Lug Analysis

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Lug Analysis

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36-45 minutes

with a hole in it where the hole is sized to fit a clevis pin. Lugs are

used in combination with clevis pins to transmit load between

different mechanical components. Common applications where lugs

are used include:

joint, clevis joint)

door hinges

transmit load include:

Contents

simultaneous, interacting failure modes. These failure modes are

associated with different areas of the lug, as illustrated in the figure

below (Note: Figure not to scale):

The failure modes for the lug are listed below. The numbers

correspond with the labeled sections from the above figure:

3. Bearing failure

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involves making simplifying assumptions about the nature of the

failure and calculating factors of safety. This has the advantage of

being relatively easy, but it only gives an approximate determination

of the adequacy of the lug.

modes above, and uses empirical curves to determine more

accurate allowable loads. This method allows for lugs under axial

loading, transverse loading, or oblique loading. This method also

accounts for the interaction between the lug and the pin.

above, and uses simplified equations with correction factors based

on empirical data to determine more accurate allowable loads. This

method is simpler than the Air Force Method, but it only allows for

lugs under axial loading and does not account for the interaction

between the lug and the pin.

method outlined in Bruhn) and involves making simplifying

assumptions about the nature of the failure. While it is relatively

easy to perform, it only gives an approximate determination of the

adequacy of the lug and should not be employed for critical

structure.

considered:

Bearing failure

long as each factor of safety is acceptable then the lug can be

considered to pass. The figure below shows the lug in blue and the

pin in green.

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direction of applied load)

ܦ

w = ݓwidth

Tension failure across the net section occurs over the cross-section

highlighted in red in the figure below:

At=(w−Dh)t

The ultimate tensile load is the load that would result in tensile

failure across the net section, and is given by:

Ptu=StuAt

where Stuܵ௧௨ is the ultimate tensile strength of the lug material. The

equation above assumes a uniform tensile stress over the cross-

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of stress around the hole.

ܲ௧௨

FStu=PtuFapp

ܵܨ௧௨ =

ܨ

Shear tear out occurs over the two shear planes highlighted in red

in the figure below:

As=2Lspt

where Lspܮ௦ is the length of the shear plane and t ݐis the lug

thickness. A simple and conservative approach is to calculate the

length of a single shear plane as:

ܮ௦ = ܽ

Lsp=a

is desired to account for a slightly longer shear plane, it is common

practice to consider a 40 degree line extending from the center of

the shear pin. At the point where that 40 degree line intersects the

pin hole, extend the shear plane horizontally to the outer edge of

the lug. In this case, Lspܮ௦ is calculated as:

ܦ

Lsp=a+Dp2(1−cos(ϕ))−Z

ܮ௦ = ܽ + (1 − cos(߶)) − ܼ

2

where ϕ߶ is the shear plane locating angle of 40° and Zܼ is the loss

in shear plane length due to the curvature at the end of the lug.

This loss is calculated as:

Z=r−r2−(Dp2sin(ϕ))2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√

ܦ

ଶ

ܼ = ݎ− ඨ ݎଶ − ቆ sin(߶)ቇ

2

Note that if the lug end is flat then r ݎis infinity and Zܼ is zero.

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The ultimate shear load is the load that would result in shear tear

out along the two planes, and is given by:

Psu=SsuAs

ܲ௦௨

FStu=PsuFapp

ܵܨ௧௨ =

ܨ

Bearing occurs between the surface of the pin and the inner

surface of the hole in the lug, as shown in the figure below:

Abr=Dpt

Note that since the length of the bearing surface is equal to the

diameter of the pin, and since the circumference of a circle is given

the length of the bearing surface is also equal to 1/π1/ߨ times the

circumference of the pin

115°

The ultimate bearing load is the load that would result in bearing

failure, and is given by:

Pbru=SbruAbr

the lug material and the ultimate bearing strength of the pin

material. The ultimate bearing strength can be approximated as

1.5Stu1.5ܵ௧௨ .

ܲ௨

FSbru=PbruFapp

ܵܨ௨ =

ܨ

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calculated for both sets of contact:

Pin on bushing

Bushing on lug

Mailing List

improvements:

in the Stress Analysis Manual of the Air Force Flight Dynamics

Laboratory (FDL). This method follows closely with the methods

presented in Melcon & Hoblit and Bruhn, and it relies heavily on

curves generated by empirical data. Although this method is

somewhat more complex than other lug analysis methods, it is

incredibly useful because it allows for lugs under axial loading,

transverse loading, or oblique loading, and because it accounts for

the interaction between the lug and the pin.

oblique loading separately. These sections disregard the effect of

the pin on the lug strength. A discussion of the pin and lug

interaction is given at the end.

For axially loaded lugs, the Air Force method evaluates the lug for

bearing failure, shear-out failure, hoop tension failure, and failure

across the net section. Three of the failure modes are actually

combined into a single failure mode -- the "bearing strength"

accounts for bearing, shear-out, and hoop tension. This is

consistent with Bruhn and Melcon & Hoblit.

the figure below:

D = ܦhole diameter

e݁ = edge distance

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w = ݓwidth

t = ݐthickness

hoop tension, is given by:

Pbru.L=∣∣∣Fbru.LDt1.304Fbry.LDtif Stu≤1.304Styotherwise

ܲ௨. = อ

1.304ܨ௬. ݐܦ otherwise

ܨ௨. and Fbry.Lܨ௬. are the lug ultimate and yield bearing

where D ܦis the hole diameter and t ݐis the lug thickness. Fbru.L

e/D<1.5 e/D≥1.5

ܽ

KaDStu

ܵ ܭ௧௨ ܵܭ௧௨

KStu

Ultimate Bearing Stress, Fbru.Lܨ௨. :

ܦ

ܽ

KaDSty

ܵ ܭ௧௬ ܵܭ௧௬

KSty

Yield Bearing Stress, Fbry.Lܨ௬. :

ܦ

The equation for ultimate bearing load can be condensed down to:

Pbru.L=K⋅min(Stu,1.304Sty)⋅Dt⋅∣∣∣aD1if e/D<1.5otherwise

if ݁/ < ܦ1.5

ܲ௨. = ⋅ ܭmin (ܵ௧௨ , 1.304ܵ௧௬ ) ⋅ ⋅ ݐܦቮ

1 otherwise

For ratios of e/D݁/ ܦless than 1.5, the hole is close to the edge of

the lug and so shear-out and hoop tension are likely to be the most

critical failure modes. For larger values of e/D݁/ܦ, the hole is

spaced farther from the edge and so bearing is likely to be the

critical failure mode.

The factor K ܭin the equations above is the allowable axial load

coefficient which accounts for the interaction effects between the

different failure modes (bearing, shear-out, and hoop tension). The

plot is used for D/t≤5ܦ/ ≤ ݐ5, which is the most common case. If

value of K ܭis read off of one of the following two plots. The first

D/t>5ܦ/ > ݐ5 then the lug is thin, and in that case the value of Kܭ

is read off of the second plot below. (Note 2)

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If there is a bushing in the lug, then the bearing strength for the

bushing must be calculated. The bushing ultimate load is given by:

Pu.B=1.304Scy.BDpt

(assumed to be equal to the lug thickness), and Scy.Bܵ௬. is the

compressive yield strength of the bushing material. The Air Force

manual assumes the compressive ultimate strength of the bushing

material, Scu.Bܵ௨. , to be equal to 1.304Scy.B1.304ܵ௬. .

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The net-section ultimate load accounts for tension failure across the

net section and is calculated by:

Pnu.L=∣∣∣Fnu.L(w−D)t1.304Fny.L(w−D)tif Stu≤1.304Styotherwise

ܲ௨. = อ

1.304ܨ௬. ( ݓ− ݐ)ܦ otherwise

where w ݓis the width and D ܦis the hole diameter. Fnu.Lܨ௨. and

Fny.Lܨ௬. are the ultimate and yield net-section stresses,

respectively, and are given by the following equations:

௨. = ܭ ܵ௧௨

Fnu.L=KnStu

Fny.L=KnSty

Yield Net-Section Stress:

The equation for net section ultimate load can be condensed down

to:

Pnu.L=Kn⋅min(Stu,1.304Sty)⋅(w−D)⋅t

The factor Knܭ in the equations above is the net tension stress

coefficient which is a knock-down on the allowable stresses. The

value of Knܭ is determined by interpolating between the following

plots:

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The design ultimate load for an axially loaded lug is the minimum of

the ultimate bearing load, the ultimate bushing load, and the

ultimate net-section load:

Pu.L.B=min(Pbru.L,Pu.B,Pnu.L)

axially loaded lug. However, the failure mode for transverse loading

is more complicated than for axial loading, and different dimensions

are critical for determining lug strength. The dimensions of interest

for a transversely loaded lug are shown in the figure below:

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where h1ℎଵ , h2ℎଶ , h3ℎଷ , and h4ℎସ are failure planes of interest. If

the lug is symmetric, then the values for these dimensions can be

easily obtained from the dimensions for an axially loaded lug:

h1=h4=h2+0.5D(1−cos45∘)ℎଵ = ℎସ = ℎଶ + 0.5(ܦ1 − cos 45 ∘)

h3=aℎଷ = ܽ

It should be noted that h3ℎଷ is defined as the smallest dimension

on any radial section around the hole, but it will typically be equal to

aܽ. From the above dimensions, the effective edge distance is

calculated:

6

hav=63/h1+1/h2+1/h3+1/h4

ℎ௩ =

3/ℎଵ + 1/ℎଶ + 1/ℎଷ + 1/ℎସ

more weighting to dimension h1ℎଵ since that section takes most of

the load. (Note 3)

Ptru.L=∣∣∣Fbru.LDt1.304Fbry.LDtif Stu≤1.304Styotherwise

ܲ௧௨. = อ

1.304ܨ௬. ݐܦ otherwise

ܨ௨. and Fbry.Lܨ௬. are the lug ultimate and yield bearing

where D ܦis the hole diameter and t ݐis the lug thickness. Fbru.L

௨. = ܭ௧௨ ܵ௧௨

Fbru.L=KtruStu

Fbry.L=KtrySty

Yield Bearing Stress:

where Ktruܭ௧௨ and Ktryܭ௧௬ are the transverse ultimate and yield

load coefficients and are determined from the following plot:

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the same as for an axially loaded lug:

ܲ௧௨. = ܲ௨.

Ptru.B=Pu.B

loaded lug.

minimum of the ultimate lug load and the ultimate bushing load:

Ptru.L.B=min(Ptru.L,Ptru.B)

here.

shear joint strength

In an obliquely loaded lug, the applied load has both axial and

transverse components, as shown in the figure below:

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For an obliquely loaded lug, the applied load should be broken out

into the axial and transverse components, Paxܲ௫ and Ptrܲ௧ , and

the strengths in the axial and transverse directions should be

calculated as discussed in the previous sections. An allowable load

curve can then be defined which takes the form of an interaction

equation, and is given below:

ܲ௫.௨௧ ܲ௧.௨௧

(Pax.ultPu.L.B)1.6+(Ptr.ultPtru.L.B)1.6=1

ଵ. ଵ.

ቆ ቇ +ቆ ቇ =1

ܲ௨.. ܲ௧௨..

The allowable load curve defines the limits at which the lug is

expected to fail -- it defines the ultimate load for a given

combination of applied axial and transverse load. In the equation

above, Pax.ultܲ௫.௨௧ is the axial component of the ultimate load,

Ptr.ultܲ௧.௨௧ is the transverse component of the ultimate load,

Pu.L.Bܲ௨.. is the design strength under axial load, and Ptru.L.B

ܲ௧௨.. is the design strength under transverse load. The allowable

load curve is shown below:

In the figure above, the values along the y-axis are the ratios of the

transverse applied load to the transverse strength, and the values

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along the x-axis are the ratios of the axial applied load to the axial

strength.

ܲ௫ ܲ௧

Rax=PaxPu.L.B Rtr=PtrPtru.L.B

ܴ௫ = ܴ௧ =

ܲ௨ .. ܲ௧௨..

The point for the applied load with coordinates of (Rax,Rtr)(ܴ௫ , ܴ௧

) should be plotted. Any point that falls within the allowable load

curve has a factor of safety ≥ 1 with respect to the ultimate load.

Rtrܴ௧ is 0 and the point (Rax,Rtr)(ܴ௫ , ܴ௧ ) lies along the x-axis,

Note that if the applied load is completely axial, then the value for

Likewise for a completely transverse applied load; in this case, the

point lies along the y-axis and so the ultimate load is the transverse

design strength.

For an applied load with both axial and transverse components, the

the point (Rax,Rtr)(ܴ௫ , ܴ௧ ), and then through the allowable load

ultimate load is calculated by drawing a line from the origin, through

m=RtrRax=PtrPtru.L.BPu.L.BPax

݉= =

ܴ௫ ܲ௧௨ .. ܲ௫

The ultimate load ratios are given by the intersection of the load line

with the allowable load curve. These ultimate ratios can then be

used to calculate the ultimate load values in the axial and

transverse directions.

ܲ௫.௨௧ ܲ௧.௨௧

Rax.ult=Pax.ultPu.L.B Rtr.ult=Ptr.ultPtru.L.B

ܴ௫.௨௧ = ܴ௧.௨௧ =

ܲ௨.. ܲ௧௨..

It should be noted that the equation for the slope given above

disagrees with the slope specified in the Air Force Manual. A

discussion is given in the Appendix.

calculated directly by noting that the ultimate load components,

Pax.ultܲ௫.௨௧ and Ptr.ultܲ௧.௨௧ are related by:

Ptr.ult=Pax.ult⋅tan(α)

where αߙ is the angle of the applied load with respect to the axial

direction. (Note 4) The equation defining the allowable load curve

can then be solved for the ultimate axial load, with the relationship

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Pax.ult=⎛⎝⎜⎜1(1Pu.L.B)1.6+(tan(α)Ptru.L.B)1.6

ܲ௫.௨௧ ܲ௧.௨௧ 1

(Pax.ultPu.L.B)1.6+(Ptr.ultPtru.L.B)1.6=1

ଵ. ଵ.

ቆ ቇ +ቆ ቇ =1 ܲ௫.௨௧ = ⎛ ⎞

ܲ௨.. ܲ௧௨.. ⎜ ⎟

→

ଵ. ଵ.

൬ ൰ +൬ ൰

ଵ ୲ୟ୬ (ఈ)

⎝ ೠ.ಽ.ಳ

ೠ.ಽ.ಳ ⎠

Pult=P2ax.ult+P2tr.ult−−−−−−−−−−−√

ܲ௨௧ = ටܲ௫.௨௧

ଶ

+ ܲ௧.௨௧

ଶ

ܲ௨௧

FS=PultPapp

= ܵܨ

ܲ

It is important for the pin in the joint to be strong enough that it will

distribute the load evenly over the lugs. Even though a weak pin will

not commonly break in practice, excessive flexure of the pin will

cause the load to "peak up" near the shear planes such that the

outer edges of the lugs see high loads and the inner portions of the

lugs are relatively unloaded. This can cause the material around

the holes on the outer surfaces of the lugs to stretch far enough to

initiate a fracture, and the lug will fail at a lower load than predicted.

One effect that helps the situation is that as the load concentrates

near the shear planes, the bending arm is reduced, and therefore

the bending moment in the pin is reduced. However, a study cited

by Molcon and Hoblit found that this decrease in bending moment

is "seldom more than 25 percent and usually much less."

Since bending in the pin affects the strength of the lug, it is critical

to account for the pin strength when analyzing the joint. In this

section, a method for calculating the allowable load for a double

shear joint is presented. An example of a double shear joint is

shown below:

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In a double shear joint, there are two outer (female) lugs, a single

inner (male) lug, and a pin.

in the diagram below:

load of each lug in the joint using the methods described in the

previous sections. Then calculate the nominal ultimate joint load

(which does not account for the pin strength):

Pu.J.nom=min(2⋅Pult.F,Pult.M)

where Pult.Mܲ௨௧.ெ is the ultimate load for the male lug and Pult.F

ܲ௨௧.ி is the ultimate load for a single female lug. Since there are 2

female lugs supporting the load, then the ultimate load with respect

The shear strength and the bending strength of the pin should both

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be calculated.

ߨ

Pus.P=2(π4D2p)Ssu.P

4

where DPܦ is the pin diameter and Ssu.Pܵ௦௨. is the ultimate

shear strength of the pin material. Note that twice the area is used

in calculating pin shear strength since there are two shear planes.

The ultimate bending load is the applied load that would result in

bending failure of the pin, and is calculated by:

2ܯ௨.

Pub.P=2Mu.PLarm

ܲ௨. =

ܮ

failing moment for the pin. If the load is distributed evenly across

the entire width of the lugs, then the moment arm is calculated by:

ݐଵ ݐଶ

Larm=(t12+t24+g)

ܮ = ൬ + + ݃൰

2 4

where t1ݐଵ is the thickness of a single female lug, t2ݐଶ is the

thickness of the male lug, and g݃ is the gap between the male and

female lugs when the male lug is centered between the female

lugs.

ߨܦଷ

Mu.P=πD3P32⋅kb.P⋅Stu.P

32

where Stu.Pܵ௧௨. is the ultimate tensile strength of the pin material

and kb.P݇. is the plastic bending coefficient. According to the Air

Force Manual, "the value of kb.P݇. varies from 1.0 for a perfectly

elastic pin to 1.7 for a perfectly plastic pin, with a value of 1.56 for

pins made from reasonably ductile materials (more than 5%

elongation)."

Once the pin strengths are calculated, determine whether the pin is

ܲ௨. ) is greater than either the pin ultimate shear load (Pus.P)(

strong or weak in bending. If the pin ultimate bending load (Pub.P)(

the pin is relatively strong and is not critical in bending. Otherwise,

the pin is weak and is critical in bending.

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Yes → Strong

Pub.P≥Pu.J.nomܲ௨. ≥ ܲ௨.. or Pub.P≥Pus.P Pin

ܲ௨. ≥ ܲ௨௦. ? No → Weak

Pin

If the pin is strong, the joint strength will be limited by either the pin

shear strength or by the nominal joint strength. In the case of a

strong pin, the pin ultimate bending load is calculated assuming

that the load distributes evenly over the full width of the lugs:

Pub.P=πD3P⋅kb.P⋅Stu.P16(t12+t24+g)

ܲ௨. =

16ቀ భ + మ + ݃ቁ

௧ ௧

ଶ ସ

for the ultimate pin bending load, but with the terms combined into

a single equation.

For a strong pin, the pin bending does not affect the joint strength

and the ultimate joint load is equal to the nominal ultimate joint

load:

ܲ௨. = ܲ௨..

Pu.J=Pu.J.nom

If the pin is weak in bending, then the load will not be distributed

evenly over the lug widths. Instead, the load will concentrate toward

the shear planes, and the inner portions of the lugs will be relatively

unloaded. Because of this, the lugs will fail at a lower load than

predicted.

ultimate load is calculated. The goal is to determine the actual

bearing widths over which the lugs support the load. Instead of the

load being supported over the full lug thicknesses, t1ݐଵ and t2ݐଶ ,

the load will instead be distributed over some smaller widths, b1ܾଵ

and b2ܾଶ , as shown in the figure below. It is assumed that the load

is uniformly distributed over these widths.

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The ultimate load is reduced for the lugs (the lugs fail at a lower

load).

The moment arm for the pin is reduced, which increases the pin's

ultimate bending load (the pin fails at a higher load).

calculated by:

Pub.P=πD3P⋅kb.P⋅Stu.P16(b12+b22+g)

ܲ௨. =

16ቀ భ + మ + ݃ቁ

ଶ ଶ

where, in the equation above, b1ܾଵ and 2b22ܾଶ were substituted for

t1ݐଵ and t2ݐଶ from the previous pin bending equation.

The trick is to find the values of b1ܾଵ and b2ܾଶ that result in the

"balanced design" ultimate load. To determine the balanced design

ultimate load, reduce the bearing widths of each of the lugs until the

ultimate load for the lugs are equal to one other as well as equal to

the ultimate bending load of the pin. This requires an iterative

process.

Once the balanced design ultimate load is found, the ultimate joint

load and the pin ultimate bending load are each equal to the

balanced load:

Pu.J=Pub.P=Pbalanced

one of the two previous sections, depending on whether the pin

was strong or weak in bending:

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Strong pin: ܲ = ܲ

Pu.J=Pu.J.nom

௨ . ௨..

Weak pin: ܲ = ܲ

Pu.J=Pbalanced

௨. ௗ

The overall ultimate load accounting for both the ultimate joint load

and the ultimate pin shear load is calculated by:

Pult=min(Pu.J,Pus.P)

ܲ௨௧

FS=PultPapplied

= ܵܨ

ܲௗ

here.

shear joint strength

"Design of Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices." This method considers

the following failure modes, where the numbers correspond to the

figure:

3. Bearing failure

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explicitly calculated, the effective width calculation accounts for the

lug thickness in an attempt to protect against dishing failure.

The dimensions of interest for the lug analysis are shown in the

figure below:

beܾ = net width (distance between the edge of the hole and the

edge of the lug in the transverse direction)

edge of the lug in the direction of applied load)

=R−0.5Dh = ܴ − 0.5ܦ

aܽ = distance from the edge of the hole to the edge of the lug

lug

with the exception of several correction factors that are calculated

based on test results. These correction factors are discussed

below.

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The lug strength is reduced as the fit between the pin and the hole

is loosened. The lug strength is not much affected as long as the

pin and hole are a relatively tight fit. ASME defines a strength

reduction factor that can be used to account for the pin-to-hole

clearance as:

Cr=∣∣∣∣11−0.2751−D2pD2h−−−−−−√if Dp/Dh>0.9otherwise

ܥ = ተ

1 − 0.275ට1 − మ otherwise

మ

where Dpܦ is the pin diameter and Dhܦ is the hole diameter.

A shear plane locating angle, ϕ߶, is used to locate the two planes

along which shear tear out occurs, as shown in the figure:

methodologies commonly take ϕ߶ as a constant value (typically

40°), but ASME relates it to the ratio of the pin diameter to the hole

diameter such that a loose-fitting pin has a smaller shear plane

area than a tight-fitting pin:

ܦ

ϕ=55∘DpDh

߶ = 55 ∘

ܦ

The term beܾ is referred to as the net width and is the distance

between the edge of the hole and the edge of the lug in the

transverse direction, as shown in the figure:

the smallest of the following:

22 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

This limit is intended to protect

against dishing failure (once the

lug thickness drops below 1/4 of

• beff.2=4tܾ.ଶ = 4ݐ

the net width beܾ , the effective

width is driven down). This limit

can be ignored if the lug is

stiffened or constrained against

buckling.

beff.3=0.6beStuStyDhbe−−−√

ܾ.ଷ = 0.6ܾ ௌ ට

ௌೠ

This equation is empirical, fitted

•

to test results.

beff=min(beff.1,beff.2,beff.3)

strength calculations. The value for Ndܰௗ can be found from the

table below:

Design

Condition

Factor

Design Category A lifters (predictable loads, accurately

Ndܰௗ =

defined or non-severe environmental conditions, no

2.00

more than 20,000 load cycles)

Ndܰௗ = Design Category B lifters (unpredictable loads,

3.00 uncertain or severe environmental conditions)

A service class is used to account for fatigue life and is defined

based on the table below:

0 0 - 20,000

1 20,001 - 100,000

2 100,001 - 500,000

3 500,001 - 2,000,000

4 Over 2,000,000

loads, as indicated by the applied force arrow in the figure below:

23 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

factor of safety for each of the failure modes described below. As

long as the applied force is within the allowable load, and as long

as each factor of safety is acceptable, then the lug can be

considered to pass.

The ultimate tensile load is the load that would result in tensile

failure across the net section, and is given by:

Pt.u=Cr⋅Stu⋅At

ultimate tensile strength of the lug. Atܣ௧ is the area of the net

section and is calculated by:

ܣ௧ = 2 ⋅ ܾ ⋅ ݐ

At=2⋅t⋅beff

where beffܾ is the effective width and t ݐis the lug thickness.

The allowable tensile load is based on the design factor, Ndܰௗ , and

is given by:

ܲ௧.௨

Pt=Pt.u1.20Nd

ܲ௧ =

1.20ܰௗ

Note that the allowable tensile load is based on the design factor

multiplied by 1.20. ASME requires the design factor for some of the

strength calculations to be higher than the nominal value. The

factor of safety is given by:

ܲ௧.௨

FSt=Pt.uFapp

ܵܨ௧ =

ܨ

To meet ASME BTH, the factor of safety must be at least 1.20Nd

The ultimate single plane fracture load is the load that would result

24 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

in failure along the plane collinear with the applied load, and is

given by:

Pb.u=Cr⋅Stu⋅Ab

ultimate tensile strength of the lug. Abܣ is an effective area that is

calculated as:

ܦ 0.92ܾ

Ab=[1.13(R−Dh2)+0.92be1+be/Dh]⋅t

2 1 + ܾ /ܦ

the net width, and t ݐis the lug thickness.

factor, Ndܰௗ , and is given by:

ܲ.௨

Pb=Pb.u1.20Nd

ܲ =

1.20ܰௗ

ܲ.௨

FSb=Pb.uFapp

ܵܨ =

ܨ

The ultimate double plane shear load is the load that would result in

shear tear out along the two planes, and is given by:

Pv.u=0.70StuAv

ultimate tensile strength of the lug. Avܣ௩ is the total area of the two

shear planes and is given by:

ܦ

Av=2⋅[a+Dp2(1−cos(ϕ))−Z]⋅t

2

shear plane length due to the curvature at the end of the lug. This

loss is calculated as:

Z=r−r2−(Dp2sin(ϕ))2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√

ܦ

ଶ

ܼ = ݎ− ඨ ݎଶ − ቆ sin (߶)ቇ

2

Note that if the lug end is flat then r ݎis infinity and Zܼ is zero.

25 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

ܲ௩.௨

Pv=Pv.u1.20Nd

ܲ௩ =

1.20ܰௗ

ܲ௩.௨

FSv=Pv.uFapp

ܵܨ௩ =

ܨ

The ultimate bearing load is the load that would result in bearing

failure on either the lug or the pin. This ultimate load is dependent

on the number of load cycles that the connection will be subjected

to, and is given by:

Pp.u=∣∣∣1.25⋅Sty.min⋅Ap0.63⋅Sty.min⋅Apfor Service Class 0for Service Class 1 or higher

ܲ.௨ = อ

0.63 ⋅ ܵ௧௬. ⋅ ܣ for Service Class 1 or higher

and the pin (i.e. Sty.min=min(Sty.lug,Sty.pin)ܵ௧௬. = min

(ܵ௧௬.௨ , ܵ௧௬. ) ). Apܣ is the pin bearing area and is calculated by:

Ap=Dpt

and is given by:

ܲ.௨

Pp=Pp.uNd

ܲ =

ܰௗ

ܲ.௨

FSp=Pp.uFapp

ܵܨ =

ܨ

The Air Force Manual specifies to calculate the factor of safety for

an obliquely loaded lug by drawing a line from the origin that

intersects with the allowable load curve, where the slope of the line

26 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

is given by:

ܲ௨.

m=Pu.LPtru.L

݉=

ܲ௧௨.

where Pu.Lܲ௨. is the ultimate load for an axially loaded lug and

Ptru.Lܲ௧௨. is the ultimate load for a transversely loaded lug.

The problem with using the above equation for the slope is that the

intersection line is the same regardless of the angle of the applied

force. This problem is illustrated in the figure below:

axial, then the point for the applied load would lie along the blue

line as shown in the figure, and the intersection point should reflect

a factor of safety that is very close to that of a pure axially loaded

lug. Likewise, if the applied force is at an angle of 85° such that it is

almost entirely transverse, then the point for the applied load would

lie along the red line as shown in the figure, and the intersection

point should reflect a factor of safety that is very close to that of a

pure transversely loaded lug. Based on this reasoning, the slope of

the line should reflect the applied loading condition:

m=Ptr/Ptru.LPax/Pu.L=PtrPtru.LPu.LPax

݉= =

ܲ௫ /ܲ௨. ܲ௧௨. ܲ௫

It should be noted that the figure showing the lug with the clevis pin

does not accurately depict the relative sizing. The clevis pin should

be a relatively tight fit in the lug. Per ASME, the pin diameter should

be at least 90% of the lug hole diameter to avoid a reduction in the

27 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

joint strength.

The variable names used in the Axial Load Coefficient plot from the

Air Force Manual are inconsistent with the rest of the variable

names throughout the manual. This plot originated in Melcon &

Hoblit, and the variable names from the plot were not updated to

match. The Air Force Manual uses the variable e݁ for edge

distance (center of hole to edge of lug) and aܽ for the distance

between the edge of the hole to the edge of the lug. However, the

plot uses aܽ for the edge distance (center of hole to edge of lug).

calculated using a reciprocal average. The effect of the reciprocal

average is that the result is dominated by the smaller terms such

that a disproportionately large value will not drive up the average

much, but a disproportionately small value will drop the average

significantly (i.e. a weak link -- this is the same effect seen by

placing springs in series). The use of this equation for calculating

the effective edge distance for a transversely loaded lug originated

with Melcon and Hoblit. They stated that the reason for the

coefficient 3 on the h1ℎଵ term was to reduce scatter on their test

data, but that it made sense because in a transversely loaded lug

the h1ℎଵ section will be taking most of the load.

lug, it is necessary to determine a relationship between the ultimate

components. It is known that the actual load ratios are proportional

to the ultimate load ratios since these ratios lie along the same load

line:

ܴ௧ ܴ௧.௨௧

RtrRax=Rtr.ultRax.ult

=

ܴ௫ ܴ௫.௨௧

PtrPtru.L.B⋅Pu.L.BPax=Ptr.ultPtru.L.B⋅Pu.L.BPax.ult

⋅ = ⋅

ܲ௧௨.. ܲ௫ ܲ௧௨.. ܲ௫.௨௧

ܲ௧ ܲ௧.௨௧

PtrPax=Ptr.ultPax.ult

=

ܲ௫ ܲ௫.௨௧

The load components are related by the angle of the applied load:

ܲ௧ ܲ௧.௨௧

tan(α)=PtrPax=Ptr.ultPax.ult

tan (ߙ) = =

ܲ௫ ܲ௫.௨௧

lug can be incorporated into the allowable load curve itself by:

28 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

Lug Analysis | MechaniCalc about:reader?url=https://mechanicalc.com/reference/lug-analysis

ܲ௫.௪ ܲ௧.௪ 1

(Pax.allowPu.L.B)1.6+(Ptr.allowPtru.L.B)1.6=(1FS)1.6

ଵ. ଵ. ଵ.

ቆ ቇ +ቆ ቇ =ቆ ቇ

ܲ௨.. ܲ௧௨.. ܵܨ

FS=⎛⎝⎜⎜1(Pax.allowPu.L.B)1.6+(Ptr.allowPtru.L.B)1.6⎞⎠⎟⎟0.625

.ଶହ

1

⎛ = ܵܨ ⎞

⎜ ೌೣ.ೌೢ ଵ. ଵ.

⎟

൬ ൰ +൬ ൰

.ೌೢ

⎝ ೠ.ಽ.ಳ ೠ.ಽ.ಳ ⎠

Mailing List

improvements:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2014.

June 1973.

and Shear Pins," Product Engineering, June 1953.

2011.

October 1986.

29 of 29 25/01/2018, 15:57

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