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The United States from 1816 to 1850
The Era of Mixed Feelings
The years between the election to the presidency of James Monroe in

1816 and of John Quincy Adams in 1824 have long been known in

American history as the Era of Good Feelings. The phrase was
conceived by a Boston editor during Monroe’s visit to New England
early in his first term. That a representative of the heartland of

Federalism could speak in such positive terms of the visit by a Southern
president whose decisive election had marked not only a sweeping

Republican victory but also the demise of the national Federalist Party
was dramatic testimony that former foes were inclined to put aside the

sectional and political differences of the past. RELATED PEOPLE

· Warren G. Harding

· Benjamin Franklin

· William Mitchell

· Hillary Clinton

· Joe Biden

· George Washington Carver

· Bill Clinton close
· James A. Garfield

· Dwight D. Eisenhower

· Theodore Roosevelt

The United States, 1812–22.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM]

United States - The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history - geography |

James Monroe, oil sketch by E.O. Sully, 1836, after a contemporary portrait by
Thomas Sully; in …
Courtesy of the Independence National Historical Park Collection, Philadelphia

John Quincy Adams; daguerreotype by Mathew Brady.
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Effects of the War of 1812
Later scholars have questioned the strategy and tactics of the United States in the War of 1812, the war’s tangible
results, and even the wisdom of commencing it in the first place. To contemporary Americans, however, the striking

naval victories and Jackson’s victory over the British at New Orleans created a reservoir of “good feeling” on which

Monroe was able to draw.

Abetting the mood of nationalism was the foreign policy of the United States after the war. Florida was acquired from

Spain (1819) in negotiations, the success of which owed more to Jackson’s indifference to such niceties as the
inviolability of foreign borders and to the country’s evident readiness to back him up than it did to diplomatic finesse.
The Monroe Doctrine (1823), actually a few phrases inserted in a long presidential message, declared that the United
States would not become involved in European affairs and would not accept European interference in the Americas; its

immediate effect on other nations was slight, and that on its own citizenry was impossible to gauge, yet its self-assured[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM]

exposed by the War of 1812. D. Washington.geography | Britannica. Ogden (1824) promoted nationalism by strengthening Congress and national power at the expense of the states. Perhaps the clearest sign of a new sense of national unity was the RELATED PLACES victorious Republican Party. the decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Marshall in such cases as McCulloch v. reelected so overwhelmingly in 1820 that it was long · Cleveland believed that the one electoral vote denied him had been held back only · Massachusetts in order to preserve Washington’s record of unanimous selection. was by no means regarded as an unmixed blessing. Maryland (1819) and Gibbons v. an amazing degree of nationalist feeling. The readiness of Southern Jeffersonians—former strict constructionists—to support such a measure indicates. and in part by the intrigues of financial interests. https://www.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .com tone in warning off the Old World from the New reflected well the nationalist mood that swept the country. October 1823.C. while Marshall’s defense of the rights of private property was construed by critics as betraying a predilection for one kind of property over another. standing in solitary splendour on the · Texas national political horizon.United States . The growth of the West. its long-time foes the Federalists vanished · San Francisco without a trace (on the national level) and[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] .britannica. Library of Congress. Eastern conservatives sought to keep land prices high. The congressional decision to charter the second Bank of the United States (1816) was explained in part by the country’s financial weaknesses. · Arizona National disunity · New York For all the signs of national unity and feelings of oneness. too. encouraged by the conquest of Indian lands during the War of 1812. equally · San Diego convincing evidence points in the opposite direction. the Republican · Idaho standard-bearer. The very Supreme · Mississippi Court decisions that delighted friends of strong national government · Saint Paul infuriated its opponents. Note from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison commenting on the Monroe Doctrine. Internally.

In every section. In the early 19th-century United States. with the exception of the Missouri Territory. politicians feared a change in the sectional balance of power. TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE The causes of the panic were[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] .United States . The sectional balance between the states was preserved: in the Louisiana Purchase. The economy CONNECT WITH BRITANNICA The American economy expanded and matured at a remarkable rate in the decades after the War of 1812. Americans characteristically expressed scorn for their countrymen in sections other than their own. or perfidious politicians—each charge expressing the bad feeling that existed side by side with the good. If harmony seemed to reign on the level of national political parties. state factions led by shrewd men waged bitter political warfare to attain or entrench themselves in power. European visitors testified that.britannica. selfish speculators. permitting the country’s older sections to specialize in other crops. The rapid growth of the West      created a great new centre for the production of grains and pork.geography | Britannica. The determination by Northern and Southern senators not to be outnumbered by one another suggests that the people continued to believe in the conflicting interests of the various great geographic sections. disharmony prevailed within the states. at least for the time being. New processes of manufacture. especially the financial panic of 1819. local and state politics were typically waged less on behalf of great issues than for petty gain. slavery was to be confined to the area south of the 36°30′ line.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . The Missouri Compromise of 1820 eased the threat of further disunity. Eastern capitalists. Economic hardship. and businessmen were wary of a new section with interests unlike their own. particularly over its spread into new territories. Yet this compromise did not end the crisis but only postponed it. particularly in textiles. not only accelerated https://www. also created disunity. The most dramatic manifestation of national division was the political struggle over slavery . even during the so-called Era of Good Feelings. but its greatest effect was clearly the tendency of its victims to blame it on one or another hostile or malevolent interest Team Handball —whether the second Bank of the United States. That the goals of politics were often sordid did not mean that political contests were bland. The weight of evidence indicates that the decade after the Battle of New Orleans was not an era of good feelings so much as one of mixed speculative interests opposed a policy that would be advantageous to poor squatters.

and the RELATED TOPICS financial chaos that hindered procurement and mobilization during the · War of 1812 ensuing War of 1812 demonstrated the importance of such · Battle of the Chosin Reservoir centralization. Commerce became increasingly specialized. whose value fluctuated wildly. · Philippine-American War The second Bank of the United States faced constant political fire. bankruptcies. Edward Pessen The management of the growing economy was inseparable from political conflict in the emerging United States. won the first round with the establishment of the first Bank of the United States (1791).britannica.United States .com/place/United-States/The-United-States-from-1816-to-1850[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . wanted more · United Nations Security Council regularity and predictability in banking through top-down control. but · Battle of Wake Island the conflict now was not merely between farming and mercantile · Battle of Fredericksburg interests but also between local bankers who wanted access to the · Pacific War profits of an expanding credit system and those who. The state banks. the division of labour in the disposal of goods for sale matching the increasingly sophisticated division of labour that had come to characterize production. like the president · Battle of Brandywine of the Bank of the United States. jointly owned by the government and private stockholders. championed by Hamilton and the Federalists. helped account for a boom in Southern cotton production. and these banks were permitted to issue notes that also served as currency. Industrial workers organized the country’s first trade unions and even workingmen’s political parties early in the period. The · United States Occupation of Veracruz Constitution gave the United States exclusive power to coin money but allowed for the chartering of banks by individual states. whose charters were often political plums. If by midcentury Southerners of European descent had come to regard slavery—on which the cotton economy relied—as a “positive good” rather than the “necessary evil” that they had earlier held the system to be. by drastically enlarging the Northern market for raw materials. and older and simpler forms of attracting investment capital were rendered obsolete.geography | Britannica. It was the government’s fiscal agent. contraction. lacked coordinated inspection and safeguards against risky loans usually collateralized by land. The corporate form thrived in an era of booming capital requirements. Overspeculation. an “industrial revolution” in the Northeast but also. and panics were the inevitable https://www. its headquarters. This latter group. even Jeffersonian Republicans were converted to · Paris Peace Conference acceptance of a second Bank of the United States. as did the value of the banknotes. it was largely because of the increasingly central role played by cotton in earning profits for the region.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . Its charter expired in 1811. At the start the issue was between agrarians (represented by Jeffersonian Republicans) wanting a decentralized system of easy credit and an investing community looking for stability and profit in financial markets. and it put the centre of gravity of the credit system in Philadelphia. chartered in 1816. Nicholas Biddle.

The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . The country was strong enough to survive.britannica. culminating in Biddle’s attempt to win recharter for the Bank of the United States.C. Not until the 1840s did the federal government place its funds in an independent treasury. Nicholas Biddle Courtesy of the Library of Congress. but the politicization of fiscal policy making continued to be a major theme of American economic history. result. Biddle’s hope was that the large deposits of government funds in the Bank of the United States would allow it to become the major lender to local banks. and from that position of strength it could squeeze the unsound ones into either responsibility or extinction. and the Panic of 1837. But this notion ran afoul of the growing democratic spirit that insisted that the right to extend credit and choose its recipients was too precious to be confined to a wealthy elite. Washington.United States . Jackson’s veto and transfer of the government funds to pet banks. and not until the Civil War was there legislation creating a national banking system.geography |[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . This difference of views produced the classic battle between Biddle and Jackson. https://www.

and Gulf and Atlantic coasts into a single national market was first met by putting steam to work on the rich network of navigable rivers. In the case of Gibbons v. D.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . Chief Justice Marshall affirmed the exclusive right of the federal government to regulate traffic on rivers flowing between states. who found the financing to make his initial Hudson River run of the Clermont in 1807 more than a onetime feat. John Fitch had demonstrated a workable steamboat to onlookers in Philadelphia.britannica. and its most spectacular manifestation was the Mississippi River paddle wheeler. As a result. But it is characteristic of American history that. a unique creation of unsung marine engineers challenged to make a craft that could “work” in shallow swift-running waters. Transportation revolution Improvements in transportation. A fundamental problem of the developing American economy was the great geographic extent of the country and the appallingly poor state of its roads. steam was king.C. https://www. From that point forward. in the absence of governmental encouragement. Mississippi Valley. As early as 1787.United States . private backing was needed to bring an invention into full play. which was possible in the mild climate of large parts of the drainage basin of the Father of Waters. were especially vital in the United States. frontier following the … Library of Wood engraving relating to the financial setback experienced on the U. Their solution was to put cargo. on inland waters.geography | Britannica. The Mississippi River steamboat not only became an instantly recognizable American icon but also had an impact on the law. and passengers on a flat open deck above the waterline.S. popular credit for the first steamboat goes to Robert Fulton. The broad challenge to weave the Great Lakes. he repeated the feat in New York[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . engines. a key to the advance of industrialization everywhere. Washington. Ogden (1824). some years later.

United States . Robert Fulton. The best-known conduit.britannica. Canal building was increasingly popular throughout the 1820s and ’30s. Other major canals in Pennsylvania. Washington.geography | Britannica. Stock Montage/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Canals and railroads were not as distinctively American in origin as the paddle wheeler. the Erie Canal. Maryland.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . and Ohio joined Philadelphia and Baltimore to the West via the Ohio River and its tributaries. D. and states that were “burned” in the process became more wary of such ventures. linking the West to the port of New York City.C. Americans integrated the country’s water transport system by connecting rivers flowing toward the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes and the Ohio-Mississippi River valleys. connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. in a portrait after a painting by Benjamin West. Illustration of an early version of John Fitch’s steamboat. But many overbuilt or unwisely begun canal projects[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . sometimes financed by states or by a combination of state and private effort. but. whereas 18th-century canals in England and continental Europe were simple conveniences for moving bulky loads cheaply at low speed. Library of Congress.

Early railroad scene.geography | Britannica. D.C. like Adams a strong[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] .The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . https://www. D. and a great burst of construction boosted the country’s rail network from zero to 30. Washington. But the passionate opposition of many agrarians to the costs and expanded federal control inherent in the program created one battlefield in the long contest between the Democratic and Whig parties that did not end until the triumph of Whig economic ideas in the Republican party during the Civil War. was begun in 1828.000 km) by 1860.C. had a huge political and economic impact. lighthouses. which would.S.Y. thus benefiting each section of the country. no less than the operation of the burgeoning system. Little Falls. N.United States . Library of Congress. Washington. Adams was a decided champion of “national internal improvements”—the federally assisted development of turnpikes. and dredging and channel- clearing operations (that Barge near the western end of the Erie Canal.britannica. Canal development was overtaken by the growth of the railroads.000 miles (50. New York. Library of Congress. which were far more efficient in covering the great distances underserved by the road system and indispensable in the trans-Mississippi West. The financing alone. mid-1800s. however. encourage the growth of an industrial sector that exchanged manufactured goods for the products of U. through internal improvements and the imposition of tariffs. That term. Clay proposed an American System. was more closely associated with Henry Clay. whatever it took to assist commerce). agriculture. the first railroad in the United States. Work on the Baltimore and Ohio line.

and a hospitable view of innovation. as was water power from Rhode Island’s swiftly flowing rivers. The creation of the “factory system” in the United States was the outcome of interaction between several characteristically American forces: faith in the future. One conspicuous example was Delaware’s Oliver Evans. New England wool and southern cotton were readily available. Slater formed a partnership with Brown and others to reproduce the crucial equipment and build prosperous Rhode Island fabric factories. Moses Brown (later benefactor of the College of Rhode Henry Clay. But Samuel Slater. sprang from an alliance of invention. All that was lacking to convert a handcraft industry into one that was machine-based was machinery itself.britannica. Local American inventive talent embodied in sometimes self-taught engineers was available too.United States . social. but. who not only fathered the cotton gin but built a factory for mass producing muskets by fitting together interchangeable parts on an assembly line. however. the new devices for spinning and weaving that were coming into use in England were jealously guarded there. and philanthropy. which sustained him with advances on large procurement[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . it was a crucial if often https://www. and cultural history cannot easily be separated. investment. The pioneering textile industry.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . an abundance of resources linked to a shortage of labour. Such governmental support of industrial development was rare.S. for example. a generally welcoming attitude toward immigrants.geography | Britannica. © North Wind Picture Archives Beginnings of industrialization Economic. Army. a young English mechanic who immigrated to the United States in 1790 carrying the designs for the necessary machinery in his prodigious memory. became aware of Brown’s ambitions and of the problems he was having with his machinery. another was the ultimate Connecticut Yankee. who built a totally automatic flour mill in the 1780s and later founded a factory that produced steam engines. renamed Brown University in honour of his nephew Nicholas) was looking to invest some of his family’s mercantile fortune in the textile business. when it occurred. Eli Whitney. Whitney got help from a supportive U.

United States . https://www.S.C. Their moral behaviour was supervised by matrons. and they themselves organized religious. Francis Cabot Lowell. patents granted was to Oliver Evans in 1790 for his automatic gristmill. One of the first U. musical. living at home.C. D. showing the operation of the cotton gin. and study groups. Whereas Slater and Brown used local families.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . Lowell brought in young women from the countryside and put them up in boardinghouses adjacent to the mills. The … Library of Congress. to provide “hands” for their factories.geography | Britannica. dramatic. played a pathbreaking role as a paternalistic model employer. Sketch submitted to the Patent Office by Eli Whitney. The idea was to create an American labour force that would not resemble the wretched proletarians of England and elsewhere in Europe. The “girls”—most of them in or just out of their teens—were happy to be paid a few dollars for 60-hour workweeks that were less taxing than those they put in as farmers’ daughters. Washington. D. who opened a textile factory in 1811 in the Massachusetts town later named for him. National[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] .com understated element in the industrializing of America. Washington.britannica.

Birth of American Culture “In the four quarters of the globe. Nonetheless. early New England industrialism carried the imprint of a conscious sense of American exceptionalism. dynamic.” What appeared to intrigue the travelers above all was the uniqueness of American[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . hundreds of whom were assigned to report back to European audiences that were fascinated by the new society and insatiable for information on every facet of the “fabled republic. in the 1840s and 1850s.britannica.United States . Boott Cotton Mills. Washington. and smaller wages. awesomely ambitious. the civilization of the United States exerted an irresistible pull on visitors. and independent. Had he looked beyond the limits of “high culture. optimistic. Lowell. Bernard A. When. Mass.” he would have found plenty of answers. and in constant flux.C. As a matter of fact. In contrast to the relatively static and well-ordered civilization of the Old World. the novels of https://www. Yankee young women formed embryonic unions and struck. they were replaced by French-Canadian and Irish immigrants. America seemed turbulent. its people crude but vital. Weisberger Social developments In the decades before the American Civil War (1861–65).The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .com Lowell was marveled at by foreign and domestic visitors alike but lost its idyllic character as competitive pressures within the industry resulted in larger workloads. longer hours. the period between 1815 and 1860 produced an outpouring of traditional literary works now known to students of English- language prose and poetry everywhere—the verse of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Edgar Allan Poe. Many well-bred Europeans were evidently taken aback by the self-assurance of lightly educated American common folk. Library of Congress. who reads an American book?” asked an English satirist early in the 1800s. D. Ordinary Americans seemed unwilling to defer to anyone on the basis of rank or status.geography | Britannica.

Nathaniel Bowditch’s The New American Practical Navigator (1802).C. Matthew Fontaine https://www. and Herman Melville. (Digital File Number: cph 3c35949) But setting these aside.United States . c. etching after a portrait by Joseph O. Southworth & Hawes—George Eastman House/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Herman Melville. Washington. Ralph Waldo Emerson.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . Eaton. D. and Captain Ahab who now belong to the world.geography | Britannica. as well as the essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson—all expressing distinctively American themes and depicting distinctly American characters such as Natty James Fenimore Cooper.britannica.[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . daguerreotype by Southworth & Hawes. Library of Congress. Nathaniel Hawthorne. Hester Prynne.

and the reports from the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the various far Western explorations made by the U.geography | Britannica. and trivia. A detail of a page from William Clark’s expedition diary. Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.T. Popular magazines such as Harper’s Weekly. In the growing cities there were new varieties of mass entertainment. and the Eclectic Readers of William Holmes McGuffey became staples in every 19th-century American classroom. which featured frontier tall tales and rural dialect. Barnum also entertained the middle-class audience. and Godey’s Lady’s Book. including a sketch of evergreen shrub … North Wind Picture Archives At home Noah Webster’s An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828) included hundreds of words of local origin to be incorporated in the former “King’s English. also made their mark in an emerging urban America. naturalists. and Artemus Ward. edited by Sarah Josepha Hale with a keen eye toward women’s wishes.S. whose New York Herald mingled its up-to-the-moment political and international news with sports. biologists. Maury’s Physical Geography of the Sea (1855).United States . for which ballads like those of Stephen Foster were composed.S. Popular literature included the humorous works of writers such as Seba Smith. gossip. pioneered by James Gordon Bennett. Johnson Jones Hooper. the geography textbooks of Jedidiah Morse.” published in[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . Joseph G. Navy Antarctic explorer Charles Wilkes. https://www. All these added up to a flourishing democratic culture that could be dismissed as vulgar by foreign and domestic snobs but reflected a vitality loudly sung by Walt Whitman in Leaves of Grass (1855). including the blatantly racist minstrel shows. and geologists throughout the world. The “museums” and circuses of P. were the American books on the desks of sea captains.” Webster’s blue-backed “Speller. Army’s Corps of Engineers. By 1860 the international scientific community knew that there was an American intellectual presence. Baldwin. and the spread of literacy sustained a new kind of popular journalism.britannica.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . as well as those of U.

Washington. 1859 Courtesy of the Foster Hall Collection.C. Barnum’s mammoth tent housing his menagerie and exhibits.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . D.britannica. Stephen[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] .United States . Library of Congress. University of Pittsburgh https://www.geography | P.T.

politics. the latter because its economy offered too few places to newcomers. however. tell the whole story of its vital role in pre-Civil War America. It became easier for hungry Europeans to answer the call of America to take up the farmlands and build the cities. they were attracted by the dazzling opportunities of American life: abundant work. Traveling in family groups rather than as individuals. The newcomers were overwhelmingly Irish and German.C. Washington. Edward Pessen The mere statistics of immigration do not. D. but the[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . and freedom on the one hand and the absence of compulsory military service on the other. Weisberger The people American society was rapidly changing. The intermingling of technology. food. and accident produced yet another “great migration.000 Europeans had arrived in the first three decades of the 19th century. New England and the Southern Atlantic states languished—the former region because it was losing settlers to the superior farmlands of the Western Reserve. Library of Congress.United States . Bernard A. land. Whereas about 250. Irish migration would have taken place in any case. there were 10 times as many between 1830 and 1850. After 1820 the rate of growth was not uniform throughout the country. The special feature of the population increase of the 1830s and ’40s was the extent to which it was composed of immigrants. Population grew at what to Europeans was an amazing rate—although it was the normal pace of American population growth for the antebellum decades—of between three-tenths and one-third per decade. photograph by Mathew Walt Whitman.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .” By the 1840s the beginnings of steam transportation on the Atlantic and improvements in the sailing speed of the last generation of windjammers made oceanic passages more frequent and regular.britannica.geography | Britannica.

Library of Congress. These people too indelibly flavoured the culture of the United States. and priests on American urban life or the impact of the Irish in general on Roman Catholicism in the United States. Neither can one quantify the impact of the Irish politicians. Hungary. LC-USZ62-2022) Besides the Irish and Germans. policemen. and business life simply cannot be measured in statistics. (reproducution no. Meanwhile. driven by agricultural depression in the 1850s. Italy. there were thousands of Norwegians and Swedes who immigrated. Hence.britannica. D.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .com catastrophe of the Great Famine (Irish Potato Famine) of 1845–49 turned a stream into a torrent. many of the Germans who traveled over in the wake of the revolutions—the Forty-Eighters—were refugees who took liberal ideals. The uprisings in the last three countries were brutally suppressed. creating a wave of political refugees.United States .com/place/United-States/The-United-States-from-1816-to-1850[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . and other intellectual capital to the American West. professional educations.C. And there was a much smaller migration to California in the 1850s of Chinese seeking to exchange hard times for new opportunities in the gold fields. Washington.geography | Britannica. to take up new land on the yet-unbroken Great Plains. https://www. Irish emigrants departing for the United States. and Germany. the steady growth of the democratic idea in Europe produced the Revolutions of 1848 in France. educational. Overall German contributions to American musical.

Indiana.United States . They fit the pattern of searching for heaven on earth that marked the age of reform. and New Harmony. these experiments in communal living added to the less materialistic forces driving American thought. Washington. Examples include Nashoba. respectively. https://www. Library of Congress. Tennessee. by two British newcomers. and in New Ulm and New Braunfels. There also were German planned settlements at Amana. Mention must also be made of utopian immigrant colonies planted by thinkers who wanted to create a new society in a New World.britannica.geography | Britannica. D. Texas. D. Library of Congress. Frances Wright and Robert Dale Owen.C.C. Frances Wright. Swedish immigrants en route to the western United States in the mid-19th century.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .com/place/United-States/The-United-States-from-1816-to-1850[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . Iowa. If the growth of materialistic and expansionist bumptiousness represented by the Manifest Destiny movement was fueled in part by the immigration-fed expansion of the American populace.

The hostility shown to free African Americans by the general community was less violent but equally unremitting. however. Discrimination in politics. Cities Cities. The struggle between the two groups erupted spasmodically into ugly street riots. c. Although improved machinery had resulted in expanded farm production and had given further impetus to the commercialization of agriculture. 1873. religion. The actuality was complex. (digital id: ppmsca 09855) Bernard A. they fought a losing battle against the inroads of Irish competition in northeastern American Progress. Farm workers received minuscule wages.geography | Britannica. much of the best land was concentrated in the hands of a small number of wealthy farmers. and little leisure. Confined to menial occupations for the most part. the way of life of independent agriculturists had changed little by midcentury. but this proved fruitless in preventing the continued deterioration of their situation. employment. Weisberger Most African Americans in the North possessed theoretical freedom and little else. education.United States . both old and new. Many farmers led lives marked by unremitting toil.C.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . D. was far greater in the United States than in Europe.britannica. and varied evidence points to a steady improvement in the standard and style of living of agriculturalists as midcentury approached. cash shortage. their growth in population outstripping the spectacular growth rate of the country as a whole and their importance and influence far transcending the relatively small proportions of citizens https://www. free African Americans in the North could criticize and petition against their subjugation. The proportion of farm families who owned their own land. thrived during the era. In all sections of the country. chromolithograph print. housing. Most Americans continued to live in the[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . Washington. Unlike slaves. The public journals put out by some farmers insisted that their efforts were unappreciated by the larger community. after an 1872 … Library of Congress. and even cemeteries resulted in a cruelly oppressive system.

Olympia Brown. Taxes were increased in order to deal with pressing new problems and to enable the urban community of midcentury to realize new opportunities. The lifeblood of them all was commerce. professional.” made possible by a technological revolution. At higher levels. with a population approaching 500. New living in them. considered the first woman physician of modern times. waste more reliably removed. Washington. And the need for trained teachers for those schools offered another avenue to female independence. and landowning elites who typically ruled. New York City. such as Oberlin (1833) and Antioch (1852). Old ideals of economy in town government were grudgingly abandoned by the merchant. Edward Pessen Education and the role of women Cities were also centres of educational and intellectual progress. The role of women in America’s expanding society was intriguingly shaped by conflicting forces. both in Ohio. free of the stigma of “pauper” or “charity” schools. Library of Congress. were among the most important developments. Massachusetts (1837). streets improved. D. For example. one of the first American women whose ordination was sanctioned by a full denomination. Whether on the “urban frontier” or in the older seaboard region.geography | Britannica. and Newark. including Elizabeth[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . On one hand. the growing cities offered new job opportunities as clerks and shop assistants for girls and young women with elementary educations furnished by the public schools. and the emergence of a lively “penny press.000 by midcentury.C. great cities or small.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . Yet the pattern of change during the era was amazingly similar for eastern cities or western. New York City in the 1850s. Harbours were improved. all as the result of the statesmanship and the self-interest of property owners who were convinced that amelioration was socially beneficial. old cities or new. new rungs on the ladder of upward mobility were provided by the creation of women’s colleges. antebellum cities were the centres of wealth and political influence for their outlying hinterlands.britannica.United States . https://www. police forces professionalized. and welfare activities broadened. faced problems of a different order of magnitude from those confronting such cities as Poughkeepsie. services expanded. The emergence of a relatively well-financed public educational system. A rare woman or two even broke into professional ranks. such as Mount Holyoke in South Hadley. and the Rev. and by the admission of women to a very few coeducational colleges. there were factors that abetted emancipation. New Jersey.

Bernard A. “self-made” was the term Henry Clay popularized for them. believed American society to be remarkably egalitarian. to the exclusion of all else. marked by the rapid rise and fall of fortunes. the religious and moral education of children and servants. no.United States ..britannica. in common with most contemporary observers. and the cultivation of higher sensibilities through the proper selection of decorative objects and reading matter. Weisberger Wealth The brilliant French visitor Alexis de Tocqueville. neg. The “duties of womanhood” expounded by popular media Olympia Brown. D. she was venerated but kept in a clearly noncompetitive role. In so doing. Most rich American men were thought to have been born poor. the conservation of a husband’s resources. Abbey Memorial Chapel. Washington.geography | Britannica.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . Library of Congress. LC USZ 62 53513 From the[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . The “true woman” made the home an island of tranquility and uplift to which the busy male could retreat after a day’s struggle in the hard world of the marketplace.C. and Clapp Laboratories on the … Jim Gipe. opportunity for success seemed freely available https://www. Williston Memorial Library. The society was allegedly a very fluid one. traditionally educated women from genteel families remained bound by silken cords of expectation. courtesy of Mount Holyoke College On the other hand. with room at the top accessible to all but the most humble.

com to all. Alexis de Tocqueville. Boston. and status exerted power in the New World even as they did in the Old. H. America by 1850 had more millionaires than all of Europe. although material possessions were not distributed perfectly equally. New York. overimpressed with the absence of a titled aristocracy and with the democratic tone and manner of American life. and. and Philadelphia each had perhaps1.geography | Britannica. In what has long been called the “Age of the Common Man. Typically.United States . while the great bulk of their populations possessed little or nothing.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . While the rich were inevitably not numerous. however.000 or $5. In western cities too. in theory. detail of an oil painting by T.” rich men were almost invariably born not into humble or poor families but into wealthy and prestigious ones. The common man lived in the age.000 individuals admitting to assets of $100. was far different.britannica. Because an annual income of $4. family. in the Versailles Museum. Chassé[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . they were. Roger-Viollet The actuality. failed to see the extent to which money. at a time when wealthy taxpayers kept secret from assessors the bulk of their wealth.000 or more. NEXT PAGE PREVIOUS Jacksonian democracy PAGE keyboard_arrow_left ReligiousPage 22 of 41 revivalism keyboard_arrow_right https://www. these were great fortunes indeed. but he did not dominate it. dispersed so fairly that only a few poor and a few rich men existed at either end of the social spectrum. class lines increasingly hardened after 1830. It appears that contemporaries.000 enabled a person to live luxuriously. the wealthiest 1 percent of urban citizens owned approximately one-half the wealth of the great cities of the Northeast.

.geography |[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . Wales.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . KEEP EXPLORING BRITANNICA United Kingdom island country located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe.. ADDITIONAL MEDIA play_circle_outline VIEW ALL MEDIA chevron_right ADDITIONAL READING  EXTERNAL LINKS  ARTICLE CONTRIBUTORS  ARTICLE HISTORY  Corrections? Updates? Help us improve this article! chat FEEDBACK Contact our editors with your feedback. and arro Scotland —as well as the.United States . The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England.

presidency during the Great Depression.britannica.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .com/place/United-States/The-United-States-from-1816-to-1850[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . His administration created the New Deal program. READ THIS ARTICLE Cry Me a River: Fact or Fiction? Take this Geography True or False Quiz at Encyclopedia row_dro READ THIS ARTICLE 7 Alphabet Soup Agencies that Stuck Around It’s clear that Franklin Delano Roosevelt wasn’t messing around when he came into the U. Despite Canada’s great size. in which arrow_dro a large number. occupying roughly the northern two-fifths of the continent of North America....United States . READ THIS LIST Canada second largest country in the world in area (after Russia). it is one of the world’s most arrow_dro sparsely.S.geography | Britannica.

.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history .. TAKE THIS QUIZ 8 Hotly Disputed Borders of the World Some borders. disputes over national resources. It is the largest of all Asian countries and has the largest population of any country in the[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . like that between the United States and Britannica to test your knowledge of rivers around arrow_dro the world. are peaceful ones..britannica.United States .geography | Britannica. it occupies approximately one- arrow_dro fourteenth. READ THIS ARTICLE https://www. or arrow_dro disagreements. Others are places of conflict caused by rivalries between countries or peoples. Occupying nearly the entire East Asian landmass.. READ THIS LIST China country of East Asia.

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TAKE THIS QUIZ View More VIEW MORE STAY CONNECTED      drafts About Us About Our Ads Partner Program Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use ©2017 Encyclopædia[22-Oct-17 6:04:59 PM] . https://www. arrow_dro knowledge of Nauru. Inc.The United States from 1816 to 1850 | history . and other islands.geography | Britannica.britannica.United States .