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Engaging Minds for a Better Tomorrow

THESIS FORMAT
FOR
POSTGRADUATES
2015

i | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS- January 2015

THESIS FORMAT GUIDE

This guide has been prepared to help graduate students to prepare their
dissertation and theses for acceptance by Awang Had Salleh Graduate School
of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia. The regulations contained
within have been updated for the benefit of students, faculty advisors,
departments and the Graduate School. Any questions about the contents of
this guide should be directed to the Format Advisor, Awang Had Salleh
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010
UUM, Sintok.

The Format Advisor is concerned solely with the format of the manuscripts.
It is the Advisor’s responsibility to make certain that any dissertation or
thesis submitted in partial fulfilment or fulfilment of a graduate degree at
Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara
Malaysia conforms to the regulations outlined in this guide. Responsibility
for the content of any manuscript remains with the student and the faculty
advisor(s).

ii | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS- January 2015

Table of Contents

Thesis Format Guide .............................................................................................................i
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................ii
1.0 REGULATIONS FOR PREPARATION OF A THESIS ....................................... 4
1.1 General Form and Style ................................................................................. 4
1.2 Length of Thesis ............................................................................................ 4
1.3 Paper Type and Quality ................................................................................. 4
1.4 Typing or Computer Printing ......................................................................... 5
1.5 Margins .......................................................................................................... 5
1.6 Paragraphs ...................................................................................................... 5
1.7 Numbering of Pages ....................................................................................... 5
1.8 Illustrative Materials ...................................................................................... 6
1.8.1 Tables ................................................................................................ 6
1.8.2 Figures and/or Plates ......................................................................... 6
1.8.3 Photographs and Plates ...................................................................... 7
1.8.4 Oversized Pages................................................................................. 7
1.9 Arrangement of Contents ............................................................................... 8
1.9.1 Title Page ........................................................................................... 8
1.9.2 Certification of Thesis/Dissertation ................................................... 8
1.9.3 Permission to Use .............................................................................. 8
1.9.4 Abstract.............................................................................................. 9
1.9.5 Permission to Use ............................................................................ 10
1.9.6 Acknowledgements ......................................................................... 10
1.9.7 Table of Contents ............................................................................ 10
1.9.8 List of Tables ................................................................................... 10
1.9.9 List of Figures.................................................................................. 11
1.9.10 List of Abbreviations ....................................................................... 11
1.9.11 Body of the Thesis ........................................................................... 11
1.9.12 List of References ............................................................................ 11
1.9.13 Appendices ...................................................................................... 11
1.9.14 Vita .................................................................................................. 12
2.0 SPECIFIC ITEMS ................................................................................................ 12
2.1 Titling the Thesis ......................................................................................... 12
2.2 Copyright and Subsequent Use of the Thesis .............................................. 12
2.3 Equations...................................................................................................... 13
2.4 Notes ............................................................................................................ 13

iii | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS- January 2015

2.5 Referencing .................................................................................................. 14
2.6 Layout of a Chapter ..................................................................................... 14
2.6.1 Numbered Format................................................................................ 14
2.7 Layout of a Table ......................................................................................... 14
2.8 Layout of a Figure ........................................................................................ 15
2.9 Binding the Thesis ....................................................................................... 15
APPENDIX : EXAMPLE OF THESIS ............................................................................. 17

one type and brand name of paper must be used throughout the thesis for reason of appearance and preservation. and  Discussion of Results and Conclusion.0 REGULATIONS FOR PREPARATION OF A THESIS Candidates should read carefully the following discussion of the Regulations of the Dean's Office and should familiarize themselves with the particular thesis requirement of their respective disciplines. If any point is still unclear. and forms of spelling and punctuation must be used with consistency. Accepted rules of grammar must be followed. it will not be accepted and the degree will not be conferred until an acceptable standard has been met. and that the language of the thesis reflects the finest standards of correct. candidates are advised to consult their supervisor(s) and/ or officer of the Dean’s Office before proceeding with the preparation of the thesis. bright and even surface. If a thesis does not follow the accepted format.3 Paper Type and Quality With the exception of photographs. It is the responsibility of the candidate and the supervisor(s) to ensure that before the thesis is presented for oral defence (viva) that typographical errors have been eliminated. 1. 4 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. The relative size of each one of these components will be determined by the nature of the problem under investigation and by the discipline involved. is not on the required quality of paper. PhD: 150 to 300 pages 1.2 Length of Thesis The recommended length of the main body of thesis is as followed: Master’s: 50 to 150 pages.January 2015 1.  Literature Review. scholarly expression.  Methodology.1 General Form and Style The main point to keep in mind is consistency of style throughout the thesis.  Results. . The main body of a thesis should contain:  Introduction. The standard paper size is 210 by 297 m. of A4 size and must be of good quality (80 gm) with a hard. The style selected must be maintained throughout the thesis. 1. is not free of mechanical errors. or is not of letter quality.

Note: It is imperative that the age set-up is formatted accordingly prior to the drafting of the dissertation. 5 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. If photographic paper is used. must be same font or typeface. bibliography and appendices.5 cm (1 inch)  Right side : 2. must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals.January 2015 1. Illustrative material is to be numbered as well as the text.5 Margins Margin specifications are meant to facilitate binding and trimming. numbers must be placed neatly in black ink on the reverse side. tables. Roman numerals are used for the prefatory pages and the numerals are placed in the bottom centre of the page. and for the correctness of pagination. The stipulated margins for the general text are as follows:  Top edge : 2. After all materials have been assembled.5 cm from each edge. for the order of the pages and sections. footnotes and illustrations should be within these margins.: Permission to Use. All items in the prefatory section should be on separate pages.4 Typing or Computer Printing The entire body text of the thesis.0 cm (1.5 cm (1 inch) All information including text heading. the thesis should be verified carefully for completeness. 1. All pages of the main body of the thesis.i. .5 cm (1 inch)  Left side : 4. Page numbers are to appear in the bottom centre 1. Table of Content and CHAPTER ONE 1. This includes pages containing illustrations.5 inches)  Bottom edge : 2. including those in the appendices.6 Paragraphs All paragraphs should be “justified” 1. Font Style: Times New Roman Font Size: 12 character per inch (body text) 14 characters per inch (for title) . must be numbered consecutively. including heading and page numbers. beginning with the introduction (Chapter One).e.7 Numbering of Pages Each page in a thesis.

2. If a table is taken from another source.1 Table Numbering The relevant tables are grouped and numbered sequentially within the respective chapter. and so on. Table 4. flush left in italics. Table Heading should be as shown below: Table 1. Table 4.3.January 2015 1.05 indicates an acceptable fit.1 Tables Each table caption must be placed at the left and on top of the table (title case). If any table continues to the following or subsequent pages. tables found in Chapter 4 should be numbered Table 4. 6 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. (X2) 0. Example in Chapter 4 Table 4.9 P > 0.8. The caption is not repeated 1.8 Illustrative Materials 1. do not type captions on a . the top line of the page reads (for example): Table 4. the reference must be cited properly at the bottom left of the table. Table Presentation Table presentation must be without vertical lines and used consistently throughout the dissertation.05 P-Value RAMSEA 0.8.1 Fit Measures Measures Research value Recommended values Chi-square 348.2 continued.074 A value > 0.2 Figures and/or Plates Place the word Figure and the figure number under the figure.018 A value <0.1. In thesis/dissertations. For example. The title of the figure goes next to the number in sentence case.08 indicates fit of the model.

1. charts and diagrams. The presence of photographs may make page-trimming difficult.4 Oversized Pages Wherever possible. maps. If any figure continues to the following or subsequent pages. If it does. The fold should be made at least 1.2. Figure 4.2. The same rules apply for the use of Plates. Folding is to be avoided in the case of PhD theses.7 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. The relevant figures are grouped and numbered sequentially within the respective chapter. Make as few folds as possible. Figures may be illustrations. The caption is not repeated. figures found in Chapter 4 should be numbered Figure 4. each should have the full range of contrast from true black to pure white. graphs. Implementation environment factor. the reference must be cited properly at the bottom left of the figure. When using photographs. .3 continued.3. the same guidelines as for tables should be followed. BI. maps. the top line of the page reads (for example): Figure 4. Where this is not possible. For example. and so on.5 cm from the edge of the page in case the edges are trimmed by the binder. and tables which are larger than the standard page-size must be photo-reduced in such a way that the material remains clearly legible. and actual use If a figure is taken from another source. Social Influence Behavioral intention Actual Use Facilitating conditions Figure 3. 1. thus destroying the foldout. since oversized page may be impossible to microfilm.8. Figure 4. they must be carefully folded for binding into the manuscript. Schematic and line diagrams should be drawn with the aid of a computer or with mechanical aids using black ink on white paper. photocopies should be used instead of photographs. charts. Dry mounting-tissue provides the neatest and most permanent method of affixing photographs.3 Photographs and Plates Wherever possible.8. graphs. Do not use rubber cement or glue.January 2015 separate page. A figure normally should not extend beyond one page. 1.

5 Other Material The Dean’s Office is aware that the research environment and research paradigms are changing rapidly. to be bound into the thesis. 8 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. the research officer of the Dean’s Office and the company which will ultimately bind the thesis. can be designed to contain such material. 1. When this occurs. The supervisor’s name should not appear on the title page.8. with their supervisor(s). particularly those from computer printouts. the name of the institution. the full name of the author. year of submission and the copyright notation. candidates should consult.9. It is likely that a pocket. at an early stage.January 2015 Excessively long tables.9 Arrangement of Contents Following is the order of all the elements of the thesis: Title Page Certification of Thesis/Dissertation Permission to Use Abstrak (in Malay) Abstract (in English) Acknowledgement Declaration Associated With the Thesis (Optional) Table of contents List of Tables List of Figures Glossary of Term (Optional) List of Abbreviations (Optional) Body of the Thesis References Appendices (if any) 1.2 Certification of Thesis/Dissertation A photocopy of the certification form must be included. the degree for which the thesis is submitted. . 1.9. 1. should be placed in an appendix. Candidates must be encouraged to take full advantage of the rapidly expanding technical and information resources. 1.9. This may result in the thesis containing material other than paper copy.3 Permission to Use . after it has been signed by the supervisor(s) and the Examining Panel members.1 Title Page The title page should contain the following information: the title of the thesis.

 the essential features of study method .  study eligibility criteria. Abstract submitted must follow the guidelines suggested by APA as follows: “An abstract of a report of an empirical study should describe  the problem under investigation.  conclusions (including limitations).  the essential features of the proposed method. An abstract for a theory-oriented paper should describe  how the theory or model works and/or the principles on which it is based and  what phenomena the theory or model accounts for and linkages to empirical results. a statement in paragraph form granting permission to use the thesis under specifically stated conditions and indicating the address of the person to whom request for such permission should be sent. An abstract for a literature review or meta-analysis should describe  the problem or relation(s) under investigation.4 Abstract An abstract in both Bahasa Malaysia and English must be included. with the former version appearing before the latter. in the front of their thesis.particularly those likely to be used in electronic searches. The abstract must not exceed 300 words. the results obtained and the significance of the results or findings. and  the conclusions and the implications or applications. 1. An abstract for a methodological paper should describe  the general class of methods being discussed.9 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS.9.  type(s) of participants included in primary studies.  the participants. including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels. . and ethnic and/or racial group. sex. policy. and  implications for theory. The abstract should identify clearly the purpose of the research. and/or practice. specifying pertinent characteristics such as age.  the basic findings.you have a limited number of words so restrict your description to essential and interesting features of the study methodology . the methods used.January 2015 Candidates are expected to include. specifying genus and species. in one sentence if possible.  main results (including the most important effect sizes) and any important moderators of these effect sizes. in animal research.

1. the title and the page number. should be properly acknowledged. and  in the case of statistical procedures. sections and important subdivisions of each section. The numbering and format of material in the table of contents must be identical to the way this material appears in the text of the thesis.9. It is suggested however.10 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. The acknowledgements should not exceed 250 words. that the page makes reference to the guidance received by the candidate from his or her supervisor(s) and other relevant parties. some of its essential features such as robustness or power efficiency. This list includes the number of each table. for example. The title of a subdivision of a chapter or section should be in small letters. data collection.8 List of Tables The list of tables follows the table of contents.9. community.7 Table of Contents The table of contents must list and provide page references for all elements of the thesis. group. For the text of the thesis it will indicate chapters. An abstract for a case study should describe  the subject and relevant characteristics of the individual. 1.9. or organization presented. Any extraordinary assistance received by the candidate.  the nature of or solution to a problem illustrated by the case example. and  the questions raised for additional research or theory. The title of each chapter or section should be written in full capital with no terminal punctuation.January 2015  the range of application of the proposed method. Dots between titles and page numbers are optional. 2010. it is necessary to obtain permission from the rights-holder.” (APA Publication Manual Sixth Edition. . 26-27) 1.9.6 Acknowledgements The content of this single page is left to the discretion of the candidate. and so on. Allowance must be made for this. with the exception of the first letter of significant words. 1. Reference should also be made to any financial assistance received to carry out the project. data analysis. Candidates must be aware that obtaining this permission may take some time and may require a fee. in word processing.5 Permission to Use When a candidate wishes to reproduce a substantial part of a work in the thesis. pp.

all relevant aspects of the research project for which the degree is to be granted.11 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. If the quotation is more than three lines it should be arranged in the following format: indented 1. mentioned or used in the text of the thesis. The references in this list should be arranged alphabetically. It is in the body of the thesis that the candidate presents and develops. They may be divided into two or more sections. 1.5 cm from the left margin and typed in single-space format without quotation marks.12 List of References This list must contain every reference cited. However.9 List of Figures The list of figures follows the list of tables.10 List of Abbreviations This list includes all non-standard abbreviations used in the text of the thesis.13 Appendices The purpose of an appendix is to contain those research materials which are pertinent to the thesis. 1. but which are not essential to an understanding of the work which the candidate has completed. ACM or the APA style. The number and the title of each chapter or section must be given in the same form as it appears in the table of contents.9. The list includes the number of each figure. The types of material which may be contained in an appendix are: o proof of equations. Most programmes in UUMCAS require the candidates to use the APA 6th Edition style.9.9. 1. 1. Any borrowed thoughts or expressions. in an orderly fashion.11 Body of the Thesis The method chosen to organize the body of the thesis should be discussed with the research supervisor(s). doing research in information technology or computer science may use the IEEE. the title and the page number. A direct quotation of less than three lines can be incorporated into the text using quotation marks. If follows the list of figures.9. . or use of non-original material must be acknowledged and documented.9.January 2015 1. Appropriately credited references to other works can form an integral part of this presentation and are likely to take several forms.

The author’s name. a short title not exceeding forty characters including spaces is needed for the spine of the bound thesis. 2. modern retrieval systems use the words in the title and sometimes a few other descriptive words. superscripts. Greek letters. candidates should bear in mind that most bookbinders charge extra for overly long titles. 1. initials. for financial gain requires the permission of the author. On the front cover of the thesis. the title page. o a lengthy debate on a topic of secondary importance to the issues discussed. for scholarly purposes only. figures. in whole or in part. 12 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. If possible. and the thesis cover must be identical. When planning the title of the thesis. Appendices should be numbered consecutively using capital letters of the alphabet. each line in the title must not exceed 26 characters including spaces. To locate a thesis. This should follow the wording of the original title as closely as possible. Pages of the appendices are also numbered consecutively respecting the overall pagination of the thesis.0 SPECIFIC ITEMS 2. The title as it appears on the thesis certification page.1 Titling the Thesis A thesis will be a valuable source for other scholars only if it can be located easily. symbols.January 2015 o raw data for analyses. in whole or in part. and o illustrative material. subscripts.9. It is essential that the title be meaningful and descriptive of the content of the work. .2 Copyright and Subsequent Use of the Thesis The author of a thesis claims copyright on the title page by using the appropriate notation.14 Vita A brief bio-bibliography of the candidate is permitted. or tables. o questionnaires used. 2. It is understood that any copying or publication of the thesis in any manner. etc. and year of convocation should also appear on the spine. As a condition for the award of the degree the author should note that the University Library may make the thesis available for inspection and permit copying of the thesis in any manner. o computer programmes. Details of methods used on a specialized topic which are not of crucial importance to the discussion. The object of the short title is to facilitate easier recognition of the thesis leg on the library shelf. When a thesis title is lengthy. candidates should use word substitutes for formulas.

or the work of another author. Plagiarism is the representation as one’s own of any idea or ideas. Definition of a “substantial part of a work” depends on several factors.3 Equations Each equation in a chapter is to be numbered consecutively using a decimal system appearing flush with the right-hand margin. 13 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. expressions of an idea. Careful attention must be paid to any previous agreements signed regarding ownership of research findings. When a large number of special symbols are used. it is permissible to collect them in a table or in a special appendix. Candidates are reminded that they are required to respect the standards of academic honesty and intellectual property in the case of all materials used in the thesis. Candidates hold copyright to their theses even when agreements have been reached with other parties regarding ownership of some parts of the research material. Consult the Dean’s Office if there are any questions regarding materials that can be patented or commercialised. In some instances.4 Notes Following the advice of their supervisor(s). it is necessary to obtain prior permission from the author. 2. For example: Y = mx + b (5.1) The numbers in parentheses are the chapter number and the equation number respectively. 2. Remember at all times that plagiarism is a serious offence and could jeopardize an entire academic career. principally the quantity and quality of the portion taken and the economic impact of the ability of the copyright owner to profit from the exploitation of the work. Every new symbol used in the thesis text for the first time must be explained. When a substantial part of a work is used. candidates must insert the paragraph statement of “Permission to Use” immediately after the title page. In order to do this. copying even a short excerpt may be sufficient to constitute an infringement. candidates may use any appropriate combination of footnotes at the bottom of the pages in the . it is usually sufficient to use notes and bibliographical references.January 2015 To remind readers that the thesis is protected by copyright.

6. 2.2 Types of Distance Education 2. Any change in the level of the argument.2.7 Layout of a Table Each table has a table number and a title. The first line should be indented and the text of the footnote should be one half space below and one space to the right.2. reliable and correct.1 Numbered Format Each subsection in a chapter must be numbered and arranged in such a manner to maximize clarity for the reader.January 2015 text. Thus. The format used for references must be consistent throughout the thesis. the second refers to the secondary section number. or definitions of key words or concepts should be put in the form of a note. primary section 2. such as a change in the rigour. the number 2. They should be single spaced with double space left between each note. endnotes at the end of each chapter and direct reference to the bibliography. 2. Endnote numbering must be done consecutively and separately for each chapter. Candidates are required to use the APA 6th Edition style in their choice of format for notes and references.6 Layout of a Chapter 2. Any cross referencing of the material contained either in the main body or in the appendices should also be indicated with the help of a note.2. a change in terms of empirical content. using a single-spaced format.1 Branch Campus 2.5 Referencing The fundamental rule of good scholarship is that the basic research be complete.2 Correspondence 2.2. The first number refers to the chapter number and the second refers to the table number in that .3 Teleconferencing The numbering system used for different sections denotes the following: the first number refers to the chapter number.1 Introduction to Distance Education 2. 14 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. 2. and secondary section 1. Endnotes should appear at the end of each chapter. The following format is to be used: 2.1 denotes chapter 2. with all sources duly acknowledged.

The University requires that all PhD theses be bound in MAROON cover with gold lettering and Master’s theses be bound in GREEN cover with gold lettering.9 Binding the Thesis Candidates for Master’s and Doctoral degrees who have successfully completed their thesis oral examinations (viva) and made all the revisions and corrections required by the Examining Panel must submit TWO bound copies. Ordinary rules of referencing and footnoting apply. The same numbering system for tables is used for figures. 2. Lettering on the spine should be legible when the volume is laid face down on a shelf on its front cover. Universiti Utara Malaysia by the date indicated in the Graduate Calendar preceding the Convocation in which they plan to receive their degrees. each relationship should be properly labelled with the appropriate axis. College of Arts & Sciences. It is strongly recommended that oversized tables be reduced by photocopying in such a way that they remain clearly legible. in smaller letters.) or alternate-sized lettering are available. ONE (1) loose copy and TWO (2) soft copies in a CD to the Office of the Dean (Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences). A list of binderies familiar with the University regulations can be obtained from the Dean’s office. solid lines must appear at other appropriate places horizontally inside the table. The number and title of the figure appear at the bottom of the figure in the figure legend. . 15 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. Candidates should enquire at the bindery whether special characters (e. There are strict regulations regarding which information appears on the cover and the spine and the form used for presenting this information. Similarly. superscript. The title of the table should be as short as possible but should indicate the major focus of the table. The table must conform to the margin requirements of the thesis format. The title which appears on the cover will be in upper case only. Both axes of the figure must be properly labelled. etc. If a figure shows more than one relationship. 2. subscript. Contents of the table must be preceded and followed by a single solid line. Greek letters. The table should not be folded.g. Other decorations must not be used under any circumstances.January 2015 chapter.8 Layout of a Figure Each figure must contain a figure number and a title. The author’s name will also be in upper case on the cover. The numbering of footnotes in the table is independent of that followed in the text.

16 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS. .January 2015 Candidates are required to bring one copy of the fully-assembled thesis to the Dean’s office for approval before having the final version photocopied and bound.

January 2015 APPENDIX : EXAMPLE OF THESIS .17 | Thesis Format for Postgraduate – AHSGS.

0 BOLD DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA 2015 . SD-SVBR: A NEW SHAPED VARIABLE BIT RATE ALGORITHM FOR VIDEO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt ALI BIN ABU Spacing: 1.

< INSERT PERAKUAN KERJA TESIS / DISERTASI (CERTIFICATION OF THESIS / DISSERTATION)> .

It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis. by the Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.5 Size: 14 pt Permission to Use Style: Bold In presenting this thesis in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia. I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. in whole or in part. for scholarly purpose may be granted by my supervisor(s) or.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Font: Times New Roman Spacing: 1. in whole or in part. I further agree that permission for the copying of this thesis in any manner. should be addressed to: Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences UUM College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok ii . Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. in their absence.

Melalui kaedah pengesahan pakar. relevan. Tambahan pula.912 melalui instrumen Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ). Data Mart (DM) dan Operasian Storan Data (ODS) memberi cabaran yang besar kepada pembangun aplikasi BI. ketepatan. i. mempunyai ciri-ciri fleksibiliti. Operasian storan data. Maklumat operasi dan maklumat taktikal. Model reka bentuk konseptual. Kata Kunci: Kepintaran perniagaan. model CoDMODS yang dibina dengan pendekatan penyelidikan sains reka bentuk ini dapat memenuhi sembilan ukuran dimensi kualiti model iaitu mudah difahami. Oleh itu. Only the first word is capital letter (eg: Motivasi. meliputi langkah yang jelas. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kekurangan model. 3 -5 keywords only. konsisten dan menyokong jangka masa pengemaskinian. The abstract must be within 200-300 words v.0 Abstrak Style: Bold Pembangunan aplikasi kepintaran perniagaan (BI) yang merangkumi sumber data. Autonomi guru) iii. kesempurnaan. Penggudangan Data (DW). Model ini boleh dijadikan garis panduan oleh pembangun aplikasi BI. dua prototaip yang dibina berdasarkan model CoDMODS untuk kajian kes perkhidmatan bekalan air (iUBIS) dan penyelenggaraan telekomunikasi (iPMS) mencatatkan nilai purata min kepenggunaan yang tinggi iaitu 5. ii.Font: Times New Roman Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Size: 14 pt Spacing: 1. iii . garis panduan dan teknik yang mantap untuk membangunkan aplikasi BI jika dibandingkan dengan pembangunan sistem dalam displin kejuruteraan perisian. Selain itu. skalabiliti. Dapatan kajian ini terutamanya model yang diusulkan. menyumbang kepada kaedah analisis dan reka bentuk pembangunan maklumat operasi dan taktikal aplikasi BI. pembangunan aplikasi BI masa kini menumpukan kepada pembangunan maklumat strategik berbanding maklumat operasi dan taktikal. prototaip yang dibangunkan dalam dua kajian kes dapat membantu pengurusan organisasi menggunakan maklumat yang berkualiti dalam operasi perniagaan. The word “Keywords” is BOLD iv. Selain itu. tujuan utama kajian ini ialah untuk mengusulkan model reka bentuk konseptual ODS (CoDMODS) bagi pembangunan aplikasi BI.

contribute to the analysis and design method for the development of the operational and tactical information in BI applications. The model can be referred as guidelines by BI developers. the main aim of this study is to propose a conceptual design model for BI applications using ODS (CoDMODS). 3 -5 keywords only. covers clear steps. ii. is relevant and timeless. Keywords: Business intelligence. Data Warehouse (DW). the prototypes that were developed in the case studies can assist the organizations in using quality information for business operations. completeness and consistency. easy to understand. Teacher autonomy) iii. which are. Furthermore. Through expert validation. Furthermore. demonstrates flexibility.0 Abstract Size: 14 pt Style: Bold The development of business intelligence (BI) applications. This is mainly due to the lack of established models. Only the first word is capital letter (eg: Motivation. The abstract must be within 200-300 words iv . accuracy. imposes a major challenge to BI developers.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Font: Times New Roman Spacing: 1. particularly the proposed model. The word “Keywords” is BOLD iv. Operational information and tactical information. the present BI applications emphasize on the development of strategic information in contrast to operational and tactical.912 using Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ) instrument. the two prototypes that were developed based on CoDMODS for water supply service (iUBIS) and telecommunication maintenance (iPMS) recorded a high usability average min value of 5. The outcomes of this study. Conceptual design model. was found to satisfy nine quality model dimensions. i. guidelines and techniques in the development process as compared to system development in the discipline of software engineering. Therefore. Data Mart (DM) and Operational Data Store (ODS). Operational data store. scalability. involving of data sources. the proposed conceptual design model that was developed by means of design science research approach. Additionally.

It was my pleasure to study under Dr. Not only.5 Size: 14 pt Acknowledgement Style: Bold I would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to everyone who has contributed in completing this thesis. I would like to thank all of my friends for their encouragement during my study. I would like to express my thanks to my co-supervisor Dr. v .Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Font: Times New Roman Spacing: 1. Finally. I had a very enjoyable study at Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). My goal would not have been achieved without them. I would like also to thank my parents. my thesis would not have been possible. Huda Hj Ibrahim’s supervision. does it has a beautiful natural environment but the university also has helpful staff. It is not enough to thank you very much to her for her guidance to help me to achieve my goal. Without her valuable support. my fiancée and all of my relatives for their love and support. I dedicate this work to my parents and my fiancée Roba Soub. Additionally their comments have helped to improve this work. They were very kind during the viva and during the period of the correction. I am very grateful to Dr Haslina and Dr Shariza. Shafiz Affendi Mohd Yusof for his comments which help to improve my work.

.........2 Second Generation.................................. 9 3.................................... vi List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. 1 1....................................................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ...........1 Background .......................................... 3 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................................................... 2 1..... 7 2.............................................................................................................2 Distance Learning Generations ..............................2 Research Model and Research Dimensions ......4.........................................................................................2 Data Analysis Strategy ...............................1 Material Design Technologies and Methods ............................................................................. 14 REFERENCES ...............4..... iii Acknowledgement ..........2 Problem Statement ...................................... ii Abstrak ............. 8 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............1 Data Analysis Method .................................... 9 3............................ 5 2............. 1 1........................................................ 4 2.................. vii List of Figures .......................................... 6 2......3 Distance Learning Definition ....................................................................................................................................................................4 Research Objectives ................................................................................................................................................................. 4 2............ iii Abstract ..................................1 Introduction .............................. 7 2......................................... 13 4......................................................................4 Distance Learning Techologies and Methods .........1 Introduction ..2...2 Historical Review of Distance Learning .......................4............................................................................ 16 vi .......................................2.............................................................................................................. v Table of Contents .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 1............................................................................................................................................. 13 4............... viii List of Appendices ......1 First Generation .....5 Size: 14 pt Table of Contents Style: Bold Permission to Use .....4...................... 4 2................................................................................................ 7 2..................... 9 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS ...Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Font: Times New Roman Spacing: 1....3 Research Questions ..................................................................................................

....................................5 Size: 14 pt List of Tables Style: Bold Table 4.................................................................. 6 vii .2 Fit Measures ......Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Font: Times New Roman Spacing: 1...

...5 Font: Times New Roman List of Figures Size: 14 pt Style: Bold Figure 3........................................2: Implementation environment factor.. 7 viii .. and actual use .... BI................................1: System factor and BI ... 11 Figure 3..........................Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1.

...............Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1.............................5 Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt List of Appendices Style: Bold Appendix A Sample Appendix ............................ 17 ix .......................

for technologies to be successful in the organizations. This chapter is organized as follows: the first section is the background. 1. 2009). they must be accepted by .Font: Times New Font: Times New Roman Roman Size: 12 pt CHAPTER ONE Size: 14 pt Spacing: 2. Chatzoglou et al. not every employee has an opportunity to attend it. The objectives of research will be described in the fourth section.1 Background The development of Information Technology (IT) has urged employees in organizations all over the world to upgrade their knowledge and skills. followed by the scope of the research. and creating and facilitating business networking between one trainee and colleagues who come from different working background (Training Directory. Finally. the research contribution. and the research questions. Yet. (2007) defined traditional training (i.0 Style: Bold INTRODUCTION 1.e. 2003. face-to-face training) as the training process that takes place when the trainees and the trainer are present at the same time in the same place. Even though traditional training provides several benefits such as places a trainee in a stimulating and challenging group environment. One way of doing this is by attending various kinds of training including traditional training or workshop. Behling et al.2 Problem Statement Many educational institutions and private and public sector organizations over the world have adopted e-learning system to offer teaching and training materials to the remote students and trainees (Burgess & Russell. the structure of the thesis will be highlighted. 2007).. the research significance. and the research approach and methodology. followed by the statements of the problem.

Ministry of High Education. 2008).3 Research Questions This study aims to examine the acceptance of computer-based distance training system by the public sector employees.. Ministry of Health. 2003). the following are the research questions to be solved: 1. Therefore. Public sector’s employees in Jordan are demanded to sit for one certified IT training. The acceptance of technology is often described as one of the most important areas in the modern information system (Venkatesh et al. This training has been implemented in Jordan as standard for end user computer skills across the kingdom since 2001. 2007). according to an initial study results. 1. ministry of water and irrigation and Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). for instance the Ministry of Education. this challenge has prevented them from attending the program training and sitting to the certificate exam. Most of the Jordanian ministries. Approximately 70000 employees of the Ministry of Education must participate in this program (ICDL foundation. the Ministries faced difficulties to conclude the computer skills training (ICDL) for its employees. What are the issues and challenges in implementing computer-based distance training system in public sector organizations in Jordan? . which could affect their career. However. known as International Computer Driving License (ICDL).the employees. To employees. due to the inappropriateness training time that is continuously unfit with the employees’ schedule. have adopted this program for their employees since 2003 (Advance Learning.

How can computer-based distance training system support the traditional training method in public sector organizations in Jordan? 3. To determine the factors that lead to the acceptance of public sector employees on computer-based distance training system.2.4 Research Objectives The research objectives are formulated as below: 1. What are the factors that determine the acceptance of public sector employees on computer-based distance training system? 1. 2. . 3. To identify the roles of computer-based distance training system in supporting the traditional training method in public sector organization in Jordan. To investigate the issues and challenges in implementing computer-based distance training system.

organizations. get education degree or develop his/her career. 2.1 Introduction There is much evidence in the literature that the development of information and communication technology plays a vigorous role in the evolution of e-learning. institutions and trainers. Similarly. Additionally. This chapter describes the situation of distance learning in public and private organizations and educational institutions.2 Historical Review of Distance Learning Works on distance learning began in Britain in the 18th century. It was meant to provide courses to everyone who wanted to extend his/her personal knowledge. this chapter includes a review of literature on the acceptance of information system models. In the 19th century. Consequently. the United States and many European countries started to apply distance learning. It also explains the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning system for employees. distance . many organizations have taken practical steps to provide training materials to their employees through distance training programs (Burgess & Russell. and the dimensions of distance training system acceptance (successful factors). which will be used to develop the acceptance model for this research. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 2003). Nowadays educational institutions offer their courses online and have distance learning as one of their strategic alternatives for reaching big number of students. and how distance learning has managed to solve problems of employee training.

psychology. Later. the Open University in London is one of the largest international universities that offer courses through distance learning programs. 2004). this research is going to investigate the acceptance of distance learning system by public sector employees. the number of educational institutions that use distance learning system has rapidly increased all over the world. due to its advantages. and information technology. The Queensland University offered some courses that led to an external degree through distance learning program in 1890. 2002). 2004. TV is another technology that plays an important role in conveying the materials and programs of distance learning to remote students. Elena.3 Distance Learning Definition There is no specific definition of distance learning (Arafeh. 2. 2003). Today. Given that. Additionally. Based on the above. to understand why employees accept or reject such system and to determine the challenges of applying distance learning system for employee training. 2006) because it is a mixture of many sciences such as education. Different technologies are used to support the implementation of distance learning programs. business. As a result. For example.learning has become a popular practice all over the world (Ruhig. organizations have begun to take the advantages of distance learning program to train their employees. researchers have defined distance learning according to their field (Burgess & Russell. about 56 percent of all public higher education institutions in the United States provide courses to their students using online mode (Arafeh. it is evident that Great Britain was the first country to conduct distance learning in 1858. Thus. information technology. as mentioned later in this chapter. .

2004). distance learning is the process in which education occurs when the students are physically separated from the instructors. such as web-based technologies. and Gagne and Rojas. there is a need for designing special methods and electronic tools to connect students with teachers and each other and other managerial and administrative arrangements (Angel et al. Flexibility means that students or trainees can access any learning materials from any place at any time (Burgess. and (2) openness. distance learning is defined as a delivery system that is used to deliver instructions and provide resources to remote students (Gordon et al. 2004).Whatever differences the meaning they attach to distance learning. 2003. and audio technologies to conduct such training (Burgess & Russell. In such a context. satellite and so on. Internet. multimedia technology. to deliver the distance . 2003). and Russell. In educational context. 1991). Many organizations have used computer. these definitions are made based on the philosophy of distance learning. In the context of business and organizations. are essential for the development and implementation of distance learning. computer-based technologies.4 Distance Learning Technologies and Methods Technologies. distance learning can refer to the training method that is developed by companies to train or retrain employees to overcome the obstacle of a fast-paced work environment. 2. video. In the information technology and information system context.. These technologies have been used by institutions over time to develop distance learning materials. This is to provide flexibility of teaching and learning process to students and instructors. grounded on two concepts: (1) flexibility..

The early format used to deliver learning or training materials was the written materials such as textbooks and documents. After 1970s. Jackson. . The development of technologies in distance learning have take place in four generations..learning materials to remote students. The instructor and adviser play essential role in the teaching process.2 Distance Learning Generations The development of information and communication technologies has played a great role in advancing distance learning. 2. 2001. This section sheds light on these distance learning technologies and methods. This format was used since the introduction of distance learning until the end of 1970 (Castro et al. and video tapes.4.1 Material Design Technologies and Methods Educational institutions deliver learning materials in many formats. 2002). In this generation distance learning’s written materials (for instance written documents and books) are delivered to remote students (Castro.4. audio and video documents started to be used.2.1 First Generation The first generation of distance learning started in the eighteenth century. These technologies include speech and video tools like audio cassettes. 2. and to create interaction among students and instructors. 1998). audio tapes. This section presents these generations in detail.4. 2.

audio cassette.2..2. has improved the distance learning delivery methods by the introduction of cassette tape to the distance learning delivery methods.2 Second Generation The second generation began at the end of 1970. and telephone (Castro. 1998). videocassette. text and documents some technologies are added.4. . the interaction technique between students and instructors and between students themselves is still weak. 2007). for instance. in addition to the books. The appearance of these technologies has enhanced the distance learning materials format. At this stage. and has improved the interaction between the instructors and students by the introduction of the telephone system (Campbell et al. However.

Nanayakkara. Additionally. sampling method. is influenced by three factors. (2) system factor. 2005.1 Introduction This chapter explains how the extended UTAUT include the successful factors of e- learning system acceptance and how these factors were chosen. in this chapter. Dadayan & Ferro. It distinguishes among exploratory. the researcher believes that UTAUT is more suitable to large organizations than other models of acceptance technology because the design of this model is based on . 1999. it discusses the research hypotheses formulated to answer the research questions. especially e-learning system. validity and reliability of the instruments and data analysis method used in this research will be explained.. Finally. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. Reflecting on the model.2 Research Model and Research Dimensions Review of the literatures pertinent to information system shows that the acceptance of information system. namely. (1) individual factor. 3. and (3) implementation environment factor (Chau & Hu. Hu et al. descriptive and explanatory researches. data collection method. There are many advantages that can be obtained from UTAUT. The chapter also highlights the differences between quantitative and qualitative researches and describes the research strategy. Furthermore. the methodology of this research is presented. 2005). In this study Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use Technology (UTAUT) is adapted as a framework to investigate the acceptance of computer-based distance training system by employees in public sector organizations. 2002.

.e. 2003). According to Venkatesh et al. 2007.. (i) system factor. The first factor included in the proposed research model is system factor that includes five sub-factors: (a) performance expectancy. The model also covers two factors i. (b) effort expectancy. the prior scales used to measure the constructs can be combined to come up with new scales that can be applied to the distance learning context. and (e) system flexibility. Moreover. (d) system interactivity. 2003). the constructs of UTAUT have been adopted from eight other user acceptance models (Venkatesh et al. Because individual factor is a critical successful factor in the e-learning and information technology contexts (see next section 4. this model covers almost the main factors that influence user acceptance of technology such as technology factor and organization factor (Marchewka et al. 2003). this study decided to add a new factor (that is individual factor) in UTAUT. performance expectancy and effort expectancy have a significant influence on the behavioral intention to use an information technology. there is strong evidence that system enjoyment. Venkatesh et al. system interactivity and system flexibility are important in the e-learning context because they have significant influence on employee intention to use e-learning system (Abbad et al. 1989.. but other user adoption models could do so in about 40 percent of the cases (Davis et al..1. and (ii) implementation environment factor. . Venkatesh et al. (c) system enjoyment. Furthermore.. Last but not least.2) and UTAUT does not consider it. Additionally. it could successfully predict the adoption of information technology in approximately 70 percent of the cases. Additionally.the data collected from employees’ environment (Venkatesh et al.. The proposed model of this study therefore includes employee intention to use computer-based distance training system as the dependant variable. 2003).. (2003).

Chatzoglou et al. and (v) system interactivity. the facilitating conditions construct has a positive and direct influence on the actual use an information technology. BI. Additionally. In this study. (iii) system flexibility of distance learning. and Actual Use. .2009. Effort expectancy System enjoyment Behavioral Intention (BI) System flexibility System interactivity Figure 3. 2009. (iv) system enjoyment.. 2005). Nanayakkara. 2009.1 presents the possible relationship between system factor. SI (items of implementation environment factor). Hsia & Tseng. Figure 3. Figure 3. Chesney. 2003)... 2008.1. System factor and BI The second factor included in the proposed model is the environment implementation factor. 2006. the environment implementation factor includes (a) facilitating conditions (FC) and (b) social influence (SI). Conci et al. Therefore. the system factor in this study will include (i) performance expectancy (PE).2 presents the possible relationship between FC. behavioral intention and usage behavior. According to Venkatesh et al. (2003). there is a significant relationship between the social influence construct and behavioral intention (Venkatesh et al. (ii) effort expectancy (EE).

Social Influence Behavioral intention Actual Use Facilitating conditions Figure 3. .2. Implementation environment factor. Venkatesh et al. BI. (2003) have supported that self-efficacy and anxiety constructs have indirect influence on behavioral intention to use an information technology. and actual use The third factor proposed in this study is individual factor that includes (a) computer anxiety and (b) computer self-efficacy. In this respect.

the chapter provides the results of the test of the proposed research model and how the research model fits with the data. and MANOVA) which. CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS 4. According to Byrne (2006). The model generated from SEM is also known as a model of relationships because it figures all the relationships between the exogenous (dependant variables) and endogenous (independent variables) variables (Sharma. can analyze only one causal relationship at a time (Gerbing & Anderson. Additionally. 1988). a proposed model should be substantively meaningful and statistically well fitting.0 and SPSS 16.3). ANOVA. One of the research objectives is to propose an acceptance model of computer-based distance training system that best describes public sector employee intention to use such technology (Section 1. in contrast to other generation regression models (such as liner regression. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was considered a suitable data analysis method toward the end.1 Data Analysis Method This chapter presents the results of data analysis which was carried out by applying AMOS 16. with the impact of the moderators. 1996). In achieving this objective. the chapter discusses the results of the hypotheses testing. including the results of missing data test. In addition. outlier test and data normality test. . SEM has potential to analyze multiple relationships between independent and dependent variables simultaneously. Finally. followed by the results of data quality tests. It starts with description of the analysis associated with respondents’ profile.0.

2010). Subsequently. handle difficult data such as incomplete data and non-normal data. and normality test. 2006). the data analysis was carried out in five stages. model mediating variables. Finally. path coefficient (not equal to zero).2 reveals that this research model is a very fit model because all measures fit are within the ranges of the recommended values (all the test results were generated from Amos 16.. and mentioned in Appendix H Section 2). outliers test.2 Data Analysis Strategy Data analysis strategy is a general plan of how the researcher will analyze the data that he/she has collected. Five common measures were used for models analysis including X2/ df. and examine models with multiple endogenous variables. REMSEA. convergent validity. 4. The third stage focused on the reliability and validity of measurement (goodness of data) by examining the composite reliability. The second stage presented the data quality (data management) by conducting three tests including missing data test. one of the most advantages of SEM is the use of confirmatory factor analysis that can examine measurement error by using multiple indicators per latent variable. GFI. critical ratio (recommended value is > 1. and TLI (Holmes-smith. measurements of model fit were applied in stage four to measure the fit of proposed model with the collected data. In this study. The first stage focused on the analysis of the demographic information. CFI.Furthermore. Table 4. and discriminant validity. examine the model overall as a one unit.0.96) and P-value (recommended value is < 0. .05) had been used to test the study’s hypotheses in stage five (Hair et al.

9 indicates a very good fit.018 A value <0. TLI 0.05 indicates an acceptable fit. CFI 0.9 indicates a good fit.998 A value >0.2 Fit Measures Measures Research value Recommended values Chi-square (X2) 348. . AGFI 0.118 A value < 3 indicates a good fit A value < 1 indicates over fit model.05 X2 / df 1.9 P > 0. RAMSEA 0.9 indicates a very good fit.978 0< value < 1 indicates fit model. P-Value 0. GFI 0.997 Close to one indicates a very good fit Greater than one indicates over fit model NFI 0.Table 4.08 indicates fit of the model.074 A value > 0.918 A value > 0.937 A value > 0.

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