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058 Km2 off shore) against the total area of 796.095 Offshore). coal bed methane and shale gas apart from oil and gas resources within the conventional reservoirs. Baluchistan and Offshore basins. can help to revolutionize the energy mix existing within the country Shale makes up more than half of earth’s sedimentary rock. Media and public have to join hands to bring about a shale gas revolution. Baluchistan and Offshore Basins as thick sequences. Energy Information Administration (EIA). . Above all. which vary according to the geology of the region. A significant amount of gas has been trapped within the unconventional reservoirs including tight gas. In the case of Pakistan with a geographical area of 796. Not only is shale gas abundant in Pakistan but also it is also cheap and environment-friendly. Shale resources in Pakistan Pakistan has more than 827. Hence. Given the complexities involving the exploration of shale gas. but this information is contained in a broad-brush study lacking sufficient details on Pakistan’s shale gas play. it is not surprising that there is no industry-standard definition for the process. such a revolution will prevent the country from expending 15 Billion USD on petroleum products and fossil fuel imports from the Gulf.Abstract Shale gas exploration and production have the potential to transform Pakistan’s economy. Shale. km Onshore and 134600sq. It is estimated that apart from proven conventional gas reserves. if exploited effectively. Lower Indus. shale gas definitely offers an opportunity that.307 Km2 Onshore & 216. with Shale formations that have a potential of yielding shale oil and gas. Middle. Middle. the complexities of shale oil and gas reservoirs offer significant challenges. which will help to create jobs as well as to produce cheap electricity and fuel for industry. The industry. the country has been bestowed with approximately 200Tcf of unconventional gas resources within the shale formations Location . Therefore. NGOs. Therefore. there is an urgent need to carry out a detailed assessment of Upper. the bedrock for hydrocarbons is distributed throughout the Upper. government. has estimated recoverable shale gas reserves of 105 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and more than nine billion barrels of oil within Pakistan. This sedimentary area is enriched with thick sequence of shale formations as a source and has a proven petroleum system. but types and formations differ from shale to shale and even within the same shale. Most of these shale sequences are at a mature stage for hydrocarbon generation and may form good resource plays. the sedimentary basin area is approximately 800100 km2 (665500 sq.095 Km2175.365 Km2 sedimentary basin area(611. Lower Indus. a US agency working on energy statistics and analysis.

Shales of Basal Sand. It is estimated that based on the available data (mu log. gas logs. Oil Shale and Tight Gas Potential. The Exploration Department in Pakistan is also concerting their efforts towards harnessing this resource potential. Shale Oil. Badin Shale. Shales of Middle Sands. Talhar Shale and Shales of Massive Sands in Lower Indus Basin. Upper Shale. Problem statement All the conventional resources are nearly upto to its last extent and more producing reserves so this is for unconventional exploration of shale basins present in Pakistan. Baluchistan and Offshore basins as thick sequence. most of the shales indicate encouraging results regarding Shale Gas. wireline logs and geochemistry). As Pakistan is currently in the midst of a grave energy crisis.The study highlights that shale has been distributed throughout the upper. which . lower Indus. and they are especially focusing on shales of Lower Goru Formation namely Turk Shale. Jhole Shale. Lower Shale. middle.

. Objective Following are the main Objectives of the research. the Government has been led to seek a reliable energy supply at an affordable price3. deserts and hills. A review of the history of Pakistan’s energy sector shows that mismanagement of resources and an unhealthy reliance on imported oil to meet our energy needs have exacerbated the crisis. Shale Resources in Pakistan The recent estimates of Shale Gas reserves in Pakistan are enough to cater to the energy needs of Pakistan for the next 44 years174 (including current gas reservoir) while shale oil is enough for 61 years (including domestic oil production). there is a dire and urgent need to develop unconventional energy resources. provided the strategic and wise allocation of these resources. With energy demand rising at a tremendously fast pace and Pakistan’s natural gas reserves depleting. industries come to a standstill and unemployment spirals out of control. Under the weight of these challenges.threatens not only the economic but also the national security of the country. The Government of Pakistan faces challenges to its writ as citizens take to the streets to protest energy shortages. plateaus. thus bringing prosperity within the country. Scope Energy is the primary and most important of factors determining the economic condition of a country. There is a close link between the availability of energy and the future growth of a nation as energy development is an integral part of sustainable economic growth.e Indus Basin and Baluchistan Basin. These basins developed during different geological episodes. Pakistan is blessed with a diverse topography encompassing different forests. It encompasses two main sedimentary basins i. which were finally welded together during Cretaceous/Paleocene along Ornach Nal/Chaman Strike slip faults.

"Laminated" means that the rock is made up of many thin layers. assess availability of required technology and infrastructure for Shale gas operations and formulate guidelines for the Shale gas policy. To establish a Shale gas and oil centre to facilitate interested companies in knocking the recently compassed 188 TCF gas and 58 BSTB oil technically recoverable resources in lower and middle Indus Basin. It extends over 1200 km from the main boundary thrust in the north to the offshore area in the south of Karachi and east of Murray ridge (Bender and Raza." Shale is distinguished from other mudstones because it is fissile and laminated.e. is bounded by Main .778 trillion cubic feet (TCF) Shale gas and 2. "Fissile" means that the rock readily splits into thin pieces along the laminations BACKGROUND GEOLOGY The Indus Basin is located on the northwestern part of the Indian shield (Fig. was available in the country and being used for conventional and tight gas reservoirs. To the west it is bordered by the Kirthar foldbelt (Kadri. Literature review Shale What is Shale? Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles that we commonly call "mud.1). 1995). The basin has an asymmetrical profile and is located in south of the great Himalayan range on Indian lithosphere. All major oil/condensate and gas fields of Pakistan are located in this basin. Based on the difference in sedimentary facies development and lithostratigraphic sequences. estimate initial findings. The Indus Basin covers the eastern two thirds of Pakistan. 2. 1970). the Indus Basin is subdivided into three parts (Kadri.Objectives of the study are to validate Shale gas resource. The study covered lower and middle Indus Basin which geographically spread over Sindh. 1995): Upper Indus Basin. 1995).323 billions of stock tank barrels (BSTB) Shale oil in place resources. southern parts of Punjab and eastern parts of Baluchistan. 2005). an inner folded zone and an outer folded zone (Memon and Siddiqui. horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. The basin belongs to the class of extra-continental downwrap basins (Halbouty. with its axis generally coinciding with the course of the Indus River. The main features of the Indus Basin are platform. To confirm presence of 3." This composition places shale in a category of sedimentary rocks known as "mudstones. The study had further confirmed that basic technology required for Shale gas exploration i. the foredeep comprising depressions. also called the Kohat Potwar Basin.

Towards the eastern part of Potwar Basin. Lokhart and Patala Formations. Early Eocene age is marked by Nammal Formation which contains calcerous claystones. 1980).S. The basin contains sedimentary rocks of Precambrian to Pleistocene age. Potwar Basin either has no Jurassic and Triassic Formations or these are very narrow in thickness. The Chorgali Formation is next in Eocene section which contains calcareous claystones and dolomitic limestones. Nammal is overlain by Sakesar Formation which is mainly limestone. Paleocene to Eocene strata consists of dark grey shales and shallow marine foramiferal limestones. Hangu contains mainly sandstones with some carbonaceous limestones and shales. Middle Indus Basin.metamorphosed sequences of Infra Cambrian and Cambrian age (Bender and Raza. The Salt Range Formation which is of Precambrian age can be divided into three sections.2) are characterized by thick non. Siwalik Group and the Rawalpindi group form post-Eocene section. Lower Indus Basin. Lokhart consists of limestone and Patala mainly contain dark gery fossilferous shales and limestones.. 1995). Jutana and Bhaganwala Formations make the Cambrian part. Conducting preliminary geological and reservoir characterization of shale basins and formation(s). Department of Energy and Advanced Resources International (ARI).Boundary Thrust in the North and the Sargodha High in the South. The continental collision which took place in the middle Eocene era stopped the marine deposits in Potwar Basin. . Wargal and Chadru Formations constitute the Late Permian sections and are present only in north-central and western parts of Potwar Basin. Warcha and Sardai Formation are present above Tobra Formation. Iqbal and Shah..and formation-level assessments of Shale Gas and shale oil resources includes the following steps: 1. Resource Assessment Methodology The assessment of shale oil and gas resources has been adopted from a joint study conducted by U. 2. 1997). Patala also contains coal beds. limestone and sandstone deposited under marine conditions (Quadri and Quadri. The middle section has mainly carbonate and the lower section is dominated by clay (Shah et al. 1989. Claystones and sandstones of Dandot. Tobra Formation which forms the Lower Permian part is presented only in eastern side of the Potwar Basin. Siwalik groups comprised of Nagri and Chinji Formations contain alluvial deltaic sediments (Pennock et al. The upper most section comprises of mainly halite which has some source potential. The Paleocene part comprises of Hungu. comprising of the area from Jacobabad High and its southern extension is confined by Offshore Murray ridge-Owen Fracture Plate Boundary STRATIGRAPHY OF THE INDUS BASIN The oldest rocks in the Upper Indus Basin (Fig. The methodology for conducting the basin. 2010). Sandstones and shales of Khewra Formation. 1977. Datta Formation acts as reservoir as well as source rock. This formation was deposited in glacial settings. Fazeelat et al. between Sargodha High and Southwestern margin of Jacobabad High. carbonates and sandstones of Kussak. These organic rich formations which have some source potential comprise of shales. Datta Formation which comprises of shales and non marine sandstone interbeded with paralic parts represents the Jurassic part and was deposited in continental conditions.

Establishing the areal extent of the major shale oil and gas formations. Estimating the risked shale oil and gas-in-place.2. Final Conclusion/report . Defining the prospective area for each shale oil and gas formation. 4. 3. Estimating the risked shale oil and gas-in-place. Calculating the technically recoverable shale oil and gas resource Research methodology data collection Defining the prospective area for each shale oil and gas formation. Establishing the areal extent of the major shale oil and gas formations.

Reference  EIA Annual Energy Report: 2013 page No.cfm?fips=PK  504-06.aspx  Economic Survey Report 2102-13 by Ministry of Finance page No.  Sustainable Development Policy Institute website and report (2014).eia.14. 26.  Shale oil and Gas Draft Report: 2014 (SDPI) page No. 86-91.   Shale oil and Gas Draft Report: 2014 (SDPI) page No.  http://www.  LNG policy online report by OGRA (2011). .org/wiki/Ministry_of_Petroleum_and_Natural_Resources_%28Pakis tan%  Shale oil and Gas Draft Report: 2014 (SDPI) page No.  http://www.wikipedia.