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Introduction: Brain and

The Human Brain

• The brain is the most complex organ of the body, composed

of 100 billion nerve cells

• Cortex: the surface of the brain which receives messages

from the sensory organs, initiates actions, and stores our
memories and our knowledge of grammar

• Cerebral hemispheres: the left and right hemispheres of the

brain function contralaterally

• Corpus callosum: a network of 200 million fibers that join

the two hemispheres and allow the left and right
hemispheres to communicate with each other
Videos for Reference

• An important issue: How does the brain work?

(00:00 – 04:00 is the most relevant)
The Divided Brain (Left Hemisphere vs. Right Hemisphere)

Language in the Brain
The Localization of Language
in the Brain
• In the early 19th century, Franz Joseph Gall
proposed the idea of localization, which is the idea
that different cognitive abilities are localized in
specific parts of the brain

• He also proposed the theory of phrenology, which

is the practice of examining the “bumps” on the
skull in order to determine personality traits and
intellectual capacity
• Phrenology is no longer followed as a scientific theory,
but the idea of localization remains

• Aphasia: any language disorder that results from

brain damage caused by disease or trauma

• Studies of aphasia have been very important for

identifying the areas in the brain used specifically
for language

• Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area are both language

centers found in the left hemisphere

• Damage to Broca’s area of the brain may result in

Broca’s aphasia, which is characterized by:

• Labored speech

• Difficulty with sentence formation

• Agrammatism: lacking articles, prepositions, pronouns,

and auxiliary verbs as well as grammatical word endings
such as past tense marker –ed

• Example of Broca’s aphasia


• Broca’s aphasics also have trouble understanding complex

sentences that require knowledge of grammar rather than
life experience

• For example, The cat was chased by the dog may be difficult for a
Broca’s aphasic to understand because it requires knowledge of
passive grammatical construction to understand

• But, The car was chased by the dog may be understood because
regardless of the word order, dogs tend to chase cars rather than the
other way around, so the aphasia patient can rely on life experience
to interpret the meaning

• Damage to Wernicke’s area of the brain may result in

Wernicke’s aphasia, which is characterized by:

• Fluent speech with good intonation that does adhere to the rules for
sentence formation but is semantically incoherent

• Difficulty in naming objects

• Word substitutions and the creation of nonsense words

• Severe Wernicke’s aphasia is known as jargon aphasia


• Examples of Wernicke’s aphasia (


• The symptoms of Wernicke’s and Broca’s aphasia provide

evidence for a modular organization of language in the brain

• Grammar consists of distinct components or modules with different


• For example, aphasia patients frequently may substitute words with

similar sounds or meanings
• pool may be substituted for tool
• table may be substituted for chair

• This tells us that neural connections exist between words that sound
alike and words with similar meanings

• Reading in English: • Reading in Japanese:

• An agrammatic aphasic could • People with damage in their

not read function words, even left hemisphere cannot read
though he could read content kana, a writing system based
words that sound the same on the sound system of the
• witch is OK, which is not
• hour is OK, our is not • People with damage to their
• eye is OK, I is not right hemisphere cannot read
kanji, an ideographic writing
• wood is OK, would is not system

• The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT):

difficulty in finding the word you want to say

• Anomia: the inability to find the word you want to

• This is the case with some aphasics

• Aphasics have linguistic symptoms due to damage

to the language faculty
• Rather than general cognitive or intellectual impairment
or loss of control of speech organs

• Deaf aphasics have similar symptoms to hearing aphasics

• Damage to Broca’s area results in dysfluent, agrammatic signing

• Damage to Wernicke’s area results in fluent but semantically incoherent signs

Historical Descriptions of Aphasia
• Greek Hippocratic physicians noticed that loss of speech
often occurred alongside paralysis of the right side of the

• Numerous reports of patients losing linguistic ability but not

general cognitive ability were published between the 15th
and 18th centuries

• A case of jargon aphasia was described in 1745

• These historical cases along with modern research provide

evidence that language is predominantly located in the left
Brain Imaging Technology

• MRI and CT scans can reveal lesions in the brain

soon after the damage occurs

• fMRI, PET, and SPECT scans can show brain activity

• These scans can be used to see the different areas of the

brain that are used to accomplish various linguistic tasks,
such as naming people, animals, and tools
Brain Plasticity and Lateralization in
Early Life
• Lateralization begins very early
• Wernicke’s area is visible in the left hemisphere of a 26-week old

• Language appears more dominant in the left hemisphere even in

one-week-old babies

• However, while language is predisposed to be localized in

the left hemisphere, children’s brains display a remarkable
amount of plasticity
• If the left hemisphere of a child’s brain is removed (in a
hemispherectomy), the right hemisphere may take over the language
Brain Plasticity and Lateralization in
Early Life
• Plasticity of the brain decreases with age

• Adults undergoing surgery to remove the left hemisphere

then suffer from severe language impairment

• The right hemisphere is also important for first language

• Children with damage to the right hemisphere may experience
problems with vocabulary

• If the right hemisphere is removed before the age of two, language

may never develop
Split Brain Patients

• Sometimes patients have their corpus callosum

• Can help treat certain kinds of epilepsy

• Cuts off communication between the two hemispheres of

the brain

• Linguistic experiments with split brain patients

provide further evidence for the localization of
language in the left hemisphere
Other Experimental Evidence of Brain
• Dichotic listening

• Subjects hear two different sounds or words simultaneously, one in

each ear

• Subjects more often accurately report hearing linguistic sounds

coming into the right ear (left hemisphere) and nonverbal sounds
coming into the left ear (right hemisphere)

• ERPs

• Studies show that even nonsensical sentences cause more electrical

signals in the left hemisphere
The Autonomy of Language

• Specific Language Impairment (SLI): some children who

have not suffered brain damage and have no general
cognitive deficits have trouble acquiring language

• Children with SLI have problems with articles, prepositions, auxiliary

verbs, inflectional suffixes

• Different components of language may be selectively affected in

children with SLI

• Children with SLI provide further evidence that language

ability is separate from general cognitive ability
Other Dissociations of Language and
• Savants are intellectually disabled people who have
remarkable talents in certain areas

• Laura: could produce complex sentences and could detect

grammatical errors

• Christopher: could not only produce language as complex as any

other native speaker but could also translate fifteen to twenty
languages into English

• The cases of Laura and Christopher provide strong evidence

that linguistic ability is separate from general intelligence
Genetic Basis of Language

• There is evidence that language has a biological


• Children with Turner syndrome, Williams syndrome, and

Klinefelter syndrome
• Genetic disorders that affect either linguistic or nonlinguistic

• SLI seems to be hereditary

• Identical twins are more likely to both suffer from SLI than
fraternal twins
Language and Brain Development
• The critical-age hypothesis assumes that the ability to learn
a native language develops between birth and middle
childhood (the critical period)
• After this critical period, the acquisition of grammar is difficult, and is
never fully achieved for most people

• The critical period seems to be present in other species as

• Refers to species-specific, biologically based behaviors

• For example, during the period of 9 to 21 hours after hatching,

ducklings will follow the first moving object they see
Language and Brain Development
• There are several instances of children being
deprived of linguistic exposure during the critical
period for various reasons
• Victor, Genie, Chelsea

• These children did not know any language when

they were reintroduced to society

• They were able to learn words but were unable to

learn grammar
Language and Brain Development
• Genie was deprived of all but minimal human contact until she was 14
years old

• Genie was able to learn a large vocabulary

• And was a very skilled nonverbal communicator
• But, she lacked grammatical skills
• She never acquired articles, auxiliary verbs, inflectional suffixes, question
words, and was unable to create complex sentences and questions

• Dichotic listening and ERP experiments showed that Genie’s language

was lateralized to the right hemisphere

• It is hypothesized that the language centers in Genie’s brain atrophied

since she received no linguistic input during the critical period
Language and Brain Development
• Chelsea was born deaf but was wrongly diagnosed as
intellectually disabled

• At age 31 she was finally diagnosed as deaf, was fitted with

hearing aids, and began years of intense language training
and therapy

• She also has acquired a large vocabulary

• But, like Genie, she has not acquired grammar

• And, like Genie, Chelsea’s brain activity shows unusual lateralization

of language; Chelsea’s language ability is equally located in both
Language and Brain Development
• Deaf children born to hearing parents also provide
information about the critical-age hypothesis
• Hearing parents often don’t know sign language, and so their deaf
babies may be exposed to language later on

• Babies who are exposed to American Sign Language (ASL) up to age 6

are significantly more fluent than those not exposed until after age

• The cases of Genie and Chelsea and studies of late learners

of ASL show that people cannot fully acquire a language
unless they are exposed to it during the critical period
A Critical Period for Bird Song

• Some bird species also have a critical period for acquiring

their song

• Chaffinches, white-crowned sparrows, zebra finches, and nightingales

all must be exposed to their species-specific song before a species-
specific time period in order to fully acquire it

• However, the cuckoo fully develops it’s song regardless of exposure to


• Other species combine an innate element of their song with learned

elements, even from other species and cell phone ring tones
The Development of Language in the
• There is debate surrounding:

• Whether or not language is species-specific and how

separated human language is from other primate

• What role the evolution of the speech production and

perception apparatus had in the evolution of language

• Whether language evolved in one large leap or several