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**A logic gate performs alogical operationon one or more logic inputs andproduces a single
**

logic output. The logic normally performed isBoolean logic and is most commonly found

indigital circuits. Logic gates are primarilyimplementedelectronicallyusingdiodesortransistors,

but can also beconstructed using electromagneticrelays,fluidics,optics,molecules, or

evenmechanicalelements.In electronic logic, a logic level is represented by a voltage or

current,(which depends on the type of electronic logic in use). Each logic gaterequires power so

that it can source and sink currents to achieve thecorrect output voltage. In logic circuit diagrams

the power is not shown, butin a full electronic schematic, power connections are required.A truth

table is a table that describes the behaviour of a logic gate. It liststhe value of the output for every

possible combination of the inputs and canbe used to simplify the number of logic gates and

level of nesting in anelectronic circuit. In general the truth table does not lead to an

efficientimplementation; a minimization procedure, using Karnaugh maps, the Quine–

McCluskey algorithm or a heuristic algorithm is required for reducing thecircuit complexity

Logic gates Symbols and Schematic Diagram

**Digital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates. These gates are the AND, OR,
**

NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR gates. The basic operations are described below with

the aid of truth tables.

AND gate

The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputs are

high. A dot (.) is used to show the AND operation i.e. A.B. Bear in mind that this dot is

sometimes omitted i.e. AB

OR gate

**The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more of its inputs are
**

high. A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation.

NAND gate This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. The symbol is an AND gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion. The symbol is an OR gate with a small circle on the output. EXOR gate The 'Exclusive-OR' gate is a circuit which will give a high output if either. as shown at the outputs. This is also shown as A'. The diagrams below show two ways that the NAND logic gate can be configured to produce a NOT gate. If the input variable is A. but not both. It is also known as an inverter. EXNOR gate . The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low. It can also be done using NOR logic gates in the same way. or A with a bar over the top. The outputs of all NOR gates are low if any of the inputs are high. An encircled plus sign ( ) is used to show the EOR operation. The small circle represents inversion.NOT gate The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input at its output. of its two inputs are high. NOR gate This is a NOT-OR gate which is equal to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. the inverted output is known as NOT A.

The small circle represents inversion. A. but not both. OR.The 'Exclusive-NOR' gate circuit does the opposite to the EOR gate. There is a symbol for each gate Truth Table The Truth Table shows the values of the circuit output for all input values. NOT o The Boolean Operators are • + ‾ A + B means A OR B A • B means A AND B A means NOT A o Nodes in a circuit are represented by Boolean Variables The most practical use of Boolean algebra is to simplify Boolean expressions which means less logic gates are used to implement the combinational logic circuit. Mathematical equation Boolean Algebra o A Boolean Variable takes the value of either 0 (False) or 1 (True). . B. C. The symbol is an EXOR gate with a small circle on the output. X. o Symbols are used to represent Boolean variables e.g. It will give a low output if either. of its two inputs are high. Logic Gates o Logic gates are electronic circuits that implement the basic functions of Boolean Algebra. Z o There are three basic logic operations AND. Y.

Equivalent Circuits Fig 1 is an example of four circuits that are equivalent because their truth tables are identical. .

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