and a qualified
prices. This can be easily seen. What goes unseen is the high-quality technician. A few ways to reduce these costs are discussed below.
These two disciplines — learning what works
and why, and the willingness to conduct
testing — are essential.

Intangible Benefits
When you have a “system” in place for
purchasing lubricants, vendors tend to be
more careful with your products’ quality.
Knowing that you test and won’t hesitate to
complain or have a bad load pumped out at
their expense will keep everyone honest. Also,
those vendors who live by “sharp” practices
or high costs don’t even bother to solicit your
business. My personal experience has proven
this to me repeatedly.

Testing
As mentioned previously, it is recom-
mended to randomly test every truckload of
bulk oil and drum shipments. The steel
company did this because of the large
volumes purchased. Tests are generally priced
individually, and some are expensive. To
lower costs, the steel company selected a few
critical tests for each load and assumed the
rest were OK. However, this may have been
overkill. You could take a sample, label it and
store it in case of future problems. As confi-
dence in a vendor grows, this would be an
acceptable practice.

12 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Remember, buying lubricants by performance specifications the lubricant specifications will enable you to ask all the important
puts lubrication on a professional base. Vendors would rather deal questions and insist on critical reports.
with people who understand lubricants and what
makes them work. When the user’s understanding
increases, the vendor may see the need to increase
his or her own knowledge.
In the last 20 years, various organizations have
devised certification tests to evaluate vendor and
user knowledge in the lubrication field. This effort
has vastly improved the knowledge of everyone
involved. Now vendors know that if a problem
occurs, they will receive a rational hearing rather
than a screaming, emotional response. Vendors
become more service-oriented and better prob-
lem-solvers instead of mere order-takers.
At the same time, customers become better
problem solvers when they have records that show
the important parameters have not changed. They
must probe deeper to see if the problem might have
been caused by something they did or did not do.
Finally, by concentrating on performance specifi-
cations, total fluid management (TFM) will take on a
whole new dimension. If you choose to go this route,
no longer will you be at the complete mercy of the
TFM manager. The knowledge gained by focusing on

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 13


METALWORKING FLUID
The new ArrowCool line of metalworking fluids from
PRODUCT NEWS

Chem Arrow features bio-stability, low foam and high


lubricity. The low-foam technology used to formulate
the fluids eliminates the need of anti-foam additives.
Unlike traditional metalworking fluids that have a ser-
vice life of approximately 6 months, the new ArrowCool
fluids can be used for several years, reducing the costs
associated with purchasing replacement fluids and
disposing of used coolant. The fluids have also been
enhanced to meet the latest environmental restrictions.
Chem Arrow
www.chemarrow.com
626-358-2255

FOOD-GRADE GREASE
Interflon’s Food Grease HD00 is a semi-fluid lubricant for industrial
gearboxes and machine components using automatic oil and grease
lubrication. Based on MicPol technology, the heavy-duty grease is
NSF H-1 accredited for use within the food industry and can also be
utilized as a solvent-free corrosion inhibitor. The grease is suitable for
extreme high-pressure applications, dusty and wet environments, and
high temperatures. During field tests, it has shown an improvement in
wear protection as well as a reduction in energy consumption.
Interflon
www.interflon.com
877-346-5823

DRAIN PLUG
TOOL
The Drain Plug Pro is a new tool
for easily removing oil drain plugs.
By keeping hands and fingers away
from possibly hot draining oil, the one- FLUID DISPENSING/METERING PUMP
size-fits-all tool makes the oil changing The PDS-100 from Fluid Metering Inc. is a programmable
process a more efficient, cleaner and safer fluid metering and dispensing system that integrates valve-
operation. It attaches to any steel compo- less pump technology with precision, programmable drive
nent, including an oil pan, to hold and keep motor control. The pump head internals are made from
the drain plug free from contaminants as oil chemically resistant, sapphire-hard ceramics, which are
is draining while also serving as a reminder that ideal for dispensing a broad range of fluids, including silicone
the drain plug is still out. The tool’s integrated lubricants. The PDS-100 is available in both single and dual
magnets allow particles attached to the drain plug pump head configurations. The displacement and speed
to be removed. of each pump head can be individually controlled. Duplex
OTC Tools configurations can also provide two-channel dispensing,
www.otctools.com effectively doubling production capacity.
800-533-6127 Fluid Metering Inc.
www.fmipump.com
800-223-3388
14 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
METAL CONDITIONER
Everrev is an anti-friction metal conditioner formulated to improve the
performance of gas and diesel engines as well as hydraulics and most
metal-to-metal transmissions. It treats ferrous-based metals through
a molecular change within the metal surfaces. The chemical reaction
forms a smoother and denser surface without residual buildup or
change in the tolerances of working parts. It is activated by heat and
pressure, and is carried by motor oil, transmission oil, hydraulic fluid
and greases to friction points, reducing heat and wear.
Everrev
www.everrev.com
386-295-4343

ATOMIZING SPRAY NOZZLES


Exair’s new external mix spray nozzles atomize fluids in a range of spray
patterns for a wide variety of uses, especially where a high volume of liquid
is needed. The atomizing nozzles combine liquid and compressed air to
create a coating of liquid that can be easily adjusted to meet the needs
of the application. Air and liquid flow are controlled independently, while
corrosion resistance and durability are provided by the stainless-steel con-
struction. The adjustable nozzles are available in a variety of flow patterns.
Exair Corp.
www.exair.com
800-903-9247

SINGLE-POINT AUTOMATIC
LUBRICATORS
SKF’s new System 24 LAGD Series single-point automatic
lubricators were created to deliver the proper preset
amount of lubricant needed for bearings in machinery
HYDRAULIC TESTER across industries. The gas-driven feed versions can per-
The SDMKR reversible flow device from Stauff was developed form reliably on a 24-hour basis without manual inter-
for rapid and accurate monitoring of hydraulic components vention and can resolve issues typically associated with
and systems. It provides simultaneous measurement of flow, hard-to-access or poten-
pressure and temperature. Each tester includes a flow meter tially hazardous lubrica-
with a visual display and a built-in thermometer, as well as a tion points. Each lubri-
loading valve. The loading valve makes it possible to safely cator features flexible,
increase the working pressure gradually and continuously for a user-adjustable dispense
realistic simulation of normal machine operation. The portable settings and transparent
flow device can be installed in both pressure and return lines. lubricant containers. The
Stauff lubricators also integrate
www.stauffusa.com tool-free activation and are
201-444-7800 available in two sizes (60
and 125 milliliters).
SKF
www.skf.com
267-436-6000

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 15


ML LUBE-TIPS

outside of the bottle before drawing a vacuum with the hand pump.
The rigid plastic sleeve prevents the bottle’s collapse, and the clear
plastic enables the sampler to see when the bottle is full.
The fit or gap between the sleeve’s inner diameter and the
sample bottle’s outer diameter does not need to be snug. However,
The “Lube-Tips” section of Machinery Lubrication maga-
the larger the gap, the less effective the sleeve is in preventing the
zine features innovative ideas submitted by our readers.
bottle’s collapse.
Additional tips can be found in our Lube-Tips email news-
letter. If you have a tip to share, email it to us at editor@noria.
com. To receive the Lube-Tips newsletter, subscribe now at
Post Your Oil Cleanliness Trends
www.MachineryLubrication.com/page/subscriptions.
Place a trend chart of ongoing oil cleanliness for all to see on the
front of all major reservoirs. Any change in the trend (up or down)
can promote questions and actions within the maintenance team.
Remember, cleanliness control is the responsibility of everyone, and
Advice for Oil Sampling having a visual representation of cleanliness prominently mounted
Before taking a large number will promote improved housekeeping by keeping reservoirs and
of oil samples using pre-labeled equipment clean and sealed.
bottles, mark the bottle caps
with enough information to Safety Tips for Oil Storage Areas
enable quick recognition of Consider the following safety tips for your oil
which bottle you need to pull storage areas:
out for sample points. This • Fire extinguishers should be located
procedure enables you to go strategically throughout the
directly to the correct sample lube room. They should also
bottle without having to search be inspected and tested on
through the entire box looking at a regular basis.
labels to find the right one. It • All spills should be cleaned
also saves a lot of time and helps up promptly.
eliminate using the wrong bottle.
• Used rags and absorbents
should be placed in approved
Magnet on a Dipstick for Quick Inspection containers immediately after
For better visual inspection of an oil’s color, paint a magnet
use. The container should be
white and permanently attach it to the dipstick of a reservoir. If
emptied at the end of each shift.
particles become stuck to the magnet, you know further investiga-
tion is required. • Good ventilation is required
in the lube room to vent
Prevent Sample Bottle Collapse hazardous fumes such as
When you are sampling using a vacuum-type pump, hot oil or those related to solvents.
exceptionally viscous oil • Solvents should rest on a
can result in the plastic grounded surface to prevent
sample bottle col- sparks from static electricity.
lapsing, making it
difficult if not impos- Improving Oil Change Procedures
sible to pull sufficient While quick-connect couplings may be considered best practice,
vacuum to draw out the if they are not in the maintenance budget, you might try the
oil sample. following method to help keep a gearbox drain plug clean during an
To prevent this, get oil change. After capturing particles from the magnetic plug to
a short piece of clear, examine later, clean and dry the plug, then place it in a zip-lock bag.
rigid PVC pipe with an Label the bag with a magic marker. If the gearbox case is ferrous,
internal diameter that stick the bag on the case near the filling point. If the case is not
closely matches the ferrous, tie the bag with a strap or similar fastener near the fill point
outer diameter of the to remind you to put in the plug before filling the gearbox with oil.
plastic sample bottle. This will keep the drain plug clean, prevent it from getting lost and
Slide this over the remind you to replace it before filling with fresh oil.

16 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


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Serving
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TURBINE LUBRICATION

BY WOJCIECH M AJKA AND TOMAS K LIMA , ECOL , POLAND

Hydrodynamic Cleaning and


Flushing of Turbine
Oil Systems
O One of the most important but underestimated factors
impacting the operation of turbines (both steam and gas) and
other machinery is the condition of the oil, especially its
“mechanical” cleanliness (presence of solid particles). Although
the need for appropriate oil care is commonly accepted among
power plants with regular maintenance practices, the cleanliness
of the oil system interiors (piping, tanks, coolers, etc.) remains
an issue. Problems caused by dirty oil systems in machinery such
potential of varnish forma-
tion and other aging-related
properties along with the
general oil and component
condition. Temporarily
controlling the system’s
interior is also advised
(using endoscopy, visual
as turbo-generators, turbo-compressors, turbo-pumps and inspection of friction nodes,
other large-scale oil systems (hydraulics, large stationary diesel control of used filter
engines, etc.) are quite common. elements within their
The most reasonable and responsible maintenance strategy is exchange process, etc.). Of
to maintain the proper condition of the oil and oil system based Dirt in an oil system
course, the lubricant quality
on a correctly applied oil analysis program, determining not only matters as well.
basic oil parameters but also answering questions regarding the Unfortunately, from time to time, plants experience
significant problems related to lubrication. A big part
of these problems is associated with the purity of
the oil. While many industry experts speak about
Benefits of Hydrodynamic Cleaning the role of oil contamination, the issue of achieving
and Flushing of Oil Systems purity of both the oil and oil system is often
neglected or not discussed in detail.
Hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing with oil at turbulent flow So what can you do when severe deposits, sludge,
rates offers many advantages, such as: varnish or rust formation occurs in an oil system, or
• Long-term system and oil purity when a newly assembled oil system is corroded or
• Retention of the natural protective oxide layer on the inner
contaminated with chemical preservatives or
walls of the pipeline system
• Reduced quantities of flushing oil machining debris? What can be done with large quan-
• Reduced wear of lubricated parts and extended mean time tities of wear debris inside an oil system after severe
between repairs seizure and breakdown of a bearing?
• Significant increase in oil durability (reduced quantities of For trouble-free operation, contaminants must be
replacement oil) removed from the oil system. However, in extreme
• Higher equipment availability
cases, the level and type of impurities may exceed the
• Significant reduction of fi lter insert consumption
• No turbine outages due to dirt in the oil system separation capability of the system filters and threaten
• Reduced total operation costs future equipment operation, resulting in loss of
production. The standard maintenance approach then
18 N
November
b -D b 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
December hi l b i i
TURBINE LUBRICATION

is not enough. Immediate cleaning of the entire interior of the oil boxes, drive-shaft seals,
system with subsequent turbulent flushing should be performed. pumps, oil coolers, filters
Often, if the oil doesn’t meet specific requirements, oil replace- and reservoirs.
ment (exchange) is also required. The most common
Because proper cleaning of an oil system is not easy within an impurities are metal
overhaul process or when assembling a new system, a variety of debris from machining,
technologies and strategies have been used, such as mechanical welding slag, sealants or
cleaning with ramrods, chemical cleaning (with solvents, oil other materials used
additives, etc.), steam blowing or utilizing different oil flushing during assembly or
procedures. In dirty oil systems, most of these practices do not repairs, oil system corro-
produce the desired results within a reasonable amount of time sion products (mainly
and money. Frequently, positive results do not last long but rust), solid impurities,
diminish, resulting in the need for additional cleaning. wear metal particles, and
With the cost of operating dirty lubrication systems in water from oil coolers or
turbines far too significant to neglect, more efficient solutions steam gland leaks and
have been developed. One effective method of preparing new from ambient humidity.
oil systems and restoring operated oil systems for future reli- Impurities sometimes
able operation involves the technology of hydrodynamic include gases (e.g., light A dirty oil pipeline (sludge and
corrosion in the return line)
cleaning and flushing of oil systems. This alternative to obso- hydrocarbons or ammonia)
lete or inefficient methods has become a preferred choice of and cooling liquids. Other troublesome impurities involve oil
many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and degradation products from aging and thermal stress, which
power-generation repair companies. create insoluble chemical compounds that are responsible for
varnish and sludge formation.
The Problem of Dirty Oil Systems
One of the most expensive and underestimated problems
associated with the use of machinery is the inadequate cleanli-
ness of the oil system. It results in low oil cleanliness, thus leading
to most maintenance problems and to related extra expenses
(production outages, repairs, penalties and loss of customers).
Impurities can enter the oil system during assembly, upon
execution of overhauls or simply from the immediate surround-
ings. They also are created during operation due to oil
degradation and corrosion processes. In process machinery,
compressed gas often carries different impurities and can
interact with the base oil or oil additives while entering the oil
system through wet seal glands. These contaminants accumulate
in the oil system interiors, creating different deposits.
Impurities are the main cause of premature wear and can
lead to equipment breakdown. The most vulnerable parts
include bearings, hydraulic actuators and controllers, gear- An oil cooler covered by sludge from oil-aging products

20 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Impurities also lead to increased consumption of filter Particles in the oil that can be damaging to lubricated compo-
cartridges. During operation, these impurities are carried by oil nents may be very different in size, depending on the cleanliness
to lubricated components, depositing on the inner walls of requirements given by the component manufacturer. However,
pipelines, coolers, tanks and other elements. the dangerous size normally is smaller than the human eye can
see (less than 40 microns). In practice, a machine consists of
many components (e.g., bearings, sealing glands, hydraulics,
etc.), so the purity of the oil and the system should meet the
requirements of the most demanding component. In a typical
turbine system, hydraulics require the highest oil cleanliness and
the smallest average size of dangerous particles.

Is Flushing Always Enough?


Most available standards, recommendations and industry
practices place a lot of attention on the flushing process before
startup of the system. While turbulent flushing of danger-
ous-sized contaminants will prepare an oil system for safe
operation, only a well-designed flushing procedure will be effec-
tive. In many cases, even the most turbulent flows will not remove
well-attached/sticky deposits from the system walls. When
Magnetic ferrous particles attached to magnets flushing a system in which such deposits are present, reaching
from an oil system the required oil cleanliness can be difficult. Indeed, achieving
reasonable oil cleanliness can take a long time.
The presence of water accelerates the creation of corrosion In addition, during initial startup and regular operation of a
inside the system. The current trend is to build oil systems from turbine when conditions are quite different than when flushing
stainless steel. However, some parts that can corrode rapidly (system vibrations from machinery, high temperatures,
(armature, tanks, etc.) may still be made of carbon steel. In different flow velocities, shocks from pump starts, valves
older systems, which are made mostly of carbon steel, the opening, etc.), it is common for new particles to detach from
problem of corrosion is significant. These systems are prone to remaining (after flushing) dirt from the system walls. Dimin-
corrode quickly, especially in parts that are not permanently ishing oil cleanliness is then usually observed. This type of
filled with oil (gravity return lines, tank roofs, etc.), due to situation is most often visible when severe deposits are present
water condensation on these surfaces. in the system, especially varnish, sludge and rust. Some of the
With oil such a key component of any mechanical device, mentioned impurities cannot be cleaned by means of turbulent
problems related to the lubricant often turn into problems with
flushing only. Prior to flushing, thorough cleaning of the system
the machinery. In most cases, impurities in the oil mean interrup-
should be performed.
tions in machinery operation.
Hydrodynamic Cleaning Technology
Cleaning an oil system is not an easy process.
Practical Applications Many irregular and rough surfaces made of metal,
narrow spaces, recesses between flanges, etc.,
Hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing of oil systems is quickly demand lots of effort and expertise to detach any
becoming a preferred choice of OEMs and maintenance/repair compa- deposits in order to remove them from the system with
nies. Since 1994, more than 450 different turbine oil systems have been turbulent flushing.
serviced with this technology, including newly commissioned and Hydrodynamic cleaning with high-pressure water
refurbished machinery ranging from:
jets and subsequent high-velocity oil flushing of
• Turbo-generators (steam and gas turbines)
systems offers a viable alternative to other frequently
• Process turbo-compressors and blowers (hydrocarbons,
insufficient and obsolete methods. This cleaning and
synthesis gas, hydrogen, air, ammonia, etc.)
flushing technology can be an effective method of
• Boiler feed pumps with hydrokinetic couplings and gearboxes
preparing new oil systems and restoring operated
• Large industrial diesel engines (including auxiliary power
supply in nuclear power plants) systems regardless of their size and complexity.
• Large marine diesel engines The technology includes three phases: hydrody-
• Large hydraulic and lubricating oil systems in steelworks and namic cleaning using water at very high pressure,
rolling mills flushing of the system with oil at high (turbulent) flow
• Central lube oil distribution systems in plants rates and with full-flow absolute filtration, and post-as-
sembly bypass oil filtration prior to equipment startup.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 21


TURBINE LUBRICATION

The core of this technology involves cleaning all the inner greases and corrosion-pro-
surfaces of the oil system with high-pressure water jets tective layers), as well as
utilizing suitable nozzles, immediate drying and application of hard deposits like corro-
a protective turbine oil spray to the dried surfaces, followed sion products, rust,
by flushing with continuously filtered oil at sufficient pressure welding slag, varnish
and flow rates. residue and machining
residue that is partially
Step 1: Hydroblasting attached to the surface.
During hydroblasting, the inner surfaces of the system are The following activities are An oil pipeline after
blasted with high-pressure water in order to detach soft deposits carried out in the course of hydroblasting
(loose wear debris, sand and dust grains, products of the the cleaning process:
oil-aging process, sludge, biological deposits, resins, asphalts,
• High-pressure water hydroblasting of all the interiors of
pipelines and other elements of the oil system (coolers,
reservoirs, bearing stands, etc.) using suitable equipment
(elastic lances, nozzles, water guns, etc.).
• Immediate drying of cleaned surfaces using filtered,
compressed air.
• Application of anti-corrosive protection on dried surfaces
(spraying with lubricating turbine oil) until flushing occurs.
• Protection of open flanges from environmental dust and
dirt until the flushing process takes place.
This advanced technology allows disassembly of only neces-
sary small parts of the oil system (pumps, valves, fittings, coolers,
etc.). The goal of hydroblasting is to ensure all of the system’s
The hydroblasting process interiors are free of corrosion, sludge, varnish and other deposits.

22 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


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23
TURBINE LUBRICATION

remain in the system for further use. A separate batch of flushing


oil is not needed. The flushing process continues until the prede-
termined purity criteria are reached in each location of the
system. During this time, the oil temperature and direction of its
flow are changed in order to move out remaining impurities.
Effective flushing of the oil system is based on the following
three factors:
1. Flow rates at all pipeline sections should be sufficient to
invoke turbulence.
2. The oil cleanliness class measured in various locations of
The process of drying an oil system (left) and application of the system should be better than required by the turbine
a turbine oil spray as anti-corrosive protection manufacturer (e.g., 17/15/13 according to ISO 4406). The
oil’s purity is measured during the flushing process using
The pressurized water mechanically removes/detaches such appropriate instruments and according to a predetermined
deposits from the inner surfaces of the oil system and carries schedule. Cleanliness requirements can also be set higher
them outside the system by means of a water stream. The water upon request.
used for cleaning is sweet, potable water or decarbonized water 3. No solid particles greater than 150 microns are deposited
from the power plant, so the risk of system contamination by any on the 100-micron mesh strainers installed in strategic loca-
chemicals is eliminated. Future flushing is then possible by oil tions throughout the system. Smaller particle sizes may also
that will be further operated in the turbine. be warranted.
Depending on the custom-
er’s requirements, the oil

Turbulent flushing with full-flow absolute filtration

purity criteria can be more stringent. However, in most cases, the


Hydroblasting of an oil system typical result is much better than a cleanliness class of 14/13/10.
Immediate drying of the cleaned surfaces using filtered,
Step 3: Bypass Oil Filtering Before and During System Startup
compressed air and applying a protective layer of turbine oil
In order to remove post-assembly impurities introduced after
(spray) prevent against secondary corrosion of the cleaned oil
flushing, bypass oil filtration in the main oil reservoir is performed
system. The system remains completely dry after the hydrody- before and during the system startup. The duration and filtration
namic cleaning phase, thus eliminating the risk of water criteria are adapted to the specific operational requirements.
ingression into the oil during flushing.

Step 2: Flushing with Filtered Oil at High Flow Rates


During this step, all impurities that remain in the system after
hydroblasting are removed while ensuring the appropriate purity
of the oil in the system. The system is flushed using special filtra-
tion and pumping units with turbulent flows at rates ranging
from 13,000 to 20,000 liters per minute. These units have
appropriate operating parameters and are connected to the oil
system with hoses, manifolds, bearings, servo-motors and other
flow-restricting elements. Bypasses on a turbine
bearing of a large
Flushing is performed using fresh turbine oil, which will A flushing skid in operation steam turbine

24 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Offline oil re-filtration
before startup

small amount
of contaminants
that remain in the
system are then easy
to flush out. In addition,
hydroblasting is quite useful
before an oil exchange and permits deep
Manifolds and temporary connections on a small investigation of the oil system by endoscope prior to flushing.
steam turbine Flushing after hydroblasting is fast and efficient, allowing a
Safe and Effective completion date to be set and a schedule to be maintained
The technology of hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing with no extra time needed for prolonged flushing. With this
with oil at turbulent flow rates provides a highly effective technology, proactive maintenance based on oil analysis can
method for the renewal of dirty and corroded systems to “like be implemented.
new” condition while also being suitable for newly assembled The method is entirely safe for the natural environment, as
oil systems. pure water is the cleaning medium, and the wastewater
Hydroblasting not only disinfects the system from aging contains only impurities detached from the inner system
products, old oil, protective layers or other chemicals that might surfaces along with trace quantities of oil washed from the
contaminate fresh oil, but also shortens the future flushing system. Long-term warranties in regards to the system cleanli-
process because most impurities are removed by water. The ness are also a possibility.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 25


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and metals. Nonflammable, oxygen laser tachometer with temperature, productivity. It will meet the stringent
compatible, no silicones or hydrocar- electronic stethoscope, balancing, requirements of closed-loop ammonia
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Miller-Stephenson Chemical SPM Instrument Inc. vice industry.
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26 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


One Eye Industries for all your
magnetic and industrial filtration
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877-888-8727
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Manage your fluids to target ISO


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This DVD includes instructive


videos and animations to give
viewers a better understanding
of electric motor bearings and
how to lubricate them properly.
Noria Corporation
store.noria.com
800-597-5460

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 27


GREASES

BY WES CASH AND RICK JAMES, NORIA CORPORATION

Grind Using a
Gage Grease Analysis
for In-Service

O Oil analysis is commonly used across industry not only to


analyze oil health but also machine health. Recently, advances
have been made in grease analysis. With the increasing demand
for machines to operate fault-free, it has become even more crit-
ical to understand what is occurring inside of them. Although
technologies such as vibration, thermography and motor-cur-
rent analysis can offer early signs of machine failure, analyzing
in-service oil and grease can help refine your detection ability.
test other properties of the grease and its constituents. Some of
these tests can be expensive and may take several days before
results are received. This has created a need to analyze in-service
grease in the field and obtain instant feedback on condition,
contamination and wear debris content.
A study published by SKF indicates that roughly 70 percent of
bearing failures are due to contamination. Another study by NSF
found that contamination caused nearly 50 percent of bearings
By periodically sampling the oil in a machine, you can obtain to fail. By applying the Pareto principle (the 80/20 rule), you can
information about its health. The same is true for grease-lubri- see that addressing contamination in bearings should prevent
cated components. With 90 percent of bearing applications some if not most failures. Accessories such as shields and bearing
being grease lubricated, it makes sense to apply the same meth- isolators can be added to make bearings last longer, but you
odology for analyzing the lubricant in these cases. must be able to analyze the amount of contaminants in the lubri-
cant to know how clean or dirty they are.
Field tests for oil analysis are readily available for almost any
property you want to test, including acid number, viscosity,
water content, etc. While there are some field tests for greases,
they are primarily limited to rough estimations of consistency
and oil content. Whether in the field or lab, few practical
methods of analyzing particle concentration exist for in-service
grease. In fact, there are only three methods available: micro-
scopic analysis (FTM 3005.4), scratched acrylic plates (ASTM
D1404) and fineness-of-grind gages (Hegman gages). This article
will discuss the fineness-of-grind gage as a practical tool for both
lab and field applications.

Gage Design
Freshly purged grease should be collected and analyzed
The gage’s design features a large block of steel (typically stain-
for wear debris and contaminants. less or chromium plated) and tapered grooves or “raceways”
machined into the surface. One groove may range from a depth of
The value of grease sampling has been recognized and is now 0 to 250 microns, with a second groove from 0 to 50 microns.
even an ASTM standard (D7718-11). This standard describes a A wiper blade is fabricated from the same material as the
method for taking a representative grease sample from an in-ser- block. It draws the sample across the block’s surface for analysis.
vice bearing. While this is the first step in grease sampling, the The wiper blade and the surface of the block are milled as
second phase involves conducting tests on the sample. smooth as possible to allow for zero clearance between them
Several laboratories can perform grease analysis and check during the testing process. After many uses, the wiper may lose
for contamination, changes in viscosity or consistency, as well as its profile and may need to be retooled.
28 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 29
GREASES

Applications
Early applications of these gages were seen in the pharmaceu-
tical and paint industries, which had issues determining the
fineness of particles in suspension. For example, in the paint
industry, the earliest method for inspecting dispersion quality
involved obtaining a small sample of the product to test for
particle fineness. Testing in this manner had its drawbacks
because it required considerable experience and agreement
between testers to predict the final product quality. To assist
testers in determining dispersion quality, the North Standards
were developed. These were actual pigment dispersions covering
a broad range of grind quality. A sample was checked by
comparing it to the selected standard on a glass plate.

The wiper is pulled down the length of the block


with even pressure.
The grease sample is
deposited at the deep
end of the gage block. so that it can be distributed evenly over the length of the block.
Hold the wiper blade perpendicular to the block and pull the
blade down the length of the channels with a smooth, even
stroke. Once the grease has been spread down the channels,
hold the block at an angle to a light source to check for particle
concentration and type.

In order to eliminate the dependence on standard samples,


the Hegman grind gage was developed in 1938. It is now used in
a variety of fields, including the food, pharmaceutical, pigments,
plastics and paint industries. In all of these applications, Hegman
gages (sometimes referred to as grind gages or grindometers) are
utilized to produce, store and apply dispersion products.

Using the Gage


To use the gage, start by placing the device on a flat surface.
This will allow even pressure to be applied on the wiper blade
The raceways are examined for evidence
during the testing process. Spread the grease to be tested on of contamination.
the deep end of the channel and be sure to use enough grease

The wiper blade is used to wipe the sample Skid marks left in used grease
down the block. indicate hard contaminants.

30 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Not only does this field test provide a way to quantify particle the grease in the bearing. However, dry, old grease that is simply
concentration in grease, but it also offers a crude indication of scraped from the shaft/seal interface will have more ambient
particle size. When contamination (airborne particles), making it harder to obtain
the test has been any current information about the state of the bearing. This type
completed, inspect of grease is historical data from the bearing and doesn’t repre-
the channels for sent what is happening currently.
streaks left behind.
Where the streaks
begin relative to the
depth of the channel
will give you an esti-
mation of the
particle size.
Hard particles will leave behind In a recent experi-
streaks in the grease and can be
given a rough size estimation ment, two tests were
based upon where they appear conducted: one with
on the scale.
new grease applied
directly from a grease gun and another test with in-service grease This magnified sample Cutting wear particles (top)
taken from a wheel bearing. When the results were compared, a particle appears to be are generally indicative of
a metal chunk possibly hard, solid contaminants.
few differences were observed, including the amount of streaks caused by overloading and A spherical wear particle is
found in the samples. The new grease spread evenly down both poor lubrication. typically seen from fatigue
channels with little to no streaks, indicating no hard particles in cracks in rolling-element
bearings.
the grease. On the other hand, the used grease sample showed
obvious signs of hard contaminants. Be sure to conduct this test on new grease to find out what its
“streak” profile looks like in the raceways. Keep in mind that
some solid additives such as graphite, moly, etc., may appear in
both new and used grease samples and should be accounted for
when evaluating a sample’s total contamination.
As the demand increases for machines to operate without
failure for longer and longer periods, the need for accurate infor-
mation on the operating condition of these machine parts will
continue to become more important. This simple test should
not be used to replace laboratory testing but rather to supple-
ment it and provide more immediate information.

References
Doubleday, D. & Barkman, A. (1950). Reading the Hegman
Grind Gage. Paint, Oil and Chemical Review.

This is an example of a hard particle found in a Lafferty, G.J. & Gross, H.M. Application of the Hegman
grease sample. Gage to Medicinal Particle Fineness in Ointments. Journal of
the American Pharmaceutical Association, Vol. XLIV, No. 4.
Although knowing the size and concentration of particles
suspended in grease is beneficial, this test can be taken a step About the Authors
further to analyze the particles and identify the contaminants. Wes Cash is a technical consultant with Noria Corporation.
By looking at the particles under a microscope, you can begin He is a mechanical engineer who holds a Machine Lubrication
to distinguish environmental contaminants from wear debris Technician (MLT) Level II certification and a Machine Lubricant
originating in the bearing/race/cage assembly. These findings Analyst (MLA) Level I certification through the International
can then be used to determine wear patterns and modes as Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Contact Wes at
well as give feedback on any contamination control devices wcash@noria.com.
being utilized. Rick James is an industrial services technician with Noria
This test offers the most information on grease that has been Corporation. He holds a Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level
directly purged from the bearing’s core. If the grease can be I certification and a Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level
sampled, either through a grease purge trap or a grease sampling I certification through the International Council for Machinery
device, it will provide direct information on the current state of Lubrication (ICML). Contact Rick at rjames@noria.com.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 31


ML

TEST your
KNOWLEDGE
This month, Machinery Lubrication continues its “Test Your Knowledge” section in which we
focus on a group of questions from Noria’s Practice Exam for Level I Machine Lubrication
Technician and Machine Lubricant Analyst. The answers are located at the bottom of
this page. The complete 126-question practice test with expanded answers is available at
store.noria.com.

1. Adhesive wear can be described as:


A) The adhesion of wear debris to a layer
of varnish
B) The adhesion of a layer of oil to the
metal surface
C) The transfer of silicon particles from
one metal surface to another
D) The transfer of metal from one
surface to another through a localized welding process
E) None of the above

2. Oil samples from an off-line (kidney-loop) filtration circuit should be taken:


A) Downstream of the pump, upstream of the filter
B) Downstream of the reservoir, upstream of the pump (before the pump)
C) Downstream of the filter
D) From the sump
E) From the drain plug

3. Compatibility of different greases:


A) Is only a minor issue and often can be ignored
B) Is a major issue that is dependent on the
thickener used
C) Is independent of the thickeners used
D) Can be linked to the age of the grease involved
E) Is dependent only on the base oil used

when switching from one grease type to another.


type. In general, most grease thickeners are incompatible, so extreme caution is required
Compatibility of different greases is a serious issue that mainly depends on the thickener
3. B
This is to assess the actual condition of the oil before it gets filtered.
2. A
conditions. Proper lubricant selection is essential to control this wear mode.
wear normally occurs during machine starts, loss of film strength and overload/overspeed
Other names for adhesive wear include galling, scuffing, seizing and severe sliding. Adhesive
1. D
Answers:

32 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 33
OIL ANALYSIS

6
BY CARY F ORGERON, A NALYSTS INC.

Ways to Maximize Your


OilSoftware
Analysis
Value

O Organizations have used oil analysis for decades to identify


lubrication problems that could require equipment repair or
even shut down an entire line of heavy machinery. Although the
technique for sample collection remains predominantly
unchanged, technology has revolutionized the information avail-
able once the sample is analyzed. Improved technology, however,
can mean a sea of data, which may be overwhelming to even the
most business-savvy customer. There are many oil analysis soft-
services and enhanced technology put comprehensive results in a
customer’s hand within 24 hours. This shortened result cycle is
essential in the identification of critical samples and can prevent
expensive equipment repairs and costly downtime.
Additional benefits of a properly executed oil analysis
program include reduced lubricant costs, decreased energy
consumption, enhanced equipment efficacy, improved produc-
tion, and reduced risk of injury and environmental damage.
ware programs that promise to process complicated data,
interpret results and offer recommendations. Additionally,
beyond traditional sample analysis, software programs now
offer systems for managing maintenance schedules, advanced
data graphing and data-mining applications.
Not surprisingly, today’s plant engineers and fleet managers
have several options when selecting software to manage their oil
analysis needs. Choosing the proper software and maximizing its
features can provide a huge payback for the user through reduced
machinery maintenance expenses.
For more than 50 years, oil analysis has been used to help
diagnose the internal condition of oil-wetted components. Orig-
inal testing methods focused on visual inspection coupled with a
simple smell test. First used in the railroad industry in 1946,
laboratory analysts detected problems in diesel engines through
evaluation of metals in used oils. By 1955, the United States
Naval Bureau of Weapons had adopted oil analysis procedures
to predict aircraft component failure.
Testing and evaluation practices have evolved dramatically
over the last five decades, making oil analysis one of the most
effective predictive maintenance technologies available. Monu- Technology Enhancements
mental changes have taken place within the laboratory in the As research and technology have advanced over the years,
areas of sample evaluation and more importantly in how the progress in lubricant testing has kept pace. The following are
data is reported and managed.
some of the key areas of technology enhancement in the oil anal-
As recently as 10 years ago, customers collected an oil sample,
ysis industry:
hand-wrote information on a label and mailed the sample to the
laboratory via traditional mail services. Two or three weeks later, Information Delivery
the customer would receive a hard copy of the laboratory report in Once limited to a single hard copy of a distinct sample,
the mail. Today, improved instrumentation, streamlined delivery customers can now review results online, download reports and
34 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 35
OIL ANALYSIS

share them with colleagues. The delivery cycle has also been cians to use the Internet to input comprehensive data about each
condensed from several weeks to within 24 hours. oil sample. This improvement has reduced the risk of incorrect
“I can do oil analysis 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 information gleaned from hand-written forms as well as
days a year,” says industry expert and consultant John Under- increased the amount of information technicians can provide to
wood. “I used to have to wait for weeks for the paper to show up laboratories about each sample.
in the mail two weeks after I submitted the sample.” Enhanced Functionality
Current oil analysis software programs offer improved
Sample Identification
reporting capabilities that extend far beyond the examination
Within the last decade, technology has allowed field techni-
of a single sample. In addition to maintenance program
management tools, software developments have enabled
cross-comparison of makes, models and lubricant types within
the asset population. Maintenance administrators can manage
equipment information online and provide it to laboratory
experts, which in turn enables data-mining capabilities that can
identify critical trends. Graphing tools can also give a visual
representation of the results.

Selecting an Oil Analysis Software Program


Choosing a laboratory and technology partner for your
predictive maintenance program is not a decision to be taken
lightly. Rather, it is important for this strategic evaluation to
consider several essential factors:

Online labeling offers the ability to print pre-registered Third-Party Status


sample labels for quick and proper processing. By selecting an independent lab, customers are assured
non-biased information from an organiza-
tion that encourages total access and
utilization of all the data and management
tools available. Brand-specific laboratories
may be experts on their own products, but
they may not be trained on a variety of
equipment or lubricants. While independent
sources are always fee-based, these organi-
zations offer the most state-of-the-art
technology and services available. The
bottom line is that it’s your data, and you
should have access to as much information
as possible.

Professionals Behind the Software


While technology is ever evolving, the
importance of expert human involvement
cannot be overstated. Search for a lab with
depth of knowledge and experience as well as
important industry credentials.

Ability to Proactively Manage Equipment


Look for a system that allows you to
proactively manage equipment records,
including location, name or identification,
make, model and lubricant information.

User Administration Tools


Not every member of a team needs access
to every piece of information. The best soft-
36 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
can learn to navigate software programs
and take full advantage of their services
and benefits.
“Training is critical to helping users
understand what the programs can do to
make their jobs easier and more effective,”
Underwood says.
Many programs provide training via
workshops, online videos, webinars,
onsite training, newsletters or download-
able PDFs. Encourage your team to utilize
these educational modalities. As users
become comfortable with the basics,
they can add to their learning based on
their role or the company’s needs. For
example, lubrication technicians can
learn more about sampling techniques
and data input, while engineers can
explore more technical graphing tools. If
Dashboards provide users with easy-to-understand graphs regarding the software program offers ongoing
sampling program performance.
customer service, don’t hesitate to
ware programs allow maximum flexibility, enabling mangers to contact the hotline for product-specific guidance.
self-administer and control customized permissions. Choose a
system that lets administrators add and delete users, establish Utilize Program Management Tools
and manage groups of users, and grant individualized access Customizable features make managing an oil analysis
permissions. Other beneficial tools include customizable views program easier and more effective than ever. Beyond tracking
and layouts, which put the most useful and important informa- and storing results, modern systems help users record mainte-
tion right where you need it when you need it most. nance events such as sampling dates, usage hours and time in
service. You can also create customized alarms to routinely
Varied Data-Mining Capabilities collect samples on a prescribed basis. Whether your mainte-
One of the most recent and helpful technological develop- nance practices require collection every 500 hours or every
ments is customized graphing and result capability. Gone are quarter, these predictive samplings can prevent condition-based
the days of pouring over spreadsheets searching for tenden- situations that may signal imminent failure. Also, look for scal-
cies and clues. Trend graphs utilize user-defined criteria to able programs that adjust to your individual needs.
provide a visual representation of general wear, contamina-
tion and other common problems. Comparison graphing Ensure Information is Complete
allows users to compare specific pieces of equipment against The adage “garbage in, garbage out” never rang more true
like machines or an entire population of equipment. Providing than when collecting a lubricant sample.
complicated information in an easy-to-understand format,
these reports deliver useful information for maintenance and
purchasing decisions.

6 Tips for Getting the Most from Your


Oil Analysis Software
The return on your oil analysis program depends greatly on
what you put into it. Industry research indicates that most main-
tenance programs achieve only 10 percent of the benefits
available from oil analysis. User adoption of a more technolog-
ical marketplace has been slow, and many fear information
overload. However, by employing a few key strategies, you can
maximize your oil analysis software for maximum results.

Conduct Training Equipment management functions enable users to


At its most basic level, training can consist of the proper tech- fully register critical information about each piece
of equipment.
nique for sampling. Even with just simple computer skills, users
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 37
OIL ANALYSIS

“Technology cannot make up for a bad sample,” Under- repetitive, information-rich and credible samples to ensure
wood warns. quality and meaningful reports. When more data points are
Incomplete or illegible information can lead to data-entry given during the sampling process, laboratory analysts can
errors and limited testing that yields suboptimal reporting. Once deliver more comprehensive reports. With consistent and
restricted to whatever information could be scribbled on a small complete sample information, labs can ensure normalization of
label, the latest software programs allow maintenance techni- results based on the organization’s result history.
cians to input critical information, including equipment (make,
model, identification number, location, etc.), hours of operation, Take Advantage of Data Mining
maintenance activities, drain interval and more. A highly technical area of computer science, data mining
extracts information from a set of data and transforms it into
While incomplete information doesn’t affect the test results,
understandable and actionable information. In oil analysis, this
it significantly impacts the analyst’s ability to draw conclusions
process uses data management and complex metrics to detect
or detect trends. Therefore, it is essential that users provide
abnormalities in single samples or groups
of samples.
While laboratory experts excel in
extracting comprehensive information
from a sample, end users may find it diffi-
cult to put technical information into
practical terms. The average manager typi-
cally isn’t interested in particle counts or
the presence of iron or metals in a single
piece of equipment. However, the ability to
recognize trends across a population of
equipment can signal a bigger problem that
could result in lost revenue from downtime
or expensive repairs.
According to Underwood, data mining is
particularly helpful when managing fleets.
Comparison graphing offers a visual comparison of equipment
“The ability to compare units and equiv-
performance against a population of data, allowing plant personnel to alent services helps companies determine
determine which makes and models are best suited for each site. what the best product on the market is for
their particular business,” he says.
It is important to note that data
mining is not the end user’s responsi-
bility but rather an important and
integrated component of any effective
software program.

Use Graphical Comparisons


Graphs and other visual representations
highlight the severity of non-conforming
data far better than tables and spread-
sheets. Keep in mind that if a report isn’t
readable, it won’t get read.
“A picture is worth a thousand
words,” Underwood says. “People
understand a graphical data presenta-
tion much more readily than a bunch of
numbers, so it is a critical component to
any software program.”
Users should be able to select different
graphing styles (line, bar, area, spider, etc.)
Graphing sample conditions enables users to easily spot trends in based on preference and need. Especially
specific units, equipment types, makes or models.
helpful in comparing a pre-defined set of

38 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


parameters, graphs can use data normalization to identify wear
rates and predict equipment failures. Beyond looking at a single From Page 42
piece of equipment or sample, graphs can provide a cross-com-
parison that allows users to compare units regardless of make,
model or other specifications.
Graphs also present a visual picture of a single piece of equip-
ment when compared to the entire population of machinery.
While graphing tools should be easy to use, getting the most out
of this new technology may require additional training.

Collaborate and Communicate


Managing a plant or fleet and its maintenance program is
a collaborative effort requiring a team of technicians, engi-
neers, administrators and manufacturers. Communication
between team members, especially in a critical situation, is
vital. Today’s software programs allow administrators to
authorize which users can view information, manage equip-
ment and more. It’s even possible to share information with
equipment and lubricant manufacturers, leveraging all avail-
able resources for maximum results. By establishing alerts,
messaging, preferences and access for all essential team About the Author
members, administrators can create a highly specialized Cary Forgeron is the national field service manager for Analysts Inc.
network of shared information. He has more than 10 years of experience in developing oil sampling
programs for end users to meet their organization’s maintenance and

Maximizing Your Maintenance Budget reliability goals. Contact Cary at cforgeron@analystsinc.com.

In this extremely competitive era of


reduced profit margins, companies are
forced to squeeze the most out of their
maintenance budgets. People, equipment
and systems are expected to do more with
fewer resources. Information technology is
necessary for any organization’s preventa-
tive maintenance program. With increased
access to information, oil analysis software
companies are helping maintenance
managers spot trends, compare equipment
and identify dangerous problems before
they happen. Yet only 10 percent of users
maximize their software programs. Ongoing
training will help managers and administra-
tors make the most of the ever-changing
tools available.
Through the use of program manage-
ment tools, proper sample registration,
data-mining tools, graphical interpreta-
tions and data sharing, organizations can
ensure the longevity of their equipment
and a more robust bottom line. Tech-
nology will continue to advance, providing
additional tools to the analysts, manufac-
turers, service providers and end users.
How effectively that technology is lever-
aged will determine the ultimate success of
the company.
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 39
ML GET TO KNOW

Suncoke’s Lisch Developing


World-Class Lubrication Program

Throughout his career, Brandon Lisch has held a


number of positions, such as industrial cleaner, scaf-
fold erector/inspector, maintenance mechanic and lead
lubrication technician. Now as a predictive maintenance
(PdM) technician for Suncoke Energy, he is developing a
world-class lubrication program. Lisch’s facility in Middle-
town, Ohio, has been making strides in changing its culture
in terms of lubrication best practices. This includes
building a lubricant storage facility, training, 5-S princi-
ples, equipment modifications, a color-coding system and
standard operating procedures. Suncoke is also exploring
options for an in-house oil laboratory to complement its
lubrication program.

company, since each technology complements the other in


Name: Brandon Lisch Years of Service: 2 years relevance to the P-F curve. Faults or early discrepancies within
Age: 28 Company: Suncoke Energy machinery can be identified, monitored and flagged with
Title: Predictive Maintenance Location: Middletown, Ohio better accuracy.
Technician
Q: What’s a normal work day like for you?
A: My average work day first consists of performing preventive
Q: What types of training have you taken to get to and predictive maintenance tasks. Once those tasks are
your current position? finished, I continue to develop the predictive maintenance
A: I have had training in precision maintenance, PdM technology, programs and projects to help increase the reliability of the
lubrication best practices, root-cause analysis, troubleshooting facility. From time to time, I troubleshoot issues in the field
and precision alignment. and perform root-cause analysis.

Q: What professional certifications have you Q: What is the amount and range of equipment that
attained? you help service through lubrication/oil analysis
tasks?
A: In terms of lubrication, I currently hold the following certifi-
cations from the International Council for Machinery A: I service all of our facility’s equipment, ranging from our oven
Lubrication (ICML): Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) machinery to our belt conveyors. I also handle all lubrication
Level I and Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level I, II and tasks that are of a precision nature, including pulling oil
III. I also hold multiple certifications in different predictive samples. We conduct condition-based oil changes, so proper
maintenance technologies. sampling practices must be followed accurately to evaluate the
health of our machinery and lubricants. I also perform the
Q: Are you planning to obtain additional training or lubrication on all of our electric motors and high-speed bear-
achieve higher certifications? ings using airborne ultrasonic technology to apply lubricant
with precision.
A: I plan to increase my knowledge in every predictive mainte-
nance technology to the maximum certification level allotted Q: What have been some of the biggest project
in each field. I feel that doing so will benefit both me and my successes in which you’ve played a part?
40 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
A: The biggest success has been the development of the PdM
programs, including the lubrication program here at Suncoke
Energy Middletown Operations. The strides the company has
made and the full support of reliability are helping make these
programs flourish. At the rate of development, it will not be
long before Suncoke is named a world-class facility. That is the
overall goal for us all.

Q: How does your company view machinery


lubrication in terms of importance and overall
business strategy?
A: Machinery lubrication is one of the most important, if not
the most important, aspect in machine reliability. All other
proactive activities performed would be in vain if the lubri-
cation aspect of the machinery is neglected or improperly
performed. Lubricants are the lifeblood of a machine.
Suncoke fully supports this statement and understands the
value of implementing this program to better serve our
customer, community and the environment with the reduc-
tion of unexpected failures.

Q: What do you see as some of the more important


trends taking place in the lubrication and oil
analysis field?
A: The most important trend I see is the increase in lubrication
knowledge. Industries are steering away from the “grease
monkey” persona and beginning to believe in the skilled lubri-
cation professional. It has been proven time after time that a
fully developed lubrication program is one of the keys to success
when it comes to machine reliability. Strides in these fields are
taking the lubrication profession to a new level.

Q: What has made your company decide to put more


emphasis on machinery lubrication?
A: In the coke-producing industry, the dust from the process is
extremely harmful to our equipment. Coke is a carbon-based
product that has a hardness ranking of 10 on the Mohs scale.
Intrusion of coke dust or any foreign particle into an asset
could be detrimental to our equipment and operation. Proac-
tive measures like the prevention of ingression by following
lubrication best practices is more economical than being in a
reactive mode and replacing machinery due to an unexpected
failure caused by improper lubrication practices.

How You Can Be Featured in the


Next ‘Get to Know’ Section
Would you like to be featured in the next “Get to Know”
section or know someone who should be profiled in an upcoming
issue of Machinery Lubrication magazine? Nominate yourself or
fellow lubrication professionals by emailing a photo and contact
information to editor@noria.com.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 41


ML CROSSWORD PUZZLER
Get a Printable Version
of This Puzzle Online at:
MachineryLubrication.com/puzzle

Get the solution on page 39

42 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Oil Analysis

BENNETT FITCH | NORIA CORPORATION


LESSONS IN
LUBRICATION
ANATOMY of an
Oil Analysis REPORT

This is the fifth part of a series of “anatomy” lessons within personnel who receive these lab reports do not understand the
Machinery Lubrication. In this issue, a specific device or object basics of how to interpret them.
will not be dissected but rather the content provided in a typical oil Typically, an oil analysis report comes with a written summary
analysis report, including how to interpret the data and other find- section that attempts to put the results and recommendations in
ings. These interpretations may decide either the cost or avoidance
of machine failure and downtime.
Interpreting an oil analysis report can be overwhelming to the
untrained eye. Oil analysis isn’t cheap, and neither is the equipment
Interpreting an oil analysis
on which it reveals information. Every year, industrial plants pay report can be overwhelming
millions of dollars for commercial laboratories to perform analysis to the untrained eye.
on used and new oil samples. Unfortunately, a majority of the plant

layman’s terms. However, since the laboratory has never seen the
machine or know its full history, these recommended actions are
What to Look for When Reviewing mostly generic and not precisely tailored to your individual
an Oil Analysis Report circumstances. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the plant
personnel who receive the lab report to take the proper action
based on all known facts about the machine, the environment
1. Read and check the data on the oil type and machine type for accuracy.
and recent lubrication tasks performed.
2. Verify that reference data is shown for new oil conditions and that
trend data is at an understood frequency (preferably consistent).
3. Check the measured viscosity. Why Perform Oil Analysis
4. Verify elemental wear data and compare to reference and trended data. An obvious reason to perform oil analysis is to understand the
Use a wear debris atlas to match elements to their possible source. condition of the oil, but it is also intended to help bring to light the
5. Check the elemental additive data and compare to reference and condition of the machine from which the oil sample was taken.
trended data. Use a wear debris atlas to match elements to their There are three main categories of oil analysis: fluid properties,
possible source. contamination and wear debris.
6. Verify elemental contamination data along with particle counts
and compare with reference and trended data. Use a wear debris Fluid Properties
atlas to match elements to their possible source. This type of oil analysis focuses on identifying the oil’s current
7. Check moisture/water levels and compare to reference and physical and chemical state as well as on defining its remaining
trended data. useful life (RUL). It is designed to answer questions such as:
8. Verify the acid number and base number and compare to reference
• Does the sample match the specified oil identification?
and trended data.
9. Check other analyzed data such as FTIR oxidation levels, flash • Is it the correct oil to use?
point, demulsibility, analytical ferrography, etc. • Are the right additives active?
10. Compare any groups of data that are trending toward unacceptable
levels and make justifications based on these trends. • Have additives been depleted?
11. Compare written results and recommendations with known • Has the viscosity shifted from the expected viscosity? If so, why?
information on the oil and machine, such as recent changes in envi-
ronmental or operational conditions or recent oil changes/filtration.
• What is the oil’s RUL?
12. Review alarm limits and make adjustments based on the new Contamination
information. By detecting the presence of destructive contaminants and
44 | N
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LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

narrowing down their probable sources (internal or external), oil asked to the patient. Likewise, with oil analysis, careful oil samples
analysis can help answer questions such as: are taken, and elaborate machines yield the test results. Laboratory
• Is the oil clean? personnel interpret the data to the best of their ability, but without
crucial details about the machine, a diagnosis or prognosis can
• What types of contaminants are in the oil? potentially be inaccurate. Some of these important details include:
• Where are contaminants originating? • The machine’s environmental conditions (extreme tempera-
• Are there signs of other types of lubricants? tures, high humidity, high vibration, etc.)
• Is there any indication of internal leakage? • The originating component (steam turbine, pump, etc.), make,
model and oil type currently in use
Wear Debris
• The permanent component ID and exact sample port location
This form of oil analysis is about determining the presence and
identification of particles produced as a result of mechanical wear, • Proper sampling procedures to confirm a consistently repre-
corrosion or other machine surface degradation. It answers a sentative sample
number of questions relating to wear, including: • Occurrences of oil changes or makeup oil added, as well as the
• Is the machine degrading abnormally? quantity of makeup oil since the last oil change
• Whether filter carts have been in use between oil samples
• Is wear debris produced?
• Total operating time on the sampled component since it was
• From which internal component is the wear likely originating?
purchased or overhauled
• What is the wear mode and cause?
• Total runtime on the oil since the last change
• How severe is the wear condition?
• Any other unusual or noteworthy activity involving the machine
Ultimately, you need to know if any actions should be taken to that could influence changes to the lubricant
keep the machine healthy and to extend the life of the oil. Oil analysis
for machines can be compared to blood analysis for the human body. Oil Analysis Tests
When a doctor pulls a blood sample, he puts it through a lineup of For a standard piece of equipment undergoing the normal recom-
analysis machines, carefully studies the results and reports his mended oil analysis, the test slate would consist of “routine” tests.
conclusions based on his education, research and detailed questions Alternatively, if additional testing is needed to answer advanced ques-

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tions, these would be considered “exception” tests. Routine tests vary Limits for changes in the viscosity depend on the type of lubri-
based on the originating component and environmental conditions cant being analyzed but most often have a marginal limit of
but should almost always include tests for viscosity, elemental (spec- approximately 10 percent and a critical limit of approximately 20
trometric) analysis, moisture levels, particle counts, Fourier transform percent higher or lower than the intended viscosity.
infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and acid number. Other tests that are Acid Number/Base Number
based on the originating equipment include analytical ferrography, Acid number and base number tests are similar but are used to
ferrous density, demulsibility and base number testing. interpret different lubricant and contaminant-related questions. In
an oil analysis test, the acid number is the concentration of acid in
OIL ANALYSIS CATEGORY TESTS the oil, while the base number is the reserve of alkalinity in the oil.
Viscosity, Acid/Base Number, Results are expressed in terms of the volume of potassium hydroxide
Fluid Properties in milligrams required to neutralize the acids in one gram of oil.
FTIR, Elemental Analysis
Acid number testing is primarily performed on non-crankcase oils,
Particle Counting, Moisture
Contamination while base number testing is mainly for over-based crankcase oils.
Analysis, Elemental Analysis
An acid number that is too high or too low may be the result of
Ferrous Density, FTIR, oil oxidation, the presence of an incorrect lubricant or additive
Wear Debris
Elemental Analysis
depletion. A base number that is too low can indicate high engine
blow-by conditions (fuel, soot, etc.), the presence of an incorrect
The table above shows how tests are utilized in each of the three lubricant, internal leakage contamination (glycol) or oil oxidation
main oil analysis categories. from extended oil drain intervals and/or extreme heat.
Viscosity FTIR
Several methods are used to measure viscosity, which is FTIR is a quick and sophisticated method for determining
reported in terms of kinematic or absolute viscosity. While most several oil parameters including contamination from fuel, water,
industrial lubricants classify viscosity in terms of ISO standard- glycol and soot; oil degradation products like oxides, nitrates and
ized viscosity grades (ISO 3448), this does not imply that all sulfates; as well as the presence of additives such as zinc dial-
lubricants with an ISO VG 320, for example, are exactly 320 centi- kyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and phenols. The FTIR instrument
stokes (cSt). According to the ISO standard,
each lubricant is considered to be a particular
viscosity grade as long as it falls within 10
percent of the viscosity midpoint (typically
that of the ISO VG number).
Viscosity is a lubricant’s most important
characteristic. Monitoring the oil’s viscosity is
critical because any changes can lead to a
host of other problems, such as oxidation,
glycol ingression or thermal stressors.
Too high or too low viscosity readings may
be due to the presence of an incorrect lubri-
cant, mechanical shearing of the oil and/or the
viscosity index improver, oil oxidation, anti-
freeze contamination, or an influence from
fuel, refrigerant or solvent contamination.

32%of lubrication professionals


would not understand how to
interpret an oil analysis report
from a commercial laboratory,
based on a recent poll at
MachineryLubrication.com

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 47


LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

the oil. Many techniques can be used to assess this data, which is
WAVENUMBER OIL PARAMETER
typically reported based on ISO 4406:99. This standard designates
1750 Oxidation (for mineral oils) three numbers separated by a forward slash providing a range
3540 Oxidation (for organic ester) number that correlates to the particle counts of particles greater
815 Oxidation (for phosphate ester)
than 4, 6 and 14 microns. To view an illustration of how different
particle counts are assigned specific ISO codes, visit http://www.
Sulfation (possibly from high-sulfur
1150 machinerylubrication.com/Read/29525/sample-new-oil.
fuel contamination)
Nitration (typically with natural gas
Moisture Analysis
1630 Moisture content within an oil sample is commonly measured
engines)
with the Karl Fischer titration test. This test reports results in parts
3625 Water ingression (for organic ester)
per million (ppm), although data is often shown in percentages. It
3400 Water ingression (for mineral oils) can find water in all three forms: dissolved, emulsified and free. The
Soot (combustion chamber blow-by crackle test and hot-plate test are non-instrument moisture tests
2000
contamination) for screening before the Karl Fischer method is used. Possible
880, 3400, reasons for a moisture reading being too high or too low would
Glycol ingression
1040, 1080 include water ingression from open hatches or breathers, internal
800 Diesel fuel ingression
condensation during temperature swings or seal leaks.

750 Gasoline fuel ingression Interpreting Oil Analysis Reports


795-815 Jet fuel ingression The first thing to check on an oil analysis report is the informa-
tion about the customer, originating piece of equipment and
3650 Phenol inhibitors additive depletion
lubricant (see Section A of the sample report on page 49). Including
ZDDP anti-wear/antioxidant additive these details is the customer’s responsibility. Without this informa-
980
depletion
tion, the effectiveness of the report will be diminished. Knowing
which piece of equipment the oil was sampled from affects the
recognizes each of these characteristics by monitoring the shift in
ability to identify potential sources of the measured parameters,
infrared absorbance at specific or a range of wavenumbers. Many
of the observed parameters may not be conclusive, so often these
ELEMENT POSSIBLE SOURCES
results are coupled with other tests and used more as supporting
Aluminum Pistons, bearings, pumps, thrust washers
evidence. Parameters identified by shifts in specific wavenumbers
Antimony Bearings, grease
are shown in the table above.
Barium Rust and oxidation inhibitor additives, grease
Elemental Analysis Boron Anti-corrosion additives in coolant, dust, water
Elemental analysis works on the principles of atomic emission Calcium Detergent/dispersant additives
spectroscopy (AES), which is sometimes called wear metal anal- Chromium Piston rings in internal combustion engines
ysis. This technology is designed to detect the concentration of Bearings, brass/bronze alloys, bushings,
wear metals, contaminants or additive elements within the oil. Copper
thrust washers
The two most common types of atomic emission spectroscopy Shafts, rolling-element bearings, cylinders, gears,
are rotating disc electrode (RDE) and inductively coupled plasma Iron
piston rings
(ICP). Both of these methods have limitations in analyzing particle Lead Bearings, fuel additives, anti-wear additives
sizes, with RDE limited to particles less than 8 to 10 microns and Lithium Grease, additives
ICP limited to particles less than 3 microns. Nevertheless, they are
Magnesium Transmissions, detergent additives
useful for providing trend data. Possible sources of many common
Piston rings, electric motors, extreme-pressure
elements are shown in the table on the right. Molybdenum
additives
The best way to monitor this type of data is to first determine
Nickel Bearings, valve train, turbine blades
what is expected to be in the oil. An effective oil analysis report
Phosphorus Anti-wear additives, extreme-pressure gear additives
will provide reference data for the new oil so any amounts of addi-
Potassium Coolant additives
tive elements can be easily distinguished from those of
Silver Bearing cages (plating), gear teeth, shafts
contaminants. Also, because many types of elements should be
expected at some level (even contaminants in certain environ- Silicon Dust/dirt, defoamant additives
ments), it is better to analyze trends rather than focus on any Sodium Detergent or coolant additives
specific measurement of elemental analysis data. Tin Journal bearings, bearing cages, solder
Titanium Bearing hub, compressor blades
Particle Counting
Particle counting measures the size and quantity of particles in Zinc Neoprene seals, grease, anti-wear additives

48 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Ref. Fluid Life

especially wear particles. For example, the originating piece of the root cause. One likely explanation for these spikes is that as
equipment can help associate reported wear particles with certain dirt (silicon) enters the oil from an external source, three-body
internal components. The lubricant information can provide a abrasion occurs within the machine, causing wear debris including
baseline for several parameters, such as the expected viscosity aluminum, iron and nickel to increase.
grade, active additives and acid/base number levels. These details With a better understanding of the metallurgy within the
may seem straightforward but are often forgotten or illegible on system’s components, any spikes in wear metals can be better
the oil sample identification label or request form. associated, allowing a proper conclusion as to which internal
The next section (Section B) of the oil analysis report to components are experiencing wear. Keep in mind that for trend
examine is the elemental analysis or FTIR breakdown. This data analysis, it is important that samples are taken at an appropriate
can help identify contamination, wear metals and additives and uninterrupted frequency.
present within the oil. These parameters are reported in parts per With elemental data related to contaminants and wear metals,
million (ppm). Nevertheless, this does not mean a contamination alarms are set for upward trends in the data. For elemental data
particle, for example, can only be indicated by sodium, potassium pertaining to additives, alarms are set for downward trends. Having
or silicon spikes. In the example above, the rise in silicon and a baseline of new lubricant reference data is critical in assessing
aluminum could potentially indicate dust/dirt contamination as which additives are expected and at what levels. These baselines are

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 49


LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

then established to help determine any significant reduction in When analyzing the acid number, you should have both a refer-
specific additives. ence value and the ability to trend from past analysis. The acid
Another section of the oil analysis report presents previously number often will jump considerably at some point. This may be
identified sample information from the customer such as oil manu- your best indicator for when the oil is oxidizing rapidly and should
facturer, brand, viscosity grade and in-service time, as well as if an be changed.
oil change has been performed. This is important data that can The last section of the oil analysis report generally provides
provide an explanation for what could be false positives in alarming written results for each of the final few test samples along with
data changes. recommendations for required actions. Typically, these recom-
The “physical tests” section of a report offers details on viscosity mendations are entered manually by laboratory personnel and
at both 40 degrees C and 100 degrees C, along with the viscosity based on information provided by the customer and the data
index and percentage of water. For common industrial oils, the collected in the lab. If there is an explanation for the data that
viscosity measurement at 40 degrees C is usually given, since this stems from something not explicitly stated by the customer, the
correlates to the oil’s ISO viscosity grade. If the viscosity index must results must be reinterpreted by those familiar with the machine’s
also be calculated, such as for engine oil, then these additional history of environmental and operating conditions. Under-
viscosity measurements will be identified. The viscosity for engine standing the information given here is critical. Remember, there is
crankcase oils is typically reported at 100 degrees C. always an explanation for each exceeded limit, and the root cause
Water contamination, which commonly is measured by the Karl should be investigated.
Fischer test, is presented in percentages or ppm. While some In addition to the raw data shown throughout the oil analysis
systems are expected to have high levels of water (more than 10,000 report, graphs can help illustrate notable trends in the data.
ppm or 10 percent), the typical alarm limits for most equipment are Below is an example of trended data points from analyzed data,
between 50 to 300 ppm. with the water test having the most notable unfavorable spike.
The “additional tests” section shows two final tests: acid Along with the trend data, graphs should show typical averages,
number (AN) and particle size distribution (aka, particle count). warning (marginal) limits and alarm (critical) limits. These limits

Graphs in an oil analysis report can help illustrate notable trends in the data. (Ref. Fluid Life)

50 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


SELECTING OIL ANALYSIS TESTS BY APPLICATION
Paper Motor Diesel Transmissions, Steam Gas
Machine and Pump and Gas Air and Gas Chillers and Final Drives, Industrial Turbine Turbine EHC
Test or Procedure Oils Bearings Engines Hydraulics Compressors Refrigeration Differentials Gear Oils Oils Oils Fluids***
1. Particle Count R R R R R R R R R R R
2. Viscosity
a. 40º C R R - R R R R R R R R
b. 100º C - - R - - - - - - - -
3. AN R E(5a) - R R R R R R R R
4. BN - - R - - - - - - - -

5. FTIR
a. Ox/Nit/Sul R R R R R R R R R R -
b. Hindered - R - R R - - R R - -
Phen
c. ZDDP - R - R R - R R - - -
d. Fuel Dil./Soot - - R - - - - - - - -
6. Flash Point - - R - R* - - - - E(2b,5d) -
7. Glycol-ASTM - - E(14b) - - - - - - - -
Test
8. Ferrous Density E(1) E(1) R R R R R R E(1) E(1) R
9. Analytical E(8,14 a) E(8,14a) E(8,14 a) E(8,14 a) E(8,14a) E(8,14a) E(8,14a) E(8,14a) E(8,14a) E(8,14a) E(8,14a)
Ferrography
10. RPVOT - - - - R - - - R R -
11. Crackle R R R R R** R R R R - R
12. Water by KF E(11) E(11) E(11) E(11) E(11)** E(11) E(11) E(11) E(11) - E(11)
13. Water Separability R - - - R** - - - R - -
14. Elemental Analysis
a. Wear Metals R, E(1) R, E(1) R R, E(1) R, E(1) R, E(1) R R, E(1) R, E(1) R R,E(1)
b. K, Na, B, Si R R R R R R R R R R R
c. Additives R R R R R R R R R R R
*Gas compressors only ** Air compressors only ***For phosphate ester fluids, consult the fluid supplier and/or turbine manufacturer.
R = Routine testing
E = Exception test keyed to a positive result from the test in parentheses

should be modified depending on the type of data collected, the human error in sampling or analysis. If exception tests are needed,
type of lubricant and the machine’s known operating conditions. the chart above shows which tests would be appropriate when a
Standard alarm limits will be set by the oil analysis laboratory. given routine test limit has been exceeded.
However, if there is any reason to adjust these limits higher or
lower, they should be identified properly. Examples of limits that About the Author
should be lowered would be those for highly critical assets or Bennett Fitch is a technical consultant with Noria Corporation. He is
assets that are consistently healthy. A small spike in data would be a mechanical engineer who holds a Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA)
cause to run an exception test or an immediate second sample for Level II certification and a Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level
analysis. In such cases, a second sample would ensure the data II certification through the International Council for Machinery Lubrica-
received is representative of the oil conditions and not simply a tion (ICML). Contact Bennett at bfitch@noria.com.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 51


NOW ON
ML MachineryLubrication.com

Find more great articles and content from Machinery Lubri-


cation magazine online. From Web exclusives and industry By the Numbers
news to videos, white papers, buyer’s guides and more, every-

80%
of lubrication professionals do not have
thing that relates to machinery lubrication is available now on a grease analysis program at their plant,
MachineryLubrication.com. according to a recent survey at Machinery-
Lubrication.com
The Importance of Machine Criticality
Criticality is very much a part of making informed decisions on
scheduling, whether it be a simple sight-glass inspection or as
complex as a turbine rebuild. Critical equipment most definitely An Introduction to the Principles of Lubrication
should be checked more often than non-critical equipment. These This video explains the importance and methods of mechanical
assets deserve the focus of your limited time, money and energy. Of lubrication for various equipment. In order to use lubricants
course, it is important to know how you define an asset as critical. correctly, you need
Discover how to determine the criticality of an asset by reading this to know some of the
article on the ML site. key terms describing
their specific char-
acteristics, such as
viscosity, viscosity
index, pour point,
flash point and fire
point. Access this
4-minute, 2-second
video at www.MachineryLubrication.com.

Advantages of Synthetic Base Oils


Petroleum-based mineral oils function very well as lubricants
in 90 percent of industrial applications. They are cost-effective
and provide a reasonable service life if used properly. However,
they have some limitations. Synthetic base oils are expensive
because of the processing involved in creating these pure chemical
base oils. Their use must justify the additional cost. In other
words, there should be a financial benefit to using them. Find this
article on the ML site to learn the two main advantages of using
synthetic base oils.
Understanding the Re-refining Process
Re-refining is a process employed to refurbish used oil and
return it to a high-quality base oil. In the United States, approxi-
mately 40 percent of used oil is captured and recycled in some Featured White Papers
manner, while 60 percent is lost. Nearly 14 percent of the captured MachineryLubrication.com is the place to turn for white papers
and recycled oil is re-refined. Read this article on the ML site to on a host of lubrication-related topics. Here’s a sampling of the
understand the various processes used by re-refiners to remove latest white papers that are currently available for download:
contaminants, water, spent additives and any of the original • Reliable Hydraulic System Operation Through Proper Fluid
remaining additives from the used oil. Selection and Maintenance
• A Practical Guide to Pulley Alignment
How to Repack, Grease and Adjust • A New Solution for Used Oil Particle Analysis
Car Wheel Bearings • Innovative Solutions to Address Lube Varnish
This video demonstrates the proper way to repack, grease and in Hydrogen Seals
adjust vehicle wheel bearings. Watch as a brake caliper on a car is • Recent Advances in Food-Grade Greases
removed by compressing the caliper piston in order to release • Using Wireless Headphones with Bluetooth for the CSI 2140
hydraulic pressure. Access this 2-minute, 51-second video at Check out the full list of white papers by visiting www.Machin-
www.MachineryLubrication.com. eryLubrication.com and clicking on the “White Papers” link.

52 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Welcome to Machinery Lubrication’s lubrication inspections and gain the knowledge to ensure that
Bookstore, designed to spotlight lubri- routine inspections and top-offs are performed with precision
cation-related books. For a complete and accuracy.
listing of books of interest to lubrication
professionals, check out the Bookstore
Chemistry and Technology
at store.noria.com. of Lubricants – Third Edition
BOOK STORE

Authors: R.M. Mortier, M.F. Fox and S.T. Orszulik


This updated and revised third
Oil Analysis Basics – edition describes the chemical
components that contribute to
Second Edition the formulation of liquid lubri-
Publisher: Noria Corporation
cants and includes a discussion of
The new second edition includes lubricant technology for specific
more detailed information on oil applications. It is of particular rele-
sampling, filtration and contam- vance for those in industry who are
inant removal, base oils and involved with lubricant additives,
additives, water-in-oil contam- formulation and testing, as well as
ination and removal, ASTM those who are concerned with the
standards, glycol testing, flash use and specification of lubricants.
point tests, and 14 additional oil
analysis tests.
Lubrication Awareness Poster Set
Publisher: Noria Corporation
Lubrication Fundamentals – This set of five posters effectively uses humorous illustrations
Second Edition and bulleted tips and pointers to communicate critical lubrica-
Authors: D.M. Pirro and A.A. Wessol tion advice. Posters included in the set are Home Sweet Home,
This newly revised and Keep Our Machines Clean, Overgreasing Doesn’t Pay, Use the
expanded reference book Correct Oil and Watch Your Aim.
emphasizes the need for lubri-
cation and careful lubricant
selection. Thoroughly updated
and rewritten, the second
edition of Lubrication Fundamen-
tals discusses product basics,
machine elements that require
lubrication, methods of appli-
cation, lubrication, lubricant
storage and handling, lubricant Handbook of Lubrication and
conservation and much more.
Tribology – Volume II: Theory
and Design – Second Edition
Lubrication Basics for Machinery Author: Robert W. Bruce
Operators Training Video Sponsored by the Society of Tribol-
Format: DVD ogists and Lubrication Engineers,
Publisher: Noria Corporation this handbook incorporates up-to-
Train your team on the basics date, peer-reviewed information
of lubrication and how to for tackling tribological problems
recognize early signs of and improving lubricants and
lubrication-related prob- tribological systems. It demon-
lems with this convenient strates how the principles of
video training DVD. Your tribology can address cost savings,
operators will learn the energy conservation and environ-
basics of operator-based mental protection.

For descriptions, complete table of contents and excerpts from


these and other lubrication-related books, and to order online,
visit: store.noria.com or call 1-800-597-5460, ext. 204.

54 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


ML CERTIFICATION NEWS

World-Class RELIABILITY
STARTS with a Solid
FOUNDATION
BY SUZY JAMIESON, ICML

When it comes to developing, implementing and sustaining fad or actually achieve the results you have set out to accomplish. It
a reliability-improvement program, long-term success ulti- is also important to know the elements that are in place will with-
mately depends on a solid foundation. Indeed, it is the foundation stand the test of time and weather the storms that will inevitably
that will determine whether the current initiative will be just another come your way.
Sometimes we overlook the obvious.
As a society, we invest considerable
time and energy aiming for great
Benefits of ICML Certification heights yet often forget that crucial
ingredient for making sure we do not
Quality certification programs not only can provide standards and guidelines for profes-
fall flat on our faces once we have
sional recognition but also a multitude of benefits for individuals, organizations and industry.
reached the top. In other words, you
For Individuals have to crawl before you can walk. No
Earning an ICML certification acknowledges your expertise in machinery lubrication
matter how great an idea seems in
and/or oil analysis to troubleshoot and ensure reliability of lubricated equipment. The lubri-
cation and oil analysis community, your employer, clients and peers will recognize your theory, it is a long, uncertain journey
ICML credential as a symbol of the skills and knowledge you’ve gained through experience. from design to actual results, especially
ICML certification shows that you are a professional with the ability to successfully utilize for anything worthwhile.
machinery lubrication and/or oil analysis for your organization or client. As with most other things in life, you
As an ICML-certified professional, you also receive the following benefits: must start at the bottom. In the case of
• Industry recognition of your knowledge and proficiency in machinery lubrication
reliability programs, this means the
and/or oil analysis techniques.
• Logos and a certificate to enable you to identify your ICML-certified status to hands-on personnel, the shop-floor
colleagues or clients. staff or the technicians. They are the
human foundation of any reliability-im-
For Employers and Organizations
Through certification, organizations can maximize their return on investment in oil provement program. Without them,
analysis. ICML certification delivers the following benefits: their buy-in and a solid foundation of
• A standardized method of determining training needs and measuring results technical skills, no amount of reliability
• A reliable benchmark for hiring, promoting and career planning theory, philosophy or trendy gadgetry
• Employee recognition and rewards that validate their expertise will make the program stand when it is
• Improved employee ability to ensure machine reliability
shaken — and it will be shaken. After all,
• Quality assurance for outsourced oil analysis and lubrication services
as any maintenance and reliability
For Industry professional knows, things do not
Certification brings much-needed credentials to an up-and-coming lubrication and oil
always go according to plan.
analysis community. Benefits to the community include:
• Respect for oil analysis and lubrication professions Be sure to value and respect the tech-
• Increased professionalism within the community nicians and the crucial role they play in
the outcome of any plant reliability-im-
56 | November
b -D b 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
December hi l b i i
provement program. It is in your best interest to recognize the operators, followed by an audit of their skill set, i.e., competency
direct impact they have on the culture change. Respecting and testing in the technologies they will utilize when monitoring the
supporting them in their professional development and teaching condition of your assets.
them not only what they should or need to be doing but also why As you develop technicians to be future leaders within your
will make all the difference. program, new mentors will emerge. Empowering them with
Common sense and mutual respect can go a long way, even in career potential and recognition of their worth and contribu-
our plants. Give technicians a solid start by providing them with the tions to the overall health of the plant’s reliability and availability
proper tools they need to succeed. This means ensuring they have will instill the pride everyone deserves in his or her professional
role. Suddenly you will find yourself with in-house experts eager
to make a difference. The intangible benefits you will see are the
Recognize that the same as those experienced and documented by many world-
technicians are ultimately class operations.
The crucial first step is to understand where you are currently.
the foundation of Establish your starting point, not only in relation to your practices
your reliability- and your team’s skill level (be it in lubrication, for example, or other
areas), but also where you aim to be, such as a benchmarked world-
improvement program. class parameter. Knowledge of the steps needed to get where you
want to go is an obvious necessity, as is knowing where your limited
resources are best spent — and everyone has limited resources. Ulti-
the appropriate job description and pre-established procedures mately, wherever your higher return-on-investment opportunity
that are clearly taught and monitored through proper supervision. lies, that is where your focus should be.
The importance of skills development cannot be overempha- To learn more about ICML’s certification programs, please visit
sized. This will require technical training for tradesmen as well as www.lubecouncil.org.

Need to train your team, but


it’s always been too expensive?
More and more companies are realizing the value of
bringing training onsite.
The benefits are obvious and rewarding:
• Tailored curriculum to address your
company’s needs
• Learning in a more personable and familiar
environment
• Confidential issues and solutions may be
discussed freely
• Flexible course scheduling
• A unified learning experience

Lubrication is the lifeblood of your machinery.


Bring us onsite or to the facility of your choice for
private team training.

www.noria.com (918) 392-5033

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 57


CERTIFICATION NEWS

RECENT RECIPIENTS OF ICML CERTIFICATIONS


The International Council for Machinery Lubrication (lCML) would like to congratulate professionals worldwide who
have recently achieved certified status through ICML’s certification programs. ICML offers certification in the areas of oil
analysis and machinery lubrication. The following is a list of recently certified professionals in the area of machinery
lubrication who have attained their status as a certified Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA), Machine Lubrication Techni-
cian (MLT) or Laboratory Lubricant Analyst (LLA).

Ron Francis, MLT I Cargill Ethicon LLC Holcim Juan Figueroa, MLT I
Sheldon Brown, MLT I Doug Leischner, MLT I Joel Delgado, MLT I Michael Fink, MLA I Lubrication
Williard Popplestone, Tanner Rix, MLT I Julio Rodriguez, MLT I Tyler Reed, MLT I Engineers Inc.
MLT I
Catalyst Paper Excell B Enterprises Hyundai Gary Jacobs, MLT I
A.W. Chesterton Brian Lundberg, MLT I Palanisamy Duraisaamy, Sung-Ho Hong, MLT I Steven Hays, MLT I
Mark Guenther, MLT II MLT II Steven Petrehn, MLT I
Ceng LLC Industrial Oils
AES Brian Koscielniak, MLA II Fate Unlimited Adam Serwinski, MLT II
David Rossler, MLA I Gastón Argañaraz, MLT I Kyle Kress, MLA II & MLT I McCain Foods
Central Motor Wheel
Anthony Woods, MLA II Interflon Jonathan Allen, MLT I
of America FilterMag Inc.
Gregory Lilley, MLA II Gerd Hulsmann, MLA II Joshua Lesniak, MLT I
Hal Hastings, MLT I Randy Yount, MLA I
Heather Mawhinney, Michael Monteith, MLT I
Ron Mosley, MLT I Flint Hills Resources JD Irving
MLA II
Kevin Perrin, MLA II Chevron Mike Davis, MLA I Jacques Theriault, MLT I Michelin
Md. Alam, MLA II Jimah O&M Al Arnette, MLT I
Allied Reliability Florida Power & Light
Minhaj Ahmad, MLA II Michael Schilling, MLA II Kathiresan Maniam, MLT I MillerCoors Brewing Co.
Melissa Woodward, MLT I
Mohammad Chowdhury, Carroll Wyant, MLT II
Alto Parana MLA II Fuchs Johnson Controls
Gonzalo Gatti, MLA II Sadeaque Ul Islam, MLA II Alexander Franke, MLT I Richard McKenzie Jr., Monition
Juan Fortuny, MLT I G&G Sales MLA I Robert Webster, MLA II
Chicago Bridge and Harley Register, MLT I
AMRRI Iron Co. Hank Gilley, MLA I & MLT I Mosaic Co.
Bobby Kennedy, MLT I Charles Ray, MLT I General Mills Jones Engineering Sean Greenlee, MLA I
Marcus Duhe, MLT I Arthur McCarthy, MLA II Billy Gunter, MLT I
Apache Corp. Ben Rosenbauer, MLT I
Matthew O’Brien, MLT I Cirra Consultants Chak Man Chan, MLT I Kaiser Aluminum MRG Laboratories
Charly George, MLA II Joe Pequignot, MLT I Rich Hoy, MLT I Lisa Williams, LLA I
Atlas Wade Falconberry, MLT I
Pradeep Nair, MLA II City of Largo Katech Richard Wurzbach, MLA II
Garry Rice, MLA I Georgia-Pacific Jonghyuck Park, MLT I NAES Corp.
Axiall Corp. Aaron Swoyer, MLT I
Chester Guidry, MLT I CPS Energy Korea Midland Mike Walker, MLA I
Andrew Overton, MLT I Power Co.
Daniel Miller, MLT I Ryan Mcdonnell, MLT I New Gold Inc.
Chad Marcell, MLT I Jae-Gun Hwang, MLT I
Donnie McDonald, MLT I Clinton Burton, MLA I
Croda Chemicals Corey Marcell, MLT I
Henry Verbick, MLT I La Plata Cogeneración
Shantanu Das, MLA III Daniel Massie, MLT I Noria Corporation
Jace Dickerson, MLT I Adrián Lella, MLA I
Glenn Noack, MLT I
Jeffrey Eastwood, MLT I DaimlerChrysler Gerald Putt, MLA I & MLT II
Kyle Bowman, MLT I Michael Leggett, MLT I
James Marcusen, MLT I Laboratorio Dr. Lantos Loren Green, MLT II
Joel Krause, MLT I Gabriel Lucchiari, MLT II
Lionel Bonin, MLT I Dalrymple Bay Coal Joshua Nackers, MLT I
Seth Cannon, MLT I Terminal Julie Longtin, MLT I
Lagan Cement
Taylor Richard, MLT I Andrew Marshall, MLA I David O’Rourke, MLA II
Mark Wnuk, MLT I
Todd Haydel, MLT I
DTZ Mike Maciejewski, MLT I
Stephen Beirne, MLA II Need to take
BACTS Barton Dewey, MLT I Mitch Sokolski, MLT I Lartex SRL an exam?
Pablo Savall, MLT I Chris Hanna, MLT I Peter Stengl, MLT I Roberto Zapata, MLT I ICML regularly holds
Baxter Healthcare Donald Haapapuro, MLT I Randy Malcore, MLT I Laurentide Controls exam sessions throughout
Carlos Falu-Vazquez, Eamon Reilly, MLT I Ron Wilde, MLT I Magali Jarry, MLA II the United States and the
MLA I Jason Jensen, MLT I Steven Chada, MLT I
Lilly del Caribe world. Upcoming dates
Bayer CropScience Kyle Maack, MLT I Glencore Jorge Arroyo, MLA I and locations for ICML
Paul Manock, MLT I Josef Dopsa, MLA I Juan Marquez, MLA I exams can be found at
Jeffrey Levin, MLT I
Scott Erickson, MLT I Barnard Jimenez, MLT I Samuel Barreto, MLA I www.lubecouncil.org.
Boehringer Ingelheim Stephanie Wyum, MLT I
Gary Helmink, MLA I Glucovil
Tyler Roberts, MLT I
John Adams, MLT I Sebastián Lombardi, MLT II
Duke-Energy
Bunge Ryan McKillip, MLA I
Green Country ICML Certifications
Carlos Oliveira, MLT I Energy LLC
E&J Gallo Winery LLA I = Laboratory Lubricant Analyst Level I
Edivaldo Junior, MLT I Lee Garell, MLT I
Everett Young, MLT I MLA I = Machine Lubricant Analyst Level I
Joel Fernandes, MLT I Hankook MLA II = Machine Lubricant Analyst Level II
Josinaldo de Melo, MLT I Eastman Chemical Yangseok Son, MLA II MLA III = Machine Lubricant Analyst Level III
Ricardo Romao, MLT I Travis Bledsoe, MLT I Harley Davidson MLT I = Machine Lubrication Technician Level I
Bureau of Reclamation EcoElectrica Motor Co. MLT II = Machine Lubrication Technician Level II
Keith Cooper, MLT I Julio Colon, MLT I Gregory Coligan, MLT I
58 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com
NV Energy MLT I Kenneth Puckett, MLT I Sang Chul Park, MLT I Tractors India
Kasey Davis, MLT I David Story, MLA I & MLT I Larry Orethun, MLT I Suk Yoong Jung, MLT I Saugata Roy, MLA I
Oil Filtration Systems Jamie Marquis, MLA I & Raymond Grissom, MLT I SunCoke Energy Transportadora de Gas
MLT I Richard Reeves, MLT I Jack McCoy, MLT I
John Bonner, MLA I del Sur
Kenneth Roberts II, MLA I Steven Foster, MLT I
Pall Corp. Alan Lindner, MLT I Travis Berney, MLT I T.E. Laboratories Diego Ramborger, MLA II
Ki Kook Yoon, MLT I James Vencill, MLT I Edward Elder, MLA II Julián Zottola, MLA II
Young Min Lee, MLT I Shell
Mark Stone, MLT I Jong Lok, MLA I Tamko Building Universidad del Turabo
Pattison Sand Co. Robert Garcia, MLT I Products Juan Marquez, MLA I
Steven Janes, MLT I Troy White, MLT I SIL Michael Hoover, MLT I
Claudinei Gabriel Gabriel, US Lubricants
Petro-Canada Samsung Techwin Co. MLT I Tampa Electric David Kemps , MLT I
Neil Buchanan, MLA III Seongjun Kim, MLT I Teal Trombetta, MLT I Kyle Redjinski, MLT I
Sinto Inc.
Petrolabs Sappi Daniel Laflamme, MLA II Tata Steel Vedanta Aluminum
Rajinder Negi, MLT I Seth Washburn, MLT I Ajit Verma, MLT I Ipsita Hota, MLA I
Venkata Suresh Skanska
Sarawak Energy Jaime Torres Huamani, TECO Westinghouse Weyerhaeuser
Pedasingu, MLT I Motor Co.
Berhad MLT I Paul Watson, MLA I
Petroleum Nurfaizal Wahi, MLT I David Wilson, MLA I
Development SKF Wolf Creek Nuclear
Schaeffler Group Tekfor
Mohammad Uddin, MLA II Paul Doherty, MLT I Operating Corp.
Seemant Joshi, MLA I Christopher Lawrence,
Prüftechnik Canada Southern Gardens MLT I Crettion Taylor, MLT I
Benoit Marcotte, MLT II Schreiber Foods Citrus YCRT
Brent Page, MLT I Total Austral
Brendon Russ, MLA II Juan May, MLA I
Reliability Technology Bret Morris, MLT I Gastón Delgado, MLT I
Services Chad Williams, MLT I Sugar Australia Pty. Nicolas Gatto, MLT I Manuel Gerez, MLA I
Stephen Pianka, MLT I Gary Burgess, MLA I Raúl Choque, MLA I
Gerard Curti, MLT I Total Lubrication
Rock Tenn Co. Joe Anderson, MLT I Jai Cavka, MLA I Management Co. Yemen LNG Co.
Barry Smith, MLA I & MLT I Josh Behrendt, MLT I Paul Roddy, MLA I Lloyd Funchess, MLT I Venkatesan Narayanan,
Brian Mounce, MLA I & Kenneth Kanc, MLT I Sun Up Co. Michael Dougay, MLT I MLA II

Global Training Calendar

November 2013 HOW TO INTERPRET A LUBRICANT FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION


ANALYSIS REPORT León, Mexico • December 10-12, 2013
ADVANCED MACHINERY LUBRICATION Bogota, Columbia • November 20-22, 2013
Daegu, South Korea • November 11-14, 2013 HOW TO INTERPRET A LUBRICANT
December 2013 ANALYSIS REPORT
PRACTICAL OIL ANALYSIS
Santiago, Chile • December 10-12, 2013
Tampico, Mexico • November 12-14, 2013 FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION
PRACTICAL OIL ANALYSIS Phoenix, AZ, United States • December 3-5, 2013
Bangalore, India • November 14-16, 2013 PRACTICAL OIL ANALYSIS
FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION Phoenix, AZ, United States • December 3-5, 2013
Raipur/Vizag, India • November 17-19, 2013 FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION
ADVANCED MACHINERY LUBRICATION Trinidad and Tobago • December 3-5, 2013
Montreal, Quebec Canada • November 19-21, 2013 HOW TO INTERPRET A LUBRICANT
ANALYSIS REPORT ICML certification testing is available
OIL ANALYSIS/MACHINERY LUBRICATION I after most of the courses listed. Please
Lima, Peru • December 3-5, 2013
Bangkok, Thailand • November 19-22, 2013 visit www.lubecouncil.org for more
information on certification and test dates.

www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 59


HYDRAULICS

BY R ANCE HERREN, IFPS

Become an
Expert through
Certification
I In today’s highly competitive manufacturing and service envi-
ronment, machine and equipment uptime is critical. More often
than not, it is a determinant of a company’s success and surviv-
ability. Downtime is the death knell of profitability. Perhaps the
most important people in this metric are the mechanics and
technicians. The wide range of skills required from the individual
to keep a machine operational or to get it running after a break-
down is significant. This person must have an understanding of
mechanics, hydraulics, pneumatics, and increasingly, electric
and electronic controls. That is a tall order by any standard.
Some of the best engineers are those who have an extensive
background or started their careers in troubleshooting and
repair. They have seen what works, what doesn’t and what to do
about it. They have a keen understanding of what it means to
design and package an energy-efficient and safe system for
minimal maintenance, reduced downtime and repair with the fewest tools. They understand firsthand the need for and the
value of proper and thorough documentation.
In other words, the engineer designs, the test technician tests
and troubleshoots, and the mechanic fixes. All of these skill sets
are critical. In the context of the overall success of the project,
none is exclusive or more important than the other. Experts must
be knowledgeable in the many aspects of fluid power: hydraulic,
pneumatic, and basic electric and electronic controls.
Becoming a well-rounded fluid power expert does not end at
a particular destination; it is a continuing, career-long journey. It
requires the self-challenge to constantly seek out the opportunity
to learn by engaging others with more or different knowledge
and skills than your own. It demands stepping outside of your
comfort zone and taking on the challenges that others may
avoid. It involves extra time and effort that perhaps you would
rather spend doing something else. You must read from text-
books, fluid power periodicals and component manufacturer
catalogs to gain knowledge of the types of hydraulic and pneu-
matic hardware in the marketplace, how they work and how they
do not. To gain additional knowledge, consider taking a commu-
nity-college course or attending a technical seminar in a discipline

60 November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


where your skills are weak. It doesn’t matter if you have been in the — and maybe even your own company’s downfall. At some point, it
industry six months or 30 years. To advance your career and will not be a matter of if you lose that employee but when.
become that well-rounded fluid power expert, you must have some In the words of motivational speaker and sales coach Zig
skin in the game. Ziglar: “The only thing worse than training an employee and
To keep pace with the broad and ever-changing needs of having them leave is not training and having them stay.” On the
industry, the International Fluid Power Society (IFPS) provides subject of employee training and development, no truer words
many specific and complementary certifications to demonstrate have ever been spoken.
core and advanced competencies. And though some of the content For more information on IFPS certifications, visit www.ifps.org
from one certification to another is necessarily overlapping, each or call 800-308-6005.
offering is targeted to meet the particular
needs of the individual and to establish his or
her qualifications. Getting certified and
holding multiple certifications demonstrates
that you take your career seriously and can be
the key component to increasing your worth
to your employer.
So, what exactly is a fluid power expert?
It is the individual who can satisfactorily
address the particular need at that moment
and one who also has a demonstrable,
broad base of knowledge. If you are well-
rounded in multiple aspects of fluid power,
prove it. Take the time and make the effort
to get certified in all of those areas. Then
that expert can and will be you.
Lastly, are you an employer or manager
asking yourself, “What can I get out of certifi-
cation?” You can assure your customers that
your employees possess an industry-wide
accepted level of competence and that your
mechanics, technicians and engineers have
the skills necessary to perform their tasks
confidently, efficiently, reliably and safely. It
shows you encourage employee pride and are
willing to invest in the development of their
careers. Tell the world that as a business
owner or manager, you care about the image
your company and employees put forth and
how it reflects on the larger fluid power,
manufacturing and service communities.
So now you might be thinking, “OK, but
why should I spend all of this money in
training and certifying my employees and risk
them leaving and going to the competition?”
Well, I have some bad news for you. When it
comes to the talent pool, the fluid power
industry is in a crisis. The number of individ-
uals coming into and staying in the industry
compared with those leaving or retiring is
strikingly disproportionate. If you don’t invest
in the development of your employees,
including in training and certification, you are
inadvertently promoting the industry’s demise
www.machinerylubrication.com | November - December 2013 | 61
Lubrication Programs

LOREN GREEN | NORIA CORPORATION


BACK PAGE
BASICS
How to
CHANGE YOUR
Lubrication CULTURE
In many of the training courses Noria provides, we discuss
This is where things get difficult. Knowing the right things to do
how a culture change is required in most cases to achieve a
and actually doing them are obviously not the same thing. This is
world-class lubrication program. This is by far the most difficult
known as the knowing-doing gap. So now that you know what is
part of the process. The assessment is easy. A technical consultant
right and wrong, how do you get that “culture shock” to take place?
walks through your plant or facility and looks for opportunities.
During my career in the U.S. Navy, I was told repeatedly that
Most often the low-hanging fruit is obvious and simply overlooked
an organization takes on the traits of its leadership. In other
by plant personnel because it has become part of the standard
words, what the boss wants, generally the boss gets. If it is
scenery. With a fresh set of eyes specifically looking for these
important to the boss, it is going to be important to the rest of
opportunities, they are generally not too difficult to find.the organization as well. Therefore, the easiest way to achieve a
Frequently, the facilities being assessed are operating in an
culture change is to get the boss onboard. Sometimes it is not
“unconscious incompetence” stage, as shown in the diagram always easy. You may have to be the champion of change and fight
below. This simply means that the workforce is doing the wrong
in the trenches alone. The following tips can help you affect the
things and isn’t even aware that they are wrong. After training or
change you are seeking.
an assessment is conducted, the facility moves to the second First, use the Pareto principle or the 80/20 rule. You may have
stage. Personnel at the plant are no longer ignorant of the right
been taught the 80/20 rule in terms of 20 percent of the workers do
way to do business. Eyes have been opened, and innocence has80 percent of the work, but at Noria we apply it to contamination.
been lost. Now they can pursue the optimum reference state Twenty percent of the causes of failure are responsible for 80 percent
(ORS) of lubrication excellence. of the occurrences of failure. By and large the greatest percentage of
damage to equipment is due to partic-
ulate contamination. So if particles
are the largest source of contamina-
Conscious tion, this prioritizes how you should
Competence invest your time and efforts.
Particles can get into machines in
EFFORT/ORGANIZATIONAL RESISTANCE

Drivers: Culture Shock


• Crisis
a few ways. They may be built in,
• Profitability Drivers: ingressed or generated. The cost of
• Aspiration • Measurement excluding contaminants is less than
• Peer Pressure
• Sustained Management 10 percent of what it will cost you
Support once they are allowed to ingress into
Conscious Loss of • Success your fluid (see http://www.machin-
Incompetence Innocence er ylubrication.com/Read/28574/
justifying-cost-of-excluding-a-gram-
of-dirt-). If you want to get your boss
onboard, you will need to put this in
Unconscious Unconscious terms of cost savings. There are several
Ignorance
Incompetence Competence
Old Business as Usual is Bliss New Business as Usual case studies that show the cost bene-
fits of filtration, breathers, keeping
shaft seals in good shape, etc. These
TIME

62 | November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Looking for new strategies to increase operational efficiency? “vendor neutrality.” This model of unbiased recommendation
Searching for the moving target that drives leaner production offers an enterprise-wide value proposition with concrete
while increasing safety and long-term profitability? Noria has returns in operational excellence and profitability. We’d love
your solution. Noria’s Lubrication Program Development is to tour your facility and show you why companies around
delivering bottom-line results for others just like you. We begin the globe consult Noria for world-class service in lubrication-
with a holistic survey of your facility viewed through the lens of enabled reliability!

Contact One of Our Experts Today!


www.noria.com 800.597.5460 lpdservices@noria.com
BACK PAGE BASICS

studies address the savings in lubricants, bearings, downtime and explain the “why” of oil analysis, he began to come around and
many other areas that you can use to form a sound argument. see the benefits.
Secondly, you must get other team members onboard. In my This leads us from the “conscious incompetence” stage to the
experience, explaining the “why” is the most effective method to “conscious competence” stage. Now you know the proper proce-
accomplish this. Why are we doing this? Talking about saving the dures, quantities, frequencies, etc., and are putting this information
organization money may or may not be your best approach. to use. This is when the magic happens and the organization begins
Detailing the benefits of keeping the oil clean, cool and dry in terms to change. You as the champion have made an impression, and the
of reduced downtime and workload may help. staff is following your example. When you start seeing evidence of
I recently conducted a training course where one of the this transformation taking place, you should take a moment to
students was skeptical of the advantages of oil analysis. He was congratulate yourself and your team. Many organizations don’t
a fan of vibration analysis and thermography but questioned the make it this far.
benefits of oil analysis. I explained that in order for vibration and Keep striving to make improvements and eventually you will reach
thermography technologies to be used, you must either have the fourth and final stage, “unconscious competence.” In this stage,
personnel perform procedures correctly and aren’t even sure why.

67%
When asked why things are done a certain way, they might answer, “I
of lubrication professionals say
don’t know; we’ve always done it that way.” Better yet, perhaps they
their facility has attempted to
change its lubrication culture, can explain why everything is done the way it is. If so, you are well on
based on a recent poll at your way to having a world-class lubrication program.
MachineryLubrication.com
About the Author
Loren Green is a technical consultant with Noria Corporation, focusing
vibration or a higher than normal temperature condition. On the on machinery lubrication and maintenance in support of Noria’s Lubrica-
other hand, with a good oil analysis program, you can detect tion Program Development (LPD). He is a mechanical engineer who holds a
potential issues before they get to the point of registering on Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level II certification and a Machine
either vibration or thermography equipment. The ideal situation Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level II certification through the International Council
is to match all of these technologies. After taking the time to for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Contact Loren at lgreen@noria.com.

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