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Installing IIS

Internet Information Services is not installed on Windows XP Professional by
default. However, IIS 5.1 is installed by default only if PWS was installed on
your previous version of Windows. You can remove IIS or select additional
components by using the Add/Remove Programs application in Control
Panel. To start using IIS, see Quick Site Setup with IIS and The IIS snap-in.

To install IIS, add components, or remove components

For a detailed description of the IIS optional components, see Installing IIS
Optional Components.

1. Click Start, click Control Panel, and double-click Add/Remove
Programs. The Add/Remove Programs application starts.
2. In the left column of the Add/Remove Programs dialog box, click
Add/Remove Windows Components.
3. When the Windows Components Wizard appears, click Next.
4. In the Windows Components list, select IIS.
5. Click Next, and follow the instructions.

Directories remaining after uninstall

The following directories, which contain user content, remain on your
computer after you uninstall IIS:

\Inetpub
\systemroot\Help\IisHelp
\systemroot\System32\Inetsrv

Related Topics

For more information on related topics such as the IIS software
checklist, security checklist, or troubleshooting, see the Windows
documentation by clicking Help from the Start menu.

Features
Internet Information Services 5.1 has many features to help Web
administrators to create scalable, flexible Web applications.

Security
Administration
Programmability
Internet Standards

Security

Advanced Digest Authentication: Advanced Digest Authentication is
lightweight, allows secure and robust authentication of users across proxy
servers and firewalls, requires no additional client software, and avoids
passing username and password in cleartext over the Internet. In addition,
Digest Authentication, Anonymous, HTTP Basic, and Integrated Windows
authentication (formerly known as Windows NT Challenge/Response
authentication and NTLM authentication) are still available.
Secure Communications: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) 3.0 and Transport
Layer Security (TLS) provide a secure way to exchange information between
clients and servers. In addition, SSL 3.0 and TLS provide a way for the server
to verify who the client is before the user logs on to the server. In IIS 5.1,
client certificates are exposed to both ISAPI and Active Server Pages, so that
programmers can track users through their sites. Also, IIS 5.1 can map the
client certificate to a Windows user account, so that administrators can
control access to system resources based on the client certificate.
Server-Gated Cryptography: Server-Gated Cryptography (SGC) is an
extension of SSL that allows financial institutions with export versions of IIS
to use strong 128-bit encryption. Although SGC capabilities are built into
IIS 5.0 and 5.1, a special SGC certificate is required to use SGC.
Security Wizards: Security wizards simplify server administration tasks.
o The Web Server Certificate Wizard simplifies certificate
administration tasks, such as creating certificate requests and
managing the certificate life cycle.
o The Permissions Wizard makes it easy to configure Web site access
by assigning access policies to virtual directories and files. The
Permissions Wizard can also update NTFS file permissions to reflect
these Web access policies.
o The CTL Wizard helps you configure your certificate trust lists (CTLs).
A CTL is a list of trusted certification authorities (CAs) for a particular
directory. CTLs are especially useful for Internet service providers
(ISPs) who have several Web sites on their server and who need to
have a different list of approved certification authorities for each site.
IP and Internet Domain Restrictions: You can grant or deny Web access
to individual computers, groups of computers, or entire domains.

Kerberos v5 Authentication Protocol Compliance: IIS is fully integrated
with the Kerberos v5 authentication protocol implemented in Microsoft®
Windows® XP, allowing you to pass authentication credentials among
connected computers running Windows.
Certificate Storage: IIS certificate storage is now integrated with the
Windows CryptoAPI storage. The Windows Certificate Manager provides a
single point of entry that allows you to store, back up, and configure server
certificates.
Fortezza: The U.S. government security standard, commonly called
Fortezza, is supported in IIS 5.1. This standard satisfies the Defense Message
System security architecture with a cryptographic mechanism that provides
message confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and access control to
messages, components, and systems. These features can be implemented
both with server and browser software and with PCMCIA card hardware.

Administration

Restarting IIS: Now you can restart your Internet services without having
to reboot your computer.
Backing Up and Restoring the Metabase: Changes to metabase
backup and restore capabilities and procedures enhance security and allow
you to restore the metabase to other computers. The application is run from
the IIS snap-in.
Metabase Snapshot Writer: Metabase Snapshot Writer (MSW) uses
COM to ensure that NTbackup creates a stable and reliable backup of the
metabase. MSW is used with NTbackup only, and is not a part of the
Configuration Backup/Restore application that is run from the IIS snap-in.
ASP Template Caching: Changes to ASP Template Cache Tuning give
you enhanced control over caching of ASP files.
Improved Custom Error Messages: Now administrators can send
informative messages to clients when HTTP errors occur on their Web sites.
Also includes detailed ASP error processing capabilities through the use of
the 500-100.asp custom error message. You can use the custom errors that
IIS 5.1 provides, or create your own.
Configuration Options: You can set permissions for Read, Write, Execute,
Script, and FrontPage Web operations at the site, directory, or file level.
Remote Administration: IIS 5.1 has Web-based administration tools that
allow remote management of your server from almost any browser on any
platform. With IIS 5.1, you can set up administration accounts called
Operators with limited administration privileges on Web sites, to help
distribute administrative tasks.
Terminal Services: Terminal Services is a feature of Windows XP that
allows you to run 32-bit Windows applications on terminals and terminal
emulators running on personal computers and other computer desktops.
Terminal Services allows virtually any desktop to run applications on the
server. This enables you to remotely administer Windows XP services such as
IIS as if you were at the server console, including administration from older
legacy PCs, or even non-PC devices such as UNIX workstations with

compatible client software. (Non-Windows-based client devices require third-
party add-on software.)
Centralized Administration: Administration tools for IIS use the
Microsoft® Management Console (MMC). MMC hosts the programs, called
snap-ins, that administrators use to manage their servers. You can use the
IIS snap-in from a computer running Windows XP Professional to administer
a computer on your intranet running Internet Information Services on
Windows 2000 Server.

Programmability

Active Server Pages: You can create dynamic content by using server-side
scripting and components to create browser-independent dynamic content.
Active Server Pages (ASP) provides an easy-to-use alternative to CGI and
ISAPI by allowing content developers to embed any scripting language or
server component into their HTML pages. ASP provides access to all of the
HTTP request and response streams, as well as standards-based database
connectivity and the ability to customize content for different browsers.
New ASP Features: Active Server Pages has some new and improved
features for enhancing performance and streamlining your server–side
scripts.
Application Protection: IIS 5.1 offers greater protection and increased
reliability for your Web applications. By default, IIS runs all of your
applications in a common or pooled process that is separate from core IIS
processes. In addition, you can still isolate mission-critical applications that
should be run outside of both core IIS and pooled processes.
ADSI 2.0: In IIS 5.1, administrators and application developers have the
ability to add custom objects, properties, and methods to the existing ADSI
provider, giving administrators even more flexibility in configuring their sites.

Internet Standards

Standards Based: Microsoft Internet Information Services 5.0 and 5.1
comply with the HTTP 1.1 standard, including features such as PUT and
DELETE, the ability to customize HTTP error messages, and support for
custom HTTP headers.
Multiple Sites, One IP Address: With support for host headers, you can
host multiple Web sites on a single computer running Microsoft
Windows 2000 Server with only one IP address. This is useful for Internet
service providers and corporate intranets hosting multiple sites.
Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV): Enables remote
authors to create, move, or delete files, file properties, directories, and
directory properties on your server over an HTTP connection.
News and Mail: You can use SMTP and NNTP Services to set up intranet
mail and news services that work in conjunction with IIS.
PICS Ratings: You can apply Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)
ratings to sites that contain content for mature audiences.

FTP Restart: Now File Transfer Protocol file downloads can be resumed
without having to download the entire file over again if an interruption occurs
during data transfer.
HTTP Compression: Provides faster transmission of pages between the
Web server and compression-enabled clients. Compresses and caches static
files, and performs on-demand compression of dynamically generated files.

Glossary

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Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate
section of the glossary.

A
access control
The mechanisms for limiting access to resources based on users' identities and their
membership in various predefined groups. Access control is used typically to control
user access to network resources such as servers, directories, and files.

access control list (ACL)
A list that indicates which users or groups have permission to access or
modify a particular file; the Windows discretionary access control list (DACL)
and system access control list (SACL) are examples of access control lists.

ACL
See access control list.

Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI)
A COM-based directory service model that allows ADSI-compliant client
applications to access a wide variety of distinct directory protocols, including
Windows Directory Services and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(LDAP), while using a single, standard set of interfaces. ADSI shields the
client application from the implementation and operational details of the
underlying data store or protocol.

Active Group, The
A standards organization, under the auspices of The Open Group, which is
an open, customer-driven steering committee responsible for the ongoing
development and management of ActiveX technologies and licensing.

active script
A script that can be implemented in various languages, persistent formats,
and so on, that can interact with other ActiveX Controls.

active scripting
A Microsoft technology that uses COM to run third-party scripts in Microsoft
Internet Explorer without regard to language and other elements of
implementation. See also Active Server Pages; Automation; Component
Object Model component; script; scripting engine.

Active Server Pages (ASP)
A server-side scripting environment that can be used to create dynamic Web
pages or build Web applications. ASP pages are files that contain HTML tags,
text, and script commands. ASP pages can call Component Object Model
(COM) components to perform tasks, such as connecting to a database or
performing a business calculation. With ASP, the user can add interactive
content to Web pages or build entire Web applications that use HTML pages
as the interface to your customers.

ActiveX
An umbrella term for Microsoft technologies that enable developers to create
interactive content for the World Wide Web. A set of language-independent
interoperability technologies that enable software components written in
different languages to work together in networked environments. The core
technology elements of ActiveX are the Component Object Model (COM) and
distributed COM. These technologies are licensed to The Open Group
standards organization, and are being implemented on multiple platforms.
See also Component Object Model; Common Gateway Interface;
distributed COM; Java.

ActiveX Controls
Reusable software components that incorporate ActiveX technology. These
components can be used to add specialized functionality, such as animation
or pop-up menus, to Web pages, desktop applications, and software
development tools. ActiveX Controls can be written in a variety of
programming languages including C, C++, Visual Basic, and Java.

ActiveX Data Objects (ADO)
A high-level data access programming interface to an underlying data access

the acronym ARP is commonly used to describe both. an easily remembered name used in place of an IP address. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) A TCP/IP protocol for determining the hardware address (or physical address) of a node on a local area network connected to the Internet. the physical location of the computer. See also catalog agent. An ARP request is sent to the network. alias A name that maps part of a URL to a physical directory on the server. Although ARP technically refers only to finding the hardware address. when only the IP address (or logical address) is known. In general. agent information consists of comments about the user. and the types of service to report based on the computer's configuration. In Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). ADO See ActiveX Data Objects. and Reverse ARP (RARP) refers to the reverse procedure. See also Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. and the node that has the IP address responds with its hardware address. . implemented by using the Component Object Model (COM). ARP is limited to physical network systems that support broadcast packets. activity A collection of COM objects that has a single distributed logical thread of execution. It is defined in RFC 826.technology (such as OLE DB). Every COM object belongs to one activity. aggregation A composition technique for implementing component objects whereby a new object can be built by using one or more existing objects that support some or all of the new object's required interfaces. a process that mediates between the client and the server. ADSI See Active Directory Service Interfaces. ADSI Provider An application that makes itself available to ADSI client applications by providing an ADSI implementation. agent In client/server applications.

programs. punctuation marks. Anonymous access is typically used for Internet sites. C. or other identifier. This summary appears automatically to browsers. ASCII was developed in 1968 to standardize data transmission among disparate hardware and software systems and is built into most minicomputers and all personal computers. Anonymous File Transfer Protocol (anonymous FTP) Makes it possible for a user to retrieve documents. virtual server. files. It provides area charters for groups that establish standards in specific fields. Apartment . a summary of the information in a given directory. ANSI See American National Standards Institute. ASCII file. numerals. also called a friendly name. See also ASCII. control characters. ANSI is the American representative of the International Standards Organization and has developed recommendations for the use of programming languages including FORTRAN. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A voluntary. annotation file For the FTP service. and other symbols. See also host name. The apartment is essentially a way of describing a thread with a message queue that supports COM objects. virtual directory. ANSI C is the version of the C language approved by ANSI). and they have only the permissions assigned to that account. including letters.directory path. and COBOL. and other archived data from anywhere on the Internet without having to establish a logon name and password. Standards approved by ANSI are often called ANSI standards (for example. Apartment model multithreading The Component Object Model (COM) supports a form of multithreading called the Apartment model.S. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) A coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that assigns numeric values up to 256 characters. such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Remote users can connect to that computer without a user name or password. ASCII character set. business and industry groups formed in 1918 for the development of trade and communication standards. anonymous-only logons Allows remote access by the IUSR_computername account. nonprofit organization of U.

Application scope is useful for global data. Also. application A computer program. . A variable or an object instance is given application scope by storing it in the Active Server Pages (ASP) application object." Each object "lives in an apartment" (thread) for the life of the object. This term is frequently used to refer to such programs in the form of embedded inline objects in HTML documents on the World Wide Web. application scope A way of making data available to all users of an application from all pages of a Web application. or expression passed to a procedure. variable. argument A constant. applet A small piece of code that can be transported over the Internet and executed on a client's computer. All calls to that object execute on the Apartment thread. application programming interface (API) A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower- level services performed by a computer's operating system. Apartment thread A thread used to execute calls to objects of components configured as "Apartment threaded.model multithreading enables multiple application threads—one for each apartment—to be managed by COM. such as a global counter. application root The root directory for an application. or a group of Active Server Pages (ASP) scripts and components that perform such tasks. such as a word processor or electronic spreadsheet. all directories and files contained within the application root are considered part of the application. Also called an application starting-point directory. a set of calling conventions in programming that define how a service is invoked through the application. API See application programming interface. ARP See Address Resolution Protocol.

voice. which are switched between any two nodes in the system at rates ranging from 1. ASCII character set A standard 7-bit code for representing ASCII characters by using binary values. non-English language characters. in turn. then sends it to a client. is broken into packets containing 53 bytes each. ASCII file Also called a text file. ATM is defined in the broadband ISDN protocol at the levels corresponding to levels 1 and 2 of the ISO/OSI model. Most PC-based systems use an 8- bit extended ASCII code. spaces. video. Data. asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) A network technology capable of transmitting data. ASCII See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.array A list of data values. ASP buffering Functionality of ASP that temporarily stores all output generated by a script until script execution is complete. but it contains no other formatting information. and graphic symbols. See also ASCII. carriage returns. associating See file name extension mapping. It is currently used in local area networks involving workstations and personal computers. See also Integrated Services . punctuation. or an ASCII text file.5 to 622 Mbps. with an extra 128 characters used to represent special symbols. are a major fundamental of computer programming. the command that instructs the FTP server to send or receive files as ASCII text. a text-only file. any element of which can be referenced by an expression consisting of the array name followed by an indexing expression. code values range from 0 to 127. ASP See Active Server Pages. including frame relay data. Arrays are part of the fundamentals of data structures. all of the same type. An ASCII file contains characters. and frame relay traffic in real time. which. ascii In an FTP client program. and sometimes tabs and an end-of-file marker.

one character at a time. a name-value pair within a tagged element that modifies certain features of that element. if it fails. Each transmitted character consists of a number of data bits (the character itself) preceded by a "begin character" signal called the start bit.Digital Network. atomicity A feature of a transaction considered or guaranteed to be indivisible.5. or. or delete objects such as files and directories. auditing The process an operating system uses to detect and record security-related events. the name or structure of a field. authentication The process by which the system validates a user's logon information. attributes In a database record. ATM See Asynchronous Transfer Mode. called stop bits. such as an attempt to create. a form of data transmission in which data is sent intermittently. asynchronous transmission In modem communication. Either the transaction is uninterrupted. The size of a field or the type of information it contains would also be attributes of a database record. and if the system detects a match. See also security log. access. A user's name and password are compared against an authorized list. a mechanism is provided that ensures the return of the system to its state prior to initiation of the transaction. . The records of such events are stored in a file known as a security log. access is granted to the extent specified in the permission list for the user. authentication certificate See certificate. 1. and ending in an optional parity bit followed by 1. whose contents are available only to those with the proper clearance. In markup languages such as Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and HTML. International Organization for Standardization Open Systems Interconnection model. digital. rather than in a steady stream with characters separated by fixed time intervals. or 2 "end character" signals.

Generally. Basic authentication is sometimes called clear- . Automation A COM-based technology that enables dynamic binding to COM objects at run time. In computer networks. such as a code number or a password. B bandwidth The capacity of the transmission medium stated in bits per second (bps) or as a frequency (Hz). greater bandwidth indicates faster data-transfer capability and is expressed in bits per second (bps). Web master. Authorization is typically set up by a system administrator. the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies in a given range. In communications. automatic directory listing Providing a directory listing by default when a URL without a file name is received. It is a method of authentication that encodes user name and password data transmissions. especially to remote computers on a network open to more than one person. also called directory browsing.authorization In relation to computers. a higher bandwidth number indicates faster data- transfer capability. or site owner and checked and cleared by the computer. that the comput er can verify against its internal records. This requires that the user provide some type of identification. Automation object An object that is exposed to other applications or programming tools through Automation interfaces. thus saving resources for other programs such as e-mail. Also called permission or privilege. An administrator can deliberately limit a server's Internet workload by not allowing it to receive requests at full capacity. bandwidth throttling Setting the maximum portion of total network capacity that a service is allowed to use. including Internet Explorer. Automation was previously called OLE Automation and ActiveX Automation. the right granted to an individual to use the system and the data stored on it. Basic authentication An authentication protocol supported by most browsers.

and NEAR) are referred to as Boolean queries. NOT. the resource the link points to doesn't exist. Note that encoding is not the same as encryption. Boolean Of. or the user's . others use integer data types to implement Boolean values. Queries with Boolean operators (AND. such as a transmission wire or a modem. static binding. browser Also called a Web browser. Commonly used to refer to the data transmission speed of a modem. See also Integrated Windows authentication. baud A measure of data transmission speed. or characteristic of logical (true or false) values. pertaining to. Boolean expression An expression that yields a Boolean value. broken link A reference to a resource that cannot be located because the URL is not valid. Both-threaded A component that supports Free. OR. with predefined values for true and false.text authentication because the Base-64 encoding can be decoded by anyone with a freely available decoding utility. usually (although not always) with 0 equaling false and "not 0" equaling true. Bits per second (bps) The speed at which data bits are transmitted over a communications medium. BIND See Domain Name System. or the server containing the resource is busy or is having other technical difficulties.and Apartment-threading models. dynamic binding. another network. Many languages directly support a Boolean data type. A client interface that enables a user to view HTML documents on the World Wide Web. See also Automation. See also Apartment thread. encryption. binding The way in which Microsoft Visual Basic code uses Automation to access objects in another application.

C CA See certification authority. When a subroutine call occurs. if it does not. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where these data items are stored. the data is returned to the processor. . and p-code. See also encryption. because cached memory is faster than main RAM memory. and procedures that are encoded into a computer system. callback function A function provided by IIS that allows an ISAPI extension or filter to access IIS services. call To transfer program execution to some section of code (usually a subroutine) while saving the necessary information to allow execution to resume at the calling point when the called section has completed execution.computer. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed. pseudo code. bulk data encryption The encryption of all data sent over a network. One example is Microsoft Internet Explorer. the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. Also called interpreted code. one or more values (known as arguments or parameters) are often passed to the subroutine. a regular memory access occurs. When the processor references an address in memory. and transfer files. business rules The laws. follow hyperlinks among them. bytecode The executable form of Java code that executes within t he Java virtual machine (VM). If it does. regulations. Also known as business logic. which can then use and sometimes modify these values. policies. cache A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access.

and revokes certificates. When issued to a server administrator. client. containing user or server identification information. The class defines the properties of the object and the methods used to control the object's behavior. For example. Client certificates can contain detailed identification information about the user and organization that issued the certificate. . CGI See Common Gateway Interface.caller A client that invokes a method of an object. and client B is the caller. An object's caller isn't necessarily the object's creator. catalog agent An automatic software program that periodically opens all files in a designated set of directories and indexes their contents. client A could create object X and pass this reference to client B. certification authority (CA) An entity that issues. certificate. manages. certificate. In this case. client A digital certificate that functions in a way similar to a driver's license or passport. digital An encrypted file. The class acts as the template from which an instance of an object is created at run time. See also key pair. client A is the creator. digital. See also Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. and then client B could use that reference to call a method of object X. When issued to users. also called a link crawler. See also certificate. See also certification authority. also called an authentication certificate. certificate revocation list A document maintained and published by a certification authority (CA) that lists certificates that have been revoked by the certification authority. that is used to verify identity. it is called a server certificate. class In Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript). a digital certificate is called a client certificate. certificate. the formal definition of an object.

Each COM component has its CLSID in the Windows registry so that it can be loaded by other applications. client On a local area network or the Internet. Each member computer of a cluster is called a node. CLSID See class ID. the workstation is usually the client computer. an application or process that requests a service from some process or component.class factory An object that implements the IClassFactory interface. called a server. client/server architecture A model of computing whereby client applications running on a desktop or personal computer access information on remote servers or host computers. data source tier. clustering Connecting two or more computers together for the purpose of sharing resources and request load. Also. class restrictions A general term sometimes used for access control by IP address filtering and hostname filtering. which typically incudes a Web server and business processes. a program that accesses or uses a service provided by another component. When referring to COM objects. client tier In the three-tier Web application model. In a client/server environment. class ID (CLSID) A universally unique identifier (UUID) that identifies a COM component. and manages and presents information retrieved from those sources. The client portion of the application is typically optimized for user interaction. the application or process that requests services from the middle tier. A client facilitates a connection to server computers. The nodes in a cluster may either have their own storage devices or share a common device. which allows it to create objects of a specific class. a computer that accesses shared network resources provided by another computer. Typically. multiuser functionality. whereas the server portion provides centralized. clustering will involve support for load . See also middle tier.

For example. See also server. the default codepage is the same as CP_ACP. The specification that defines communications between information services (such as an HTTP service) and resources on the server's host computer. COM See Component Object Model. CGI applications always run out-of-process. Commonly called CGI-bin or CGI-scripts. commit The phase in a transaction when all interactions are finalized and the persistent state of the underlying database is changed. For example. failover. For example. Common Gateway Interface (CGI) bin directory The directory on a server where CGI script programs are stored. when a user enters information in a form on a Web page. codepage A codepage is used by the system to encode and interpret string characters. when a user submits a form through a Web browser. Codepage formats are not the same for each language. In IIS. Some languages such as Japanese and Hindi have multi-byte characters while others like English and German only need one byte to represent each character.balancing. See also load balancing. colocation Installing and maintaining a computer at an Internet Service Provider (ISP) that belongs to another company or group. the HTTP service executes a program (often called a CGI script) and passes the user's input information to that program through CGI. Each codepage is represented by a unique integer. fault tolerance. See also CP_ACP. and failover. Common Gateway Interface (CGI) A server-side interface for initiating software services. UTF-8. node. a company might colocate one of their servers at an ISP to save costs. such as databases and other programs. IIS supports Web files saved in UTF-8 format or ANSI format. or to make large -scale upgrades easier. Any software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard. Common Gateway Interface (CGI) script A program that allows a server to communicate with users on the Internet. The program then returns information to the service through CGI. fault tolerance. a .

and Systems Network Architecture (SNA). and thus does not need to know the structure of the program from where the object comes. compile time The time during which a program is translated from source language into machine language.CGI script interprets the information and communicates it to a database program on the server. communications protocol A set of rules or standards designed to enable computers to connect with one another and to exchange information with as few errors as possible. or ORB. Examples include Hypertext Transfer Protocol. client software accesses an object through a pointer to an interface—a related set of functions called methods—on the object. registry-entry mechanisms. CORBA is designed to work in object-oriented environments. connected user A user who is currently accessing one of the services of a Web server. COM classes. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). connection pooling A performance optimization based on using collections of pre-allocated . loading code. A program makes its request for objects through an object request broker. concurrency The appearance of simultaneous execution of processes or transactions by interleaving the execution of multiple pieces of work. such as hardware protocols and file transfer protocols. Component Object Model (COM) component A binary file containing code for one or more class factories. Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) A specification developed by the Object Management Group in 1992 in which pieces of programs (objects) communicate with other objects in other programs. and so on. In COM. distributed Component Object Model. Component Object Model The object-oriented programming model that defines how objects interact within a single application or between applications. See also Component Object Model. even if the two programs are written in different programming languages and are running on different platforms. Some communications protocols contain other protocols.

a password. CP_OEMCP. such as objects or database connections.resources. and scroll bars that a user employs to move through a document or position text in a window. or retrieve any number of individual custom counters. or . CP_ACP The system ANSI CodePage. Cookies contain information about the user such as an identification number. or sound). There is also a system OEM CodePage. CORBA See Common Object Request Broker Architecture. A Web site can access cookie information whenever the user connects to the server. or how many times the user visited t hat site. increment.wav. usually indicated by the file name extension (such as . . control In a graphical user interface (GUI). cookies A means by which. content type The type of file (such as text. counters See Counters Component (a simple COM object ships with IIS) or Performance Counters (used to measure system performance). how a user shopped on a Web site. store. Perhaps the most common controls are buttons that a user can click to select an option. Counters Component An installable component of IIS that allows you to create. crawler See spider. Cookies are small text files which are stored in the user's browser by the Web server. Pooling results in more efficient resource allocation. See also codepage. . respectively). under the HTTP protocol. an object on the screen that can be manipulated by a user to perform an action.gif. a server or a script can maintain information on the client computer. graphic.txt. Not to be confused with the Performance Counters installed with Windows to monitor system performance.

that marks the place at which a keystroke will appear when typed. government as a standard in 1976. to correct an error from which another program cannot recover.S. . for example. to close an existing log file and start a new one. In applications and operating systems that use a mouse. packet. a piece of software that returns rows of data to the application. datagram A self-contained.CryptoAPI See Microsoft Cryptographic API. A cursor on a resultset indicates the current position in the resultset. cryptography A field science involving the transmission of information in an encoded form so that only an intended recipient can decode the information and reveal its meaning. cycle In logging. such as a blinking underline or rectangle. DES uses a 56-bit key to protect against password discovery and playback. Also. independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be routed from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between the source and destination computer and the transporting network. Data Encryption Standard (DES) A specification for encryption of computer data developed by IBM and adopted by the U. See also frame. the arrow or other onscreen icon that moves with movements of the mouse. D daemon A networking program that performs a housekeeping or maintenance utility function without being called by the user. A daemon sits in the background and is activated only when needed. data provider Software that implements Object Linking and Embedding Database (OLE DB) methods and interfaces. cursor An onscreen indicator. Encoded information is commonly said to be encrypted.

The file sent by a Web server when it receives a request for a URL that does not specify a file name. default gateway In TCP/IP. See also client tier. It specifies the computer name and (optionally) database that the data source name (DSN) maps to. middle tier. the intermediate network device on the local network that has knowledge of the network IDs of the other networks in the Internet. default document Sometimes called a default home page. deadlock In operating systems or databases. so it . such as a SQL Server database. DCOM See distributed COM. data source tier A logical layer that represents a computer running a Database Management System (DBMS). A system data source is a data source that is available to anyone using the computer. DAV See Distributed Authoring and Versioning. such as a SQL Server database. Data sources that will be used with a Web server need to be system data sources. Data Source Name (DSN) The logical name used by Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) to refer to the drive and other information required to access data. debugger A software tool used to detect the source of program or script errors. This document can be generated automatically by the server. The name is used by Internet Information Services for a connection to an ODBC data source.data source The name that applications use to request a connection to an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) data source. or it can be a custom file placed in that directory by the administrator. by performing step-by-step execution of application code and viewing the content of code variables. a situation in which two or more processes are prevented from continuing while each waits for resources to be freed by the continuation of the other.

Design-time ActiveX Controls Visual authoring components that help a developer construct dynamic Web applications by automatically generating standard HTML and scripting code.can forward the packets to other gateways until they are delivered to the one connected to the specified destination. dial-up Of. pertaining to. Design-time ActiveX Controls exist at design time. DES See Data Encryption Standard. hash value. DHTML See Dynamic HTML. and not at run time. a user interacts with the application. Also called a slow link. design time The time during which a user builds an application in the development environment by adding controls. In contrast. during run time. or being a connection that uses the public switched telephone network rather than a dedicated circuit or some other type of private network. DHCP See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Dial-up Networking A component of the Windows operating system that makes it possible for users to connect to remote networks such as the Internet or a private network. See also authentication. hash value comparison. and so on. Digest authentication An authentication method that sends user name and password information over the network as a hash value. developer isolation A feature of some software that provides a way for an application developer to create and test scripts without a connecting to a Web server. They are analogous to wizards. setting control or form properties. digital signature The part of a digital certificate that contains an encryption key that uniquely .

delete.1 standard that facilitates access to files and directories through an HTTP connection. If something must be done with the original data source. See also middleware. search. because only a single master copy of the data must be maintained. directive An instruction to the Active Server Pages (ASP) script engine that specifies properties. Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) An extension to the HTTP 1.identifies the holder of the certificate. . Distributed interNet Application Architecture (DNA) Microsoft's architecture for Web applications. Files are repl icated when they are added to an exported directory. directory service Middleware that locates the correct and full network address from a partial name or address typed into a dialog box. such as script language. Remote authors can add. discovery mechanism A way of finding other servers on the network. Replication simplifies the task of maintaining identical sets of directories and files on multiple computers. key pair. such as updating data. directory browsing A feature that automatically provides a default Web page of available directories and files to browsers that submit a URL that does not specify a particular file. the connection will need to be re-established. See also certificate. distributed COM A wire protocol that enables software components to communicate directly over a network. or change directories and documents and their properties. directory replication The copying of a master set of directories from a server (called an export server) to specified servers or workstations (called import computers) in the same or other domains. disconnected recordset A recordset in a client cache that no longer has a live connection to the server. client. for the selection of a script. and every time a change is saved to the file.

DLL See dynamic-link library.com for commercial users or . The latter type of processing requires a highly structured environment that allows hardware and software to communicate. Each domain has a unique name. share resources. and exchange information freely. which is a government agency. the server that authenticates domain logons and maintains the security policy and the master database for a domain.21. True distributed processing has separate computers perform different tasks in such a way that their combined work can contribute to a larger goal. which identifies the type of entity owning the address (for example.13. See also Domain Name System.gov identifies the Web server at the White House. domain In Windows.sg for Singapore). a collection of computers that share a common domain database and security policy. www. Domain Name System (DNS) The system by which hosts on the Internet have domain name addresses (such as microsoft. domain controller For a Windows 2000 Server domain.edu for educational institutions) or the geographical location of the address (for example.whitehouse. domain name An address of a network connection that identifies the owner of that address in a hierarchical format. Distributed processing is usually categorized as either plain distributed processing or true distributed processing. For example. Internet.fr for France or . DNS See Domain Name System. Internet The highest subdivision of a domain name in a network address. Plain distributed processing shares the workload among computers that can communicate with one another. domain.com).microsoft. www. The domain is the last part of the address (for example.45).distributed processing A form of information processing in which work is performed by separate computers linked through a communications network. See also domain. .com) and IP addresses (such as 172. The . .

which is used by the packet-routing software. or by compromising a domain-name server for a valid domain.0 and later that can be used to create HTML documents that dynamically change their content and interact with the user. dynamic binding Binding (converting symbolic addresses in the program to storage-related addresses) that occurs during program execution. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) A TCP/IP protocol that enables a network connected to the Internet to assign a temporary IP address to a host automatically when the host connects to the network. . DNS is also the acronym for Domain Name Service. Domain Name System (DNS) spoofing Assuming the DNS name of another system by either corrupting a name- service cache. DSN See Data Source Name. DWORD The Win32 API designation for a 32-bit integer. Also called late binding. also called name servers. the process of transferring a copy of a file from a remote computer to the requesting computer by means of a modem or network. maintain databases containing the addresses and are accessed transparently by the user. DNS servers. which software routines to call for particular data objects.domain name address is used by human users and is automatically translated into the numerical IP address. download In communications. Domain Name System (DNS) reverse lookup Finding the IP address that corresponds to a domain name. By using DHTML. the Internet utility that implements the Domain Name System. authors can provide special effects on a Web page without relying on server-side programs. dynamic HTML (DHTML) A set of innovative features in Internet Explorer version 4. during run time. The term often refers to object-oriented applications that determine.

Java applets. dynamic page An HTML document that contains animated GIFs. and to be loaded only when called by the program that needs them. at the destination. Also.dynamic-link library (DLL) A feature of the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems that supports executable routines—usually serving a specific function or set of functions—to be stored separately as files with the file extension name . encryption A way of making data indecipherable to protect it from unauthorized viewing or use. Symmetric . re-creating the message as formatted for the encapsulated protocol.dll. E early binding See static binding. as ATM packets) to be sent over a particular net work. E- mail is one of the most popular uses of the Internet. ActiveX Controls. encapsulate To treat a collection of structured information as a whole without affecting or taking notice of its internal structure. especially during network transmission or when it is stored on a transportable magnetic medium while it is being sent from computer to computer. a Web page created automatically based on information provided by the user. This saves memory during program execution and enables code reusability. a message or packet constructed according to a protocol such as a TCP/IP packet. The process of buying and selling over the Web—often based on software products such as Microsoft Commerce Server. may be taken with its formatting data as an undifferentiated stream of bits that is then broken up and packaged according to a lower-level protocol (for example. Encryption can be either symmetric or asymmetric. e-mail A system whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other computer users (or groups of users) through a communications network. e-commerce Electronic commerce. or DHTML. the lower-level packets are assembled. In communications. or generated "on the fly" with ASP.

An exception is similar to an interrupt. both refer the microprocessor to a separate set of instructions. Typical events include pressing a keyboard key. a problem or change in conditions that causes the microprocessor to stop what it is doing and handle the situation in a separate routine. executable program A program. Ethernet A 10-Mb/s standard for local area networks (LANs) initially developed by Xerox and later refined by Digital. Programmers write code to respond to these actions. and no primary partition needs to be present to create an extended partition. event Any action. that can be run. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) A data format for structured document interchange on the Web. Only one of the four partitions allowed per physical disk can be an extended partition. XML is designed to enable the use of SGML on the World Wide Web. such as On_Click. data. menus. or collection of programs. See also key pair. and other files. XML is . choosing a button by using a mouse click. an extended partition can be subpartitioned into zero or more logical drives. expires header An expiration date or time for a file sent by a server. and other mouse actions. See also logical drive.encryption involves the use of the same key to both encrypt and decode the data. event method A procedure that is invoked only by a particular event. exception In programming. forms. and Xerox (DIX). Intel. extended partition Created from free space on a hard disk. often generated by a user or an ActiveX control. It is called the "extensible markup language" because it is not a fixed format like HTML. All hosts are connected to a coaxial cable where they contend for network access using a CSMA/CD paradigm. Asymmetric encryption uses one key to encrypt and another to decode. the expiration information is used by proxy servers and browser caches. to which a program might respond.

fault tolerance The ability of a computer or an operating system to respond to a . extranet An extension of a corporate intranet using World Wide Web technology to facilitate communication with the corporation's suppliers and customers. it also can be used to generate displayable HTML. The transition is invisible to the user. authors can define their own customized markup language for many classes of documents. extension control block A data structure created and used by IIS to communicate with an ISAPI extension. with little or none performed by the client. HTML). A regular markup language defines a way to describe information in a certain class of documents (for example. F failback When the failed server node is fully restored to action. fat server In a client/server architecture. or other well-formed markup languages. FAQ See Frequently Asked Questions. failover When one individual computer fails. eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) A stylesheet mechanism that can be used to specify how to transform XML documents into displayable structures. With XML. another automatically takes over its request load.not a single markup language: It is a metalanguage that allows an author to design a markup language. a server computer that performs most of the processing. An extranet allows customers and suppliers to gain limited access to a company's intranet in order to enhance the speed of communications and the efficiency of business relationships. Although XSL defines a grammar of advanced formatting characteristics.

IP address Allowing or denying access based on the IP address from which the browser is attempting access. a feature of ISAPI that allows pre-processing of requests and post- processing of responses. The FAT is a data structure that MS-DOS creates on the disk when the disk is formatted. file name extension mapping Connecting all files with a certain file name extension to a program. or to shut the system down and restart it. See also NTFS. This can be accomplished with a battery-backed power supply. the system has the ability either to continue the system's operation without loss of data. failover. In a fault - tolerant network. all . file allocation table (FAT) file system The system used by MS-DOS to organize and manage files. filter In IIS. . permitting site-specific handling of HTTP requests and responses. by a default setting in Windows Explorer.txt files are associated with Notepad. See also replication.catastrophic event or fault. or any combination of these. such as a power outage or a hardware failure. This protocol also allows users to use FTP commands to work with files. filtering. in a way that ensures that no data is lost or corrupted. such as the Internet. file space A term sometimes used for the file-directory tree of a server. such as listing files and directories on the remote system. provisions in the operating system. When MS-DOS stores a file on a formatted disk. backup hardware. host name Allowing or denying access based on the host name from which the browser is attempting access. recovering all processing that was in progress when the fault occurred. For example. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) The protocol used for copying files to and from remote computer systems on a network using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). the operating system places information about the stored file in the FAT so that MS-DOS can retrieve the file later when requested. filtering. The FAT is the only file system MS-DOS can use.

Fortezza The U. and any information other users have chosen to supply as a profile. finger returns the logon names of users whose first names match. Instead.S. all communication is routed through a proxy server outside of the organization's network. idle time. station . and systems. Given an e-mail address. integrity. and terminal location (where applicable). and access control to messages. form In Web publishing. authentication. a package of information transmitted as a single unit. firewall A security system intended to protect an organization's network against external threats. government security standard that satisfies the Defense Messaging System security architecture with a cryptographic mechanism that provides message confidentiality. a Web page or portion of a Web page that is filled out by the user and sent back to the server for processing. and the proxy server decides whether it is safe to let a particular message or file pass through. such as synchronizing characters. frame In asynchonous serial communications. A firewall prevents computers in the organization's network from communicating directly with computers external to the network and vice versa.finger An Internet utility that enables a user to obtain information on other users who may be at other sites (if those sites permit access by finger). and even project files left by the user. See server-side include. terminal line. footer In Web publishing. finger returns the user's full name. See also proxy server. an indication of whether or not the user is currently logged on. components. In synchronous communications. Given a first or last name. It can also show the last time the user logged on. coming from another network such as the Internet. It begins with the start bit that precedes a character and ends with the last stop bit that follows the character. Every frame follows the same basic organization and contains control information. such as intruders. These features can be implemented both with server and browser software and with Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) hardware. a unit of transmission that is sometimes measured in elapsed time. a short addition to every Web page sent out by the server.

Such an identifier is unique because it contains a .asa A file that stores information about an IIS application such as initialization in structures. www. a 16-byte code that identifies an interface to an object across all computers and networks. encapsulate. An FAQ serves to introduce a visitor to the topic or subject of the Web site and to offer general guidelines about how to best use the site. packet. Global. A visitor can find an FAQ on many Web sites. as well as a variable amount of data. A name that substitutes for an IP address. authors can create. globally unique identifier (GUID) In COM. and objects that have been given application scope. Also. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Usually a document containing questions and answers that address basic questions. administrators can view and manage a Web site in a graphical interface. G gateway A device that connects networks using different communications protocols so that information can be passed from one to the other.255. FTP See File Transfer Protocol.address. A gateway both transfers information and converts it to a form compatible with the protocols used by the receiving network. With FrontPage Server Extensions. FrontPage Server Extensions A group of files installed on an HTTP service to give that service the ability to provide special Microsoft FrontPage functionality. for example. and post Web pages to IIS remotely. and an error-checking value.com instead of 172.16.microsoft. friendly name Also called a host name. See also datagram. edit.255. GIF See Graphics Interchange Format.

The same message will always produce the same hash value when passed . GUI See graphical user interface. graphical user interface (GUI) A type of environment that represents programs. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer data. in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive data. Gopher An early Internet protocol and software program designed to search for. with a keyboard.time stamp and a code based on the network address hard-wired on the host computer's LAN interface card. The hashing procedure is one-way. There is no feasible way of deriving the original message. often. These identifiers are generated by a utility program. derived from a message by using a hashing algorithm. menus. GUID See globally unique identifier. hash value A small amount of binary data. typically around 160 bits. from the hash value. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific wires (other than the data wires). as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines. or even any of its properties. The user can select and activate these options by pointing and clicking with a mouse or. and options by means of icons. and dialog boxes on the screen. and display text documents from remote computers or sites. even given the hashing algorithm. Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) A computer graphics file format developed in the mid-1980s by CompuServe for use in photo-quality graphic image display on computer screens. Now commonly used on the Internet. H handshake A series of signals acknowledging that communication or the transfer of information can take place between computers or other devices. retrieve. files.

such as a home page. . HTML See Hypertext Markup Language. authentication is accepted.com indicates the server called "www" within the network at the Microsoft Corporation. from a Web site. or the retrieval of a document.through the same hashing algorithm. Also called a document root or Web root. leftmost in the complete host specifications. host The main computer in a system of computers or terminals connected by communications links. Messages differing by even one character can produce very different hash values. See also default document. www. a successful retrieval of a record matching a query in a database. For example. heap (Windows heap) An area of working memory provided by Windows that applications can use to store data. such as a password. See also usage data. See also home page. In Internet Information Services. home page The initial page of information for a collection of pages. a Web site or section of a Web site. hit A successful retrieval of data from a cache rather than from the slower hard disk or RAM. where the content files are stored. home directory The root directory for a Web site. If they are identical. to create a hash value and compare the generated hash value with the one it received. host name The name of a specific server on a specific network within the Internet. Also the root directory for an IIS service. hash value comparison When a client or server receives a hash value as part of an authentication scheme it will use a commonly known key value. the home directory and all its subdirectories are available to users by default.microsoft. Typically the home directory for a site contains the home page. See also replication.

HTTP See Hypertext Transfer Protocol. a Web server. Standard Generalized Markup Language. I . Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A simple markup language used to create hypertext documents that are portable from one platform to another. The formatting language used for documents on the World Wide Web. or a script. and a different element in the document. HTTP header An informational listing at the top of an HTTP request or response. symbol. The term hypertext was coined in 1965 to describe documents presented by a computer that express the nonlinear structure of ideas as opposed to the linear format of books. These tags are generally not visible to the user. or image. Also called hot links and hypertext links. HTML files are simple ASCII text files with codes embedded (indicated by markup tags) to indicate formatting and hypertext links. another hypertext document. The user activates the link by clicking on the linked element. which is usually underlined or in a color different from the rest of the document. See also Dynamic HTML. phrase. eXtensible Markup Language. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The client/server protocol used to access information on the World Wide Web. a file. such as a word. and speech. hyperlink A connection between an element in a hyptertext document. nonsequential web of associations in which the user can browse through related topics. film. hypertext Text linked together in a complex. Hyperlinks are indicated in a hypertext document by the use of tags in markup languages such as SGML and HTML. HTTPD HTTP Daemon.

using methods that enable a Web application to manipulate IIS configuration keys and data in the memory-resident metabase. IETF See Internet Engineering Task Force. This component is typically a dynamic-link library (DLL). the ability of a newly-created object to automatically have. multiple A term sometimes used for multiple Web sites hosted on one computer. . image map An image that contains more than one hyperlink on a Web page. Client-side image maps. properties of an existing object. Cli cking on different parts of the image links the user to other resources on another part of the Web page. drawing. a newly created child directory can inherit the access-control settings of the parent directory. a different Web page. Server-side image maps map each URL on the server. on the other hand. Often an image map. IIS Admin Objects A set of methods provided by IIS that allow applications to access and modify configuration settings in the metabase. or a file.ICMP See Internet Control Message Protocol. or a composite of several different drawings or photographs. or inherit. also called virtual servers. do not require mediating server- side scripts because the URL mapping is contained in an HTML file. which can be a photograph. See also Common Gateway Interface (CGI) script. in-process component A component that runs in a client's process space. inheritance Generally. index file See default document. identities. IIS Admin Base Object A DCOM object that implements the IMSAdminBase interface. Image maps are created with CGI scripts. For example. hyperlink. is used as a map to the resources found on a particular Web site. Image maps can be server- side or client-side.

nontreaty organization founded in 1946 which is responsible for creating international standards in many areas. internal Web An intranet. . The ISO/OSI model separates computer-to-computer communications into seven layers. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Combines voice and digital network services in a single medium. See also American National Standards Institute. See also intranet. making it possible to offer telephone customers digital data service and voice connection through a single "wire. Formerly known as NTLM and Challenge/Response authentication. actual passwords are never transmitted.instance An object of a particular component class.000 bps. local area network (LAN). private network. an ISDN line can transmit at speeds of 64 kilobits or 128 kilobits per second. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) A voluntary. instantiate To create an instance of an object. A type of phone line used to enhance wide area network (WAN) speeds. Component instance is synonymous with object. including computers and communications. International Organization for Standardization Open Systems Interconnection model (ISO/OSI model) A layered architecture (plan) that standardizes levels of service and types of interaction for computers exchanging information through a communications network. also sometimes called an internal network." A dial-up ISDN line can offer speeds of up to 128. Its members are the national standards organizations of the 89 member countries/regions. Each instance has its own private data elements or member variables. integrated Windows authentication A method of authentication in which a server verifies user account information by means of a cryptographic exchange. wide area network. An ISDN line must be installed by the phone company at both the server site and the remote site.S. interface A group of logically related operations or methods that provides access to a component object. or wide area network (WAN). local area network. including ANSI for the U.

see Network Solutions Web site. test packets. Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) Former coordinator for DNS registration of names in the . . connectionless delivery system that does not guarantee that packets arrive at their destination or that they are received in the sequence in which they were sent. . A set of dissimilar computer networks joined together by means of gateways that handle data transfer and the conversion of messages from the sending network to the protocols used by the receiving networks. For more information. ICMP allows for the generation of error messages. InterNIC has been replaced by Network Solutions. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) An extension to Internet Protocol (IP). Department of Defense. For more information.gov. These networks and gateways use the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite of protocols. see the Internet Society Web site. Originally part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). and informational messages related to IP. See also packet. and . It is now under the auspices of the Internet Society. and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. .mil top-level domains. It identifies a computer as a 32-bit address that is unique across a Transmission Control . the highest deals with software interactions at the application-program level. Internet Protocol (IP) The part of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that routes messages from one Internet location to another. .edu. See also Packet INternet Groper (PING). vendors. The lowest of the seven layers deals solely with hardware links.or levels. operated by the U. operators. The IETF is a large.net. each building upon the standards contained in the levels below it. IP is responsible for addressing and sending Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) packets over the network. IP provides a best-effort. a non-governmental international organization for global cooperation and coordination for the Internet and its internetworking technologies and applications.com. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) A protocol engineering and development organization focused on the Internet. open international community of network designers. Internet Protocol address (IP address) A unique address that identifies a host on a network.S.org. Internet Abbreviation for internetwork.

Its uses include such services as document distribution. e-mail. which depicts each octet (eight bits. Internet service types include Gopher. newsgroups. except HTTP. and training. For example: 172. or one byte) of an IP address as its decimal value and separates each octet with a period. interoperability The ability of software and hardware on multiple computers from multiple vendors to communicate meaningfully. IP See Internet Protocol. See also Hypertext Transfer Protocol.Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network. in this case accessible only to those within the company or organization. access to databases. The protocol is the first part of the full URL for a resource. intranet A network designed for information processing within a company or organization. A company or educational institution that enables remote users to access the Internet by providing dial-up connections or installing leased lines. See also Application Programming Interface. ISAPI See Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI). HTTP. and mailing lists. . Internet service provider (ISP) Public provider of remote connections to the Internet. Web browsers.255. such as Web pages. Internet service Any protocol for transferring information over the Internet. It is an API for developing extensions to IIS and other HTTP services that support the ISAPI interface. telnet.16. Common Gateway Interface. protocol. ISDN See Integrated Services Digital Network. and FTP. FTP sites. NNTP. An intranet is so called because it usually employs applications associated with the Internet. software distribution. An IP address is usually represented in dotted-decimal notation. WAIS. Internet Server Application Program Interface (ISAPI) An application program interface that resides on a server computer for initiating software services tuned for the Microsoft Windows operating system.255.

See also Common Object Request Broker Architecture. JavaBeans An object model being developed by SunSoft that is targeted to interoperate with a variety of other object models. JDBC See Java Database Connectivity. is not a true object- oriented language. Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Data access interfaces based on ODBC for use with the Java language. . Java virtual machine Software on a computer that runs Java applets. JavaScript. Component Object Model. Now an open standard known as the ECMA 262 language specification. JIT See just-in-time activation. Currently. A JavaScript-client Web browser is necessary to run JavaScript code.ISO/OSI model See International Organization for Standardization Open Systems Interconnection model. for the World Wide Web. ISP See Internet service provider. JavaScript A scripting language developed by Netscape Communications that is syntactically similar to Java. the most widespread use of Java is in programming small applications. and it is limited in performance compared with Java because it is not compiled. including COM and CORBA. or applets. See also JScript. however. J Java An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Inc.

which is used for content . digital signature. client. for both internal and intranet logon.Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) An ISO/ITO standard for storing images in compressed form using a discrete cosine transform. encryption. keyword In search-engine technology. key A node in the Windows registry or IIS metabase. See also cryptography. Kerberos protocol The basis of Windows security. JPEG See Joint Photographic Experts Group. The Kerberos protocol provides for the secure use of distributed software components. JScript The Microsoft open implementation of JavaScript. JPEG trades off compression against loss. JScript complies with the ECMA 262 language specification. A key can contain subkeys and value entries. See also certificate. it can achieve a compression ratio of 100:1 with significant loss and up to 20:1 with little noticeable loss. key pair The combination of private and public encryption keys that provides verification of the source of data sent across a network. just-in-time activation (JIT) The ability of a COM object to be activated only as needed for executing requests from its client. session key. a significant word. allowing otherwise idle server resources to be used more productively. K Keep-Alive connection An HTTP connection that is not closed after an exchange is completed. Objects can be deactivated even while clients hold references to them. For example: Environment is a key of HKEY_CURRENT_USER.

link See hyperlink. security certificate. used for keyword searches. late binding See dynamic binding. load balancing When a server cluster shares the information requests equally over all of its active nodes. L LAN See local area network. This gives users a single tool to search through data to find a particular piece of information. e-mail address. or other contact information. In programming. LCID See Locale Identifier. a word reserved for a command or other program instruction. LDAP See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. local area network (LAN) A group of computers and other devices intended to serve an area of only a .indexing. see also noise word. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) A network protocol designed to work on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stacks to extract information from a hierarchical directory. This can be done either statically. by tying clients directly to different back-end servers. or dynamically by having each client tied to a different back-end server controlled by software or a hardware device. such as a user name. keyword index A file of significant words appearing in documents. The Network Load Balancing feature of Windows 2000 Advanced Server provides load balancing for HTTP services.

localhost uses the reserved loopback IP address 127. There is also a default user locale. See also LOCALE_SYSTEM_DEFAULT.0. LOCALE_SYSTEM_DEFAULT The default system locale. Locale Identifier (LCID) The locale refers to the formatting style of dates. See also Ethernet. token ring. Because the network is known to cover only a small area. However. wide area network. currencies and other values. local group For Windows XP Professional.1. it can contain user accounts from its own computer and (if the workstation participates in a domain) user accounts and global groups both from its own domain and from trusted domains. times.0. optimizations can be made in the network signal protocols that permit data rates of up to 100 Mbps. the default LCID is the same as the system locale. See Locale Identifier. In IIS. a group that can be granted permissions and rights only for its own workstation. logging Storing information about events that occurred on a firewall or network. localhost A placeholder for the name of the computer on which a program is running. which is different for each geographical location. M .few square kilometers or less and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other on the network. Each locale is represented by a unique integer. See also extended partition. log file The file in which logging records are stored. This file can be either a text file or a database file. logical drive A subpartition of an extended partition on a hard disk.

Message Queuing A server technology that developers can use to build large-scale distributed systems with reliable communications between applications that can continue to operate even when networked systems are unavailable. Mail or Messaging Applications Programming Interface (MAPI) An open and comprehensive messaging interface used by developers to create messaging and workgroup applications—such as e-mail. Most third-party monitors (clients) use SNMP and MIB files to monitor Web." See also Apartment thread. master properties In IIS. message passing A method for processes running in parallel to interact with one another. calendaring. MDAC See Microsoft Data Access Components. a developer or system administrator can write their own custom monitoring applications. See also inheritance. properties that are set at the computer level that become default settings for all Web or FTP sites on that computer. and document management. . Message Digest 5 (MD5) An encryption method used on the Internet. and other Windows services. MAPI See Mail or Messaging Applications Programming Interface. marshaling The process of packaging and sending interface method parameters across thread or process boundaries. FTP. MAPI provides enterprise messaging services within Windows Open Services Architecture (WOSA). In a distributed client/server environment. Using the SNMP protocol. This information is formatted in MIB files that are provided for each service that can be monitored. scheduling.main thread A single thread used to run all objects of components marked as "Single-threaded. Management Information Base (MIB) Information about aspects of a network that can be managed by using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

For example. method A procedure (function) that acts on an object. Indexing Service must maintain data that describes the data in the content index. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use ActiveX Controls and Java applets. This is typically where the Web . metabase A structure for storing IIS configuration settings. VBScript is implemented as a fast. Visual Basic was designed for building Windows-based applications. Microsoft Cryptographic API An application programming interface providing services for authentication. as well as Oracle databases. middle tier Also known as application server tier. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) The development environment and language found in Visual Basic that can be hosted by applications. The logical layer between a user interface or Web client and the database. Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC. Microsoft Data Access Components (MDAC) Consists of ActiveX Data Objects (ADO). visual-programming version of Basic. the metabase performs some of the same functions as the system registry. ODBC drivers for Microsoft SQL Server. Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) A high-level. encoding. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). metadata Data used to describe other data. and encryption in Win32-based applications. Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript) A subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic language. but uses less disk space. MIB See Management Information Base. Microsoft Access and other desktop databases. portable. the Remote Data Service (RDS).meta-authoring environment A term sometimes used for the process of both authoring Web pages and setting up a Web site.

See also client tier. . See also host. regardless of which logical method of multitasking is being used by the operating system. middleware The network-aware system software. even though only one task at a time can use a computer processing cycle. The user can then have instant access to another disk with a redundant copy of the information on the failed disk. which are used to support extended character sets. A communications device that enables a computer to transmit information over a standard telephone line. MSMQ See Message Queuing. Mirror sets provide fault tolerance. multithreading Running several processes in rapid sequence within a single program. mirror set A fully redundant or shadow copy of data. and the network transport layers. message-passing mechanisms. modem Modulator/demodulator. all data written to the primary disk is also written to the shadow or mirror disk. and database gateways. and where business objects are instantiated. layered between an application. Because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of a computer. remote procedure call (RPC) services. multihomed host A host which has a connection to more than one physical network. Mirror sets provide an identical twin for a selected disk. whose purpose is to facilitate some aspect of cooperative processing. An extension of the Internet mail protocol that enables sending 8-bit based e- mail messages. multitasking appears to be simultaneous. router. and so on. voice mail. facsimile images.server resides. the operating system. data source tier. distributed transaction processing (TP) monitors. The host may send and receive data over any of the links but will not route traffic for other nodes. Examples of middleware include directory services. See also fault tolerance. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions mapping (MIME mapping) A way of configuring browsers to view files that are in multiple formats. object request brokers.

. also called a host. See also friendly name. See also three-tier architecture. Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) The protocol used to distribute network news messages to NNTP servers and to NNTP clients (news readers) on the Internet. thus users can select specific items to read. which may result in unauthorized access to network accounts. retrieval. node A computer that is attached to a network. and posting of news articles by using a reliable stream-based transmission of news on the Internet. Defined in RFC 977.multitier architecture Also known as three-tier architecture. NNTP See Network News Transfer Protocol. N name resolution The method of mapping friendly names to IP addresses. NNTP is designed so that news articles are stored on a server in a central database. such as English or Japanese. cross -referencing. natural language query A query to a database system that is composed in a subset of natural language. Indexing. The query must conform to some restrictive syntax rules in order to be parsed. multitier architecture is a technique for building applications generally split into user. network sniffer A hardware and software diagnostic tool that can also be used to decipher passwords. A node is also a junction of some kind. and expiration of aged messages are also provided. NNTP provides for the distribution. business. These applications are built of component services that are based on an object model such as COM. and data services tiers. inquiry. a node is a device that is connected to the network and is capable of communicating with other network devices. On a local area network. Clear-text passwords are susceptible to network sniffers.

OLE is based on the Component Object Model (COM) and allows for the development of reusable objects that are interoperable across multiple applications. also called an ignored word. Performance counter names have their own OIDs. full security access control. where spreadsheets. It supports long file names. where a client using an object's services gains access to the object's data through an interface consisting of a set of methods or related functions. listed in MIB files. A protocol that enables creation of compound documents with embedded links to applications so that a user does not have to switch among applications in order to make revisions. It also supports object-oriented applications by treating all files as objects with user-defined and system-defined attributes. See also file allocation table (FAT) file system. and. Object Identifiers Extensible. a variable comprising both routines and data that is treated as a discrete entity.noise word An insignificant word. unique. to provide performance monitoring applications with access to the counters. An object is based on a specific model. or be which is ignored during indexing. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) A set of integration standards to transfer and share information among client applications. financial . and various features for the Windows POSIX subsystem. extremely large storage media. It deletes from the cache files that have not been used recently and therefore are unlikely to be used again in the near future. The technology has been broadly used in business. The client can then call these methods to perform operations. MIB. identification numbers for attributes and classes. file system recovery. such as the. object-cache scavenger The code that periodically scans the cache for objects to be discarded. NTFS A file system designed for use specifically with the Windows operating system. O object In object-oriented programming. word processors. See also SNMP.

OID See Object Identifiers. object orientation is an umbrella concept used to describe a suite of technologies that enable software products that are highly modular and reusable. See also Structured Query Language. OLE DB See Object Linking and Embedding Database. or a byte. an application need not be tied to a specific system or data to a specific application. The ORB directs the request to t he server containing the object and then returns the resulting values to the client. message passing. . an interface to which the client makes a request for an object. and late binding. Object Linking and Embedding Database (OLE DB) Data-access interfaces providing consistent access to SQL and non-SQL data sources across the enterprise and the Internet. octet Eight contiguous bits. As a result. Object Request Broker (ORB) In client/server applications. data. Object Management Group (OMG) A vendor alliance formed to define and promote CORBA object specifications. The term was created because some computer systems attached to the Internet used a byte with more than eight bits. object orientation Representing the latest approach to accurately model the real world in computer applications. Applications. and other applications can share and link disparate information across client/server architectures.packages. OLE See Object Linking and Embedding. and computing systems are treated as objects that can be mixed and matched flexibly rather than as components of a system with built-in relationships. ODBC See Open Database Connectivity. The four central object-oriented concepts are encapsulation. inheritance. networks.

The Open Group now manages the core ActiveX technology. Packet INternet Groper (PING) A command used to verify connections to one or more remote hosts. X/Open. page See Web page. A piece of information sent over a network. router. P packet A transmission unit of fixed maximum size that consists of binary information representing both data and a header containing an ID number. out-of-process component A COM component that runs in a separate process space from its client. ORB See Object Request Broker. See also Internet Control Message Protocol.OMG See Object Management Group. Open Group. and the Open Software Foundation (OSF). and error-control data. The ping utility uses the ICMP echo request and echo reply packets to determine whether a particular IP system on a network is functional. source and destination addresses. A standard specification for cross-platform database access. The The parent company of a number of standards organizations including The Active Group. . parameter A value passed in a function call. The ping utility is useful for diagnosing IP network or router failures. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) An application programming interface that enables applications to access data from a variety of existing data sources. The term is also used as a verb.

The term relative path is also sometimes used to mean the physical path that corresponds to a URL. or LRC. See also path. Counters can be monitored using protocol interfaces such as PDH or SNMP. or by using the Performance Monitor MMC snap-in (Perfmon). if its checked on a block-by- block basis. the method is called longitudinal redundancy checking. or wildcards. physical A universal naming convention (UNC) directory path. Perfmon See Performance Monitor. relative A UNC directory path with placeholders. stripe set. See also Uniform Resource Locator. or drivers. path. a URL path may or may not include a specific file name. If parity is checked on a per-character basis. password authentication See authentication. the method is called vertical redundancy checking.parity The quality of sameness or equivalence. PDH See Performance Data Helper. services. Performance Counters Counters are references that measure the performance of applications. parity is one of the parameters that must be agreed upon by sending and receiving parties before transmission can take place. See also fault tolerance. path. partition A portion of a physical disk that functions as though it were a physically separate unit. stripe sets with parity. URL A term sometimes used for the full URL submitted to the server. at some levels. or VRC. . In typical modem-to-modem communications. See also Uniform Resource Locator. relative. in the case of computers usually referring to an error-checking procedure in which the number of ones must always be the same—either even or odd—for each group of bits transmitted without error. path.

The Internet standard for serial communications. The data can be used to determine the cause of system bottlenecks and to fine-tune system and application performance. and drivers provide. based on C and several UNIX utilities. See also Performance Counters. Performance Data Helper. See also Simple Network Management Protocol. Perl Practical Extraction and Report Language. An interpreted language. PGP See Pretty Good Privacy. Perl was devised by Larry Wall at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. or configured to log in a certain way. it is often used for system administration tasks. . PING See Packet INternet Groper. The data can be used to determine the cause of system bottlenecks and to fine-tune system and application performance. Performance monitoring is the process of capturing and analyzing the performance data that applications. Counters can be added and removed from the display. Performance Monitor An MMC snap-in that shows real-time data and logs from Performance Counters. PPP defines how data packets are exchanged with other Internet-based systems using a modem connection. Perl has powerful string-handling features for extracting information from text files. See also script. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) A set of industry-standard framing and authentication protocols included with Windows Remote Access Service (RAS) to ensure interoperability with third-party remote access software. physical transaction The actual updating of the data resources that are used to record a logical transaction.Performance Data Helper A network monitoring protocol in Windows. PDH is an interface for accessing this data. PPP negotiates configuration parameters for multiple layers of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. The Windows Performance Monitor (Perfmon) uses PDH. A program in Perl is known as a script. Perl can assemble a string and send it to the shell as a command. hence. services.

See also public-key encryption. Companies can use PPTP to outsource their remote dial-up needs to an Internet service provider or other carrier to reduce cost and complexity. and a thread. PPTP is an open industry standard that supports the most prevalent networking protocols —IP. PPTP See Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. IPX. the default port number for the WWW service is 80. PPP See Point-to-Point Protocol.Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPT P) A specification for virtual private networks in which some nodes of a local area network are connected through the Internet. process In Windows. process accounting A feature of IIS that allows administrators to monitor and log resource consumption of CGI scripts and out-of-process applications. These policies manage accounts to prevent exhaustive or random password attacks. See also thread. program file A file that starts an application or program. See also out-of- process component. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) A security application that uses public-key encryption.cmd. a set of virtual memory addresses. For example. . . A program file has an .exe. and Microsoft Networking (NetBEUI). an object consisting of an executable program. port number A number identifying a certain Internet application. policies Conditions set by the system administrator such as how quickly account passwords expire and how many unsuccessful logon attempts are allowed before a user is locked out. . a synonym for thread.bat file name extension.pif. . or .com. process isolation Running an application or component out-of-process. in UNIX.

link Information about an HTML document and the full URL associated with it. protocol The method by which computers communicate on the Internet. the process is reversed: The sender uses the secret key to create a unique electronic number that can be read by anyone possessing the corresponding public key. such as a popular Web page. such as document caching and access control. properties. document Information about a document and its physical location on a hard disk.programmatic security Procedural logic provided by a component to determine if a client is authorized to perform the requested operation. such as requests for unauthorized access to proprietary files. proxy server A firewall component that manages Internet traffic to and from a local area network and can provide other features. A proxy server can improve performance by caching and directly supplying frequently requested data. Q . which verifies that the message is truly from t he sender. public-key encryption An asymmetric scheme that uses a pair of keys for encryption: The public key encrypts data. properties. See also RSA. The protocol is part of the full URL for a resource. proxy A software program that connects a user to a remote destination through an intermediary gateway. and telnet. session key. Gopher. For digital signatures. and can filter and discard requests that the owner does not consider appropriate. The most common protocol for the World Wide Web is HTTP. and a corresponding secret key decrypts it. Other Internet protocols include FTP. See also firewall.

For password- protected files. RAS See Remote Access Service. redirection The process of writing to or reading from a file or device different from the . the name of the protected resource or area on the server. random access memory (RAM) Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the central processing unit (CPU) or other hardware devices. Note that various types of ROM memory are capable of random access but cannot be written to. a query restriction narrows the focus of a search. Also called a search expression or search string. query restriction What to look for in a search. The term RAM is generally understood to refer to volatile memory that can be written to as well as read.query form An online form that the user fills out to search for information by keyword or concept. If the user tries to access the protected resource while browsing. the name of the realm usually appears in the dialog box that asks for a user name and password. also called a search interface. RAM See random access memory. R RAID See Redundant Array of Independent Disks. RARP See Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. Information stored in RAM is lost when the user turns off the computer. not Internet domains. realm A term sometimes used for domain. The storage locations can be accessed in any order. in this case to refer to user domains established for security reasons.

a call by one program to a second program on a remote system. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) A data storage method in which data. the applications installed on the computer. which handles the error correction. begun in 1969. Remote Data Services A Web-based technology that brings database connectivity and corporate data publishing capabilities to Internet and intranet applications. Remote Access Service (RAS) A service that allows remote clients running Microsoft Windows to dial -in to a network. registry A central hierarchical database in Windows used to store information necessary to configure the system for one or more users. clustering. and the types of documents each can create. which describes the Internet suite of .one that would normally be the target or the source. Windows includes three of the RAID levels: Level 0. Replication is a necessary function of clustering to ensure fault tolerance. and Level 5. The second program usually performs a task and returns the results of that task to the first program. what hardware exists on the system. such as parity bits. See also fault tolerance. This copying can either be done manually or automatically by using replication software. and cost. Request for Comments (RFC) The document series. is distributed among two or more hard disk drives in order to improve performance and reliability. replication Copying from one server node to another of either content or the configuration metabase. Can be used to automatically send a user from an outdated URL to a new one. Several defined levels of RAID offer differing trade-offs among access speed. remote procedure call (RPC) In programming. applications. property sheet settings for folders and application icons. The hard disk array is governed by array management software and a disk controller. reliability. and hardware devices. such as profiles for each user. and which ports are being used. RAID is generally used on network servers. along with information used for error correction. See also dial-up. or both. Level 1. The registry contains information that is constantly referenced during operation.

The RFC series of documents is unusual in that the proposed protocols are forwarded by the Internet research and development community. Not all (in fact very few) RFCs describe Internet standards. resource manager A system service that manages durable data. and accounts receivable. Server applications use resource managers to maintain the durable state of the application. providing for simple and efficient sharing by COM objects. indexing program. that requests Web pages much faster than human beings can. Although the acronym RARP refers only to finding the IP address. the acronym ARP is commonly used to describe both procedures.protocols and related experiments. but all Internet standards are written up as RFCs. RFC See Request For Comments. Microsoft SQL Server is an example of a resource manager. See also American National Standards Institute. as opposed to the formally reviewed and standardized protocols that are promoted by organizations such as ANSI. pending orders. such as the record of inventory on hand. router An intermediary device on a communications network that expedites message delivery. when only the hardware address (or physical address) is known. On a single network linking many computers through a mesh of possible connections. the ODBC resource dispenser manages pools of database connections. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) A TCP/IP protocol for determining the IP address (or logical address) of a node on a local area network connected to the Internet. resource dispenser A service that provides the synchronization and management of nondurable resources within a process. For example. The resource managers work in cooperation with the transaction manager to provide the application with a guarantee of atomicity and isolation (using the two-phase commit protocol). acting on their own behalf. a router receives transmitted messages and . and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) technically refers to the opposite procedure. or cataloging software. Other commonly used terms for robot include crawler and spider. See also Open Database Connectivity. robot An automated program such as a search engine.

the extent to which an identifier. such as a constant. variable. . search expression See query restriction. See also script. such as by giving the same name to both a global variable and a local variable. RSA A public-key encryption standard for Internet security. enabling messages to be sent from one to another. Scope can be global or local.forwards them to their correct destinations over the most efficient available route. Although often associated with an evolution to large systems. A script can be embedded in a Web page. data type. Scope can also be affected by redefining identifiers. and Adleman. Common Gateway Interface. can be referenced within a program. See also design time. or routine. On an interconnected set of local area networks (LANs) using the same communications protocols. a router serves the somewhat different function of acting as a link between LANs. scripting engine A program that interprets and executes a script. This acronym derives from the last names of the inventors of the technology: Rivest. See also ActiveX. larger organizations often have need for the same software service to be provided with good performance to both small and large groups of users. RPC See remote procedure call. S scalability The capability to use the same software environment on many classes of computers and hardware configurations. Shamir. script A kind of program that consists of a set of instructions for an application or utility program. scope In programming. run time The time during which a program actually runs.

and provide a way for users to authenticate the identity of a Web site. a piece of code that exchanges information with another piece of code upon request. or. such as access attempts or commands. generated by a firewall or other security device. security log A log. SSL uses RSA public-key encryption for specific TCP/IP ports. See also fault tolerance. server cluster A group of server computers that are networked together both physically and with software. Semaphores have no symbolic names—only shared and exclusive mode access—no deadlock detection. third-party organization. It is intended for handling commerce payments. server certificate A unique digital identification that forms the basis of a Web server's SSL security features. which is used to encrypt specific Web documents rather than the entire session. other computers on the network. An alternative method is Secure-HTTP (S-HTTP). the software that runs on the server computer and performs the work of serving files or running applications. load balancing. that lists events that could affect security. in order to provide cluster features such as fault tolerance or load balancing. . server A term used for any of the following: a computer on a network that sends files to. and no automatic release or commit. such as e-commerce applications. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A protocol that supplies secure data communication through data encryption and decryption. SSL can also be used for Web applications requiring a secure link.search interface See query form. and the information about the users involved. search string See query restriction. Server certificates are obtained from a mutually trusted. or runs applications for. or for controlling access to Web-based subscription services. SSL is a general-purpose encryption standard. in object-oriented programming. semaphore A locking mechanism used inside resource managers or resource dispensers.

client. SGML See Standard Generalized Markup Language. a variable that is available to all objects in the same server process through the Shared Property Manager. Server-side includes can be used. either on the client computer (local) or on another computer (remote). their output is placed in the document body before the document is sent to the browser. encrypted. This protocol is used on the Internet to route e-mail. See also certificate. A COM component can be loaded into a surrogate server process. Control information about each device/service is maintained in a structure known as a management information block.server node An individual computer in a server cluster. agents or clients monitor the activity of various devices on the network and report to the network console workstation. In SNMP. shared property In Component Services. server process A process that hosts COM components. for example. . digital signature. key pair. This key is used to encrypt data sent by the client. The agents or clients can be hardware as well as software. One way to access this information is with Performance Counters. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) The network management protocol of TCP/IP. Server-side includes are special command codes that are recognized and interpreted by the server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) A TCP/IP protocol for sending messages from one computer to another on a network. server-side include A mechanism for including dynamic text in World Wide Web documents. See also Management Information Base. It can also be loaded into a client application process (in-process). server scriptlet A COM object that is created with Microsoft Server Scriptlet technology. session key A digital key that is created by the client. and sent to the server. to include the date/time stamp in the text of the file. The value of the property can be any type that can be represented by a variant.

usually from 14. SNA See Systems Network Architecture. usually by providing a false e- mail name.000 bps. URL.400 bps to 56. socket An identifier for a particular service on a particular node on a network. or IP address. snap-ins provide the actual management behavior necessary to administer network services such as IIS. SQL See Structured Query Language . snap-in Snap-ins are programs hosted within Microsoft Management Console (MMC) that administrators use to manage network services. For example. port 80 on an Internet node indicates a Web server. which identifies the service. automated program—such as a search engine. Other commonly used terms for spider are crawler and robot. The socket consists of a node address and a port number. spider A fast.single-threaded control A model in which all objects are executed on a single thread. SMTP See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. sitename See host name. slow link A modem connection. indexing program. sniffer See network sniffer. or cataloging software—that requests Web pages much faster than human beings can. spoofing Impersonating another person or computer. SNMP See Simple Network Management Protocol. The MMC provides the environment in which management tools (snap-ins) are hosted.

. static binding Binding (converting symbolic addresses in the program to storage-related addresses) that occurs during program compilation or linkage. a markup language. SSL See Secure Sockets Layer. Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) An ISO standard (ISO 8879:1986) which supplies a formal notation for the definition of generalized markup languages. static page HTML pages prepared in advance of the request and sent to the client upon request. stripe sets with parity. See also fault tolerance. stateful object An object that holds private state accumulated from the execution of one or more client calls. system-independent methods of representing texts in an electronic form. See also fault tolerance. a means of formally describing a language. SGML is a metalanguage—that is. stateless object An object that does not hold private state accumulated from the execution of one or more client calls. stripe sets with parity A method of data protection in which data is striped in large blocks across all the disks in an array. stripe set Refers to the saving of data across identical partitions on different drives. eXtensible Markup Language. It is an international s tandard for the definition of device-independent.SQL Access Group (SAG) A consortium of vendors established in November 1989 to accelerate the Remote Data Access standard and to deliver protocols for interconnectivity among multiple SQL-based software products. partition. in this case. See also Hypertext Markup Language. however. See also dynamic page. stripe sets with parity do provide fault tolerance. This method provides fault tolerance. Data redundancy is provided by the parity information. International Organization for Standardization. This page takes no special action when requested. A stripe set does not provide fault tolerance. stripe set.

subnet mask A TCP/IP configuration parameter that extracts network and host configuration from an IP address. Systems Network Architecture (SNA) A widely used communications framework developed by IBM to define network functions and to establish standards for enabling its different models of computers to exchange and process data. System Monitor See Performance Monitor. The bit rate is with the equivalent bandwidth of approximately twenty-four 56 Kbps lines.S. stub A routine that contains no executable code and that generally consists of comments describing what will eventually be there. T3 is sometimes called a 45-meg circuit. As changes occur in one layer.S. telephone standard for a transmission facility at digital signal level 1 (DS1) with 1. T1 circuits are also used for voice telephone connections. a T1 connection must be split into 24 separate circuits.4 Kbps. System Data Source Name (DSN) A name that can be used by any process on the computer. A single T1 line carries 24 telephone connections with 24 telephone numbers. telephone standard for a transmission facility at digital signal level 3 (DS3). it is used as a placeholder for a routine to be written later. IIS uses system DSNs to access ODBC data sources. A T1 circuit is capable of serving a minimum of 48 modems at 28.Structured Query Language (SQL) The international standard language for defining and accessing relational databases.544 Mbps in North America and 2. no other layer need be changed. T T1 A U. Equivalent in bandwidth to 28 T1s.736 Mbps. T3 A U. SNA contains separate layers. or 96 modems at 14.8 Kbps. The bit rate is 44.048 Mbps in Europe. . When used for voice transmission.

Telnet is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. including a part currently being executed by another thread. Such a configuration yields good client performance but complicates administrative tasks such as software upgrades. with occasional data operations on a remote server.TCP/IP See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. See also fat server. thread The basic entity to which the operating system allocates CPU time. communicating with the other components over a network. This feature is useful if there are other services (such as e -mail) sharing the server over a busy link. thin server A client/server architecture in which most of an application is run on the client computer. and operating-system resources of the process. For example. three-tier architecture Divides a networked application into three logical areas: the user interface layer. which is called a fat client. throttling Controlling the maximum amount of bandwidth dedicated to Internet traffic on a server. each user interface may communicate with more than one application in the middle tier at the same time. and the database layer. there can be one or more user interfaces in the top tier. 10BaseT A variant of Ethernet which allows stations to be attached by a twisted-pair cable. telnet A protocol that enables an Internet user to log onto and enter commands on a remote computer linked to the Internet. Components in a tier may run on a computer that is separate from the other tiers. global variables. the business logic layer. and the applications in the middle tier may use more than one database at a time. All threads of a process share t he virtual address space. as if the user were using a text- based terminal directly attached to that computer. A thread can execute any part of the application's code. . Layers may have one or more components.

See also packet. On the receiving end. transaction processing (TP) The real-time handling of computerized business transactions as they are received by the system. See also local area network. IP assembles segments into packets that contain data segments.5 token ring standard. directory A conceptual model used to describe the directory structure of a file directory or a Web site. time-out A setting that automatically cancels an unanswered client request after a certain period of time.thumbnail A small version of a graphic with a hyperlink to a larger version of the same graphic. . On the sending end. Each node constantly passes a control message (token) on to the next. Often. Also called online transaction processing (OLTP). whichever node has the token can send a message. TP See transaction processing. TCP assembles the data segments into the original data set. tree. The transaction manager ensures that the resource managers reach a consistent decision on whether the transaction should commit or fail. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) A communications standard for all computers on the Internet. as well as sender and destination addresses. token ring A type of network with nodes wired into a ring. IP receives the packets and breaks them down into data segments. IP then sends packets to the router for delivery. transaction context object An object used to allow a client to dynamically include one or more objects in one transaction. which is the most common type of token ring. "token ring" is used to refer to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802. TCP breaks the data to be sent into data segments. transaction manager A system service responsible for coordinating the outcome of transactions in order to achieve atomicity.

the process of transferring a copy of a file from a local computer to a remote computer by means of a modem or network. . Two-phase commit is coordinated by the transaction manager and supported by resource managers. URL directory See virtual directory. two-tier architecture See client/server architecture. The URL also specifies the appropriate Internet protocol. directory. universal naming convention (UNC) The naming convention used for physical directories. properties. such as HTTP or FTP. With a modem-based communications link. For example: http://www. U UNC See Universal Naming Convention.com.microsoft. URL See Uniform Resource Locator.two-phase commit A protocol that ensures that transactions that apply to more than one server are completed on all servers or none at all. type library A binary file that describes a component's methods. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A naming convention that uniquely identifies the location of a computer. the process generally involves instructing the remote computer to prepare to receive the file on its disk and then wait for the transmission to begin. upload In communications. and data structure. or file on the Internet.

IIS supports Web files saved in UTF-8 format or ANSI format. usage data Information the administrator can use to learn how other people are accessing and using a site. VBScript See Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. used in an address. VBA See Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications. sometimes called URL mapping. See virtual directory. See also codepage. but UTF-8 files take up more space than files stored in an ANSI format. virtual directory A directory name.URL mapping A term sometimes used for the process of associating a URL with a physical directory. V VB See Microsoft Visual Basic. a DWORD that specifies how data is used. virtual document A term sometimes used for a document created automatically in response to information provided by the user. also called a dynamic document. which corresponds to a physical directory on the server. UTF-8 UTF-8 is a method of character encoding that allows for both single and multi-byte characters in one string. user type Assigned to an identifier in the metabase. A virtual . Usenet The most popular news group hierarchy on the Internet. Analyzing this data helps an administrator identify a site's most popular (or unpopular) areas and clarifies the most common navigational paths through the site.

virtual server Also called a Web site. WAN See wide area network. each capable of running its own programs and each with individualized access to input and peripheral devices. An ASP page is an example of a virtual document. Web application A software program that uses HTTP for its core communication protocol and . VRML See Virtual Reality Modeling Language. W W3C See World Wide Web Consortium. such as a program that allows applications written for an Intel processor to be run on a Motorola processor.document is created only in answer to a browser request. files that the Web site administrator updates frequently. A virtual computer that resides on an HTTP server but appears to the user as a separate HTTP server. Some Internet service providers use virtual servers for those clients who want to use their own domai n names. Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) A language for coding three-dimensional HTML applications. Each virtual server has its own domain name and IP address and appears to the user as an individual Web site or FTP site. and is not permanently stored in a physical directory. volatile objects Typically. See also logical drive. Several virtual servers can reside on one computer. volume set A combination of partitions on a physical disk that appear as one logical drive. virtual machine Software that mimics the performance of a hardware device.

Using worker threads frees up IIS I/O threads to process additional requests. with associated files for graphics and scripts. Windows Script Host (WSH) A language-independent scripting host for ActiveX scripting engines on 32- bit Windows platforms. working directory A term sometimes used to describe the directory in which the Web server software is installed. . wide area network (WAN) A communications network that connects geographically separated areas. See also Domain Name System. Also called a Web-based application. worker thread A thread that is created by a component or ISAPI extension or filter to perform asynchronous processing. Windows Open Services Architecture (WOSA) Standards for creating cross-platform applications that utilize Windows services. Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) server A server that uses the WINS protocol to map Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to user-friendly names. working set The RAM allocated to a process in the Windows operating system.delivers Web-based information to the user in the HTML language. in a particular directory on a particular computer (and thus identifiable by a URL). A Web page typically consists of an HTML file. a computer equipped with the server software that uses Internet protocols such as HTTP and FTP to respond to Web client requests on a TCP/IP network. WebDAV See Distributed Authoring and Versioning. Web server In general terms. Web page A World Wide Web document.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Founded in 1994 to develop common standards for the World Wide Web.World Wide Web (WWW) The most graphical service on the Internet. . X XML See eXtensible Markup Language. with support from DARPA and the European Commission. XSL See eXtensible Stylesheet Language. WOSA See Windows Open Services Architecture. For more information. where the Web originated. It is a set of services that run on top of the Internet providing a cost-effective way of publishing information. the W3C was established in collaboration with CERN. The Web is a collection of Internet host systems that make these services available on the Internet using the HTTP protocol. WSH See Windows Script Host. and by the Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus in Asia. and delivering business applications to connected users all over the world. by the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA) in Europe. Web-based information is usually delivered in the form of hypertext and hypermedia using HTML. see the World Wide Web Consortium Web site. supporting collaboration and workflow. the Web also has the most sophisticated linking abilities. the W3C is an international industry consortium jointly hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) in North America. WWW See World Wide Web. Initially.

Enabling Server–Side Includes: Explains how to turn on the processing of SSI directives. graphics. and . for example. And if the include file contains an SSI directive. When the Web server reaches an SSI directive. you need only to change the content in one place when you use include files. For example. a time/date stamp. you can store information used on numerous Web pages in a single file.stm. Using Server–Side Include Directives: Explains how to insert SSI directives into your HTML pages. Using include files. In addition to the basic directive used . The Web server processes SSI directives while it is processes the Web page. you must give any SSI files an SSI file name extension. see Setting Application Mappings. Furthermore. This section contains: About Server–Side Includes: Explains server-side include directives. a copyright notice. or application content into a Web page just before sending that content to the browser. The default extensions are . it inserts the contents of the include file directly into the HTML page. or a form for a customer to fill out and return. You can add additional extensions to the list recognized by the Web server. The include files is called through a simple statement that instructs the Web server to insert the content into applicable Web pages.shtm. Rather than typing the content into every file. Server–Side Includes Reference: Reference information for utilizing SSI directives. SSI can be used to include. Because a file containing SSI directives requires special processing. you can use SSI directives to insert a copyright notice into all of the documents in your Web site. Including a file is an easy way to incorporate text or graphics that are repeated in many files.Server–Side Includes Server-side include (SSI) directives instruct the Web server to insert the contents of another file into a Web page. you save the content into an include file. . About Server-Side Includes You can use server-side include (SSI) directives to include text.shtml. that file is also inserted.

For more information. or for an individual directory.shtm. you can use SSI directives to insert information about a file (such as its size) or to run an application or a shell command. see the Server–Side Includes Reference. To enable server-side includes 1. Put SSI files into a directory with Scripts or Execute access permissions. Enabling Server-Side Includes The Web server must detect that a file contains server-side include commands before processing the file. or . Using Server-Side Include Directives . 2. and click the Home Directory or Directory tab. select the application starting point directory. You can disable the processing of server-side include directives for the entire Web server.shtml). By default. for an application.stm. 1.stm. see Setting Application Mappings. In the IIS snap-in. select the extension. On the App Mappings tab. select a Web site or directory.shtm. 2. .shtml file name extensions. and click Remove. 3. it will not process server-side include directives within the page. You can add additional extensions. To disable SSI for an application. for a Web site. Click the Configuration button. see Setting NTFS Permissions for a Directory or File. For more information. or .to include a file. open its property sheets. Give files that contain SSI directives an SSI file name extension (. the Web server is set up to process files with the . . To disable server-side includes If the Web server receives a request for a page with the removed SSI file name extension.

not at run time. you cannot incorporate this statement into the logic of your client-side procedures. Therefore. To locate the include file by specifying the full virtual path to the file. if the calling file is in a directory named Documents and the include file is in a subdirectory named Documents\Common. For example.inc" --> In this example. SSI provides special preprocessing directives that help you access information about a file or display the value of a CGI variable. SSI also provides a directive that you can use t o insert the output from an application or a shell command into a Web page. To locate the include file by specifying a path relative to the current directory.#include file="Common\Copyright.inc extension to distinguish them from other types of files. graphic. the file Copyright.inc into a Web page when it is requested. it is considered good programming practice to give included files an . Including Files To include a file. The file that contains the #include directive must be a published file in your Web site.inc" --> Including Output from Applications In addition to including the contents of a file. you can run an application or a shell command by using an SSI directive and include the output on your . use the virtual argument.#include file="Copyright. use the following directive: <!-. For example.inc" --> While you are working with documents in a Web site.inc must be in the same directory as the include file. use the #include directive. you may want to store shared files in a special virtual directory. to insert a file named Copyright. use the file argument. however. Included files do not require a spe cial file name extension.You use server-side include (SSI) directives to instruct the Web server to add text. to include a file from the /Common virtual directory. For example. use the following directive: <!-. or application content to a Web page just before sending the page to the client's browser. use the following directive in the Web page: <!-. Important The #include statement is processed at compile time.#include virtual="/Common/Copyright.

Note The server-side time and date functions use the language set by the C library locale rather than the operating system locale. use the #exec directive.#exec cgi=/scripts/guestbook. The application can be a CGI program. To run an application or a shell command. For example: <!-. all of these tasks can be performed with ASP script. Important Allowing ordinary Web files to run applications presents a security risk. formatted by the #config directive. .Web page. You can disable the #exec directive and still allow Web pages to use the other SSI directives. or an ISAPI extension. #echo: Inserts the value of an server variable into an HTML page. you will need to use the ASP solutions for these tasks. #fsize: Inserts the size of a file into a Web page. You can pass parameters to the application by following the application's file name with a question mark (?) and a list of parameters joined by plus signs (+). an ASP application. The C library locale is usually set to English. For more information. In this section: #config: Specifies the string to be used for SSI error messages. formatted by the #config directive. #exec: Runs an application or a shell command and inserts the output into an HTML page. #fsize.exe?F irstName+LastName> The path to the application must be a full virtual path. include server variables. or include the output from executables like CGI files and ISAPI apps. This is the only directive that can be used in ASP files and STM files. With the exception of the #include directive. If you need to use ASP script for other tasks in a Web page. or URL. and the format to be used for dates and file sizes returned by #flastmod. With SSI directives. With the exception of including executables. #include: Includes a file in a Web page. Server-Side Includes Reference You can use Server-Side Include (SSI) directives to perform certain tasks in static Web pages. Static Web pages execute slightly faster than ASP pages on a large scale. #flastmod: Inserts the modification date of a file into a Web page. see the Server–Side Includes Reference. you can include the contents of a file in a Web page. include information about a file. you cannot mix SSI directives with ASP script.

simple error message. you can use the FileSystemObject object which is documented at MSDN under VBScript or JScript. #fsize. By default.#config The #config directive specifies the string to be used for SSI error messages. the error message provides debugging information that details exactly what went wrong. by using formatting tokens in String. By default. To suppress these details. such as "An SSI error has occurred. (The formatting tokens are the same as those you would use for the ANSI C strftime function). %a . To perform these tasks with ASP script. provide a short. The output can be one of the following: Output Meaning ERRMSG Overrides the message returned to the client browser when an error occurs during the processing of an SSI directive. Note The time and date functions below use the language set with the C library locale rather than the operating system locale. Syntax <!-. such as the day of the week or the month. The C library locale is usually set to English. TIMEFMT Specifies the format in which dates should be returned to the client browser with the #flastmod directive. this directive can be used only in STM pages. The String parameter specifies the format. and the format to be used for dates and file sizes returned by #flastmod. You must surround a directive with HTML comment delimiters. You can extract individual portions of the date. it cannot be used in ASP pages.#config Output = String --> Parameters Output Specifies the output to be formatted." The String parameter contains the new error message.

%p .hour format (00–23). Mon). %c Date and time representation that is appropriate for the C locale (for example. %M Minute as a decimal number (00–59). February). %B Complete month name (for example. %I Hour in 12.hour format (01–12). %m Month as a decimal number (01–12). 05/06/01 12:51:32). %b Abbreviated month name (for example. %j Day of the year as a decimal number (001–366). %A Complete name for day of the week (for example.Abbreviated name for day of the week (for example. %d Day of the month as a decimal number (01–31) %H Hour in 24. Monday). Feb).

PM).Current C locale's A. 12:51:32). with Monday as the first day of the week (00–51). %y Year without the century as a decimal number (for example. %x Date representation for the current C locale (for example. %% Percent sign. 2001).M. %Y Year with the century as a decimal number (for example. %S Second as a decimal number (00–59). %U Week of the year as a decimal number. %X Time representation for the current C locale (for example. %Z Time-zone name or abbreviation. with Sunday as the first day (0–6). . with Sunday as the first day of the week (00–51). %w Day of the week as a decimal number. no characters if time zone is unknown. or P. indicator for 12-hour format (for example. %z. 05/06/01). %W Week of the year as a decimal number. 01).M.

see Setting Application Mappings. or #include will not work because that would force the STM page to go through asp." --> SSI.stm in bytes is <!-. An STM page using the #echo directive must be run by itself. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings. Server.st m was last formatted on <!-.#config TIMEFMT = "%A. Important The file containing this directive must use a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter. ASP files are already mapped to the asp. the %d of %B.Execute. you cannot use this directive in ASP files.dll and must stay that way.#config SIZEFMT = "BYTES" --> <!-.#config ERRMSG = "An error occurred processing a directive. . By default.st m" --> <BR><BR> This line will print out the ERRMSG configured above<BR> <!-.dll instead of through ssinc.SSI.SIZEFMT Configures the output of the #fsize directive to display the file size in kilobytes or bytes. The String parameter can have one of two values: "ABBREV" displays file size in kilobytes. the file name extensions .Redirect. Calling an STM page from an ASP page with Server.stm --- <!-.st m" --> <BR> The size of SSI. and "BYTES" displays file size in bytes.dll. or by calling it from an ASP page with Response. otherwise.Transfer.shtml are mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc.shtm. the Web server will not process the directive. If you have the IIS Snap-in installed. at %H:%M" --> <!-.#flastmod FILE = "ssi. %Y.#config SIZEFMT = "BYTE" --> .stm. Example --. and .dll).#fsize FILE = "ssi. Since you cannot map a file extension to more than one executable.

and it will be "integrated Windows authentication" for integrated authentication. this directive can be used only in STM pages. then no authentication is used. You must surround a directive with HTML comment delimiters. These variables are of the form HTTP_header field name. The headers consist of a null-terminated string with the individual headers separated by carriage return line feeds. AUTH_PASSWORD The value entered in the client's authentication dialog box. AUTH_TYPE This contains the type of authentication used. This variable is available only if Basic authentication is used. . it is not possible to list all the string possibilities. By default.#echo var = VariableName --> Parameters VariableName Specifies the name of the variable whose value you want to insert. you can access the server variables by using the Request. Syntax <!-. If the string is empty. For ASP pages.#echo The #echo directive instructs the Web server to display the value of a server variable. Other authentication schemes will have other strings. The variable can be one of the following: Variable Meaning ALL_HTTP All HTTP headers that were not already parsed into one of the other variables described in this table.ServerVariables collection. the string will be "Basic" if Basic authentication is used. Because new authentication types can be added to the Web server. For example. it cannot be used in ASP pages. AUTH_USER The value entered in the client's authentication dialog box.

GATEWAY_INTERFACE The revision of the CGI specification used by the Web server. and separated by a comma (. q=0. but with any virtual path expanded into a directory specification. PATH_INFO Additional path information. if any. DOCUMENT_NAME The current file name. QUERY_STRING The information that follows the question mark (?) in the URL that referenced this script. . but before the query string. For example. This consists of the trailing part of the URL after the script name. PATH_TRANSLATED This is the value of PATH_INFO. q=0. DATE_GMT The current date in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). if the following lines are part of the HTTP header: accept: */*. Values of the accept fields are concatenated. DATE_LOCAL The current date in the local time zone. DOCUMENT_URI The virtual path to the current document.1 accept: text/html accept: image/jpeg the HTTP_ACCEPT variable will have a value of: */*. HTTP_ACCEPT Special-case HTTP header.CONTENT_LENGTH The number of bytes that the script can expect to receive from the client. CONTENT_TYPE The content type of the information supplied in the body of a POST request. The revision is returned in the format CGI/revision.1. as given by the client.). text/html. image/jpeg LAST_MODIFIED The date that the current document was last modified.

The value is determined when the Web server parses the URL from the header. this will be 1.QUERY_STRING_UNESCAPED Unescaped version of the query string.0 returned an IP address for this parameter. it will be 0. URL Gives the base portion of the URL. If the request is being handled on the secure port. Parameter values will not be included.0 and 3. or IP address. IIS 2. REMOTE_HOST The host name of the client or agent of the client (for example. gateway or firewall) that sent the request. a version that is not URL encoded. REMOTE_ADDR The IP address of the client or agent of the client (for example. This comes back as an empty string if Anonymous Access is enabled on the application. SERVER_PORT The TCP/IP port on which the request was received. that is. SERVER_SOFTWARE The name and version of the Web server answering the request. REQUEST_METHOD The HTTP request method. SERVER_NAME The server’s host name. SERVER_PORT_SECURE A string of either 0 or 1. SERVER_PROTOCOL The name and version of the information retrieval protocol relating to this request. . as it should appear in self- referencing URLs. REMOTE_USER This contains the user name of the client if the client went through authentication by the server. The server information is returned in the format name/version. gateway or firewall) that sent the request. Otherwise. SCRIPT_NAME The name of the script program being executed.0. This is usually HTTP/1. The protocol is returned in the format name/version.

By default.asp"> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Run the #echo Directive" NAME="RunEcho"> </FORM> <% If Len(Request. see Setting Application Mappings.asp --- <FORM NAME="RunEcho" METHOD="POST" ACTION="Echo. Example This example uses the #echo directive to insert a URL into the ACTION value of a FORM statement.Transfer. --. If you have the IIS Snap-in installed.stm.dll).dll.#echo var="QUERY_STRING"-->"> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Return to Previous Page" NAME="Return"> </FORM> . and . Since you cannot map a file extension to more than one executable. the Web server will not process the directive.Echo. you cannot use this directive in ASP files.stm</H3> AUTH_TYPE is <!-.stm --- <H3>Inside Echo.Execute.Redirect.#echo var="AUTH_TYPE"--><BR> <FORM NAME="Return" METHOD="POST" ACTION="<!-. or by calling it from an ASP page with Response.Echo.Important The file containing this directive must use a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter. An STM page using the #echo directive must be run by itself.shtm. Calling an STM page from an ASP page with Server. or #include will not work because that would force the STM page to go through asp. .stm?Echo. ASP files are already mapped to the asp. otherwise. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings. Server.dll instead of through ssinc. the file name extensions .dll and must stay that way.Form("RunEcho")) Then Response.shtml are mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc.Redirect("Echo.asp") End If %> --.

The SSI interpreter (Ssinc. The CommandDescription parameter is a string that contains the full. Parameters are separated by plus signs (+). There is no matching ASP script method of including the output of multiple CGI scripts or ISAPI applications in a Web page. CMD Runs a shell command. This directive can be used only in STM pages. Because running an ISAPI application is only part of processing the SSI document. Syntax <!-. but the send-redirect will not be performed. followed by a question mark (?) and any parameters passed to the application. The CommandDescription parameter is a string that contains the full virtual path of the application. The ServerSupportFunction is documented at MSDN Library under the ISAPI reference.#exec The #exec directive runs a specified application or shell command and sends the output (standard output or ISAPI WriteClient data) to the client browser. physical path of the shell program.#exec CommandType = CommandDescription --> Parameters CommandType Specifies the type of command. an ISAPI application is restricted as follows: Any ISAPI extension attempting to send a URL or redirect through the ServerSupportFunction callback function will cause a message to be placed in the HTML stream. such as a CGI script. followed by any command-line parameters . or ISAPI application. it cannot be used in ASP pages. You must surround a directive with HTML comment delimiters.dll) will wait indefinitely for applications returning HSE_STATUS_PENDING unless the ServerSupportFunction is called to finish the session. The command type can be one of the following: Comman Meaning d Type CGI Runs an application. ASP application.

dll. or by calling it from an ASP page with Response. otherwise.shtm. or #include to run Test.Redirect("Exec. so there is no need to add values to your registry.asp from Exec. Since you cannot map a file extension to more than one executable. If you have the IIS Snap-in installed. This directive is disabled by default because it poses a security risk to your Web site. and set it to 1. It would be more efficient to use Server. you cannot use this directive in ASP files.stm.Transfer.dll).Execute. see Setting Application Mappings. Server.dll and must stay that way.stm") End If . the Web server searches the system path. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings.asp. Calling an STM page from an ASP page with Server. .Form("RunExec")) Then Response.asp --- <FORM NAME="RunExec" METHOD="POST" ACTION="Exec. By default. separated by spaces. Disable Anonymous Access on any web folder that contains STM files that use the #exec directive.Transfer. Server. To enable it. and . Example This example uses the CGI command type to run an ASP page. or #include will not work because that would force the STM page to go through asp. the file name extensions . add a DWORD registry value called SSIEnableCmdDirective to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\W3SVC\Parameter s key.Execute. Important The file containing this directive must use a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter. see Registry.shtml are mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc. If the full path is not specified.Exec. the Web server will not process the directive. --. For general information on using the registry.asp"> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Run the #exec Directive" NAME="RunExec"> </FORM> <% If Len(Request. but here we are just illustrating the #exec directive in an STM file.dll instead of through ssinc. An STM page using the #echo directive must be run by itself. ASP files are already mapped to the asp.Redirect.

Write "Test = " & Request.Test.#exec CGI="/testfolder/test.Write "<BR>Inside Test.<BR>" Response.asp"> <INPUT TYPE="SUBMIT" VALUE="Retu rn to Previous Page" NAME="Return"> </FORM> --.Exec.stm --- <H3>Inside Exec.QueryString("Test") & ".stm</H3> <!-.<BR>" %> .asp.asp --- <% Response.asp?test=Hello" --> <FORM NAME="Return" METHOD="POST " ACTION="Exec.%> --.

dll instead of through ssinc. An STM page using the #echo directive must be run by itself.#flastmod PathType = FileName --> Parameters PathType Specifies the type of the path to FileName.stm. The path type can be one of the following: Path Type Meaning File The file name is a relative path from the directory containing the document with the #flastmod directive. . Calling an STM page from an ASP page with Server. Virtual The file name is a full path from a virtual directory in your Web site.shtm. otherwise. By default. Server. Syntax <!-. Important The file containing this directive must use a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter. .dll. or #include will not work because that would force the STM page to go through asp.Transfer. this directive can be used only in STM pages.shtml are mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc.dll). To perform this task with ASP script. FileName Specifies the name of the file for which you want the last modification time. By default. it cannot be used in ASP pages. FileName must contain the file name extension.Execute. or by calling it from an ASP page with Response.#flastmod The #flastmod directive instructs the Web server to insert the last time that a specified file was modified. the Web server will not process the directive. and you must enclose the file name in quotation marks ("). You must surround a directive with HTML comment delimiters. and . you can use the FileSystemObject object which is documented at MSDN under VBScript or JScript. the file name extensions .Redirect.

SSI.stm --- <!-. %Y. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings.#config SIZEFMT = "BYTE" --> .#config TIMEFMT = "%A.#fsize FILE = "ssi.stm in bytes is <!-.#flastmod FILE = "ssi.stm" --> <BR> The size of SSI. ASP files are already mapped to the asp.dll and must stay that way. see Setting Application Mappings.#config ERRMSG = "An error occurred processing a directive.stm" --> <BR><BR> This line will print out the ERRMSG configured above<BR> <!-.#config SIZEFMT = "BYTES" --> <!-. the %d of %B.stm was last formatted on <!-.If you have the IIS Snap-in installed." --> SSI. you cannot use this directive in ASP files. Since you cannot map a file extension to more than one executable. Example --. at %H:%M" --> <!-.

Execute.Redirect. . Important The file containing this directive must use a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter. You must surround a directive with HTML comment delimiters. the file name extensions . the Web server will not process the directive. Virtual The file name is a full path from a virtual directory in your Web site.#fsize The #fsize directive instructs the Web server to insert the size of specified file into a Web page. FileName Specifies the name of the file for which you want the file size.stm. and you must enclose the file name in quotation marks ("). By default. or by calling it from an ASP page with Response. Syntax <!-. By default. Server. or #include will not work because that would force the STM page to go through asp. Calling an STM page from an ASP page with Server.dll instead of through ssinc.dll).dll. To perform this task with ASP script. otherwise. The path type can be one of the following: Path Type Meaning File The file name is a relative path from the directory containing the document with the #fsize directive. FileName must contain the file name extension. .shtml are mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc.Transfer.shtm. An STM page using the #echo directive must be run by itself. this directive can be used only in STM pages. it cannot be used in ASP pages. you can use the FileSystemObject object which is documented at MSDN under VBScript or JScript.#fsize PathType = FileName --> Parameters PathType Specifies the type of the path to FileName. and .

#fsize FILE = "ssi. see Setting Application Mappings.stm in bytes is <!-. you cannot use this directive in ASP files. the %d of %B.#config TIMEFMT = "%A.st m" --> <BR> The size of SSI.#config ERRMSG = "An error occurred processing a directive.stm --- <!-.#flastmod FILE = "ssi. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings." --> SSI.#config SIZEFMT = "BYTES" --> <!-. Since you cannot map a file extension to more than one executable.dll and must stay that way.SSI.st m" --> <BR><BR> This line will print out the ERRMSG configured above<BR> <!-. %Y.If you have the IIS Snap-in installed.st m was last formatted on <!-.#config SIZEFMT = "BYTE" --> . ASP files are already mapped to the asp. Example --. at %H:%M" --> <!-.

/. STM page. Syntax <!-. If you want to include a page with ASP script. You must surround a directive with HTML comment delimiters. Included files can have any file name extension.. The included file cannot be in a directory above the page with the #include directive unless you have checked the box for Enable Parent Paths in the property sheet for the web folder.inc extension.dll). This is discouraged because it is a security risk. but a recommended practice is to give them the . you must call it from an ASP page. INC page. Any web user could type . For example.#include PathType = FileName --> Parameters PathType Specifies the type of the path to FileName. Included HTM pages will work as expected. This directive can be used in an ASP page. as a part of a URL for your site and be shown the contents of parent folders you may not want them to see. If you have Internet Service Manager installed. see Setting Application Mappings. FileName . The included file can be in the same directory or in a subdirectory. The path type can be one of the following: Path Type Meaning File The FileName is a relative path from the directory containing the document with the #include directive.. Included files will go through the interpreter of the calling page.#include The #include directive instructs the Web server to insert the contents of a file into a Web page. or any page with a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc. you must call it from an STM page. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings. if you want to include a page that uses the #exec directive.dll) or to the ASP interpreter (asp. Virtual The file name is a full virtual path from a virtual directory in your Web site.

otherwise. you can modify default extension mappings and add new mappings.dll). Example --.inc" --> <!-. you cannot use this directive in ASP files.The included file is in the Scripts virtual directory.dll instead of through ssinc. and you must enclose the file name in quotation marks ("). ASP files are already mapped to the asp.Execute.shtm. FileName must contain the file name extension.asp --- <!-.#include file = ". If you have the IIS Snap-in installed.\myfile. see Setting Application Mappings. Important The file containing this directive must use a file name extension that is mapped to the SSI interpreter. . and .dll and must stay that way.stm.. the file name extensions .#include file = "myfile.Specifies the name of the file to be included. An STM page using the #echo directive must be run by itself. Calling an STM page from an ASP page with Server.shtml are mapped to the SSI interpreter (ssinc.IncExample. --> <!-.inc" --> . Since you cannot map a file extension to more than one executable.Redirect.asp. the Web server will not process the directive. or #include will not work because that would force the STM page to go through asp. --> <!-. Server.htm" --> <!-.#include virtual = "/scripts/tools/global. or by calling it from an ASP page with Response. Enable Parent Paths must be checked for the web folder. By default.asp.dll. --> <!-.The included file is in the same directory as IncExample.The included file is in the directory above IncExample.Transfer.

Page Counter Component Counts and displays the number of times a Web page has been opened. File Access Component Provides access to file input and output. and version of each browser that accesses your Web site. Database Access Component Provides access to databases using ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO).Installable Components for ASP You can create dynamic. increment. store. This reference section contains information about and examples of these components. Content Rotator Component Automates the rotation of HTML content strings on a Web page. and links them together sequentially like pages in a book. Ad Rotator Component Creates an AdRotator object that automatically rotates advertisements displayed on a page according to a specified schedule. interactive Web pages by using the server components included with Active Server Pages (ASP) in your scripts. Status Component Creates a Status object that has properties that contain server status information. . Logging Utility Component Allows you to read the HTTP activity log files that IIS generates. Permission Checker Component Uses the password authentication protocols provided in Microsoft® Internet Information Services (IIS) to determine whether a Web user has been granted permissions to read a file. Tools Component Creates a Tools object that provides utilities that enable you to easily add sophisticated functionality to your Web pages. type. Content Linking Component Creates a NextLink object that creates tables of contents for Web pages. Counters Component Creates a Counters object that can create. Browser Capabilities Component Creates a BrowserType object that determines the capabilities. and retrieve any number of individual counters.

File Names Adrot. Each time a user opens or reloads the Web page. the Ad Rotator component displays a new advertisement based on the information you specify in a Rotator Schedule File.CreateObject. Properties Border Specifies the size of the border around the advertisement. This file must be available on a Web server virtual path. Clickable Specifies whether the advertisement is a hyperlink. Syntax Set AdRotator = Server. Redirection File An optional file that implements redirection and enables the Ad Rotator component to record how many users click on each advertisement. Rotator Schedule File A text file that contains the display schedule and file information for advertisements. each jump to an advertiser's URL is recorded in the Web server activity logs. When you specify this parameter. You can record how many users click each advertisement by setting the URL parameter in the Rotator Schedule file to direct users to the Redirection File.dll The Ad Rotator component.AdRotator" ) Parameters AdRotator Specifies the name of the AdRotator object created by the call to Server.CreateObject( "MSWC.Ad Rotator Component The Ad Rotator component creates an Ad Rotator object that automates the rotation of advertisement images on a Web page. TargetFrame Specifies the name of the frame in which to display the advertisement. .

the first line of the file must contain only an asterisk (*). After you change a Rotator Schedule File. the Ad Rotator uses default values. In this case. Syntax [REDIRECT URL] [WIDTH numWidth] [HEIGHT numHeight] [BORDER numBorder] * adURL adHomePageURL Text impressions . The two sections are separated by a line containing only an asterisk (*). such as the size of the advertisement space. In the first section there are four global parameters. each consisting of a keyword and a value. the IIS Services may need to be restarted to pick up the change. If you do not specify values for the global parameters. The second section specifies file and location information for each individual advertisement and the percentage of display time that each advertisement should receive.Methods GetAdvertisement Gets the specifications for the next scheduled advertisement from the data file and formats it as HTML. The Rotator Schedule file has two sections. In it you can specify the details for the advertisements. The first section sets parameters that apply to all advertisement images in the rotation schedule. All are optional. the image files to use. and the percentage of time that each file should be displayed. Rotator Schedule File The Rotator Schedule File contains information that the Ad Rotator component uses to manage and display the various advertisement images.

asp) or relative to the virtual directory (/MyDir/redirect. numHeight Specifies the height of the advertisement on the page. and the third 50 percent of the time.Parameters URL Specifies the path to the dynamic-link library (. The default is a 1-pixel border.asp) file that implements redirection. in pixels. Set this parameter to 0 for no border. adHomePageURL The location of the advertiser's home page. the second 30 percent of the time. in pixels. If the advertiser does not have a home page. 3. For example. The default is 60 pixels. The default is 440 pixels. This path can be specified either fully (http://MyServer/MyDir/redirect. in pixels. or has its graphics capabilities turned off. the first advertisement is displayed 20 percent of the time. adURL The location of the advertisement image file. Note If the sum of the impressions parameters for all items exceeds 10000. Text Alternate text that is displayed if the browser does not support graphics. put a hyphen (-) on this line to indicate that there is no link for this ad. an error will be generated the first time the Rotator Schedule file is accessed by a call to the GetAdvertisement method.dll) or application (. numBorder Specifies the thickness of the hyperlink border around the advertisement. impressions A number between 0 and 10000 that indicates the relative weight of the advertisement.asp). if a Rotator Schedule file contains three ads with impressions set to 2. and 5. . numWidth Specifies the width of the advertisement on the page.

gif http://www.com/home.com/windows2000/guide/professional/overview/ Introducing Microsoft Windows XP Professional! 20 http://www.microsoft.microsoft.microsoft.gif http://www.Example The following script demonstrates how you can use a rotator schedule file to display a variety of advertisements and how to include a redirection file.com/library/homepage/images/init_dotnet.com/office/ The Tools of Microsoft Office 2000 80 http://www.msn.gif - Sponsored by Flyteworks 20 http://www.com/library/homepage/images/init_office.gif http://explorer.microsoft. --.htm MSN Explorer! It's here at last! 10 .Adrot.microsoft.com/library/homepage/images/ts_001025msnexp.com/library/homepage/images/init_win2k.microsoft.txt --- REDIRECT Adredir.asp WIDTH 340 HEIGHT 100 BORDER 1 * http://www.

it automatically sends an HTTP User Agent header.CreateObject.ini file. Example The following example uses the BrowserType object to display a table showing some of the capabilities of the current browser. Syntax Set BrowserType = Server. The BrowserType object compares the header to entries in the Browscap. the object will use the default browser settings if they have been specified in the Browscap. This file must be in the same directory as Browscap. Browscap.ini File A text file that maps browser capabilities to the HTTP User Agent header.dll. When a browser connects to the Web server.CreateObject("MSWC. File Names Browscap. If the object does not find a match and default browser settings have not been specified in the Browscap. This header is an ASCII string that identifies the browser a nd its version number.Browscap. If it finds a match.BrowserType") Parameters BrowserType Specifies the name of the BrowserType object created by the call to Server.asp --- . the BrowserType object assumes the properties of the browser listing that matched the User Agent header. the object sets every property to the string "UNKNOWN." You can add properties or new browser definitions to this component simply by updating the Browscap.ini file.Browser Capabilities Component The Browser Capabilities component creates a BrowserType object that provides your scripts with a description of the capabilities of the client's Web browser. it searches for the closest match using the * and ? wildcards. --.ini file. If a match can not be found using wildcards.dll The Browser Capabilities component. If the object does not find a match for the header in the Browscap.ini file.ini file.

version %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Frames</TD> <TD><%= bc.BrowserType") %> <TABLE BORDER=1 CELLPADDING=4> <TR> <TD>Browser</TD> <TD><%= bc. The Content Linking component references a Content Linking List file that contains the list of the linked Web pages. You can use the Content Linking component to automatically generate and update tables of contents and navigational links to previous and subsequent Web pages. This is ideal for applications such as online newspapers and forum message listings.browser %> <TR> <TD>Version</TD> <TD><%= bc. .vbscript %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>JScript</TD> <TD><%= bc.BackgroundSounds %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>VBScript</TD> <TD><%= bc.tables %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Cookies</TD> <TD><%= bc.ActiveXControls %></TD> </TR> </TABLE> Content Linking Component The Content Linking component creates a Nextlink object that manages a list of URLs so that you can treat the pages in your Web site like the pages in a book.CreateObject("MSWC.frames %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Tables</TD> <TD><%= bc.<% Set bc = Server.cookies %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>BackgroundSounds</TD> <TD><%= bc. This list is stored on the Web server.javascript %></TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>ActiveX Controls</TD> <TD><%= bc.

GetPreviousDescription Gets the description line of the previous page listed in the Content Linking List file. GetNthDescription Gets the description of the Nth page listed in the Content Linking List file. GetNthURL Gets the URL of the Nth page listed in the Content Linking List file.NextLink" ) Parameters NextLink Specifies the name of the object created by the call to Server.File Names Nextlink. GetListIndex Gets the index of the current page in the Content Linking List file. GetPreviousURL Gets the URL of the previous pages listed in the Content Linking List file. Syntax Set NextLink = Server.CreateObject( "MSWC.dll The Content Linking component Content Linking List File A text file that contains a list of Web pages in the order in which they should be displayed. GetNextURL Gets the URL of the next page listed in the Content Linking List file. Methods GetListCount Counts the number of items linked in the Content Linking List file. GetNextDescription Gets the description of the next page listed in the Content Linking List file. . This file must be available on a Web server virtual path.CreateObject.

CreateObject ("MSWC.inc" --> The following script adds next-page and previous-page links to any ASP file.txt" Index = NextLink.NextLink.GetListCount(ListFile) I = 1 %> <UL> <% Do While (I <= count) %> <LI> <A HREF="<%=NextLink. To run this example.txt" count = NextLink.asp --- <% Set NextLink = Server. --. Include this file in every file listed in your Content Linking List File using the following line: <!-.Example The following example builds a table of contents. if your Default Web Site is mapped to C:\Inetpub\Wwwroot. you need to create the list file in C:\Inetpub\Wwwroot\Data\NextLink. I)%>"> <%= NextLink.GetNthURL(ListFile.#include FILE = "nextlink.txt. For example.GetListIndex(ListFile) %> <TABLE BORDER=0 CELLPADDING=6> <TR><TD> <% If (Index > 1) Then %> <A HREF="<%=NextLink.inc --- <BR> <% Set NextLink = Server. you need to create the Content Linking List File in your Default Web Site folder.NextLink") ListFile = "/data/nextlink.NextLink. I) %> </A> </LI> <% I = (I + 1) %> <% Loop %> </UL> <!-.GetPreviousURL(ListFile)%>"> Previous Page </A> <% Else %> Previous Page .inc" --> --.CreateObject("MSWC.NextLink") ListFile = "/data/nextlink. in a subfolder called Data.#include FILE = "nextlink.GetNthDescription(ListFile.

GetNextURL(ListFile)%>"> Next Page </A> <% Else %> Next Page <% End If %> </TD><TD> <% If Not 0 = Index Then %> <A HREF="nextlink.<% End If %> </TD><TD> <% If 0 = Index Then %> <A HREF="<%=NextLink. GetPreviousDescription Gets the description line of the previous page listed in the Content .GetNthURL(ListFile. 1)%>"> Next Page </A> <% ElseIf (Index < NextLink. GetNextDescription Gets the description of the next page listed in the Content Linking List file. GetNextURL Gets the URL of the next page listed in the Content Linking List file.GetListCount(ListFile)) Then %> <A HREF="<%=NextLink. GetListIndex Gets the index of the current page in the Content Linking List file.asp"> Back to Table of Contents </A> <% End If %> </TD></TR> </TABLE> Content Linking Methods The NextLink object has the following methods: GetListCount Counts the number of items linked in the Content Linking List file. GetNthURL Gets the URL of the Nth page listed in the Content Linking List file. GetNthDescription Gets the description of the Nth page listed in the Content Linking List file.

you can use this component to rotate through a list of daily quotations or hyperlinks. This file must be available on a Web server virtual path. .CreateObject. or hyperlinks. or to change text and background colors each time the Web page is opened. Linking List file. For example. Content Schedule File A text file that contains the display schedule and file information for Web content.dll The Content Rotator component. Because the content strings can contain HTML tags. The following files are used by the Content Rotator component: File Name Description Controt.CreateObject( "MSWC. you can display any type of content that HTML can represent: text. Syntax Set ContRot = Server. images. the object displays a new HTML content string based upon information that you specify in a Content Schedule File.ContentRotator" ) Parameters ContRot Specifies the name of the ContentRotator object created by the call to Server. Each time a user requests the Web page. Content Rotator Component The Content Rotator component creates a ContentRotator object that automatically rotates HTML content strings on a Web page. GetPreviousURL Gets the URL of the previous pages listed in the Content Linking List file.

in a subfolder called Data. and Remove methods of the Counte rs object. and you increment hits in another page called Page2. To run this example.ContentRotator") %> <%= objContRot. you need to create the Content Schedule File in your Default Web Site folder. if you increment and display a counter named hits in a page called Page1.CreateObject("MSWC. Incre ment. For example. and retrieve any number of individual counters. both pages will .Methods ChooseContent Retrieves and displays a content string. any page on your site can retrieve or manipulate its value. you need to create the list file in C:\Inetpub\Wwwroot\Data\ContRot. This is most likely to occur if there are few entries in the Content Schedule file.asp --- <% Set objContRot = Server.asp. --.ChooseContent("/Data/ContRot.txt") %> Counters Component The Counter component creates a Counters object that can create. Once you create a counter. Once you create the counter. Note Because the Content Rotator Component uses a random generator to select which of the weighted content strings is displayed. A counter is a persistent value that contains an integer.asp. it persists until you remove it. a string may be repeated. You must manually set or increment counters using the Set and Increment methods. Counters do not automatically increment on an event like a page hit. increment. if your Default Web Site is mapped to C:\Inetpub\Wwwroot.ContRot. For example. store. Set.txt. Example The following example displays a different tip of the day each time a user views the Web page. Counters are not limited in scope. You can manipulate a counter with the Get. or if one entry is weighted much higher than the others. GetAllContent Retrieves and displays all the content strings in the Content Schedule file.

increment the same counter. If you hit Page1.asp, and increment hits to 34, hitting Page2.asp will
increment hits to 35. The next time you hit Page1.asp, hits will increment to 36.

All counters are stored in a single text file, Counters.txt, which is located in the same directory as
the counters.dll file.

After you update, create or delete a counter, the IIS Services may need to be restarted before you
see the change in the Counters.txt file.

File Name Description

Counters.dll The Counters component.

Counters.txt The file that stores all individual counters on a site. Counters.txt is a UTF8-
encoded file. You can have any Unicode characters in a counter name.

Syntax

Create the Counters object one time on your server by adding the following to the Global.asa
file:

<OBJECT
RUNAT=Server
SCOPE=Application
ID=Counter
PROGID="MSWC.Counters">
</OBJECT>

Important

Only create one Counters object in your site. This single Counters object can create any number
of individual counters.

For Internet Information Services on Windows® 95 or later, a Counters component has already
been specified in the Global.asa file in the default virtual directory. You can work with the
Counters object the component creates as if it were a built- in object by calling Counters.Get,
Counters.Incre ment, Counters.Remove, and Counte rs.Set. You should not create another
instance of the Counters object.

Methods
Get Returns the value of the counter.

Increment Increases the counter by 1.

Remove Removes the counter from the Counters.txt file.

Set Sets the value of the counter to a specific integer.

Example

Create an instance of the Counters object in the Global.asa file with the ID attribute set to
Counter:

--- Global.asa ---

<OBJECT
RUNAT=Server
SCOPE=Application
ID=Counters
PROGID="MSWC.Counters">
</OBJECT>

You can then use that Counte rs object on one page to create all the counters you need:

Setting the Site Counter to <%= Counters.Set("SiteCounter", 1).

Then on another page you can increment the counter in the following manner:

You are visitor number<%= Counters.Increment("SiteCounter ") %> to this
page.

MyInfo Component
The MyInfo component creates a MyInfo object that keeps track of personal information, such
as the site administrator's name, address, and display choices. Originally, the administrator typed
this information directly into the Personal Web Server Web Site Wizard interface on older
versions, and doing so created a formatted home page. However, you can set the values of the
properties directly and retrieve them yourself to create your own home page.

After you change any of the MyInfo Component properties, the IIS Services may need to be
restarted before the changes are written to MyInfo.xml.

File Names
MyInfo.dll The MyInfo component.

MyInfo.xml The file that stores the values of the MyInfo properties.

Syntax

Create a MyInfo object once in the Global.asa file by adding the following lines to Global.asa:

<OBJECT
RUNAT=Server
SCOPE=Session
ID=MyInfoObject
PROGID="MSWC.MyInfo">
</OBJECT>

Important

Only create one MyInfo object on your site.

You can create a MyInfo object with

Set MyInfoObject = Server.CreateObject("MSWC.MyInfo")

but you run the risk of creating the object more than once. It is best to use the <OBJECT>
syntax in Global.asa.

Page Counter Component
The Page Counter component creates a PageCounter object that counts and displays the number
of times a Web page has been opened. At regular intervals the object writes the number of hits to
a text file so that in the event of a server shutdown, the data is not lost. The Page Counter
component uses an internal Central Manage ment object to record how many times each page in
the application has been opened.

When an instance of the PageCounter object is created on a page by using the
Server.CreateObject method, the object retrieves the current hit count for the specified Web
page from the Central Manage ment object. The object can then be manipulated with the
methods it exposes.

The Page Counter component uses the following files:

Hit Count Data file The text file to which the Page Counter component saves the current hit count.CreateObject. Named Value Description File_Location A string that specifies the path and filename of the Hit Count Data file. Note that this is the total number of hits. The key is added under HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT and contains the following named values. Syntax Set oVar = Server.PageCounter to the registry when the object is compiled or registered. The default filename is Hitcnt. Save_Count A DWORD that specifies the number of hits before the hit count is saved to the Hit Count Data file. . Registry Entries The Page Counter adds the key MSWC.CreateObject( "MSWC.cnt.dll The Page Counter component. Methods Hits Displays the number of times that a specified URL has been opened.File Names Description Pagecnt. The default value is 25. This file is located in your Windows directory. not the number of hits per page.PageCounter" ) Parameters oVar Specifies the name of the PageCounter object created by the call to Server.

you can use the Permission Checker component to test whether the user has permissions for the target Web pages. if a Web page contains hyperlinks.PageCounter") HitMe = MyPageCounter. Example The following example uses the PageCounter object to track the number of visitors to the page and sends a special message to the tenth visitor.asp --- <% Set MyPageCounter = Server.PageHit Increments the Hit Count.PageCount.CreateObject( "MSWC. For example. . --.CreateObject. If the user does not have the proper permissions. you are customer #<%= HitMe %> <BR> <% End If %> Permission Checker Component The Permission Checker Component creates a Pe rmissionChecker object that uses the password authentication protocols provided in Microsoft® Internet Information Services (IIS) to determine whether a Web user has been granted permissions to read a file.Hits If HitMe = 10 Then %> You are the lucky 10th Customer!!! <BR> <% Else %> Sorry.CreateObject("MSWC. Reset Sets the hit count for a specified page to 0. You can use the Permission Checker component to customize an ASP-based page for different types of users. Syntax Set oVar = Server. you can then omit or alter the hyperlinks to those pages the user may not access.PermissionChecker" ) Parameters oVar Specifies the name of the PermissionChecker object created by the call to Server.

Status to the 401 Unauthorized error message. you should enable anonymous authentication and at least one other password authentication method. This is illustrated in the following example.Methods HasAccess Determines whether the user has permissions to access a specified file. Set the Access Control List for the ASP-based file to exclude the anonymous user account. Because anonymous users all share the same account. In the ASP script. For applications where all users have individual accounts. check for the anonymous user account (if the LOGON_USER server variable is empty) and set Response. the Permissions Checker component cannot authenticate individual users when anonymous access is allowed. the server will attempt to authenticate the user by using either integrated Windows authentication or Basic password authentication. Then if you deny anonymous access to a specific page. it is recommended that you disable anonymous authentication so that the Permissions Checker component can authenticate individual users. You can use either of the following two methods to deny anonymous access to a specific page. such as mixed Internet and intranet Web sites. Note IIS supports the following three types of password authentication in any combination: Anonymous Basic Integrated Windows authentication When Anonymous authentication is enabled. For applications where some pages must be available to anonymous users and other pages need to be secure.Status = "401 Unauthorized" End if . such as intranet-only Web sites. all users are initially logged on under the IIS anonymous user account. This will cause IIS to attempt to identify the user by using NTLM or Basic authentication. either integrated Windows authentication or Basic. <% If Request("LOGON_USER") = "" Then Response.

you must also enable Basic password authentication. You can work with the Tools object as if it were a built.CreateObject("MSWC. if users connect to your site with browsers other than Internet Explorer or through a proxy server and your application requires a non-anonymous user context.asa file in the default virtual directory.dll The Tools component.FileExists.in object by calling Tools. the Tools object has already been included in the Global. You can still use it. Tools Component The Tools component creates a Tools object that provides utilities that enable you to easily add sophisticated functionality to your Web pages.CreateObject. File Names Tools.Tools") Parameters oTools Specifies the name of the Tools object created by the call to Server. and Tools. however. Tools.Random. Note In Personal Web Server for Windows ® 95 or Windows 98. to ensure that the specified Web page exists and test whether the anonymous user account has access permissions for that page. Syntax Set oTools = Server. and may not work over a proxy server. the Permission Checker component will not able to distinguish individual user accounts.ProcessForm. Important NTLM password authentication is currently supported only by Microsoft Internet Explorer. .%> If all the files in your application must be available to anonymous users. Thus.

. Random Generates a random integer.Methods FileExists Checks for the existence of a file. PluginExists Checks the existence of a server plug-in (on Macintosh only). Owner Checks if the current user is the site owner. ProcessForm Processes an HTML form.