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What is corrosion protection?

Corrosion protection is the use of hostile to consumption
chemicals to avert harms to gear or office caused by destructive
operators. To address the diverse types of erosion in various
materials, Cor-Pro Systems offer the accompanying consumption
security techniques to our customers

steel corrosion protection via Desiccant method

According to DIN 55 473, the purpose of using desiccants is as
follows: "desiccant bags are intended to protect the package
contents from humidity during transport and storage in order to
prevent corrosion, mold growth and the like."
The desiccant bags contain desiccants which absorb water vapor,
are insoluble in water and are chemically inert, such as silica gel,
aluminum silicate, alumina, blue gel, bentonite, molecular sieves
etc.. Due to the absorbency of the desiccants, humidity in the
atmosphere of the package may be reduced, so eliminating the
risk of corrosion. Since absorbency is finite, this method is only
possible if the package contents are enclosed in a heat-sealed
barrier layer which is impermeable to water vapor. This is known
as a climate-controlled or sealed package. If the barrier layer is
not impermeable to water vapor, further water vapor may enter
from outside such that the desiccant bags are relatively quickly
saturated, without the relative humidity in the package being
reduced.
"A desiccant unit is the quantity of desiccant which, at equilibrium
with air at 23 ± 2°C, adsorbs the following quantities of water
vapor:

min. 3.0 g at 20% relative humidity
min. 6.0 g at 40% relative humidity

The number of desiccant units is a measure of the adsorption
capacity of the desiccant bag."

Calculation of required number of desiccant units

The number of desiccant units required is determined by the
volume of the package, the actual and desired relative humidity
within the package, the water content of any hygroscopic
packaging aids, the nature of the barrier film (water vapor
permeability).

Formula for calculating the number of desiccant units in a
package (DIN 55 474):

n = (1/a) × (V × b + m × c + A × e × WVP × t)
n number of desiccant units
quantity of water absorbable per desiccant unit in
accordance with the maximum admissible humidity in the
package:
a admissible
final 20% 40% 50% 60%
humidity
factor a 3 6 7 8
correction factor, relative to admissible final humidity in %:
admissible
e final 20% 40% 50% 60%
humidity
factor e 0.9 0.7 0.65 0.6
V internal volume of the package in m3
b absolute humidity of enclosed air in g/m3
m mass of hygroscopic packaging aids in kg
factor for the moisture content of hygroscopic packaging
c
aids in g/kg
A surface area of barrier film in m2
water vapor permeability of barrier film under anticipated
WVP climatic conditions in g/m2d, measured to DIN 53 122, Pt. 1
or Pt. 2 (d = day)
t total duration of transport in days

The packaging machine is secured by bracing with 6 pieces of
squared pinewood lumber. These are located inside the climate-
controlled package. The lumber is air dry, its water content is
15% => factor for moisture content of hygroscopic
packaging aid (c) = 150 g/kg.
The dimensions of the squared lumber are 2.70 m × 0.20 m ×
0.20 m (L×W×H). At an approximate density of pinewood of 500
kg/m3, the mass (m) is as follows:

6 × 2.70 m × 0.20 m × 0.20 m = 0.648 m3
0.648 m3 × 500 kg/m3 = 324 kg of lumber

The following assumptions were also made:

Admissible final humidity was stated at 40%. (a) thus = 6 g
and (e) = 0.7

An aluminum composite film is used as the barrier layer,
the water vapor permeability (WVP) of which is 0.1 g/m2d.

The absolute humidity of the enclosed air (b) is 13.8 g/m3 at
20°C and 80% relative humidity

Corrosion protection should last for a total of 100 days (d).

When these values are inserted in the equation, the following
result is obtained:

n = 1/6 g × [(57.75 m3 × 13.8 g/m3) + (324 kg × 150 g/kg) +
(97 m2 × 0.7 × 0.1 g/m2d × 100 d)]
n = 1/6 g × (796.95 g + 48600.00 g + 679.00 g)
n = 1/6 g × 50075.95 g
n = 8346 desiccant units

The calculation demonstrates that a total quantity of 50075.95 g
of water vapor is present inside the climate-controlled package or
diffuses through the barrier layer. A total of 8346 desiccant units
would have to be placed in the box to absorb this quantity of
water vapor, which is not a practical proposition. Taking a closer
look at the details of the calculation reveals the greatest potential
risks:

V×b = 796.95 g = the water vapor present in the
enclosed
air
m×c = 50075.95 = the water vapor bound in the
g hygroscopic packaging aids
A × e × WVP × t = 679.00 g = the water vapor which diffuses
through the barrier layer
over the entire period of
protection

The figuring exhibits that an aggregate amount of 50075.95 g of
water vapor is available inside the atmosphere controlled bundle
or diffuses through the hindrance layer. A sum of 8346 desiccant
units would need to be put in the crate to retain this amount of
water vapor, which isn't a commonsense suggestion.
Investigating the points of interest of the figuring uncovers the
best potential dangers

n = 1/6 g × ( 796.95 g + 679.00 g )
n = 246 desiccant units

This number of desiccant units may easily be accommodated in
the box in question.

While figuring the required number of desiccant units to DIN 55
474, mind must be taken to expect that all the water exhibit in
the atmosphere controlled bundle must be consumed by the
desiccant.

It is in like manner expected that, as in the present illustration,
the squared wood will dry to a water substance of 0%. In all
actuality, notwithstanding, this isn't the situation as at a relative
dampness of 40% (concurred permissible last stickiness), the
water substance of pinewood is still approx. 8% and this water
isn't discharged from the timber. In any case, this reality isn't
considered in the figuring, which implies that the ascertained
number of desiccant units is entirely high. Based on the above
illustration, this would have the accompanying effect:

drying to a water content of 0%: 150 g/kg × 324 kg =
48600 g of water
drying to a water content of 8%: 80 g/kg × 324 kg =
25920 g of water

48600 g - 25920 g = 22680 g of water are released on drying
from 18% to 8%.

The required number of desiccant units may then be calculated as
follows:

n = 1/6 g × (796.95 g + 22680.00 g + 679.00 g)
n = 1/6 g × 24155.95 g
n = 4026 desiccant units

As a result, the number of desiccant units required would fall by
4320 units. The quantity of desiccant units is nevertheless still so
large that they are virtually impossible to accommodate. The fact
still remains that the hygroscopic packaging aids remain the
greatest potential risk in the climate-controlled package.
Barrier films

Barrier films are accessible in different structures, for instance as
a polyethylene film or as a composite movies with two external
polyethylene layers and an aluminum center. The composite film
performs obviously better with respect to water vapor
penetrability (WVP), accomplishing WVP estimations of
underneath 0.1 (g/m2d). In the composite film, the boundary
layers are masterminded in order to realize a significant lessening
in penetrability in examination with a solitary layer.

As per momentum DIN models, water vapor porousness is
constantly expressed for both 20°C and 40°C. As per data from
the producer, it might be inferred that water vapor porousness
ascends with expanding temperature and falls with expanding
thickness. This issue happens most especially with polyethylene
films, while aluminum composite movies are to a great extent
unfeeling to ascends in temperature.

prevention of corrosion using desiccant bags

The desiccants ought to be suspended from strings in the upper
piece of the atmosphere controlled bundle to guarantee great air
course around them.

It is fundamental to keep away from coordinate contact between
the desiccant sack and the bundle substance as the sodden
desiccant would advance erosion.

It is fitting to utilize various little sacks as opposed to less
extensive ones, as this expands the accessible surface region of
the desiccant thus enhances adsorption of the water.

Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the
desiccant method
Advantages

Desiccants provide excellent corrosion protection to
both metallic and nonmetallic items
Removal of the desiccant on delivery to the receiver is
straightforward, unlike the removal of protective films
in the protective coating method. The package contents
are immediately available.
No particular occupational hygiene requirements apply
as the desiccant is nonhazardous.

Disadvantages

Placement of the desiccant bags and heat sealing of the
barrier films are relatively labor-intensive.
The slightest damage to the barrier layer may negate
the effectiveness of corrosion protection.
Calculating the required number of desiccant units is
not entirely simple and it is easy to overcalculate.
However, too much protection is better than too little.
Humidity indicators inside the package are not very
reliable as they are only valid for certain temperature
ranges.

Reference Links

1. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/
2. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve/
3. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-3a/
4. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-4a/
5. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-5a/
6. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-13x/
7. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-beads/
8. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-beads/
9. http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-adsorbent/
10.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-adsorbent/
11.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-ethanol-dehydration/
12.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-natural-gas-separation
13.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-natural-gas-drying/
14.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-mercaptan-removal/
15.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-oxygen-purification/
16.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-oxygen-generator/
17.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-for-hydrogen-purification/
18.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-powder/
19.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/molecular-sieve-powder/
20.http://molecularsievedesiccants.com/use-molecular-sieve-ethanol-drying/