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 Biodiesel as an important option for energy production form algal biomass
 Bio oil production form algal biomass
 Conversion of algal oil to biodiesel
 Types of conversion process, mechanisms and comparison
 Factors affecting biodiesel yield
 Upgradation of algal oil to bio diesel using homogenous and heterogeneous
 Quality parameters of algal bio diesel and its stability
 Challenges for microalgae and integrated scheme for utilization
 Bio jet fuels
 Research status on algae to oil

Important energy production routes for algal biomass Biodiesel Bio-jet fuel Syngas Biogas Pyro-oil Algal Oil Extraction Upgradation Bio-oil Biodiesel/Bio-jet fuel biomass Blending 3 .

Bio oil production from algal biomass Conventional route Solvent Drying Harvested Dry algal biomass Oil extraction microalgae Solvent Bio-oil + solvent Separation Bio oil Oil extracted biomass 4 .

2012).Mechanism of oil extraction using solvent e Bulk organic solvent film Cell membrane d a b c a Cell wall b Nucleus c d Schematic diagram of solvent extraction mechanism (Adapted & e modified from Halim et al. .

Phaeodactylum chloroform/ methanol/50 mM phosphate buffer (35:70:28 v/v/v/). . Extraction method: Soxhlet extraction and Batch extraction Botryococcus Solvents: Methylene chloride/ methanol (2:1 v/v).methylene chloride/ methanol (2:1 v/v). Chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v).Extraction of micro algal lipids using organic solvents Micro algae Operating conditions / solvent species used Chlorella sp. hexane/ isopropanol (3:2 v/v). Solvent to biomass ratio: 75 – 1000 ml solvent per g of biomass 6 . Tricornutum . Chlorococcum sp. Soxhlet extraction:. braunii .

2012) flow d c Static SCCO2 film b Mixture of micro algal biomass a and diatoms .Mechanism for supercritical CO2 extraction Schematic diagram of supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction SCCO2 mechanism (Adapted & modified from Halim et al.

13. 11.40. Temp (°C):.0. Increase in lipid extraction with psis 700. 9. 80.360 min.Some studies on the extraction of micro algal lipids by supercritical carbon dioxide Microalgae Operating conditions Remarks Nannochloro Extraction pressure(bar):. 60.16. rate:.40. SCCO2 flow rate:.None with temperature at constant P. 55. Time:- 26. 15.40. SCCO2 flow Pressure at constant T sp. Increase in lipid extraction rate polar modifier . Time:.400. Polar modifier (amount):. 94 min. 450.7 Platensis 400. mL ethanol and 60 min.36 mL .316. 55.64. 484.17 kg/min. 13.4.0. Spirulina Extraction pressure(bar):. Temp (°C):..amount:. Optimum condition-400 bar. 550.7 L/min. 350.Ethanol.

350 bar and 55 °C Spirulina Extraction pressure(bar):. 350. Similar effect of temperature and maxima 250. 10 mol % of CO2 ethanol addition (10 mol%). 55. pressure on total lipid yield like Chlorella SCCO2 flow rate:-not specified.Optimum condition-350 bar. constant high P (350 bar). Time:.500 min Optimum condition. Temp (°C):. Lipid yield increased with P at constant T vulgaris 350. It decreased with T at constant lower P Extraction temp (°C):-40. (200 bar) and increased with T at SCCO2 flow rate:. vulgaris polar modifier .amount:. 60. .50. 60 °C with ethanol.Some studies on the extraction of micro algal lipids by supercritical carbon dioxide Microalgae Operating conditions Remarks Chlorella Extraction pressure (bar):-200.41/min.0.100.

Accessed on 11-11-2017 .com/pdf/OriginOil_NAA_30_Apr_2009.originclear.pdf.Single step oil extraction Processed Gravity clarifier Matured algal culture biomass Extraction tank Low voltage Lipid Power input Return Water Bio oil Culture to Water recycling Biomass CO2 for pH extraction Return to bioreactor Modification tank Electromagnetic Algae Field Quantum Biomass CO2 Fracturing Modified & adopted from origin oil on http://www.

Biodiesel production route through algal biomass Solvent Catalyst Algal Biomass Extraction of Conversion via Filtration/Distill Oil Transesterification ation Biodiesel .

. called fatty acid chains. R1. P. et al. where. .Mechanism of transesterification Modified from Prafulla D. R2 and R3 are long chains of carbons and hydrogen atoms. 2012 CH2 OOC R1 R1 COO R CH2 OH Catalyst CH OOC R2 + 3ROH R2 COO R + CH OH CH2 OOC R3 R3 COO R CH2 OH Triglyceride Alcohol Esters Glycerol Schematic of transesterification reaction.

Ultrasonic technology assisted transesterification Heterogeneous-Acid cat. Different types of transesterification processes Different methods for biodiesel production Oscillatory flow reactor (OFR) Catalyzed assisted trans esterification in the transesterification presence of NaOH as catalyst process Microwave technology Homogeneous-Base cat. in presence of KOH as cat. Heterogeneous-Base cat. assisted trans esterification Homogeneous-Acid cat. Enzyme catalyzed Co-Solvent method for biodiesel production . in presence of KOH as cat.

.Mechanism of base catalyzed transesterification Pre-step OH + ROH RO + H2O or NaOR RO + Na+ O O Step. R’ C + RO R’ C OR OR” OR” O O Step.2.3. 1998.1. CH2 OCOR’ . R’ C OR R’COOR + R”OH R”OH+ Where R” = CH2 CH OCOR’ R’ = carbon chain of fatty acid R = alkyl group of the alcohol Schuchardt U. R’ C OR + ROH R’ C OR + RO OR” R”OH+ O Step. et al.

.Mechanism of acid catalyzed transesterification O O+H OH H+ R’ R’ OR” R’ + OR” OR” OH R OH H O -H+/R”OH + O O R’ + + H OR” R + R’ OR” R’ OR R” = OH OH R’ = carbon chain of fatty acid R = alkyl group of the alcohol Schuchardt U. . 1998. et al.

C .. Mechanism of transesterification with heterogeneous catalyst contd.R3 CH2 . 2008.O .O .C .R3 CH2 .C . H+ Modified from O -R Ca O Kouzu et al.R3 O -R CH2 – O .R3 Ca O CH2 – O . H+ O CH – O – C – R2 + Ca O O CH2 – O .C .R3 CH2 .O O CH2 – O .C . O CH2 .OH O CH – O – C – R2 + R-O.O .R1 CH2 .C . R-OH R-O.R O CH – O – C – R2 O CH2 – O .C .R1 CH2 .C .R1 Fuel (87) O R-O..C .O O O O O CH – O – C – R2 + R1 – C – O .R3 . H+ O O 2798–2806 CH – O – C – R2 + O CH – O – C – R2 Ca O O CH2 – O .

Ratio of alcohol to oil R’ OH 4. Reaction temp. O O 2. Catalyst type & conc. 5. 2012 R = alkyl group of the alcohol ... Purity of reactions + NaOH + H2O R’ OH R’ ONa R’ = Carbon chain of the fatty acid Soni et al. Oil temp. Intensity of mixing O O 6. + H2O + ROH R’ OR 3. Factor affecting biodiesel yield contd. 1.

Comparison among base. 2012  18 .    Possibility of catalyst recovery    Problems in product recovery    By-products   - Effect of alcohol used .. - Cost of catalyst    Catalyst used NaOH.Soni et al. . acid and enzyme catalyzed esterification reactions Characteristic Base catalyzed Acid catalyzed Enzyme catalyzed Reaction rate    Effect of free fatty acid in oil  . KOH H2SO4. Novozyme 435 Chances of deactivation of cat. HCl Lipozyme IM 60.

2012 production cost 19 . Comparison of different types of transesterification processes Processes Advantages Disadvantages Catalyzed  Primitive and mostly used  Performance can be process transesterification highly affected with  Well proven catalyst types  Various types of catalysts such as homogeneous. heterogeneous.. biocatalysts etc. friendly using co-solvent solvent and catalyst  Solvent separation from final product increases Soni et al. can be used Catalyzed  Improved solubility and high  Co-solvents are volatiles and are not environment transesterification mass transfer rate between oil .

. 2012  Cost effective 20 . Comparison of different types of transesterification processes Processes Advantages Disadvantages Oscillatory flow reactor (OFR)  Improved heat and mass  Not well proven assisted catalyzed transfer between medium transesterification Microwave technology assisted  Energy requirement is less  Scale up is catalyzed transesterification difficult Ultrasonic technology assisted  Improved mass transfer  Not well proven catalyzed transesterification rate between media Soni et al.

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