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 By: Satyendra Nath Dwivedi

Triune Energy Services, New Delhi


Triune Energy Services, New Delhi
 Nuovo Pignone MS 1002 R regenerative cycle gas turbines, (34%
efficiency, rated 4,620 kw ISO) drives 4HG Reciprocating
Compressor to compress natural gas from the pipeline (55 Bar)into
artificial caverns (150 Bar) for storage. A two-stage epicyclic
gearbox with gear ratio of 31:1 steps down turbine shaft speed to
the compressor speed of 333 rpm.

Triune Energy Services, New Delhi


Triune Energy Services, New Delhi
Triune Energy Services, New Delhi
 A Gas turbine is an Internal Combustion
Engine that converts heat energy of the fuel
into mechanical energy via three main
elements – a compressor, combustor and
turbine.
 As gas turbines operate in a continuous
thermodynamic cycle, they have a higher
power density than other types of internal
combustion engines.

Triune Energy Services, New Delhi


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Work output of a gas turbine increases with:
 Higher pressure ratio generated in the
compressor
 Higher combustor exit temperature, normally
restricted by the high temperature capability
of combustor and turbine components
 More efficient secondary systems (cooling,
sealing)

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Functionally Gas turbines may be classified in
two broad categories:
 Gas Turbines for Power Generation
 Gas Turbines for Mechanical Drive

Power Generation Gas Turbines are huge and


are normally operated in the Combined Cycle,
using a Steam Turbine along with a Waste
Heat Recovery Boiler.

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 Combined cycle power plants feature gas and
steam turbines.
 The gas turbine generates electricity using
natural gas fuel, while the steam turbine
generates electricity using waste heat from
the gas turbine.
 The process is extremely efficient since
exhaust heat is re-used that would otherwise
be lost through the exhaust stack.

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 A gas turbine compresses air and mixes it with
fuel. The fuel is burned and the resultant hot air-
fuel mixture is expanded through turbine blades,
making them spin about a shaft. The spinning
turbine drives a generator that converts the
spinning energy into electricity.
 Exhaust heat from the gas turbine is sent to a
heat recovery steam generator (HRSG)
 The HRSG creates steam using the gas turbine
exhaust heat and delivers it to the steam turbine
 The steam turbine delivers additional energy to
the generator drive shaft
 The generator converts the energy into electricity

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GE H Series Gas Turbine for
Power Generation
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Gas turbines for mechanical drive applications
may be classified in two broad categories:
 Aero-derivative Gas Turbines
 Industrial Gas Turbines

Industrial Gas Turbines are having frames,


bearings and fans of a heavier construction.

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GE Industrial Gas Turbines Mechanical Drive
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Rolls Royce Industrial Trent

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SOLAR Titan 250 (22MW)

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 SOLAR Titan 250 (22MW)

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Gas turbines manufacturers for mechanical drive
applications are:
 GE
 Alstom
 Rolls Royce
 Siemens
 MAN Turbo
 Solar
 Dresser-Rand
 Mitsubishi
 Niigata

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Power Generation Applications and Customers
mostly require:
 Cost of Electricity
 Ruggedness
 Cost of Operation & Maintenance (O&M)

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Oil and Gas Applications and Customers mostly
require:
 High Availability/ Reliability
 Ruggedness
 High Power/ Weight Ratio

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Because of these inherent market differences,
Oil and Gas Customers often insist on
Compliance to API Codes and are willing to
Accept the resultant high Turbomachinery
Costs

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Gas turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical
and Gas Industry services are covered under
API Standard 616 (Fourth Edition, August
1998)

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 ‘Unit Responsibility’ (in accordance with
Clause 3.5.1 of API 661) can be given either
to Gas Turbine Vendor or to Compressor
vendor.
 For more complex projects ‘Unit
Responsibility’ as Prime contractor is given to
Compressor manufacturer (Gas turbine being
off-the shelf and compressor being
customized).

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 As Turbocompressors are complex
mechanical devices, they require electronic
and mechanical controls as well as
instrumentation.
 The Control system of a Gas turbine driven
compressor must, as a minimum, provide
following functions through a Human Machine
Interface (HMI):

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 Machinery Monitoring and protection
 Equipment Starting, Shutdown, and Protective
sequencing
 Stable Equipment Operation
 Alarm, Shutdown Logic
 Backup (relay) Shutdown

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 Driven Load Regulation
 Fuel/ Speed Control
 Process Control
 Surge Control

 Communication – Supervisory Control and


Data Acquisition (SCADA) - Interface

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Thank You

Satyendra Nath Dwivedi

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