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# LABORATORY REPORT

Activity 2

## Instructor: Engr. Jennifer B. Igat Date Submitted: 9-9-2016

ABSTRACT:

We express physical quantities in terms of numbers, these numbers are obtained from measurements. The meter,
kilogram, second and ampere are called fundamental units or base units. These units can neither be derived from one
another nor can be resolved into any other units, they are independent of one another. From these units we can derive
some more units using the appropriate algebraic relationships that are called derived units, these units are built up step by
step from the base units and usually given a distinct name, examples of derived units are those for velocity, acceleration,
force (Newton), and work (Joule). This experiment were performed for us to find the following: the area of the table, the
volume and densities of the cylindrical hollow metal block and metal sphere, and the speed of the dynamic cart. For you to
get the area, volume, density, and the speed you must use the following formulas: A of rectangle = l x w,

4 3 π M D
V of sphere = π r , V of cylinder = Do2 x Ho – Di2 x Hi, D = ,and S = . After getting all the data
3 4 V T
needed for the experiment we learned that in order to avoid errors we need to use precise equipments like vernier caliper
and micrometer caliper in measuring the materials given because this instruments give different consistency, accuracy,
and sensitivity needed for the experiment.

MATERIALS USED:

 Meter tape
 Vernier caliper
 Micro meter
 Stop watch
 Cylindrical hollow metal block
 Spherical metal block
 Dynamic cart
 Dynamic track

## ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:

1. Laboratory Table

The mathematical term 'area' can be defined as the amount of two-dimensional space taken up by an object. The use of
area has many practical applications in building, farming, architecture, science, and even deciding how much paint you
need to paint your bedroom. The area of a shape can be determined by placing the shape over a grid and counting the
number of squares that the shape covers.

In the experiment we measure the length and width in meters of the 3 different table inside the physics laboratory using
the meter tape for measurement accuracy it is also used to accurately measure objects of various sizes as well as
distances. We did multiple trials in the 3 tables so that we can assure the results are averaged and not affected by
external problems After getting the all the data that we need from the 3 tables we use this formula A of rectangle = l x w to
get the area of the 3 tables. To finish the table we then computed the average of all the length, width, and area that we
measured. To calculate the average we add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are.

## 2. Cylindrical hollow metal block

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance
(solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. The density at all points of a homogeneous object equals its
total mass divided by its total volume. The mass is normally measured with a scale or balance; the volume may be
measured directly (from the geometry of the object) or by the displacement of a fluid.

In the experiment we used a cylindrical hollow metal block and measured it 3 times to get the volume and density for our 3
trials. Multiple trials are done to assure the results are averaged and not affected by external problems. A vernier caliper
was used in the experiment to measure the diameter of the hollow cylinder both inside and outside and the height / depth
of the hollow cylinder both inside and outside. The vernier caliper gives a direct reading of the distance measured with
high accuracy and precision that is the reason why we use it in the experiment to minimize the errors and obtain good
results. After getting the results, the diameter and depth of the hollow cylinder both inside and outside in centimeters. We
then weigh the hollow cylinder using a triple beam balance to obtain its mass in grams. This device has reading error of
+/- 0.05 gram. After getting all the necessary data that we needed we then proceed in calculating the volume and density

π M
of the 3 trials. We used the following formulas V of cylinder = Do2 x Ho – Di2 x Hi and D = to obtain the
4 V
volume and the density of our 3 trials. To finish the table we then computed the average of all the diameter (I and O),
depth (I and O), mass, volume, and density of our 3 trials that we measured. To calculate the average we add up all the
numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are. After the table was finished we then calculated the percentage

error. We use the formula: % error: |TVTV−EV | x 100. The TV or theoretical value was given by our professor which

is 2.71 g/cc and the experimental value is the average of the 3 densities from our 3 trials which is 2.538 g/cc. Our
percentage error is 6.35% which is good because in most cases, a percent error or difference of less than 10% will be
acceptable. This calculation will help us to evaluate the relevance of our results. It is helpful to know by what percent your
experimental values differ from your lab partners' values, or to some established value.

3. Metals Sphere
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance
(solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. The density at all points of a homogeneous object equals its
total mass divided by its total volume. The mass is normally measured with a scale or balance; the volume may be
measured directly (from the geometry of the object) or by the displacement of a fluid.

In the experiment we used a metal sphere and measured it three times to get the volume and density for our 3 trials. We
did multiple trials because we need to assure the results are averaged and not affected by external problems. A
micrometer caliper was used in the experiment it is an extremely precise measuring instrument with precision commonly
utilized to measure to the nearest one thousandth of an inch, the reading error is 1/200 mm = 0.005 mm. Micrometers are
used to measure outside or inside diameters. In the experiment we first use the micrometer caliper to get the diameter in
cm of the metal sphere for our 3 trials. We carefully place the metal sphere in the middle of the micrometer in order for us
to obtain precise data. After getting the diameter of the metal sphere, we then proceeded in getting the mass in grams of
the metal sphere we use the triple beam balance to measure the mass of the metal sphere precisely; the reading error is
0.05 gram. After getting all the necessary data that we needed we then proceed in calculating the volume and density of

4 3 M
the 3 trials. We used the following formulas: V of sphere = π r , and D = to obtain the volume and density of
3 V
our 3 trials. To finish the table we then computed the average of all the diameter, mass, volume, and density of our 3 trials
that we measured. To calculate the average we add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are. After

the table was finished we then calculated the percentage error. We use the formula: % error: |TVTV−EV | x 100. The

TV or theoretical value was given by our professor which is 7.28 g/cc and the experimental value is the average of the 3
densities from our 3 trials which is 8.886 g/cc. Our percentage error is 22.06% a high error percentage would mean that
our data is different from the given data. If your percentage error comparison shows a difference of more than 10%, there
is a great likelihood that some mistake has occurred, and you should look back over your lab work to find the source of
the error but after we reviewed all of our steps and measurements it is all correct there is only one difference and that is
the metal sphere that we used in the experiment. Because our metal sphere is different from the other groups it is bigger
compare to other metal spheres from other groups so that’s why our diameter is big resulting to a bigger volume and
mass. That’s why we have a bigger density than other groups and also the true value that is given to us is also different
from the other groups so there will really be a difference in our percentage error compared to others.

## 4. Time and Speed

Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure
of durations of events and the intervals between them. Time is change, or the interval over which change occurs. It is
impossible to know that time has passed unless something changes. Speed is one of the basic parameter for motion. It is
quite different with speed as it is not only covered length or distance. It is a scalar quantity with only magnitude not
direction. It was first discovered by Galileo. He gave the formula and definition of speed that is distance divided time. It
can be calculated in terms of constant, angular, Instantaneous, and average speed.

In the experiment we use a dynamic track and a dynamic cart to calculate its speed for 3 trials. We need to make sure that
are results are valid so we did multiple trials because we need to assure the results are averaged and not affected by
external problems. First we measure the distance in meters using the dynamic track from the starting point of our dynamic
cart up to the end point of our dynamic track that will be our distance. The dynamic cart and track system is used to
demonstrate the relationship between the motion and cause of motion. We also calculated the time it takes in seconds for
our dynamic cart to reach our end point from our starting point using a stopwatch. After getting all the necessary data that

D
we needed we then proceed in calculating the speed of the 3 trials. We used the following formulas: S = to obtain
T
the speed of our 3 trials. To finish the table we then computed the average of all the distance, time, and speed of our 3
trials that we measured. To calculate the average we add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are.

## Length, Mass, Area, and Density

1. Laboratory Table

## Trial Length (m) Width (m) Area (m2)

1 4.008 1.008 4.040
2 4.006 1.006 4.030
3 4.008 1.008 4.040
Average 4.007 1.007 4.037

## 2. Cylindrical Hollow Metal Block

Trial Do (cm) Di (cm) Ho (cm) Hi (cm) Mass (g) Volume (cc) Density
(g/cc)
1 1.230 0.714 8.830 5.716 20.7 8.203 2.523
2 1.240 0.750 8.824 5.716 20.6 8.131 2.534
3 1.236 0.746 8.832 5.720 20.7 8.097 2.557
Average 1.235 0.737 8.829 5.717 20.67 8.144 2.538
True Value, Density = 2.71 g/cc
Percentage Error = 6.347 %

3. Metal Sphere

## Trial Diameter (cm) Mass (grams) Volume (cc) Density (g/cc)

1 2.279 55.000 6.197 8.875
2 2.279 55.100 6.197 8.891
3 2.279 55.100 6.197 8.891
Average 2.279 55.067 6.197 8.886
True Value, Density = 7.28 g/cc
Percentage Error = 22.06%

## Trial Distance (m) Time (seconds) Speed (m/s)

1 0.599 5.200 0.115
2 0.522 4.580 0.114
3 1.176 6.770 0.174
Average 0.766 5.517 0.134