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CHSE- Semester -2 2.

idea of reduced resistance ;


Biology 3. {acrosome / vesicle} containing {enzyme/acrosin};
Express class -1 4. involved in {digestion / break down} of the {zona
pellucida / jelly layer} ;
1. Several processes lead up to fertilisation in animals and plants. 5. {haploid / eq} nucleus ;
*(a) Describe and explain how, in mammals, events following the 6. allows restoration of {diploid / full complement / 46 / eq}
acrosome reaction prevent more than one sperm fertilising an egg. chromosomes at fertilisation ;
(QWC– Spelling of technical terms must be correct and the 7.mitochondria qualified e.g. large number, correct location;
answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 8. to supply {ATP / energy} for {movement / eq} ;
1. sperm cell {fuses / eq} with egg cell (membrane) ; 9. {flagellum / eq} present ;
2. reference to {cortical granules / vesicles / 10. for propulsion / swimming / motility / eq ;
lysosomes} ; 11.{markers / receptors} in cell surface membrane ;
3. idea of (cortical granules) {moving towards / fusing 12.to bind to egg cell surface membrane / detect chemicals
with } egg cell (surface) membrane ; released by ovum / eq ;
4. reference to exocytosis (of cortical granules / vesicles /
lysosomes) ; 2. A human egg cell contains a nucleus, lipid droplets and cortical
5. idea of contents (of cortica lgranules) {secreted /released granules. Cortical granules are lysosomes containing enzymes.
into jelly layer / eq} OR reference to cortical reaction ; The diagram below shows a human egg cell and the structures
6. idea of { hardening / thickening / eq } of { zonapellucida surrounding it.
/ jelly layer } OR formation of fertilization membrane ;
7.reference to change in charge across egg cellmembrane ;
QWC emphasis is on spelling of technical terms
1. NOT the fusion of the nuclei
4. NOT for description of acrosome reaction
5. ACCEPT enzymes / chemicals NOT released into ovum
6. ACCEPT fertilization

(b) Animals produce haploid gametes by meiosis.


Explain how meiosis gives rise to genetic variation in gametes. (2)
(a) Labels A, B, C and D indicate the positions of structures either
1. reference to both { independent /random } assortment inside or associated with the human egg cell.
and { crossing-over/chiasma(ta) } ; Place a cross (X)in the box which corresponds to the correct name of
2.independent assortment gives rise to {new/ different /eq} each structure. (3)
combinations of (paternal and maternal) chromosomes ;
3. crossing over involves swapping of {sections / eq} of
{chromatids /chromosomes} ;

*(C) Describe and explain three ways in which a human sperm cell
is specialised for its function. (6)

Take into account quality of written communication


when awarding the following points.
Mark as pairs
1. shape qualified e.g. hydrodynamic, streamlined ;
(b) Describe the function of each of the following structures that are
found in a human egg cell.
(i) Lipid droplets (1)
provide (a store of) energy / used in synthesis of other
correctly named molecules / eq ; DO NOT ACCEPT ‘food
store’

(ii) Cortical granules (3)


(ii) Meiosis produces haploid structures in the plant.
1. (it is a) secretory vesicle / lysosome ; The diagram below shows an embryosac.
2. (cortical granules ) { move to / fuse with } egg cell Draw a circle round each of the labels of two haploid structures that
membrane /eq ; are fertilised in the embryosac. (2)
3. { enzyme / chemical } released / exocytosis;
4. reference to the cortical reaction / change to zona
pellucida ;
5. idea of preventing polyspermy ;
4. ACCEPT formation of fertilisation membrane

(c) Give two similarities of the nucleus of a human egg cell and the
nucleus of a human sperm cell. (2)

1. general description of feature of a nucleus, e.g. nuclear


pores, nucleolus, double membrane ;
2. both { haploid / contain one set of chromosomes / (iii) Explain what is meant by the term haploid number of
contain 23 chromosomes } ; chromosomes. (1)
3. both produced by meiosis ; Any one from
1. half the number (of chromosomes) found in {body
3. One way in which meiosis increases genetic variation is through cells / somatic cells / named body cell / eq}
crossing over. 2.the number of chromosomes in {gametes/sex cells}
(a)(i) The diagram below shows a pair of homologous chromosomes 3.the number (of chromosomes) in a cell following meiosis;
during meiosis. They are positioned next to each other but crossing
over has not yet occurred. 4. Meiosis is involved in the formation of human gametes.
(a) Explain the importance of meiosis in the formation of human
sperm and egg cells. (3)
It is a form of cell division that
1. halves the chromosome number / eq ;
2. so that at fertilisation the {full complement /
eq} of chromosomes is restored / eq ;
3. allows genetic variation (in gametes) / eq ;
4. through independent assortment / eq ;
Complete the diagram below to show these chromosomes after 5. through crossing over / eq ;
crossing over has occurred. (1) (b) Sperm cells release acrosin, an enzyme found in the acrosome.
This enzyme is involved in digesting the zona pellucida (jelly layer)
during fertilisation.
The diagrams below show a human sperm cell and a human egg. acrosin activity were mixed with human eggs in a glass container.
The number of eggs fertilised was then counted and the percentage
of eggs fertilised was calculated.
The results are shown in the table below.

(i) A student stated that acrosin needs to be active for the eggs to be
fertilized and that the higher the acrosin activity, the greater the
percentage of eggs fertilised.
(i) The table below describes four sites. Give one piece of evidence from the table that supports some of his
Place a cross in the box below the letter that correctly links the statement. (1)
statement to one of the labels on the diagrams above. (4) idea that as the activity of acrosin increases so does
fertilisation rate e.g. positive correlation ;

(ii) Using the data in the table, suggest why the student could not
support all of his statement. (1)
no data on {zero acrosin activity /zero percentage
fertilisation} / cannot accurately extrapolate back from
the data ;

(ii) Describe how the acrosin is released from the acrosome. (2)
1. idea of stimulus e.g. receptors, contact with {zona / eq}
, presence of chemicals ;
2. reference to acrosome swells ;
3. reference to {vesicle / acrosome} fuses ;
4. with (sperm) cell (surface) membrane ;
5. exocytosis ;

(c) An investigation was carried out to study the effect of acrosin


activity on fertilisation success. Sperm cells with different levels of