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Sports Nutrition Guide
Table of Contents
Section I: CapTri® Nutrition Updates
Update #1 - Gaining Muscle and Staying Lean: A Common Sense Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Update #2 - Diet to Lose Fat and Stay Lean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Update #3 - Ultra High Energy Diets For Athletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Section II: Questions and Answers with John Parrillo
The Benefits of Protein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Usage of Powdered Supplements as Meal Replacements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Weight Training to Lose Body Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
How to Eat Five to Six Meals a Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Many Benefits of Aerobics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
How to Avoid Losing Energy During Workouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
How to Keep Energy Levels High . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Pushing Past Plateaus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Eating the Right Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
About the Parrillo Nutrition and Training Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Off-Season Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Losing Body Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
The Trouble with Fruit and Fruit Juices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Finding the Perfect Supplement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Conventional Dietary Fats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Section III: Technical Supplement Bulletins
Bulletin #1 - MCFAs: A Fat That’s Not Stored as Body Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Bulletin #2 - MCFAs: An Amazing Energy Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Bulletin #3 - Energy and MCFAs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Bulletin #4 - MCFAs: Metabolic Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Bulletin #5 - Energetics and Thermogenesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Bulletin #6 - Liver: Natural Iron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Bulletin #7 - Protein: Superfood for Bodybuilders Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Bulletin #8 - Protein: Superfood for Bodybuilders Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Bulletin #9 - Carbs: Ultimate Food Fuel Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Bulletin #10 - Carbs: Ultimate Food Fuel Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Bulletin #11 - Carbs: Ultimate Food Fuel Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Bulletin #12 - Carbs: Ultimate Food Fuel Part IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Bulletin #13 - Supplements for Ultimate Endurance Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Bulletin #14 - Supplements for Ultimate Endurance Performance Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Bulletin #15 - Muscularity and Mass: Optimize Your Hormonal Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Bulletin #16 - The Insulin-Glucagon Axis and the Control of Nutrient Partitioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Bulletin #17 - Maximizing Anabolic Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Bulletin #18 - Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Bulletin #19 - The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Bulletin #20 - The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat, Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Bulletin #21 - The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat, Part 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Bulletin #22 - Fruit and Your Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Bulletin #23 - Fruitless Dieting: More On Why Fruit Turns To Body Fat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Bulletin #24 - Activating Muscular Growth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Bulletin #25 - Activating Muscular Growth: Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Bulletin #26 - Activating Muscular Growth: Part III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Bulletin #27 - Diet and Supplementation to Maximize Energy and Growth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Bulletin #28 - Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Bulletin #29 - Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Bulletin #30 - Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Bulletin #31 - Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Bulletin #32 - Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Bulletin #33 - Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Bulletin #34 - Muscle Up - The Keys To Building Mass And Staying Lean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Bulletin #35 - Muscle Up - The Keys To Building Mass And Staying Lean, Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Bulletin #36 - MCT’s - Setting The Record Straight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Bulletin #37 - Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth And Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Bulletin #38 - Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth And Energy, Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Bulletin #39 - Programmed For Success. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Bulletin #40 - Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Bulletin #41 - Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Bulletin #42 - Creatine: Why Has This Become A Must Supplement For Bodybuilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Bulletin #43 - High Performance Essential Fatty Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Bulletin #44 - Gain Muscle & Lose Fat: Breakthrough News For CapTri® Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Bulletin #45 - Fructose: The Ideal Carbohydrate Source For Gaining Fat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Bulletin #46 - Nutrition & Training 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Bulletin #47 - Exploring The High Fat Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Bulletin #48 - Exploring The High Fat Diet, Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Section III: Technical Supplement Bulletins Continued
Bulletin #49 - Energy Channeling For Ultimate Sports Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Bulletin #50 - Attention To Detail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Bulletin #51 - Endurance Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Bulletin #52 - Endurance Performance, Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Bulletin #53 - The Parrillo Performance Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Bulletin #54 - No Limits: How To Break Through Plateaus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Bulletin #55 - No Limits: How To Break Through Plateaus—Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Bulletin #56 - No Limits: How To Break Through Plateaus—Part 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Bulletin #57 - Carbohydrates — The Optimal Fuel For Success. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Bulletin #58 - Carbohydrates — The Optimal Fuel For Success, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Bulletin #59 - The Ultimate Growth Combo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Bulletin #60 - The Energetics of Nutrient Metabolism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Bulletin #61 - The Energetics of Nutrient Metabolism, Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Bulletin #62 - Ultimate Endurance Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Bulletin #63 - Losing Body Fat With CapTri®. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Bulletin #64 - Unlocking the Mystery of Fat Loss and Muscle Gain, Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Bulletin #65- Unlocking the Mystery of Fat Loss and Muscle Gain, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Bulletin #66- Optimizing Anabolic Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Bulletin #67 - Rock Solid Evidence Supports Taking Minerals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Bulletin #68- Lose Twenty Pounds of Fat and Gain Five Pounds of Muscle in Ten Weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Bulletin #69 - The Impact of Dietary Energy on Body Composition, Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Bulletin #70 - The Distribution of Dietary Energy and It’s Impact on Body Composition, Part II . . . . . . . . . 283
Bulletin #71- Growth Hormone Physiology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Bulletin #72 - Controlling Insulin for Optimal Results, Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Bulletin #73 - Controlling Insulin For Optimal Results, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Bulletin #74 - Controlling Body Fat Metabolism, Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Bulletin #75 - Controlling Body Fat Metabolism, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Bulletin #76 - Cortisol Suppression: Muscle Myth of Nutritional Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Bulletin #77 - Post Workout Nutrition, Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Bulletin #78 - Post Workout Nutrition, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Bulletin #79 - Counting Calories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Bulletin #80 - Rut Blasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Bulletin #81 - Eating for Muscle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Bulletin #82 - Rest to Grow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Bulletin #83 - Vitamins and Minerals, Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Bulletin #84 - Vitamins and Minerals, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Bulletin #85 - Vitamins and Minerals, Part III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Bulletin #86 - Carbohydrates: The Bodybuilders Best Friend or Worst Enemy?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Bulletin #87 - Build Muscle While Simultaneously Stripping Off Body Fat, Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Bulletin #88 - Build Muscle While Simultaneously Stripping Off Body Fat, Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Bulletin #89 - Creatine Update. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Bulletin #90 - Doing Carbs Right: Controlling Insulin Release. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Bulletin #91 - Zap The Fat Permanently. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Bulletin #92 - Boost Endurance Naturally and Safely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Bulletin #93 - Effect of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) on Cellular Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Bulletin #94 - Nutritional Supplementation: An Overview, Part I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Bulletin #95 - Nutritional Supplementation: An Overview, Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Bulletin #96 - The Protein Packed Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Bulletin #97 - Nutritional Supplementation: An Overview, Part III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Bulletin #98 - Immuno-Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Bulletin #99 - A Pumped Up Supplement Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Bulletin #100 - Jump Start the Fat Burning Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Bulletin #101 - Pumping Dietary Iron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Bulletin #102 - Recharge With Glutamine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Bulletin #103 - Supplementation Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Bulletin #104 - Nutrition for Older Athletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Bulletin #105 - The Latest Word on Amino Acid Supplements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Bulletin #106 - The Case Against Fruit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Bulletin #107 - Make the B-Grade for Ultimate Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Bulletin #108 - Evening Primrose Oil - When Fat is Your Best Friend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Bulletin #109 - Four Powerful Secrets to Physique Perfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Bulletin #110 - Pre-Exercise Supplementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Bulletin #111 - MEP’s or MRP’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Bulletin #112 - Mighty Minerals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Bulletin #113 - Food over Genetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Bulletin #114 - The Parrillo Guide to Amino Acid Supplementation (part 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Bulletin #115 - The Parrillo Guide to Amino Acid Supplementation (part 2 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Bulletin #116 - Mold More Muscularity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Bulletin #117 - The Parrillo 4-Step Prescription for Plateaus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Bulletin #118 - Your Guide to Supplement Bars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Bulletin #119 - The Latest Word on Fructose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Bulletin #120 - Boosting GH Naturally With Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Bulletin #121 - Body Type Dieting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Bulletin #122 - High Fat Dieting Taken to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Bulletin #123 - Calories: Why I Insist You Need Lots of Them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

Bulletin #124 - Supplement Secrets You Won’t Find in a Health Food Store. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Bulletin #125 - The Whey and Creatine Blast!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Bulletin #126 - Parrillo Bars: Catabolism’s Worst Enemy! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Bulletin #127 - Nutrient Partitioning: How To Control the Insulin/Glucagon Axis!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Bulletin #128 - Clearing Up the Confusion Over Carbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Bulletin #129 - Hormone Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Bulletin #130 - Creatine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Bulletin #131 - BCAA’s: Activating Muscular Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Bulletin #132 - Erythritol: Top Next Generation Sweetener. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Bulletin #133 - Captri®: Exploring The High Fat Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Bulletin #134 - The Winning Fat Loss Formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Bulletin #135 - The Anabolic Effect Of Food. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Bulletin #136 - Natural Regulation Of Cortisol To Maximize Lean Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Bulletin #137 - Herbs, Food, and Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Bulletin #138 - Creatine for Maximum Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Bulletin #139 - Recovery Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Bulletin #140 - The Scoop on How to Recupe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Bulletin #141 - Stay Fit & Lean This Holiday Season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Bulletin #142 - Ultimate Endurance Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Bulletin #143 - Supplementation & Rest Go Together. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Bulletin #144 - Fat Loss Accelerators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Bulletin #145 - Vitamin C’s Performance Punch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Bulletin #146 - Joint Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Bulletin #147 - Vitamin E for Health & Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Bulletin #148 - From Here to Serenity: How to Nutritionally Tame the Tension in Your Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Bulletin #149 - Nutrition 101: Get Lean By Getting Back to Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Bulletin #150 - 10 Reasons to Love Fats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Bulletin #151 - Prediabetes and Your Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Bulletin #152 - Inflammation and Your Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Bulletin #153 - Supplement Sense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Bulletin #154 - Parrillo Nutrition Supplies What Your Body Demands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Bulletin #155 - Carotenoids Count! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Bulletin #156 - The Many Wonders of Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Bulletin #157 - Dessicated Liver: A Nutrient Treasure Trove for Exercisers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Bulletin #158 - Eating Out on the Parrillo Nutrition Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Bulletin #159 - Fat-Burning Food Chemistry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Bulletin #160 - Parrillo Nutrition Program Boosters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Bulletin #161 - Using Creatine As a Weight-Loss Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Bulletin #162 - The Alternating Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Bulletin #163 - Protein Power - More Proof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Bulletin #164 - Supplementing For The Endurance Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Bulletin #165 - 8 Secrets to Keep Your Six-Pack Ripped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Bulletin #166 - Rest, Recuperation & GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
Bulletin #167 - Older Means Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Bulletin #168 - MCT Oil Really Is A Fat-Burning Fat!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Bulletin #169 - Amino Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Bulletin #170 - Back on the Wagon: My 2-Day Undo Diet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Bulletin #171 - The Real Superfoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511


Section IV: Medium Chain Triglyceride Technical Reports
Report #1 - Metabolism of Medium Chain Triglycerides: Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Report #2 - Metabolism of Fatty Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Report #3 - Cellular Energy Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Report #4 - Cellular Energy Production: Thermogenesis and Metabolic Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


VI © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance

C Update 1:
Gaining Muscle

O and Staying Lean

T Update 2:
Diet to Lose Fat

E and Stay Lean

T Update 3:
Ultra High Energy
Diets For Athletes

Results . . . That’s What You Get From Parrillo Products

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 

© 1999, 1992 Parrillo Performance. All rights reserved. Duplication of this book, or any portion, in any way
without the expressed written consent of Parrillo Performance is strictly prohibited by U.S. copyright laws. 

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Update #1

Gaining Muscle and Staying Lean:
A Common Sense Approach
by John Parrillo

Are you training hard but not put- After being digested, these fats are
ting on enough muscle? The answer transported to fat depots and stored.
is simple: eat more calories. The Simple sugars and other refined
problem is how do you eat plenty carbohydrates are released into the
of calories to make muscle without bloodstream more rapidly than they
getting fat at the same time? can be used for energy or converted
Whether you gain muscle or fat to glycogen. This elicits a large in-
depends largely on what foods you sulin release which in turn causes
eat. While too many calories from the excess sugar to be converted
any food can make you fat, some to fat. On the other hand, ex-
foods have much more tendency cess calories from protein and
to make you fat than others. To unrefined complex carbohy-
prove it to yourself, just pull out drates have less tendency
1000 calories of rice and chicken to be stored as fat. Good
from your diet and replace it with lean protein sources in-
1000 calories of cheese burgers and clude skinless chicken
french fries and see what happens. breast, skinless turkey
You have to learn to structure your breast, fish, and egg
diet so that you supply calories from whites. Good sourc-
foods that don’t make you fat. es of starchy carbs
There are different kinds of calo- are beans, rice, pota-
ries. Some foods make you fat and toes, peas, corn, and
oatmeal. We also
recommend you eat
a lot of fibrous veg-
You have to learn to etables such as spinach,
structure your diet so lettuce, carrots, broccoli, green
beans, and asparagus.
on the fire, then eating CapTri® is
like pouring gasoline on the fire.
that you supply calo- And here’s where CapTri® fits This makes CapTri® an ideal en-
ries from foods that in. CapTri® provides 8.3 calories
per gram - twice the caloric density
ergy source for bodybuilders and
other athletes - it allows you to
don’t make you fat. of protein or carbohydrates. But
consume a ton of calories without
instead of being stored as body fat
getting fat.
CapTri® is immediately burned to
The replacement of conventional
release energy (1). Whereas con- dietary fats with lipids like Cap-
some foods just naturally make you ventional fats are stored in body Tri® results in much less body fat
lean and muscular. Your worst ene- fat depots, CapTri® is transported (2,3). This is not so surprising since
mies are fatty foods and simple sug- directly to the liver where it is con- CapTri® is immediately burned for
ars. Conventional dietary fats are verted into energy (1). If eating energy while regular fats are just
very prone to be stored as body fat. regular food is like throwing a log stored as body fat. The amazing

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 

Gaining Muscle and Staying Lean: A Common Sense Approach

Effects of feeding carbohy-
drates, conventional fat, and
MCT on body componsition in
the rat. MCT feeding resulted
in 5 and 10% increases in
body protein as compared
to feeding carbohydrates or
comventional fats, respec-
tively. Daily lipid deposition
was 60% less in the MCT
group. Data from Crozier et
al, 1987, table 2.

thing is that diets containing lipids calories as fat. The amazing thing whereas conventional fats contrib-
like CapTri® result in less fat gain is that when lipids like CapTri® are ute to weight gain by increasing
than even low-fat diets (2,3). In included in the diet these fat-mak- body fat (7, 8). Medium chain
other words, CapTri® results in less ing enzymes are less active—even triglycerides like CapTri® increase
fat gain than carbohydrates. And if in the presence of insulin (2). This protein synthesis in the liver more
your weight goes up, and it’s not fat, suggests that CapTri® may permit so than conventional fats or glucose
then it must be lean mass. you to derive the anabolic effect of (7). Also, after glycogen stores have
To understand this you have insulin while avoiding its fat-pro- been depleted the branched chain
to know something about carbohy- moting effects. Could this be the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and
drate metabolism. Carbohydrates reason athletes on our diet expe- valine are oxidized as fuel in the
are released into the bloodstream rience increased muscularity with muscles. In the liver, CapTri® is
as glucose and this stimulates the
pancreas to release insulin. Insu-
lin in turn causes cells to absorb If eating food is like throwing a log on the
glucose and amino acids, support-
ing growth. For this reason many
fire, then eating CapTri® is like pouring
people consider insulin to be the gasoline on the fire. This makes CapTri®
most powerful anabolic (growth-
promoting) hormone. However, an ideal energy source for bodybuilders and
insulin and glucose also promote
fat accumulation by increasing stor- other athletes because it allows you to con-
age of fatty acids in fat cells. So
the same hormone which promotes
sume a ton of calories without getting fat.
growth also promotes fat storage.
If carbohydrates are released into
converted into ketone bodies which
the bloodstream faster than they can decreased body fat?
be used for energy and to replace The anti-catabolic properties of are released into the bloodstream
glycogen, the excess will be stored CapTri® are another good reason and used as fuel (1). “Skeletal mus-
as fat. to include it in your mass building cle can readily burn ketone bodies
The enzymes that make new body diet. Studies show that lipids like for fuel and may spare the oxida-
fat and convert glucose into fat are CapTri® spare body protein (7). tion of branched chain amino acids
less active if lipids like CapTri® Structured lipids, which contain and reduce skeletal muscle protein
are included in the diet. Insulin medium chain fatty acids, improve catabolism,” (6). The sparing of
normally stimulates these fat-stor- nitrogen balance and are believed to BCAA would leave these amino
ing enzymes to store any excess increase weight by protein retention acids available to build muscles in- 

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Thermic effect of me. Clin. food comes first. Kolpek. © 2004. Abumrad. and Rapp. Nutr. 36:950-962 (1982). Thermogen- is purified from coconut oil by frac. Babayan. Medium chain triglyc- mediately burned for energy in. Warenko. Sharp.Gaining Muscle and Staying Lean: A Common Sense Approach stead of being burned as fuel. formance Nutrition Program. Structured lipids: fats from CapTri®. ent molecular structure than regular genesis and body fat fats and this results in it being im. CapTri® is the most highly refined. Proper Just one tablespoon of CapTri® nutrition is the foundation of body. a chance to be stored as fat. in the rat. Girard. Nutr. by J. Seaton. Lipids stead of being stored as body fat 22: 417-420 (1987).of the future. (1978). Food Technology. With Parrillo. The formulation of Cap- Tri® was specifically designed for people who want to be as lean as possible. 1991. In CapTri®. J. Welle. for adding lean body mass and What sets us apart is our program keeping bodyfat to a minimum. J. all of the harmful 3. 44: 630-634 (1986). try CapTri®. ultrapurified MCT on the market. chain triglycerides in man. We’re here to show you how to get big. CapTri® triglycerides in the rat. Metabolism 38: crude oil. esis in humans tional distillation.big time. erides and structured lipids. Kennedy. Hill. If you need to go up in calories to put on more muscle. ment. Nutr. Clin. or any other supple. Nutr. is burned so fast that it doesn’t have 36: 807-814 (1987). John Parrillo. Metabolism metabolism and clinical use. Bach and Babayan. CapTri® is available exclusively from Parrillo Perfor- mance. Am. Peters. with each meal provides the building success. References CapTri® is a special lipid called 1. use it in conjunction with dium chain and long Nov. This is the same during overfeeding with medium way that jet fuel is purified from 2. 76-83. CapTri® has a differ. p. (1). Kaler. Now. then supplements. Record. describes the ultimate diet for bodybuilders. Chanez. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404  . Crozier. 108: 613-620 6. and Peret. basic principles of healthy nutrition. The Parrillo Per. We provide the quality colories your body needs information you need to make your effort in the gym pay off . long chain fats have been removed. medium chain triglyceride on lipo. To derive the maximum benefit 4. and Greene. Campbell. Prac. the proper diet. a medium chain triglyceride which chain triglycerides: an update. and 8. Medium 5. Lavau and Hashim. Yang.641-648 (1989). Clin. How to eat to gain muscle and lose fat. Metabolic effects 7. Am. chain versus medium chain length which is absorbed and metabolized term feeding of medium chain triglycerides . We find that basic nutrition gets better results than high-tech hype. Long leaving only a pure energy source induced by long. Effect of chain triglycerides. 1:129-135 (1986). Bois-Joyeux. is based on sound.a review of as rapidly as glucose (1).

 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

if you lose muscle mass have different effects on your way to lose weight is just to eat your metabolic rate automatically body. you can shift your thinks it’s starving.Parrillo Performance Update #2 Diet to Lose Fat and Stay Lean by John Parrillo loss. Foods like cheese burgers less. By speed- fat during low calorie ing up your metabolism you can diets. activating your fat storage sys- ing energy to maintain itself and tems? By feeding your body the fuel activities. When it comes to fat diet you do lose weight. And since mus. On the other hand. And sure enough. right combinations of foods. When your ticular food divided by the result- helps you stay lean while you’re body’s starving it wants to hold ing weight gain (3). in calories per hour (1). fat- down your metabolic rate to burning mode. You actually Parrillo Performance Nutrition lose more muscle than Program is all about. Just like a certain diet lipoprotein lipase (2). if not more. So exercise. there are no miracles of it is muscle and water. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404  . ensure its survival. at cally reduce calories your body the right times.” cle and you gain back mostly fat. ting calories actually promotes fat to get fat eating rice and fish. Your metabolic rate is your So what do you do? How body’s rate of energy expen. can you achieve an energy def- diture. it’s hard expend then you’ll lose weight. fat. It takes a in the process your metabolism good lean diet and slows down and your fat stor- plenty of aerobic age systems are cranked up.the calories consumed of a par- you do it. The higher gaining muscle. and french fries tend to make you consume less calories than you Paradoxically. the more that will help you hold onto your mus. And or shortcuts. consumption you gain back the proach to dieting weight you lost. cle while you’re losing fat. icit without losing muscle and Your body is constantly consum. stores represent an energy reserve Foods with a low food efficiency We believe that proper nutrition to keep you alive until the famine are more prone to be burned for is the foundation of bodybuilding passes. © 2004. so it slows metabolism into an anabolic. So during a low calorie energy instead of being converted success. Sci- But whether the weight you lose storage by increasing the activity entists call this “food efficiency” is muscle or fat depends on how of a fat storage enzyme called . That’s what the save fuel. When you drasti. but most to body weight. diets are not effective. The we call “building difference is you lost mostly mus- your metabolism. so the net result of your diet is self. give your body all that you’re fatter than when you the nutrients and calories it started. different foods People used to believe that the tissue. calories per hour than fat As you know. Your body fat food contributes to weight gain. We’ve when you resume normal caloric developed an ap. This is why low calorie needs to be healthy. achieve an energy deficit without cular tissue burns more cutting calories. to try and the food efficiency. Instead of starving your. if you slows down. drastically cut. the proper diet on to all the fat it can.

Bodybuilders use CapTri® while dieting because it has a lower food efficiency than car- bohydrates and conventional fats (3. CapTri® is burned rapidly in the liver (4. stimulating fat stor. insulin pro- the energy density of fat but is (3. As a Unfortunately. The carni- molecular structure of CapTri® presence of insulin (8). This is why not result. CapTri® has a lower food fat cells to absorb glucose and much body fat is burned for ener- efficiency than regular fats (3. malonyl-CoA. excess calories from CapTri® Metabolic rate for the six hour period following MCT. even under the carnitine shuttle is activated. And less carbohydrates motes fat storage) and activate not stored as body fat (4). 6. efficiently converted to energy. thereby stimulating growth. When conventional dietary age. hormone. 8). 8). CapTri® harnesses drates. This means that it’s harder for your body to convert CapTri® into fat than it is to store excess carbohydrates as fat. The thermic effect of feeding (TEF) was this means you burn more calories calculated as the metabolic rate following feeding minus the per hour. the furnaces in- Instead of being transported to response to an increase in blood side cells where foods are burned fat depots like regular fats.000 Calories). Instead of being stored as fat. leaner (6. ing mode. 10). in Calories per hour. During low carb diets fats are replaced with lipids like active when lipids like CapTri® no malonyl-CoA is produced so CapTri®. 5) and some of the energy is released as body heat in a process known as thermogenesis. insulin also causes carnitine shuttle. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . reduce carbs you in turn reduce glyceride.or LCT- are converted to body heat. also produced by the efficiency than carbohydrates (3. glucose (sugar). it has less tendency to store as Scientific studies have shown body fat. gy as long as carbohydrate fuel is 5). Since CapTri is more 7. Glucagon is another CapTri® also have a lower food Bodybuilders have used low. Insulin tine shuttle is a transport system results in it being metabolized is an anabolic hormone which which moves fatty acids inside differently than conventional fats. The thermogenic effect is probably the most im- portant reason why CapTri® has such a low food efficiency (5. When you fat called a medium chain tri. total ingested energy (1. The bar graph at right expresses TEF as percent of tional fats or carbohydrates (3. and containing meals. which inhibits the to produce energy (4. even in the the carnitine shuttle. are used in place of carbohy. test animals stay much are added to the diet. 8). 7). The are converted into fat. 6.  © 2004. 5). Probably the most conditions of insulin stimulation The body shifts into a fat-burn- amazing thing is that lipids like (8). and LCT. 7. 8). Insulin causes for energy. The area between ries from CapTri® contribute less to fat stores than an equivalent the curves (shaded represents the difference in TEF for MCT number of calories from conven. is released from the pancreas in mitochondria . Cap. fatty acids.Diet to Lose Fat and Stay Lean CapTri® is a special kind of that when lipids like CapTri® carb diets for years. Carbohydrate metabo- Tri® is transported directly to the cells to absorb glucose and amino lism generates a by-product called liver and is immediately burned acids. This explains why calo- fasting metabolic rate. Fat storage enzymes are less available. body fat stores are lower insulin (remember. 9. 7.

Nutr. 2. the slow-down in metabolic rate 1. 9. Bach and Babayan. Sharp. sponse to tion and increased glucagon re. Clin. Peters. 952. Am. Physiology. 37: You’re really not consuming any 1-4 (1983). Thermic effect of me- fects induced by long-term feed. Bracco. overfeeding with diet contain- lease. Bracco. of glucose. ing medium chain triglyceride. 108: 613-620 (1978). glyceride diet lism slows down because you’re results in diminished deposi- not consuming enough calories. New (1989). And do your aerobics. Med. This re. Bois-Joyeux. Metabolic ef. actions of insulin. (1987).B. Engl. which inevitably results from cal. goes down. Lavau and Hashim. In the new low-carb 7. glucose is used for energy and the for people who want to be as lean excess is stored as glycogen and as possible. expression of adipose tissue lipo. while cutting carbohydrates. from CapTri® provide the energy you need to keep training hard. but with the opposite stead of being stored as fat. The effects of Thermogenesis in humans during CapTri®. 6. this means medium chain triglycerides in Clin. Metabolism 38: 641-648 stay lean and maintain energy in very obese humans. Saunders. Seaton. p. and Peret. The calories (1982). After you eat a CapTri® is the most highly big carbohydrate meal your body refined. W. References lipogenesis and body fat in the ries from carbohydrates you avoid rat.Diet to Lose Fat and Stay Lean pancreas. Nutr. tive and fat metabolism proceeds Am. J. Yang. 36:950-962 down too. minished deposition of fat in re- sults in decreased insulin produc. Geliebter. As the blood glucose level exclusively from Parrillo Perfor. 10. 35: 678-682 at a maximal rate. the insulin level goes mance. Torbay. glycerides and structured lipids. Some of the Tri® was specifically designed Lipids 22: 417-420 (1987). Textbook of Medical Nutr. with medium chain triglyc- gram. 1976. of medium chain triglyceride on an equivalent number of calo. The carnitine shuttle is ac. J. Kaler. Am. 8. After your cells run out good source of calories to provide (1982). Crozier. 322: 1053 (1990). Nutr. 3. strategy. Medium fat. and Van Itallie. and Girard. Effect Also. Hashim. and Greene. Campbell. Kern et al. Since Cap. by substituting CapTri® for Tri®. and Hashim. the rat. tion of fat. than carbohydrates. Baba. Chanez. The problem with the old low. Hill. fuels that your body likes to use for energy. try Cap- as a signal to begin burning fat. Welle. Guyton. to absorb glucose. gives you the calories to protein lipase erides. Published by orie-restricted diets. J. J. dium chain and long chain Tri® has a lower food efficiency ing of triglycerides in man. Abumrad. So if you’re looking for a Am. you use CapTri® in Enhanced thermogenesis and di- place of starchy carbs. Nutr. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404  . Warenko. glucagon is released energy while dieting. CapTri® is available 5. chain triglycerides: an update. J. as a regular supple. Babayan. Medium chain tri- releases insulin which causes cells market. Metabolism 36: 807-814 © 2004. weight loss on the activity and overfeeding ment to your nutrition pro. 44: 630-634 (1986). ultrapurified MCT on the 4. The formulation of Cap. Over- carb diets is that you don’t have feeding with medium chain tri- much energy and your metabo. your calories will be burned in. Clin. J. Clin.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .10 © 2004.

The liver and muscles insulin stimulates fat cells to store the lymphatic system. dietary fat has a very strong your body reserves fat for its storage tendency to deposit as form of energy. The triglycerides. into carrier particles which inhibits the carnitine shuttle called chylomicrons (1).000 calories a day to fuel their chylomicrons are released from the ent molecular structure than body activities and support growth.little furnaces not soluble in water and inside cells where foods are burned. Fat is nature’s the neck. In themselves . right? Why doesn’t your body just go it following a different metabolic Not quite. in matically store it in fat depots. this makes them very The problem is regular fats can’t hard for your body to make it into the mitochondria by digest and absorb. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 11 .000 transporting large particles.including to fat regular fats are incorporated into the caloric density of protein or car. fat it can compact more energy into ing burned for energy. So most of delivered to fat cells? CapTri® is a amounts of fat for energy. Most bodybuilders these forms of fuel your body uses for rectly from the small intestine to the © 2004. As you know. intestinal cells these Carbohydrate metabolism generates fats are incorporated a by-product called malonyl-CoA. The chylomicrons doesn’t burn much fat for energy Athletes and other extremely are released from the small intestine until the carbs are used up. bodybuilders avoid fat like the of storing it? There are two primary CapTri® is transported di- plague. Parrillo Performance Update #3 Ultra High Energy Diets for Athletes by John Parrillo days try to limit fat consumption to energy: fat and carbohydrate. Inside as carbohydrate fuels are available.they have to be carried fact. stores. CapTri® has a differ- to 10. In sedentary people. fat. Remember how providing 9 calories per gram . It problem with using fat as an energy burns the carbs first and saves the fat source? for later. your body treats it more like a most concentrated energy source.twice throughout the body . Fats are converted into energy tional dietary fats are in the mitochondria . active people have an increased need into the lymphatic system. a network CapTri® is a member of a for energy. and are ultimately are capable of metabolizing large fat molecules as body fat. soluble in water. ahead and burn the fat as fuel instead pathway. That’s lymphatic system into the blood. Why? Because fat is twice The main thing is that as concentrated in calories as carbs. What’s the bohydrate is your body’s favorite. And the car- capillary beds of the nitine shuttle isn’t very active as long small intestine. This is the reason your body (1). So fat the fat on your plate is going to end much smaller molecule and is more should be a great source of energy up on your waist or hips. Some bodybuilders and of vessels throughout the body for class of lipids called medium chain endurance athletes consume 8. The presence of glucose and chylomicrons. transported via the bohydrate. a smaller space. Car- as low as 5% of calories. fact. so your body doesn’t just auto- about five times as much energy as stream through the thoracic duct. and this results in for athletes. tion the chylomicrons are transported carbohydrate (2). the fat molecules inside by a transport system called can’t even get into the the carnitine shuttle (1). By storing energy as body fat instead of be. Once in the general circula. Here’s why: Conven.

12 © 2004. It’s especially notice- to produce energy (3). Inside mitochondria. The formulation of CapTri® dria. In the than conventional fats (2). Unlike conventional fats. Ketone bodies are a fast burning even while there are still plenty of oxidation. CapTri® is burned bodies (2). more intense ous metabolic fates. If you’re The mitochondrion. Lipids into the mitochondria by itself and portion of the acetyl-CoA is then di. Your body can store a market. Entry of conventional fats is limited by the activity of the carnitine shuttle. CapTri® into drinks so that they can How does the energy from Bodybuilders and endurance go farther before running out of gly- CapTri® get to my muscles? Since athletes know all too well that when cogen. was specifically designed for people step in fatty acid oxidation.2). Since CapTri® can enter by itself. An added your glycogen reserves last longer acetyl-CoA can then experience vari. it bypasses the rate limiting very limited amount of carbohydrate. benefit is that the ketones produced you’ll have longer. And if intermediate called acetyl-CoA. (4). like CapTri® have been shown to doesn’t require the carnitine shuttle rected toward the synthesis of ketone decrease glucose uptake and utiliza- (1.Ultra High Energy Diets for Athletes liver by the portal vein (1. ing burned as fuel (3). The uptake and utilization (5). fatty acid leaving them available for use as to provide energy for long hard synthesis or elongation. (3). in the liver who want to be as lean as possible. atoms are removed from the fatty by muscles (3). production via the Krebs cycle and tion of branched chain amino acids. Blocks of two carbon fuel and are used quite efficiently carbohydrate fuels available (4). you run refined. Scientists have shown CapTri® is available exclusively much more rapidly and extensively that depletion of a muscle’s glycogen from Parrillo Performance. you run out of glycogen. Endurance athletes mix tion of ketone bodies (2). out of energy.2). CapTri® is the most highly CapTri® does not require the carni. Ketone bodies have This additional energy source makes acid chain. Therefore. reserve coincides with the onset of liver CapTri® is immediately burned er CapTri® is metabolized so rapidly fatigue (6). ultrapurified MCT on the tine shuttle for entry into mitochon. In the liv. protein in the muscles instead of be. Medium in the form of glycogen. Bodybuilders use CapTri® oxidative phosphorylation. it is immediately burned for energy. CapTri® can get can be overwhelmed (2). A major getting ready for a show. workouts. and forma. In contrast to that the capacity of the Krebs cycle able when you’re on a low-carb diet conventional fats. workouts. chain fatty acids are thus burned and muscles. The ketone bodies are tion (5) resulting in a glucose-sparing at the same time as carbohydrates released into the bloodstream and are effect (7). 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . generating a metabolic been observed to decrease glucose the glycogen last longer. including ATP from CapTri® also spare the oxida. CapTri® taken up by muscles and used as fuel CapTri® can be burned for energy is burned in a process called beta.

Published by McGraw-Hill Book Company. CapTri® provides References bodybuilders and endurance 1.The Mechanisms of Body Function. Nutr. Clin. as many as a 6. 45: 927- 939 (1987). Kolpek. Sucher. Lipids 22: 417-420 (1987). Medium chain triglycerides and structured lipids. 6. 44: 146-150 (1986). A metabolic comparison of pure long chain triglyceride lipid emulsion (LCT) and various medium chain triglyceride (MCT)-LCT com- bination emulsions in dogs.a review of to be used as fuel. Bach and Babayan. 236. Johnson. 3. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 13 . Vander. for energy.5 ounce baked potato. Prac. 108: 613-620 (1978). try CapTri®. Record. 4. Cotter. Prac. Effect of medium chain triglyceride on lipo- genesis and body fat in the rat. Clin. 1980. and Rowe. 2. Am. athletes a high-density energy Long chain versus medium chain source immediately available length triglycerides . metabolism and clinical use.Ultra High Energy Diets for Athletes 5. p. Lavau and Hashim. Medium chain tri- glycerides: a review of their enteral use in clinical nutrition. © 2004. 36:950-962 (1982). Medium chain triglycerides: an update. J. 1:129-135 (1986). Nutr. Am. 7. and Rapp. Sherman. Babayan. Clin. Figure 2: The Carnitine Shuttle. Human Physiology . Nutr. J. looking for a concentrated source of One tablespoon of CapTri® calories which can readily be used is loaded with 114 calories. Nutr. Clin. Nutr. Taylor. J. and Lu- ciano.

14 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

Section II © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 15 .

16 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

I have seen many bodybuilders im- for protein than the average person. hemo- body weight a day — the equivalent of 0. These are high in fat which easily con- Serious bodybuilders train aerobically as well. Now about amino acids. little protein is left pound bodybuilder would require 73 grams of protein a to rebuild red blood cells at the normal rate. and egg yolks.0 to 1. Like including a bodybuilder’s training intensity and level most athletes. The other .Q. Clearly. bodybuilders must include ample protein Protein supplies nutrients called amino acids which in their diets to promote muscular fitness.9 grams of protein per pound of body weight a body weight a day. Unfortunately the RDA was established with aver.36 grams per globin.25 to 1. and organs. ten weight lifters trained intensely and con. In one study. Dur- ers is as hotly debated as the entire subject of nutrition. and plasma proteins as a source of protein for pound of body weight a day. corn and legumes. hard need greater amounts of protein. age people in mind — not athletes.5 per protein intake from 1. one gram of your day. let’s take a look at what Aerobic training in a protein-deficient state can lead science says. are made from amino acids. Without enough prove their physiques by increasing their protein intake protein. for training bodybuilders can achieve excellent results by example. Based on the RDA. for ex- ample. Avoid red meats lean mass. Can you clear up some of this confusion about protein and amino acids. repair its breakdown to as high as 2. after the body uses up its stored carbohydrate for energy.” in which red The amount of protein actually required by bodybuild. Four of these athletes were found to be in negative protein intake per pound of body weight should come nitrogen balance. the body draws on red blood cells. Various studies indicate that weight training athletes Based on our experience at Parrillo Performance. — nearly seven times the RDA. blood cells and serum iron levels are reduced. weight a day were able to increase both strength and particularly beans. When this happens. I’ve heard so many things about how much protein is enough and how much is too much. to a condition called “sports anemia. in fact. consuming 1. Prolonged aerobic exercise. “Can’t the body only digest 50 grams of protein a day? Isn’t too much protein bad for you? this places some particular demands on the protein needs of the body.5 grams per pound of body weight a day after training.8 grams per kilograms of intake is low. Individual are required for every metabolic process. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 17 . We’ve been getting a barrage of calls and questions lately about protein. can burn amino acids. and verts to body fat. a 200. or drive your metabolism. fish. bodybuilders have higher requirements of conditioning. weight lifters who increased their poultry. and egg whites. On our program.6 grams per pound of body pound of body weight should come from vegetables. anemia can be the result. you cannot build muscle. To address these questions. If your protein daily allowance (RDA) at 0. These provide another way © 2004. ing training muscle fibers are damaged and must be The National Research Council sets the recommended repaired following the exercise period. All muscles protein needs vary and depend on a number of factors.5 grams of protein per pound of sumed 0. and sports day. from lean protein sources such as lean white meat In another study. muscular repair. 25 to . thus elevating protein Can too many amino acids be harmful?” requirements. A.

18 © 2004. Calcium balance can be maintained during high protein diets by assuring adequate calcium and phosphorus intake (at least the RDA. Many studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between protein intake and urinary calcium excretion. Drinking plenty of water aids the kidneys in removing this nitrogenous waste and dilutes calcium salts which could form kidney stones. To protect lean body mass. which is con- verted to urea and excreted in the urine and sweat. Some studies show that protein improves calcium absorption while others show the opposite. The branched chain amino acids leucine. Results are equivocal regarding protein intake and calcium absorption. Protein metabolism generates ammonia. Amino acid formulations are especially beneficial during periods of intense train- ing and strict dieting. there is no evidence suggesting that strength athletes consuming a high-protein diet have an increased incidence of kidney disease. By carrying nitrogen. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . isoleucine and valine are directly involved in building muscle tis- sue. Notably. they assist the muscles in synthesizing other amino acids to promote growth and repair. Questions & Answers With John Parrillo to take in additional protein. many competitive bodybuilders increase their usage several months before competition. 800-1200 mg/day) from both diet and supplementation. The data suggesting that a high-protein diet contributes to the progressive nature of disease come from people with pre-existing kidney problems. People consuming a high-protein diet should be sure to drink plenty of water and to get enough calcium.

and fibrous carbohydrates. such as legumes and other starchy carbohydrates con. food cells from the invasion of the bacteria responsible for will always work the most effectively.” If you jejunum (the second section of the small intestine) do not eat the proper foods --lean proteins. The presence of food. No supplement can ever provide all the ben- are interrupted. The Parrillo Performance Nutrition Program tells you One family of these bacteria is called bifidobacterium. Oligosaccharides have also been shown to protect © 2004. Foods liquid supplements alone. The ability of oligo- in the breakdown.coli from colonizing. . for example. Without food.Q. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 19 . Food plays an important role in nutrition and health. exactly how to do this. We were built to process food is hindered. Sci- provides something that all-supplement entists are now exploring the use of oligosaccharides diets do not: the raw materials your body needs for in the treatment of digestive disorders. and enzymes in the duo. and other health problems. and fats – not powdered or Other important issues are involved as well. absorption. these processes matters. elevated blood growth or for stimulating chemical processes involved fats. Are they effective or is this just hype? A.” your physique. I’ve read a lot about using powdered supplements as meal replacements. the sugars have been called “bifidus factors. E. In the Parrillo Performance Nutrition Program. certain types of pneumonia. I suggest that you forget the hype (and When bifidobacterium and other helpful bacteria are that’s what it is) surrounding all-supplement diets or present in the gi tract. and athletes. sometimes deadly bacteria such as salmonella and And that means food. they prevent dangerous and meal replacement programs and get back to basics. and it is well known that breast-fed infants quickly develop a protective population of bifidobacte- ria.” effective. saccharides to promote healthy bacterial growth un- trients. you cannot obtain and fiber — to do the job for which it was designed. In other words. The digestive process. That’s not to say certain types of supplements are not tain special complex sugars called “oligosaccharides. and the proper assimilation of nutrients efits that food supplies. requires derlines the importance of food as the source for these “real” food — complete with its balance of nutrients protective factors. influenza. Human milk is another food that contains oligosac- charides. either to lose body fat or put on mass. Because of the oligosaccharides’ effect on this type of If you want to make the best possible progress with bacteria. we have found that food is The bacterial population of the gi tract obviously superior to all-supplement diets. starchy stimulates the production of hormones required for the carbohydrates. carbohydrates. such factors from supplements. They are — but only when taken with food These sugars exert a healthful effect on the growth of and at the proper time and in the proper combinations. beneficial bacteria in the gastro-intestinal (gi) tract. and other seri- In years of working with bodybuilders ous respiratory tract infections. proteins. To get the results you want. and assimilation of nu. we denum (the first section of the small intestine) and the state that “food is the cornerstone of nutrition. nothing else absorption of nutrients. acids.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .20 © 2004.

Through tiguing. But that’s what The pure fast-twitch fibers are different. I suggest that you fibers perform well in endurance competition. They contract you have to do to change the fat-burning capacity of rapidly but fatigue more easily. Remember too that you must fol- from burning glycogen. vessels. this type of training lytic (FOG or Type IIa) and pure fast-twitch (FT or actually increases the number of mitochondria in fast- Type IIb). Athletes (food and supplements) as outlined in the Parrillo who excel in speed or power events such as sprinting Performance Nutrition Program to fuel this level of or weight lifting appear to have a higher percentage of intensity. Furthermore. And the reason has to do But like the slow-twitch variety. These fibers are used more in endurance activi. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 21 . the basic ele. fast-twitch fibers. a process that requires oxygen. This is you finish a set. fat can be burned by with the muscle fibers. but they do not fatigue as fast. athletes with a predominance of slow-twitch If you want to burn more body fat. do high-rep work using heavy poundages. ment of the muscle. But they can twitch fibers.fat-burning machine. fast-twitch oxidative-glyco. © 2004. It’s an all-out inside their cells. twitch fibers to levels higher than those found in slow- The slow-twitch fibers contract slowly.high-volume training your body literally becomes as ties such as long-distance running or swimming. Muscle fibers are Interestingly. Increase the frequency and duration of further kindled by the fibers’ ample supply of blood your aerobics too. This may be because they have more mitochondria than the pure fast-twitch type but less than the slow-twitch fibers. Work out Slow-twitch fibers get most of their energy from intensely — so that you are breathing hard each time burning fat. Ge.intensity training.Q. nutrient-dense nutrition program in the cellular make-up of fast-twitch fibers. Definitely.the fast-twitch muscle fibers burn more fat. you can change pure fast-twitch fibers divided into three types: slow-twitch into fast-twitch oxidative fibers by high-volume train- (also called slow-oxidative (SO) or ing such as long duration aerobics or intense high- Type I). Fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers contract quickly too. With more mitochondria in muscle cells. Does weight training have any direct effect on fat- burning? A. netically.the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic variety for energy. Their energy comes your muscle fibers. sustain their contractions for long periods without fa. There are fewer mitochondria low a high-calorie. approach that verges on over-training. mitochondria (cellular furnaces where fat and This regimen is precisely how competitive body- other nutrients are burned) and glycogen and blood fats builders train to lose fat before a contest.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .22 © 2004.

Second. An example of an eat-anywhere er forced into a starvation mode. a leading muscle magazine has called him “an drink it. With meals coming meal is a Supplement Bar. a can of at regular intervals. Manual™. tuna. Frequent meals also increase “thermogenesis. So the more meals is ready for microwaving. fill it with water. Following a meal. This works well if you can’t prepare a full as a result. The Parrillo Performance Nutri- multiple meals that include starchy carbohydrates help tion Manual™ and The Parrillo Performance Training keep insulin constantly present in the body. the higher your metabolism stays throughout supplements such as the Parrillo Supplement Bar™. and fact. your body learns to process food tuna. This pow. This pattern of eating is HIGH PERFORMANCE BODYBUILDING and his metabolically beneficial in three ways. exercise and nutrition genius who knows more maxi- and some raw fibrous carbs. incorporate meal you eat. and some fibrous carbs such as raw broccoli or more efficiently. your food evated as a result of thermogenesis. or Hi-Protein Powder™ into your daily Finally. Insulin’s release is triggered by the conversion of carbohydrate into glucose by the liver. Here are sev- eral tips that will help you get all your acids available to muscle tissue for growth and recov- ery. and your metabolism is accelerated cauliflower.Q. When you’re ready to eat. In bottle. growth-producing hormone helps make amino © 2004. you are nev- nutrition program. meal. cook several meals ahead production of body heat from the burning of food for of time each day and pack them in plastic containers energy. or more meals a day. along with some chicken. with a constant nutrient supply. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 23 . Often it’s hard to get my five to six meals every day. Got any suggestions? A. I have a busy schedule. erful.” John is the author of the new book five. First. Like most people these days. your metabolic rate is el- until you’re ready to eat them. Sticking to a multiple-meals nutrition program is easier and more convenient than most people realize. Another good idea is to put a couple of scoops of John Parrillo is the creator of the high-calorie ap- ProCarb™ and/or Hi-Protein Powder™ in your water proach to losing body fat and burning muscle. or rice cakes. ProCarb™. To begin with. six. That way. mizing muscle mass and losing body fat than anyone I’m glad that you recognize the importance of eating else in the world.” the meals in. several rice cakes. the day for fat burning and muscle building. best selling manuals.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .24 © 2004.

including muscles. This loss. fat. The more blood vessels you have Train consistently like this. Blood your heart rate. Second. Third. day. the longer and more intense metabolic changes take place inside the body.Q. particularly in “aerobic intensity. your metabolism is activated for the entire covery mechanisms. bics in your training program. the better your the mitochondria (cellular furnaces where fat and other cardiovascular density. it’s enough quality calories. In other words. Take in to boost general cardiovascular conditioning. Optimal cardiovascular is not achieved by just raising ing the number and size of your blood vessels. Granted. but more fat is being burned because more can’t create any new supply routes for your newly work is being performed. however. Also. Without aero. however. Most people don’t understand the importance of cally shy away from aerobic exercise. and your body’s maximum capability to deliver oxygen to carry waste products away for muscular growth. your workouts can be. and some important and the bigger they are. Plus. heart rate long enough. but is rather optimally achieved by in- vessels are the “supply routes” that transport oxygen creasing “oxygen uptake” or VO2max. you burn more fat. from fat-burning to re-supplied to muscles. Never underestimate the power of aero. You become leaner as a result. increas. First. I’ve heard that doing aerobic exercise is a good way to burn body fat. Reaching target heart rate training is simply not eating enough to compensate and keeping it there for at least 20 minutes is supposed for the calories spent by the aerobic activity. By exercising before your first in fat-burning. the greater potential you have nutrients are burned) increase in size and total number for building bigger muscles. repair the working muscles. the expansion of this circulatory network 2max? By exercising so intensely that you’re breath- is called “cardiovascular density. The harder you breathe the more energy you Your ability to build additional muscle is limited by expend. without being turned into body cardiovascular health to improved re.” For a long time now you’ve prob- the growth season. muscle fibers build up Do your aerobics in the morning for 45 to 60 minutes more aerobic enzymes — special chemicals involved — before breakfast. Aerobic exercise appears to in- meal. This is the elevation of the pulse to aerobics and more to do with improper diet. developed muscles. It has Then later. Aerobics forces oxygen through your body. and the more fat your burn. a percentage of fat is being burned compared to total bics in your total bodybuilding program. typi. less of your degree of cardiovascular density. approximately 60 to 80 percent of your maximum heart builder who loses muscle during a period of aerobic rate (220 minus your age). Many bodybuilders. This represents and nutrients to body tissues. So how do you boost your VO- and recovery. absence of glycogen. fearing that it will cause a loss of ably been urged to achieve your “target heart rate” dur- muscle mass.” ing hard. the carbohydrates you eat are efficiently numerous benefits. has less to do with ing aerobic activity. but won’t it also cause me to lose muscle mass? A. A body. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 25 . you begin burning fatty acids for energy in the crease levels of myoglobin. your body calories. a muscle compound that © 2004. and you’ll preserve muscle always been assumed that if you exercise at your target mass while your body fat drops. inside muscle fibers.

” Work out hard. so that you’re breathing hard. and as a result their muscles are conditioned to rely more heavily on fat for energy and less on stored car- bohydrate (glycogen). 26 © 2004. at my recommended duration. Questions & Answers With John Parrillo accelerates the transfer of oxygen from the bloodstream into the muscle fibers. the more fat you burn. perform aerobics several times a week. Endurance athletes have known these things all along. That’s why bodybuilders can learn a lot from the training regimens of endurance athletes. They train regularly and at long duration at or near their VO2max. To approach the training level of an endurance athlete. greater levels of aerobic enzymes. So you can see why intense aerobic is so important for leaning out. Remember to eat more protein so that you don’t develop sports anemia. Larger mitochondria and more of them. The more aerobically fit you become and the harder you train. and increased blood flow — these factors all boost the fat-burning capability of muscle fibers. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . the more your body learns to burn fat for energy. But don’t “coast. The harder you breathe.

Your meals should consist of lean proteins. © 2004. in addition to regular supplementation of vitamins. drink a carbohydrate supplement such as Pro-Carb™ while working out. six or more meals per day with ample calories to fulfill your energy requirments. About 30 minutes before training take a supplement such as Max Endurance Formula™. Also. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 27 . wrong and what can I do about it? It sounds to me like your might not be taking in enough calories throughout the day. miner- als. Halfway through my workouts.Q. lipotropics and others. I’m losing energy in the gym. complex carbs and fibrous carbs. Make sure you’re fueling your body properly by eating five. Also. To replace glycogen stores (muscle fuel) following your workout. This combination will give you a slow release of glucose for sustained energy levels throughout the day. This should help delay the onset of fatigue. strachy. I feel that this is stalling my progress. practice pre-and post-workout supplementation. What’s A. aminos. supplement again with Pro-Carb™ or one of our supplement bars.

28 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

either aerobically or with weights. Each meal should be structured to include a lean sickness. Not only legumes and whole grain cereals) and fibrous carbo- that. You’ve got to eat like CapTri® and from protein and carbohydrate sup- more of the right kinds of foods to build plements like Hi-Protein Powder™ and Pro-Carb™. the protein and fiber slow body to store fat. But not all of those calories come from food. This combination of foods has body’s food-to-fuel process. This pattern of eating When people first hear that my Nutrition Program is metabolically beneficial — for three reasons. amazed. sometimes more. brown rice. you gradually increase calories to of nutrients so that your body can maintain its energy. Used in conjunction with the proper body fat they’ll lose. the release of glucose — to provide consistent energy The answer to getting lean. to keep energy levels high without gaining body fat? How do you get health and vitality? food supplements such as medium chain fatty acids In a word. this combination provides a constant supply Nutrition Program. they are it helps naturally elevate your body’s level of insulin. making it easier for the two important benefits: First. white meat poultry.000 calories a day. I’m an active person who works out.000 of those calories are usually obtained from recovery. about six times a week. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 29 . These sub-calorie regimens don’t provide Food selection is critical. Unfortunately. On the Parrillo Performance Second.000 calories a day or more. effects. between 2. A a hormone with powerful anabolic (growth-producing) certain proportion comes from nutritional supplements. muscular. Insulin’s release is triggered by the conver- © 2004. Depending on your sex. is exactly the opposite of what is desired: poor health. green beans. yams. they assist in decreasing body fat supporting the 600 to 1000 calories range. allows up to 10. What can I do A. some people still think that “less Nutritional supplements play a key role in metabo- is more.000 and 10. the digestion of carbohydrates — and consequently tabolism isn’t running up to speed. bodies go into a breakdown mode. First. Nor can muscle be built if the me. the fibrous carbohydrates. The consequence broccoli and others). amino acids available to muscle tissue for growth and about 4. for example. growth and repair status. the fewer calories they eat the more lism and nutrition. tissue (including heart muscle tissue) is lost. injury. in which muscle starchy carbohydrates (potatoes. cauliflower. vital nutrients are pulled from tissues to fuel the hydrates (salad vegetables. health. muscle growth.000 a day. most often while try. Their proteins (fish. and egg whites). activity level and present metabolic state. you eat Also. lose body fat and gain muscle. protein or two starchy carbohydrates and one or two Sub-calorie diets also slow the metabolism. One of its chief roles in the body is to make If you’re eating 10.” that is. My program includes lean enough food to fuel their energy requirements. size.Q. calories. body. extending endurance and promoting ing to follow rigorous aerobics and weight training better recovery and repair after training. is increasing calories. depleting nutritional reservoirs. and healthy levels and sustained endurance throughout the day. My problem is that I always feel like I’m out of energy. you should eat five to six meals a day or more. spaced two to three hours apart. schedules. They start subsisting on diets in foods.

When glucose is introduced into the bloodstream. and your metabolism is acceler- ated as a result. the pan- creas releases insulin in response. Consequently. Following a meal. Following a meal your metabolic rate is elevated as a result of ther- mogenesis. the higher your metabolic rate stays throughout the day. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Third. can exert its growth-producing action. you assure that your system is releasing adequate amounts of insulin. Questions & Answers With John Parrillo sion of carbohydrate into glucose by the liver. with a constant nutrient supply. For growth to occur. which. regular intervals. your body learns to process food more efficiently. 30 © 2004. you are never forced into a “starvation mode.” a state induced by re- peated cycles of low-calorie dieting in which the body prepares itself for famine. the more meals you eat. The second reason frequent meals are beneficial involves “thermogenesis” — the production of body heat from the burning of food for energy. amino acids remain available for protein synthesis for only about three hours. Because meals are coming at shorter. By eating meals of protein and car- bohydrate two to three hours apart. insulin must be constantly pres- ent in the body so that amino acids and glucose can move into the muscle tissue. in turn.

First of all. formed .Q. This ultimately trains the muscle will help boost your strength levels in all your whole muscle to fire at once. will increase your golgi tendon reflex threshold. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 31 . There are two tactics you can use: thes first is difficult. What should I do? A. My bench press hasn’t increased in a year. Heavy negatives performed with a spotter. lifts. Concentrate on gaining weight at the rate of a pound ity to recruit a greater number of muscle fibers during per week per 100 pounds of bodyweight. incorporate negatives in your bench fascial stretching between sets. I’ll start with the difficult tactic. press routine. gradually increase your intake of lean proteins. This leads to greater gains in strength and size. in which the The easiest tactic you can use to increase your bench eccentric or lowering portion of the exercise is per. Negatives. allowing you to systematically work the gaining at the suggested weight. the more intensely you can train. you totally exhaust low threshold carbohydrates and fibrous carbohydrates until you are nerve paths. firing muscle and you become stronger as a result. To do that. and the second is easy. in addition to your bench press. enhance neuromuscular efficiency — the abil. The higher your golgi tendon reflex threshold. muscular contraction. starchy By doing negatives. Negatives build a quick. press is to consume more calories to gain more weight. as well as © 2004. Quality weight gain of higher threshold nerve paths.

32 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

a simple sugar. Athletes have higher requirements for pro. products? In working with top bodybuilders and and finally to the bloodstream. In digestion. brown rice. we’ve identi. and that is easily converted to body fat. miner. etables are rich in vitamins. among others. Natural starchy foods like potatoes. incredible differences when they eliminate fruits and Lean protein. protein. We recommend it for health-conscious lot of nutritional wallop. Eliminating fruit in favor of amino acids which are required for every metabolic natural complex carbohydrates. and egg whites) are high in protein. builders avoid fruit and fruit juices. high-density nutrient foods pack a als. helps competitors be- tein than the average person. The athletes on our program notice how to structure meals. that body. and sunflower drates. In addition. easily converted to body fat. Therefore. Both simple sugars and fat are and are stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver. Without enough protein. dairy Starchy and fibrous carbohydrates supply energy products are high in fat. You need certain fats called Essential Fatty Acids First and foremost. in our program. while excluding others like fruit and dairy A. however. and fiber. hormones. cellular walls. vitamins. In short. water. Try to stay away from low-nutrient density foods. Before explaining why. a majority terms of physique and performance. We’ve learned of the fruit you eat can ultimately end up as body fat exactly what foods to eat. alcoholic beverages. for example. and that fruit is very healthy and high in vitamins.” This regulate many biological functions. and on your physique. And. molecular structure. fiber. linseed oil. minerals. in vitamins. vitamin. and It’s true that fruits and fruit juices are not included carbohydrate. contain lactose. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 33 . flaxseed oil. and fiber. minerals. minerals. which are also high process. lean proteins (white meat poultry. or drive your metabolism. Why do you have certain foods on your nutrition program. a simple sugar foods. yams. Low-nutrient density foods are easily passes from the stomach to the intestines to the liver © 2004. Fibrous veg- seed oil. what foods to avoid. These are typically “junk foods” such as processed Here’s why: Fruit contains fructose. Because of fructose’s athletes for over 20 years. sweets. and that’s why they’re on our people who are not trying to maximize muscle and program. which must be supplied by the diet. food high fat foods. repair its breakdown after Dairy products should be avoided too because they training. let me say fish. and whole grains are packed with carbohy- canola oil. supplies nutrients called juices from their diets. minimize body fat. soft drinks. our Nutrition Program is based (EFAs). you cannot build muscle. EFAs on food– foods with a “high-nutrient density. and supplies. come leaner and more muscular. and minerals. the liver readily converts it into a fied which foods yield the best results in long chain triglyceride (a fat). including the describes ratio of nutrients in a food to the energy it manufacture of connective tissue. We suggest.Q. You can get EFAs from safflower oil.

Food is the ultimate growth-enhanc- ing substance. helps your body grow. however. can interfere with the body’s ability to metabolize fat. but only after you are eating properly. By taking supplements. along with a gradual increase of calories. This. 34 © 2004. as in the case of alcohol. Supplements are quality nutri- ents that work in conjunction with food to help your body build its metabolism and recovery mechanisms. Never be misled into thinking that supplements work alone. This allows the nutrient levels in your body to be increased at the cellular level beyond what can achieved by food alone. Questions & Answers With John Parrillo converted to body fat or. you force your digestive system to process more nutrients. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . You can increase the nutrient density of your nutri- tion by adding in supplements.

it builds cardiovascular density. Aerobic Training: This is absolutely critical for combination of lean proteins.000 pumped and utilizes some very aggressive self and calories a day or more) with five or more meals spread partner-assisted stretches.” By cardiovascular density. supplements can be added to your diet to maximize the results. minerals and elec. will work together. however. the bigger you can become.000 and 10. 3. Fascial stretching stretches throughout the day and spaced two to three hours the fascial sheath that covers the muscle and leads to apart. Workouts: The optimum training routine em- ploys heavy/low rep sets to build mass and thickness What they don’t realize is that they must and high rep sets to build shape and “cardiovascular take a comprehensive approach to bodybuilding. There are all kinds of bodybuilding systems out there. The most intense training system in the never replace proper nutrition. more nutrients are carried to the is. greater mass. Supplementation: Vitamins. nutrient density in body cells. growth. All of this results in muscular proper nutrition. three reasons. and muscular separations. First. I’ll briefly explain each one: 4. The meals in this diet should include the proper 5. and slows your digestion for consistent energy levels and third. aerobic exercise enhances re- and fibrous carbohydrates. more tates.Q. A diet that achieves between each exercise set when the muscle is fully this is a high-calorie one (between 2. the greater your cardiovascu- and aerobics. they all work together to produce the best results. aspar. training. for example. Fascial Stretching: This is an advanced and spe- 1. density.” that network is increased. These work synergistically to produce lar density. and other supplements increase the body fat is burned. It involves stretching used to burn fat and build muscle. results. Today. so it can be for bodybuilders and athletes. Once you’re eating world. This combination of foods covery. In other words. muscles while performance-inhibiting toxins are effec- There are five interdependent components involved: tively transported away. In the 2. Aerobics should be increased endurance throughout the day and provides performed at certain times during the day: at night af- a constant supply of nutrients for muscular growth and ter your last meal and in the morning before breakfast. it accelerates fat-burning. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 35 . When this circulatory set of interrelated programs that are “synergistic. in the absence of muscle glycogen. morning. medium chain fatty acids. I mean the size At Parrillo Performance. we teach you the basics– a and number of blood vessels. Supplements. it seems that so many athletes are searching for a miracle supplement or a miracle training technique that will transform their physiques overnight. Proper nutrition: This involves training your me. muscularity. correctly. repair. lipotropics. amino acids. your body draws upon fatty acids for energy trolytes. especially if you are trying to lose body fat. How does yours compare to the others? A. cialized method of stretching which I developed just tabolism to partition food more effectively. As a result. starchy carbohydrates. Second. supplementation. stretching. activating your body The key point to remember is that these components chemistry for growth. will yield only marginal results © 2004.

Questions & Answers With John Parrillo unless you’re fueling yourself with proper nutrition. 36 © 2004. each of these components will help you achieve your physique and performance goals. Used together. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . however.

Many bodybuilders use the off-season to go off their diets. eating everything in sight and paying very little attention to nutrition. (For more information on the off-season is the ideal time to put on muscle. 14. or any of our Supplement Bars to increase your daily caloric intake. Ordering information is on page diet as hard as your contest approaches. while off-season nutrition. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 37 . What’s your off-season nutrition prescription? A. Even though I’m a competitive bodybuilder. fibrous carbohydrates) in the right combinations and in © 2004. Hi-Protein Powder. That way. six. I never know exactly how to eat in the off-season to get good results. starchy carbohydrates. Eat the and you’ll emerge ready for your contests bigger and right foods (lean protein. multiple meals (five. consult the Parrillo Performance staying relatively lean. In the off-sea. you don’t have to Nutrition Manual. you must eat enough to increase your body weight off-season as you are during the competitive season. ) Be as consistent with your nutrition during the son. or more a day). For competitive bodybuilders. In addition. supplements such as ProCarbt. use CapTrir.Q. and still stay strict on your nutrition program. and more defined.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .38 © 2004.

struct new muscle and stay lean. this expenditure reduces the tendency of these foods Look at it this way: If you gain a pound a week for to be converted to body fat. and your metabolism so you can burn fat much faster. yet. terferes with your ability to burn calories.000 calories of denied enough food. That conversion process uses up a portion of the calories way. activity level. size. make sure you are increasing calories process of protein synthesis for muscle growth. This is very a result. and present metabolic state. and turn it into body fat. This a pound per week per 100 pounds of body weight. staying Conventional dietary fat and food containing it (in- in a caloric-deficient state lowers your metabolic rate. cluding fatty cuts of meat) tend to be easily stored as making it harder for your body to burn fat. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 39 .000 calories of candy feed on the protein in the muscles. with the proper foods — foods that will help you con. The reason is the chemical composition of To break your plateau. four weeks and lose a pound a week for four weeks. Not all foods do this. When easy to prove. faster than the body can use them to replenish glyco- ger — and leaner — you will get. your body fat levels. This will help recharge your metabolism. Just try replacing 1. which in turn boosts contained in the protein and carbohydrate food. body fat. So try to put on weight When simple sugars are released into the bloodstream for several weeks. Plus. By riod of two to four weeks. it stops burning body fat. Insulin is important in the Additionally. move into a caloric-surplus dietary fat is similar to that of body fat. Because muscle is the and ice cream in your diet. and I seem to have reached a plateau. and see what happens to body’s most metabolically active tissue. Simple sugars are easily converted to body fat too. you’ll gain more mass and be much leaner than if you although to a lesser extent than conventional fat. I’ve been dieting to lose body fat for 12 weeks now. tried to lose first and gain later. What should I do? A. so very little state. paradoxically. you duction of the hormone insulin occurs. You will be amazed at how much big. Your body The same number of calories from different foods has has adjusted to that caloric level.Q. contrast. you can increase your muscle. Depending on your gen stores or meet energy requirements. This insulin should eat enough calories a day to gain at the desired response causes fat cells to take up the excess sugar rate. gradually increase your calo. It sounds like you’ve been in a caloric. © 2004. deficient state for too long. and as different effects on your body weight. energy is needed to turn dietary fat into body fat. depleting it in. the body begins to potatoes and brown rice with 1. an over-pro- sex. too much stimulates fat production. For a pe. protein and carbohydrate must be chemically ries — even to the point of gaining weight at the rate of converted to fat before they can be stored as fat.

40 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

cause of fructose’s molecular structure. on the other hand. Natural. After you work out. tential. Third. and juices from their diets. During the transition. If you can’t get a good pump. also due to lower glycogen stores in the muscle.” the manufacture you stretch between sets. If you eat simple sugars like fructose. People on our program gins. legumes or maltodextrin-based drinks like starchy and fibrous carbohydrates instead. Clearly. you won’t be able to train as hard or as long blood sugar an hour or more after eating it. fructose is easily converted to body fat. In one study. as our Nutri- our Pro-Carb™ Formula do a better job at this than tion Manual recommends. Be- it’s really not a good re-supplier of muscle glycogen. it’s difficult to fully dietary carbohydrate is broken down into glucose and stretch the fascia tissue surrounding the muscle when fructose to be used for “glycogenesis. rebuilding mode (anabolism). your body moves from an en. a majority of the fruit you eat can end up just worked. carried by the bloodstream straight to the muscles you Therefore. Fructose is used primarily to restore liver glycogen. This limits your growth po- of glycogen to restock the muscles and liver. it triggers bodybuilder? neither a surge in insulin nor a corresponding drop in First. Second. Unlike other simple sugars. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 41 . you’re not sugar found in fruit: fructose. as body fat on your physique. If you want to get leaner and more muscular — and cogen is the type of carbohydrate you eat. going to be able to store as much glycogen. a diet high in starchy carbohydrates restocked more glycogen in the muscles 48 hours after exercise than simple sugars did. © 2004. the liver read- Glucose. The answer has to do with a little-understood simple simple sugars do. yams. But there’s during your next workout because you will be glyco- more to the fructose story. Why do you exclude fruit and fruit juices from your Nutrition Program? A. whole more efficiently — avoid fruit altogether and choose grains. bypasses the liver and is ily converts it into a long-chain triglyceride (a fat). Any muscle emptied of glycogen due to exercise notice incredible differences when they eliminate fruits is first on the list to get its quota of glucose. where the glycogen-making process be. I am frequently asked to explain why fruit and fruit juices are not included in my Nutrition Program. gen-deficient. you’ll notice less of a pump while working ergy-using mode (catabolism) to an energy-storing and out. What Fructose came into favor years ago because of its low implications does this have for you as an athlete or glycemic index. one of the keys to effectively restoring gly. corn. build your recuperative powers by restocking glycogen complex carbohydrates such as potatoes.Q.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .42 © 2004.

” nutrients called Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) which are Think about it. Protein supplies amino acids for growth and To begin with. As bodybuilders and athletes. we’re continually on the trail of the perfect nutritional supplement. to help synthesize pro. these The perfect supplement is a slow-release energy foods give you energy to train and the ability to recover source.25 to . of vitamins. essential fatty acids. Your food source. Food really does all these things. linseed. including tatoes. broccoli. is the “perfect supplement. supplying vitamins. carbohydrates. you can adjust your intake tein for muscular growth. The protein © 2004. one or two starchy carbs and one or two fibrous should come from lean proteins.. These supply vital You bet. In the growth-season you need at least one gram of protein from a lean protein source. In addition to minerals and antioxidants. for endurance and stamina as well as for repair and Fibrous carbs include asparagus. electrolyte imbalances. bodyfat. green beans. rice.. low calorie vegetables. it does build mass and keep you lean other to know how to properly combine them to build — as long as you choose foods that partition to muscle metabolism. Is there such a thing as the “Perfect Supplement” and what is it? A. unrefined cereals. And. minerals. beans and legumes. corn. flaxseed or Hain performance to never-dreamed of levels? All-Blend are excellent choices. You should obtain an additional . it’s formulated to build mass and are the building blocks for every cell in the body.5 the market? The answer to both of these questions is gram of protein per pound of bodyweight from carbo- YES! hydrates. Is there such a supplement. salad vegetables. spinach. and oth- tabolism. Besides providing system in good working order. minerals and antioxidants. This combination of foods is critical. fiber. one that builds and re-builds glycogen stores quickly.Q. What’s more..” It’s one thing to select the right foods and yet an- For starters. oatmeal. electrolytes and antioxidants. cauli- recovery. Safflower. It also has the ability to increase your me.. these foods also supply an abundant amount This supplement also contains amino acids. starchy carbs and carbs. and other condi. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 43 . and other protein. vitamins. What is the “per- fect supplement” and does it exist on fibrous carbs. ing the branched chain aminos. includ. tions associated with hard training. such as white meat chicken or turkey or fish. it helps prevent of starchy carbs and fibrous carbs to help burn more sports anemia. take one teaspoon to one tablespoon of unsaturated one that will transform your physique and boost your oil. per pound of bodyweight. During pre-contest dieting. sweet potatoes. It involved in many biological functions. It provides all the essential and protective Starchy carbohydrates include such foods as po- nutrients your body needs for peak health. And it’s called “FOOD. Each day. sunflower. flower. it contains fiber to keep your digestive er high that does it all. Each meal should include one lean protein and energy stores and not to fat depots. burn bodyfat. Next on the list of food “musts” are fats.

metabolic status and proximity to your next contest. size. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Questions & Answers With John Parrillo and fiber slow the digestion of starchy carbohydrates. Your meals should total between 2. Do not jump in at the highest caloric level. depending on your sex. If you plateau and are not making gains. however! You must gradually increase your daily calories. age. There’s no supplement that has ever come close to providing everything you get from food. When you add the right supplements to the proper nutritional foundation. The point is. giving you consistent energy levels throughout the day. you’ll be bowled over by the progress you can make.000 calories or more a day. Your individual requirements will vary. level of conditioning. six or more meals a day. gradually add in between 300 to 500 calories to keep putting on weight. That’s not to say that you don’t get results from supplements — you do.000 and 10. 44 © 2004. food is the foundation. You should structure your meals so that you eat five. By eating multiple meals in this manner you give yourself a constant supply of nutrients so your body can grow and get big. spaced two to three hours apart. But you have to start with food first.

a five-year study by the being high in fat. This weight gain may not be muscle If you follow the Parrillo Nutrition Program. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 45 . it is involved in works. In addition. In fact. possibly due to the role in fat suppressing the immune system. important roles in the body. There are. consult the Parrillo Performance Nutrition lipid clearance. often containing high levels of the lipid CapTri. function of the RES. And second. (Food Technology. however. The RES plays two and energy needs — without being stored as body fat. certain cells in the RES that produce antibod. is not processed in the liver and can end up in the lungs. and their ability to clear bacteria from circulation is reduced. it clears harmful For a detailed explanation of how this supplement bacteria in the system. First. (Food Technology. canola or flaxseed oils to fat diet. (Guyton’s Textbook of Physiology. our MCFA. CapTri can be used to bacteria. linseed. which impairs the function of the Reticu. What is your view on this type of dietary regimen? A. diets upset the body’s electrolyte balance. I’ve read a lot about high fat diets. we 368-369) recommend that you eat up to one tablespoon a day or After a person goes on one or two cycles of a high more of safflower. tured lipids like omega-3 fatty acids do not hinder the this may be the reason for the weight gain experi. ies become loaded with fat droplets. 1991) These health consequences do not occur with comeback. you The fats typically used in high fat diets come from know that we recommend supplementing the diet with processed sources. a num. While (MCFAs). prevent an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. Where conventional fats are concerned. diet supplemented with medium chain fatty acids ber of problems associated with these diets. supply additional calories to support muscular growth loendothelial System (RES). Along with glycogen stores. they are also low in carbohydrates. 1991) enced when carbohydrates are added back into the diet. Manual. American Health Foundation demonstrated that MC- the body’s preferred source of fuel.Q. Bacteria goes undigested. This action can cause inflamma- tion and possible organ failure. high fat © 2004. namely the Other research has shown the MCFAs and other struc- sodium/potassium ratio. Low carbohydrate FAs (includes MCTs) are a non-tumor promoting fat. Diets high in conventional fat (other- wise known as long chain triglycerides or LCTs) have been around for a long time and now appear to be making a diets have been linked to cancer. however.

46 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

Section III Parrillo Performance Technical Supplement Bulletins © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 47 .

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .48 © 2004.

You’ve seen people who train hard but never seem to grow. and fat. and improving overall health . Not on our program. nearly all of the competitive bodybuilders are following this diet. intense training. True. based on proper nutrition. we explain the practical information about how to design your diet: which foods to eat. The foundation of our program is The Parrillo Performance Nutrition Manual. and how to make adjustments to your diet to ensure that you continue making progress. and people who spend a lot on supplements but don’t get any results. carbs. and that’s holding them back. losing fat.and they come to us because we can show them how. dedication and consistency. our program is demanding and it takes an enormous amount of work. What sets us apart is we provide the information you need to get results — as well as the highest quality supplements available. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 49 . These bulletins should help you better understand how the body utilizes the foods and supplements you incorporate in your diet. There are prob- ably a hundred companies that will be happy to sell you supplements. We’ve spent years work- ing with bodybuilders perfecting the optimum diet for gaining muscle. Our program works the best because it’s a comprehensive approach to bodybuilding. We know of no one who has followed our program without getting good results. Results are the bottom line. Basically. how to combine them. aerobics. how to divide your calories among protein. It’s not for everyone — it’s for serious bodybuild- ers who are willing to put forth the effort to get results. everyone is in agreement about what the optimum diet is. That’s why we’ve put together this series of technical bulletins that address many of the biological processes behind nutrition and supplementation.Introduction People come to us for results. In the Nutrition Manual. and improving overall health. We believe that food is the foundation of nutrition and to derive the most benefit from supplements they should be used in conjunction with the proper diet. Bodybuilders care about gaining muscle. But we still get a lot of technical questions about the reasons behind the diet — the underlying principles of biochemistry and metabolism. losing fat. It’s that simple. These days. and stretching. It has become so standard that you don’t really hear people arguing about nutrition in the gym much anymore. Some people work hard at bodybuilding but don’t make any progress because they’re missing one component. © 2004.

50 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

therefore. Nutr. Nutr. Whereas conventional use. In fact. Welle. After the Therefore. some of the CapTri® is Clin. Nutr. generating little body fat stores (1). This is why excess cent water and that fat is not very soluble in calories coming from conventional fats water (oil and water don’t mix). The most surprising turned into ketone bodies which the mus. Record. 1:129-135 (1986). Peters. so it has very little eventually reach the bloodstream through body fat. 44:630-634 (1986). thing about CapTri® is that it is technically cles can use for energy (1). Once in the bloodstream. The gall bladder produces bile to it has very little tendency to contribute to help dissolve the LCTs. Hill. Clin. already has the same chemical You know that your body is about 70 per. Clin. Long ucts to be on the proper diet. Thermic effect of medium chain how CapTri® works and how to use it. Warenko. other hand. and are released from the intestines into extra calories which can be used to support ately burned to produce the lymphatic system. These fat. fat droplets called micelles. yet paradoxically it contributes less to for thermogenesis (heat). Cells in the CapTri® is the purest. CapTri® provides the caloric density of glycerides” (LCTs). and tained from foods alone. Prac. excess calories from any of “medium chain fatty acids” (MCFAs).3. CapTri®. They contain long fat —but without the tendency to be stored chain fatty acids (LCFAs). is 648 (1989). Bach and Babayan. Carbohydrate or protein has to be the ultimate reason why CapTri® behaves converted to fat before it can be stored differently in the body than conventional as fat. sorb and does not require this complicated erides . less to body fat accumulation than conven- CapTri® is known as a medium chain tional fats or even carbohydrates. 3. are much easier to convert to fat than oth- This difference in molecular structure is ers. found in foods are called “long chain tri. Your body are very prone to be stored as body fat. In the liver. chain versus medium chain length triglyc- foundation is laid with the proper foods. program of nutrition. Am. Kaler. so fats (2).4). have to discuss it in the context of a total vein. CapTri® has a smaller molecular struc. Metabolism 38: 641- carbohydrates. it is easier for your body to ab. food can be stored as fat. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 51 . Some is used Abumrad. Am. of the cell (1. Conventional dietary fat. 36: 950-962 (1982).a review of metabolism and clinical supplements can be used to further increase digestive process. Kolpek. 4. triglyceride (MCT). has to go through an elaborate digestive CapTri® is processed by the liver and is process in order to absorb and metabolize immediately burned to produce energy. tendency to contribute to the fats are circulated throughout the body. J. on the fats (1). nutrient levels beyond what can be ob- fats are prone to be stored as body fat. we small intestine to the liver by the portal and long chain triglycerides in man. So to understand CapTri® is transported directly from the Campbell. This also turns out ides have been demonstrated to contribute to be the kind of fat stored on your body. the energy currency chain triglycerides. Sharp. protein complexes are called chylomicrons CapTri® is an excellent way to provide the liver and is immedi. the world’s premier MCT supplement. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 1 MCFAs: A Fat That’s Not Stored As Body Fat by John Parrillo stand the basics of how fats are metabolized processed in the liver so there is little left in the body. most highly refined intestines make protein carrier molecules to MCT on the market and is considered to be CapTri® is retained in help transport the triglycerides. and Greene. J. We want everyone who uses our prod- ture and is more soluble in water (1). which are 16-22 as fat (1). and Rapp. To understand why. and a portion humans during overfeeding with medium fat stores than conventional fats and even is converted to ATP. Yang. Seaton. REFERENCES fat stores. 2. The chylomicrons activity or growth without contributing to energy. Insulin causes fat cells (adipocytes) to absorb the fat molecules and store them 1. Medium chain as body fat. medium chain triglycer- carbon atoms in length. because it is made In summary. structure as body fat. but some foods which are only 6-12 carbon atoms long. Conventional dietary fats to be stored as fat. Thermogenesis in a fat. the thoracic duct. you have to under- © 2004. triglycerides: an update.

52 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

Even though Carbohydrate metabolism gener- presence of carbohy. it’s no surprise that it contributes energy. and that consumption of they can’t penetrate the mitochondrial conventional fats be kept to an absolute membrane (1). (Given an adequate diet your body less to body fat accumulation than conven. 2). The mitochondria are little furnaces drate have to be chemically converted into where the foods you eat are burned to fat before they can be stored as fat. to store as body fat because they already Once inside the cells. but due to the way it is me. All of the enzymes re- conversion process uses up some of the sponsible for fat burning are located in calories contained in the protein or carbo. Conventional fats are the easiest including metabolism of fat. if fats are hydrate food. called the carnitine shuttle. we’ve just started our discussion of how ates an intermediate called malonyl-CoA. The liver is In contrast to conventional fats. everybody thinks of muscles. Con- stores. to body fat. carbohydrates trigger insulin are using it today: CapTri® is extremely release. your metabolism. but some foods are then your liver is the pit crew. This is why we recommend a diet ventional fats (LCTs) cannot simply enter high in natural complex carbohydrates the mitochondria by themselves because and lean protein. relatively carb depleted and will burn more throughout the body. CapTri® is retained in the world. Your liver much easier to convert to body fat than occupies a central position in metabolism. it has very little tendency to be is not burned much as an energy source CapTri and conventional fats.) than carbohydrates (3. but in. Cap- glucose (1). the mitochondria. but we add CapTri® can be burned tional fats do. we’ve already hit on the which inhibits the carnitine shuttle (1). an energy source which can be used to fuel last meal because at these times you’re Conventional fats are circulated activity or support weight gain. it’s the workhorse of Tri® can enter the mitochondria by itself not circulated throughout the body. where it is rapidly burned to building. The calories from CapTri® represent breakfast.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 2 MCFAs: An Amazing Energy Source by John Parrillo Excess calories from any food can possible. protein and carbohy. central reason why so many bodybuilders Furthermore. 4). if carbohydrate fuel is available. conventional dietary liver (instead of fat cells) and burned for fats and body fat cannot be burned for energy. If your muscles are a race car. so this reduces the tendency not permitted to enter the mitochondria. be stored as body fat. For these reasons. drates CapTri® works. fat molecules have the same chemical structure as body are burned in structures called mitochon- fat. picked up by fat cells Now. The amazing thing is that some to our Lipotropic Formula just to for energy even in the CapTri® contributes less to body fat stores make sure. drates. of these foods to contribute to body fat they cannot be burned for energy. for energy even in the presence of carbohy- in the liver. let’s examine what happens fat for energy. they have to be ac- minimum. chemi. can make its own carnitine. But your liver is doing all the behind-the. Conven. dria. Therefore. Just be sure to take a tablespoon tively transported across the mitochondrial of linseed oil or safflower oil everyday to membrane by a special transport system supply essential fatty acids. This is another reason why CapTri® produce energy (2). ment for bodybuilders—concentrated is why we recommend that you do your cally. others. This tional dietary fat is very similar. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 53 . so the body has a strong source of calories that won’t make you aerobics either first thing out of bed before tendency to simply “file away” dietary fat fat. stored as body fat. and insulin stimulates fat synthe- In the last bulletin we discussed the caloric dense. Without the Since CapTri® is transported to the carnitine shuttle (1). sis and fat storage. fat difference in molecular structure between tabolized. CapTri® is a miraculous organ. Instead. and stored in the presence of insulin and with CapTri® inside the liver. Therefore CapTri® can be burned intestine to the liver. has very little tendency to contribute to scenes biochemical work that makes it body fat stores: Conventional fats © 2004. When you mention body. By comparison. Your liver knows more and does not require the carnitine shuttle stead is transported directly from the small about biochemistry than all of the scientists (1. This produce energy. In contrast. right after training or after your as body fat. It’s the ideal supple.

duced by long-term feeding of medium and this helps the carbohydrate fuel last so it can be burned for energy at the same chain triglycerides in the rat. and insulin stimulates chain versus medium chain length triglyc- fat cells to pick up the fat molecules from erides . Metabolism longer (6). 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . LCT combination emulsions in dogs. Bois-Joyeux. Nutr. clinical nutrition. 4. as carbs (5). triglyceride lipid emulsion (LCT) an vari- Tri® has a different molecular structure REFERENCES ous medium chain triglyceride (MCT) - (1. gen sparing effect . Nutr. chain triglycerides: an update. is not circulated throughout the body but 2. tine shuttle for entry into the mitochondria. Am. • In the liver. 1986. 1987. are an additional energy source which can • CapTri® does not require the carni. Nutr. 44: Lets’ summarize the reasons why CapTri® supplies the body with calories 146-150. 1986. Lavau and Hashim. 36: 950-962. This is known as the glyco. CapTri® use. burned to produce energy. The calories from CapTri® stored (2). Some of this 3. time as carbohydrates (2. but Cap. Unlike dietary fats. Once the CapTri® an body fat on the rat. 5). Cotter. 36: 807-814. The more energy you For these reasons. Prac. Medium is processed by the liver (1. Sucher. Johnson and Rowe. • Conventional fats have the same little tendency to be stored as body fat. Prac. throughout the body. (1982). Clin. Nutr. Taylor. Record. Girard and Peret. CapTri® is not stored as fat: ready to be burned for energy with very 6. 108:613- CapTri® can be burned at the same time is burned up.MCFAs: An Amazing Energy Source can be burned only after carbo. energy is used by the muscles and some is medium chain triglycerides on lipogenesis hydrate fuels have been exhausted. 2).a review of metabolism an clinical the bloodstream and store them. Am. Chanez. Crozier. Clin. we recommend 5. CapTri® is rapidly Nutr. Medium chain triglyc- have. Bach and Babayan. Metabolic effects in- be used at the same time as carbohydrates. 1987. 1978. nutritional program. • Conventional fats are circulated 1. 1: 129-135. J. 45: 927-939. there’s nothing left to be 620. Long Clin. Effect of 54 © 2004. J. but converted to body heat. Kolpeck and Rapp. Clin. the longer and harder your workouts CapTri ® as a key supplement in your erides: a review of their internal use in can be. A metabolic comparison of pure long chain molecular structure as body fat. 2).

these fats as your carbohydrate sources it has to be converted into ATP. Some endurance athletes even use drate-sparing effect (4). CapTri® fire is released as heat to the surroundings. Unfortunately. very little tendency to be stored and that is stored so easily.” As you know. CapTri®. Athletes add CapTri® to their food that CapTri® is burned immediately— at to provide additional calories and make the same time as carbohydrates (3). These easy for your body to metabolize. If eating regular food is this transport system is not very active like throwing a log on the fire. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 3 Energy and MCFAs by John Parrillo fat but CapTri® does not. are depleted. energy is captured by a molecule called Metabolism of conventional fats is ATP. The calories from CapTri® can be the mitochondria by itself and doesn’t need prone to be stored as used to fuel activity or to support weight the carnitine shuttle (1. What happens to CapTri ® inside mediately burned to We explained that CapTri® is metab. then eating (2). so foods occurs in the mitochondria. and the it’s easier for your body to store them.” The products metabolism of CapTri® and conventional is very similar to burning things in a fire. Whereas regular between burning something in a fire and fats are circulated throughout the body and inside your body is that the energy of a are prone to be stored as body fat. while being a fat. This means body fat. This is why your body burns fat only Whereas regular fats CapTri® is like pouring gasoline on the after carbohydrates have been depleted and fire. all chondria are sometimes referred to as “the fats are burned in a process called beta- MCFAs (includes MCTs) are very powerhouse of the cell. So far in this series we’ve chemical reaction is called “oxidation” be.2). The main difference friend ATP. This transported directly to drinks out of CapTri® to use while they additional energy source has a carbohy- the liver where it is im. We’ve also explained the Many oxidation reactions release energy. can get into ers. and cause it involves reaction with oxygen and known as the “Krebs cycle. Before the energy your body will go to the trouble to burn contained in foods can be used by the body. as the chart below shows. Once inside the mitochondria. how can the energy get to my are little furnaces inside cells and are the muscles? Here’s how: site of cellular energy production. In contrast. it while they’re running. CapTri®. Conventional dietary fats have the used by the body. ATP is the direct source of energy a lot of work for your body (as you’ve used for all bodily functions. blocks of two easy for your body to metabolize. transport chain” which generates our old reasons why conventional fats make you just like a fire does. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 55 . If carbohydrate fuels are available. of the Krebs cycle then enter the “electron dietary fats. In beta-oxidation. This type of intermediate called “acetyl-CoA” which stored body fat. This process of burning same molecular structure as body fat. olized in liver mitochondria. its small molecular structure. absorption. body fat and con- has a different molecular structure from ventional dietary fat cannot enter the the fat stored on your body: The fatty mitochondria by themselves because the acid chains are shorter (1). train. liver mitochondria? If CapTri® is burned produce energy. then enters an energy-producing pathway covered the digestion. with out the body and are the reason it’s so popular with bodybuild. Since CapTri® burns so fast. this results in CapTri® being very mitochondrial membrane (2). © 2004. Mito. body produces energy from the foods we carbon atoms at a time are chopped off the your body prefers to burn MCFAs for eat by combining the foods with oxygen end of the fatty acid chain. and your fat molecules have to be actively carried body prefers to burn CapTri® for energy across the membrane by the carnitine rather than converting it to the form of shuttle. including noticed on the stair climber) and in general muscle contraction. it has is one of the reasons why fat tends to be are circulated through. In fact. This forms an energy rather than converting them to from the air we breathe. As it turns fat molecules can’t make it across t h e out. is immediately burned to produce energy some of the energy is captured so it can be (1). storage fat (1). the oxidation. Mitochondria in the liver. CapTri® is gain. is transported directly to the liver where it When foods are burned inside the body.

as a produce ketone bodies if carbohydrates are supplement to your daily diet. These are released bodyfat. glycerides: an update. Record. This process occurs CapTri® . with it all. Sucher. The and various medium chain triglyceride dietary fats do not produce many ketone remainder. and Rapp. Add that to your list of nutrition. Clin. producing acetyl-CoA. 1:129-135 (1986). In the the energy it needs for desired results. Am. however. Kolpek. can overwhelm it. (MCT)-LCT combination emulsions in bodies because they’re not burned that is converted to ketones which travel from dogs. Your body produces etary fat. that it gets burned in the liver so fast that muscle cells the ketones are converted it makes an enormous amount of acetyl. Nutr. J. back into acetyl-CoA and are further me. Ketones So. In other words. But where it is converted to energy. and that being converted to ketones which are used CapTri® is burned really fast. So any extra calories which are not used 3. Medium chain triglycerides: facture of ketones. Johnson. Nutr. bodies is that they are readily excreted in . and turn all the acetyl-CoA into ATP. What happens with CapTri® is muscles to be used for energy (1). 44: 146-150 one molecule known as a ketone body. unlike conventional di. a significant proportion of the can also be excreted by the body when not CapTri® molecules are converted into ke. liver. Taylor. the Krebs cycle This explains what happens to CapTri® 1. how it is con.Energy and MCFAs All of this occurs inside the mito.unlike fatty acids or glucose. which is a significant portion. Clin. and how this energy is 36: 950-962 (1982). regular converted to ATP in the Krebs cycle. used.a review of metabolism and clinical use. or simply a ketone. with regular fats too. and CapTri® inside liver mitochondria. and the Krebs cycle can’t keep up tabolized to generate ATP. Prac. 4. as outlined. The Krebs cycle can keep up with it the liver to the bloodstream to the muscles (1987). (1986). provides ingested at the same time (3). So what happens is that verted into energy. using CapTri® is one 56 © 2004. esis”— which simply means the manu. directly by the muscles as energy. Bach and Babayan. your body with the energy-producing cates two things: that CapTri® is burned at calories used in metabolic processes by the same time as carbohydrates. 45: 927-939 fast. What happens is two as fuel can be eliminated instead of being a review of their enteral use in clinical molecules of acetyl-CoA combine to make converted into fat. the urine . reasons why CapTri® is not stored as fat. 2. Clin. Prac. Medium chain tri- can only make ATP so fast. therefore not being converted to tone bodies in the liver. Am. Cotter. into the bloodstream and are taken up by of the most efficient ways to get your body chondria. Part of this is chain triglyceride lipid emulsion (LCT) Under normal conditions. This process is termed “ketogen. CapTri® —and not regular fats—will still You can see that CapTri ®. Simply put. J. some of the acetyl-CoA gets diverted to a transported to the muscles to be used. Clin. Nutr. and Rowe. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . REFERENCES CoA. This indi. is burned very quickly in the A metabolic comparison of pure long ketones from your body fat while fasting. Nutr. Long chain different metabolic fate—conversion to One interesting point about ketone versus medium chain length triglycerides ketone bodies (1).

This transformation process CapTri is burned in the liver to produce control your rate of energy expendature requires energy. foods you eat can experience three gen- you’re probably not a biochemist. rally. or they can simply be excreted. Your body is pretty efficient at absorbing It’s no coincidence that the biggest. the balance. and Catabolism means “tearing down. rie burning . but it’s Anabolism means “building up. ing weight.) Therefore.” nutrients. Many people over. (The you lean and 1. proper nutrient combining. but by energy oxygen consumption (2). the total chemical activity going on in. And how much it goes up depends them into the molecular form of new hu- Last month we talked about how on what you eat. and our program is designed to help ergy when you exercise. The energy production by the body. on here. metabolic rate is measured by the rate of ance equation: energy consumption and oxygen consumption. Anabolism is growth. Obviously you will describes the process of building new have more control over your body if you bodily tissues. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 4 MCFAs: Metabolic Rate by John Parrillo est bodybuilders are also the ones who You can think of your metabolism as the consume the most calories . here to show you how. and not too many are excreted © 2004. But the side your body (2). pressed in calories per hour. There are two sides to the bal. sides: an energy-consuming component growth. heat the body gives off. the meta- Changes in body weight are not governed bolic rate is proportional to the rate of by energy consumption.” and an energy-pro. Granted. Now we’re go. easier than trying to measure how much look the expenditure side of the equation. To understand is the process of degrading nutrients to ing to take a look at the bigger picture of how to do this. and how some of this energy is by careful selection of foods and supple. supplements. converted into ketone bodies which are ments.” and just as important. and Metabolism is a term which describes eral metabolic fates: they can be burned may not care about what happens to ev. This 8. the metabolic rate can be measured as When it comes to gaining or los. But energy which fuels your activities. instead of just one. because they don’t understand it. In practice. You can control your learn to control both sides of the energy Anabolic steroids are called anabolic be- equation. The and proper timing of what you may not realize is that your rate process of growth essentially amounts to of energy expenditure . On the other hand. Metabolism has two into small building blocks to be used for more you understand about something. the amount of heat given off by the body. Everyone knows that you expend en.” and used by your muscles. basic science. blocks used to make new human tissue. proper burning. reaction of foods with oxygen. everybody is obsessed with Since greater than 95% of the energy how many calories they consume. called “anabolism. energy is measured in many as flow of energy through your body. The lifecycle lection of foods and even tells you how many calories you’re you take maximum advantage of what your body is capable of doing naturally. as well as the building energy.000 calories can make you only real exception to this when work is fat.your rate of calo. your body is made out of as well as the nutrient combining even when you’re just sitting around.000 to 10. to release energy. If 8.000 calories can make ultimately converted to heat (2). 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 57 . you have to know some provide energy and building blocks. lean. and is ex- live on 1. You probably also know that Foods provide the building blocks that your body is constantly burning calories. Nearly all the bodybuilders know something the of the energy expended by the body is others don’t. And we’re rate of energy expen. ducing component called “catabolism. proper timing of meals. since this is much energy expenditure. then there must be something going performed outside the body. the better you can control it.000 calories a day? Obviously. And liberated by the body is derived from the that’s good . So therefore you can man tissue.goes up every time you eat of the food you eat and restructuring (1). how many fat people have you met who The “metabolic rate” is your body’s are always on a diet . Your body produces its own anabolic steroids natu- diture by careful se.who skip meals and rate of energy expenditure.000 a day. they can be digested ery molecule inside your body. cause they stimulate growth.but it’s only half the story. your body disassembling the molecules meals.

Ab- is proportional to the increase in meta. 1982. J. some of them will be converted Some of the energy from CapTri is con- to fat. It’s no accident that we’ve bell. Seaton. humans during overfeeding with medium ture. chain triglycerides. maintain your current body weight and excess calories you consume right before Next month we’ll go into more detail activity level. or if they are released into ercise on energy expenditure . your starches at each meal . Bach and Babayan. Your ries from CapTri have less of a tendency body can only make muscle so fast. 5). release of glucose into the blood. 1982. but if you are careful and do ev. Nutr. chap- those excess calories to muscle. Give your body a constant and verted into body heat in a process known steady supply of energy . Of course. Thermic effect of medium chain and have different effects on metabolic rate incorporated CapTri at the core of our long chain triglycerides in man. the insulin response Int.and not simple sugars . body with the building blocks it needs Carbohydrates are digested down into REFERENCES to construct new muscular tissue. you will be leaner we explained last month. 648. You bodybuilders . This is why breakfast is the best supplement ever developed for probably your most important meal. the rate of oxygen is also the reason we have you combine Am. This fibrous carbs and protein together with 4. As 3. If too many carbs 1. well as its rate of digestion and absorp. J. Thermogenesis in bolic rate . causes the excess to be taken up by fat 2. Kaler. Sports Nutr. 1976. (We’ll get more ter 71. 1986. excess are consumed.the rate of energy expendi. time. 1989. Peters.either muscle or fat.000 calories per day. The Parrillo diet your foods properly. CapTri is a very concentrated 6. 44: 630-634.calories that can be glycerides: an update.enough to fuel as thermogenesis (4. The same cally increases the rate of oxygen con. Since . gain. The increase in oxygen consump- tion. is specifically designed to provide your release of glucose into the bloodstream. The reason? As Clin. If you eat to burn the food to produce energy. which is the form of sugar re- to give it building blocks which are used leased into the blood.a review. Saunders. number of calories (the same amount of sumption . the metabolic And guess what else? CapTri dramati. and chemical composition of the food. about the thermogenic effect.) By slows the umrad and Greene. This is the single your activities and make muscle.any tendency to make you fat. This containing medium chain triglycerides. Warenko and Camp- energy) from different types of foods can .B. eating frequently keeps your after you eat is to supply enough oxygen metabolism elevated all day. Yang. Textbook of Medical Physiol- erything just right you can direct most of cells and converted into fat in a process ogy. This is why I’ve called CapTri going first thing. If you consume nu. but not most important reason why excess calo- so much that you’re putting on fat. Influence of diet and ex- to make fat tissue. Welle. If you provide transported to the muscles. to fat. so to make you fat than excess calories from we suggest you gain no faster than 1-2 other foods. the excess calories will bed are likely to be stored as slow the of fat in response to overfeeding with diet food is burned by reaction with the oxy. But that’s not your body with too many calories at one the whole story. Sharp. tion that occurs after you eat CapTri So how do you use this information? means that it is being burned very fast There are several key ideas. Nutr. So in other words. consumption increases after eating.and thus the metabolic rate 5.this gets your metabolism into fat. so as to slow the cept of food efficieny. One is that (4. Nutr. Van Zant. 35: 678-682. as used for energy and to support weight 36: 950-962. Published by W. Bracco and Hashim.after a meal. some of this if you eat six 500 calorie meals instead energy is converted to ketone bodies and of one 3. Am. 2: 1-19. We’ll go known as lipogenesis. Guyton. energy ex- generally be converted into body weight Another one of the keys is to combine penditure. supplement program. gen that we breathe. Hill. Clin. Medium chain tri- due to both the inherent energy content source of calories . but not glucose. Enhanced After you eat a meal your body begins eating unrefined. complex carbohydrates thermogenesis and diminished deposition to burn the food to release energy. calories from any food can be converted the blood too rapidly. J. Clin. into that in the coming months. more into this in the coming months.MCFAs: Metabolic Rate without being used.000 calorie meal. 1992. have the whole day to burn off any excess supply extra calories but has very little trients in excess over what is required to calories you consume at breakfast . Am. Remember. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . frequent meals. rate of digestion and release of glucose. reacting with the oxygen we breathe. and introduce you to the con- . Metabolism 38: 641- rate increases after you eat (1). foods are burned by you should eat small. J. that excess calories from it are turned Another important point is to always into body heat instead of being converted eat breakfast . Different foods increase the meta. so Since your metabolism speeds up after the reason oxygen consumption increases each meal. CapTri is burned so fast pounds per week. 5). bolic rate to different extents probably you know. (3).’s an excellent way to 58 © 2004.

CapTri® type of calories consumed. This or fat.” which is defined as the calories (TEF). viously. or the “thermogenic effect” (1). but a given number increased oxygen consumption and meta- of calories from one food may have a bolic rate (4). so it is stored very your metabolic rate by following certain repair. net energy balance (calories consumed means that it is burned for energy instead versus calories expended) but also the of being converted into body fat. throwing foods into a bonfire they would lease energy (5).s muscle what happens. or it can If more or less calories are consumed than be excreted. but what kind Just pull out 1000 calories of potatoes and to be converted to body weight while foods of foods youeat will rice from your diet and replace it with 1000 with a low food efficiency are more prone calories of candy and ice cream.7). since it is energy digested at different rates and with differ. Simply put. Different foods are muscular contractions (5). consumed of a particular food divided by Increased thermogenesis means increased the resulting weight gain (3). Our Nutrition Program is calories from carbohydrates are used for based on using nutrition to control your energy. Generally speaking. Foods different food (2). can be burned to liberate energy. pair and growth of your tissues. it can ciple: the conservation of mass and energy. And different nutrients is simply converted to body heat in the which determines whether you’ll gain or perform different functions within the process of thermogenesis (2. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 59 . lose weight. so you can target your weight. © 2004. We teach you how to control determines whether you will gain or lose your metabolism. calories com. Think of it this way: CapTri ® is a considerable amount of control over ing from protein are used for maintenance. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 5 Energetics and Thermogenesis by John Parrillo eating habits. It governed by a simple thermodynamic prin. As we’ve discussed pre- ic rate—the body’s rate of energy expendi. its simplicity is deceiving (1). but many still ignore a bonfire. CapTri® has a very low food effi- So you must not only consider the ciency due to the thermogenic effect. The heat lism comes in handy. some of this energy is converted ture. The some of them are only partially degraded human body is very complex. all burn about the same. To the human body. with a high food efficiency are more prone weight. hu. and here’s to provide building blocks to support re- where some knowledge about metabo. and growth of tissues and organs. and see to be burned for energy. you can exert body. burned very efficiently. burn fat instead of storing it. they are burned. ent efficiencies. inefficiently. Different foods are liberated from a particular food is thus a metabolized differently and are converted measure not only of its energy content but into body weight with different efficiencies also of its tendency to be burned. the net energy balance as a result. If we were is rapidly absorbed and metabolized to re- Last month we talked about metabol. Not all foods are burned respectively. All foods release heat when expended then weight is gained or lost. As it turns out. and calories from conventional metabolism. Some of the equation. This is described by the term “food known as the “thermic effect “of food efficiency. Most people are very aware of their man metabolism is more complex than into ketone bodies which are transported caloric consumption. determine if it. correct. be converted into body weight. It is possible to eat more than fat are very prone to be stored as body before and get leaner and more muscular fat. The food that you eat can experi- Gain and loss of body weight are ence three general metabolic fates. This is (2). This is easy to prove. not just energy consumption. but what kind of foods you eat will calories to muscle and train your body to determine if it’s muscle or fat. You may heat production. However. energy released when CapTri® is burned balance. Food efficiency is simply determines wheather very different effect on your body weight a measure of how efficiently a particular you will gain or lose than the same number of calories from a food is converted into body weight. Although this statement is completely to produce energy however. not all to the muscles to be used as fuel to power the expenditure side of the energy balance calories are the same. That’s a shame. and this correlates with The net energy balance not have realized it.6.

Differ- efficiency than carbohydrate (3. Sharp.) The main reason for the low-carb strategy to lose fat. than regular fat (2). Warenko. you now understand the basics of This means that CapTri® is more difficult umrad. Now we carbohydrates are.) 6. since it year-round. ular fats (LCTs) are not burned much as That’s why most of our bodybuilders use long as carbohydrates are available. how it works. Generally. that different types of foods have different But what may come as a bigger sur. Chanez. 35:678-682 (1982). and away as body fat. more interesting properties and the ways When you’re gaining weight in the 7. Lean 4. This ent foods have different effects on your means that CapTri® is burned even more metabolism. even better.B. Reg. as fat than if you used conventional fats or 8. Hill. 108: 613-620 from CapTri®. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . CapTri® regular fat can also be burned for energy. the rats fed MCT were by far 5. Saunders. J. and a MCT containing medium chain triglyceride. J. (3). stant among groups. You can think of the carnitine shuttle as a CapTri® is just a food which provides switch which turns on fat burning after the calories. it is a concentrated source of calories which has more of a tendency simply to be stored can be used to support weight gain. not muscle. Crozier.Energetics and Thermogenesis If you’ve read the previous bul.8). Medium chain tri- the leanest. and the remainder of 3. the weight you gain from regular fat will ference with CapTri®. They gained about 60% less glycerides: an update. (I’m sure the results could have been 60 © 2004. carbohydrate fuels have been depleted. Sports Nutr. bodybuilders use it. Yang. Nutr. (Unfortunately. Am. like any other food. and why for your body to convert into fat than humans during overfeeding with medium it’s so different from other fats. a LCT group. This lets you use be fat. The point is carbs have run out. and Campbell. three groups. Girard. fat than either the LCT or low-fat groups 36: 950-962 (1982). group. the rats are fed a caloric excess 2. Nutr. accurately determine its body composition. Influence of diet and exercise the experiment you can dissect the rat and on energy expenditure . Int. source of calories when you’re dieting. Nutr. Metabolism 38: 641- can get into more detail about some of its advantage of this? You bet they do. 807-814 (1987). Effect of medi- lar fat will contribute more to body weight carbohydrates to supply the extra calories. Bois-Joyeux. you can add CapTri® to your Thermic effect of medium chain and long It should come as no surprise to you food to provide extra calories. Grams of protein were held con. since at the end of 1. Clin. CapTri® is not a drug. Am. thermogenesis and diminished deposition The rats are divided into three groups: a of fat in response to overfeeding with diet low-fat group. chapter groups at the end of the experiment. by long term feeding of medium chain Of course. Bracco. Peters. J. since it already has the the low food efficiency makes it a good same molecular structure as body fat. Metabolism 36: fats (LCTs) gained the most weight—be. While don’t feel like you’re starving.a review. Clin. um chain triglyceride on lipogenesis and gain than an equivalent number of calories Before a contest you can decrease your body fat in the rat. efficiently than carbs! These experiments REFERENCES were performed on rats. Ab- letins. Van Zant. or MCT. Published by W. Clin. and Greene. Textbook of Medical Physiol- body mass was essentially the same in all ogy. Seaton. Lavau and Hashim. Baba.8). Do bodybuilders take chain triglycerides. but rats don’t exercise much.7). 648 (1989).6. that CapTri® has a lower food efficiency extra calories are less prone to be stored Nutr. 44: 630-634 (1986). calories are supplied as carbs. And those chain triglycerides in man. Guyton. but the this is that CapTri® is burned for energy. J. J. Of the 71 (1976). Am. (1978). conventional and Peret. Bach and Babayan. Thermogenesis in what CapTri® is. the rats fed conventional triglycerides in the rat. Welle. most of carbohydrate intake and make up the dif. off season. the carnitine shuttle is not activated until Keep in mind. Kaler. 2: 1-19 (1992). Metabolic effects induced fat. and Hashim. molecular structures and and are therefore prise is that CapTri® also has a lower food processed differently by the body. and there’s nothing magic going on here. cause they gained more fat (3. calories from CapTri® provide a source and a significant portion of this energy of energy in place of the carbs so you is released as body heat (2. This means that regu. Enhanced so they will gain weight during the trial.

and spinach.” which simply while on average they obtain only 10-12 the absorption of heme and nonheme iron means reaction with oxygen. is much easier for cells. oxygen-carrying protein that works inside in the form of heme iron. required by the enzymes in the electron amounts of iron per serving than vegetable endurance athletes have also realized the transport chain—the series of reactions in sources (2). Meat proteins improve reaction called “oxidation. Because of its critical role body to absorb (2. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 61 . sorbed (1). myoglobin also your body to absorb (6). American women are iron deficient. Seven percent of iron from soybeans is absorbed. the cells have to get plenty of athletes. requires iron to bind oxygen. As many as 22% of Another factor may also be in- Your body generates energy by break. the presence of heme iron similar to what happens to food when it iron requirements. red blood cells are Dietary iron sources are usually responsible for transporting oxygen to all divided into two general categories: heme the tissues of the body. As you know. iron is required not only for transporting Furthermore. Muscles contain myoglobin. And liver is nature’s as the most common nutritional deficiency much better dietary iron sources. Men have lower daily (5). porated into heme and is therefore called eral tissues. Heme iron is binding oxygen to hemoglobin. Iron from red meat and liver. making it one of the Liver has been a mainstay supple. Unfortunately. They do this by iron and nonheme iron (2). About 15-20% of iron in a single blow. Heme iron is responsible in oxygen utilization. Liver which oxygen is consumed in the cells.6).4% of iron from spinach ciency in the world is absorbed. corn. Among iron (4). the whole oxygen transport system best vegetable sources of iron. Inside developing countries (1. an nonheme iron. protein intake (5). Many times a feeling of fatigue or low oxygen for more than a few minutes they energy is the result of an unrecognized iron will die. the foods are burned in a chemical requirement for women is 18 mg per day. with the greater bioavailability of heme absorbed — the most bio-available — of Iron deficiency is widely recognized iron. © 2004. Additionally. in the world (2. along in red blood cells. 2). And it’s the iron which heme iron. Good sources protein that includes a special chemical of heme iron are red meat and liver. ment for bodybuilders and power athletes won’t work. The for hemoglobin’s ability to carry oxygen reputation for occupying a central position higher iron content of these foods. makes red meat and especially liver all iron sources (2. the red iron which is already bound to heme— the pigment in the blood. compared to 22-25% of females ing anemia (6). Not only that. (This is very mg per day (1). but iron is also Red meat provides much higher for years — and for good reason. deficiency (2. This constant need for energy is deficient. Some vegetables. The binds oxygen in the lungs and subsequently form of iron found in plants is not incor- releases it in the muscles and other periph. and volved in explaining the association of ing down foods and transporting the food the number is as high as two-thirds in iron deficiency with vegetarian diets. 3).Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 6 Liver: Natural Iron by John Parrillo so critical that if tissues are deprived of (1). iron. Heme iron is the best in energy metabolism. Furthermore. The daily iron efficiency of iron absorption depends on the cells. Hemoglobin is a red pigment in hemoglobin. Without the Iron deficiency is associated with vegetarian diets (1). Recently. the iron from red meat and and B vitamins. so are somewhat less also improves the absorption of nonheme burns in a fire. So even better source of iron than red meat. Like hemoglobin. White structure known as heme—a complex of meat chicken and turkey breast also contain porphyrin and iron. provides heme iron. 6). high quality protein.) For foods to be converted prone to suffer from deficiency. liver is an incredible nutritional value of liver. Only 1. best source of heme iron (2). thereby meeting several of oxygen to the tissues but also for its use liver—heme iron—is much easier for your the increased nutritional needs of athletes inside cells. Iron defeciency is widely such as beans. The molecules to all the cells of the body. iron has earned its from red meat and liver is absorbed (2). about 10% of males are iron or liver have an increased risk of develop- oxygen. Athletes who do not eat red meat to energy. contain a recognized as the most significant amount of iron. but in lower amounts (2). iron from vegetable sources is poorly ab- common nutritional defi. 3).

Bern- (2). ing and Steen. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . in: Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. Some test due to the fact that aerobic training causes Amino™ is one of the best supplements scores of children improved after a single an increase in myoglobin (an oxygen car. Several studies have found required for their formation could be ob- a positive correlation between IQ and iron tained from destruction of red blood cells REFERENCES level: the higher the iron level. Scientific It is well established that iron defi. myoglobin may be the IQ (2). are especially at risk of iron deficiency (1. 99-129. However. and B vitamins all in one. the Liver is the best source of heme iron body will draw on red blood cells. however. hemo. and increases the time required to Absorption. improvement. 153-174. October. levels (1. Parrillo Performance thought of as backward or apathetic (2). Also. iron supplements have been shown 6. performance (3. Desiccated liver supple- intake is limited. 1991. it as a protein deficiency. Many times. Following iron supplementation. 3). CRC Press. highest incidence of sports anemia and American. This to iron supplementation. Aspen Publishers. Skeletal muscle fibers are heme iron it should be beneficial to athletes damaged during intense exercise training. the higher (1. reduces work 5. ers in Sri Lanka (3) who were iron deficient 2. globin. 2). Iron deficiency anemia reduces displayed decreased performance and work maximal oxygen uptake. Haymes. Iron Deficiency. 3. less severe than protein intake may be effective in treating get all the fat and cholesterol that comes anemia. gen to kill invading bacteria. depending on early phase of training (1). Iron Nutrition and to reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the with exercise (3) and there is no question Exercise. Female athletes and endurance athletes trition for the 90s. 1991. 3). is involved as well (3). And having tive in improving athletic performance and p. available for bodybuilders and endurance iron injection. This could be is why we feel Parrillo Performance Liver- the severity of the deficiency. in than those receiving iron supplementation iron deficiency and in restoring hemoglobin Sports Nutrition for the 90s. and Iron. 3). Hu- dren. output. Aspen Publishers. be expected to confer any advantage. 1983. and plasma proteins as a source of reducing the bioavailability of iron by as protein to repair the muscles (3). White blood cells need plenty of oxy. 1991. If induced by exercise training. eds. Berning and Steen. letes have a higher than usual incidence tation has been shown to be effective at of iron deficiency.27-55. Plantation workers and rubber (3). suffering sports anemia. while in other experiments rying protein) and cytochrome content athletes: It provides heme iron. Interestingly. Vitamins and Minerals: A likely to suffer from infectious diseases to be effective in reversing the effects of perspective in Physical Performance. Ergogenic Aids in Sport. Whitmire. and not leave enough left to rebuild new red Liver-Amino Tablets™ are made from Recently it has been realized that sub. 3. Hickson and Wolinsky. Protein Nutrition and Mineral output. a good.5 grams per tablet. Heme iron is damaged by cooking. 1989. In other words. blood. Increased de-fatted liver.Liver: Natural Iron Anemic children and adults are often may soak up all of the incoming protein available iron source. p. Encourag- deficient children and adults are much more ingly. in Sports Nu- workers. 129-151. eds. p. 291-308. Steen. and increasing iron levels in children Athletes with low hemoglobin levels man Kinetics Publishers. and this is probably 4. CRC Press. tion alone will not correct true sports ane- ercise training and endurance athletes are mia. ed. to maintaining optimum health. muscle (due to tissue level iron depletion) performance (6). Nutrition Considerations for the increasing productivity of iron deficient caused by iron depletion during exercise Low Body Weight Athlete. This effect is reversible and responds cell count and serum iron levels during the protein content to 1. This is primarily due There seems to be an iron cost associated 3. with already sufficient amounts would not do not perform as well at endurance events. productivity improved (2. repair of muscle tissue ments thus represent probably the most bio- 62 © 2004. Iron supplementation is effec. an along with liver and red meat. can result in poor performance on sports-induced anemia (1). protein intake is inadequate. these increased at the expense of hemoglobin if 1. which means you don’t clinical iron deficiency. ciency decreases work output and athletic also have the highest protein requirements. 6). dietary protein intake is inadequate. Vitamins. Liver may also be and this damage must be repaired during effective in preventing the iron deficiency the recovery period following exercise. p. Bear in mind. strong immune response is critical work output of deficient individuals (1. Often times. p. (2). high quality 11 or 12 weeks of iron therapy resulted in of muscle tissue and the protein and iron protein. iron recover between workouts (1). endurance athletes have the 2. Williams. Studies suggest that ath. 46-52. blood cells at the normal rate. Plus we add a variety of behavioral and cognitive tests athlete experiences a decrease in red blood predigested casein to further increase the (2). p. since sports anemia is not associated with a true liver provides both high quality protein and iron deficiency. Scrimshaw. which is reasonable when considering especially at risk (1. Sherman and Kramer. Iron supplemen. in studies are concerned with deficient chil. 1990. It has been reported that iron supplementa- “Sports anemia” is induced by ex. If protein much as 50% (5). 6). 6). Wapnir. but reduced aerobic capacity of the that iron deficiency compromises athletic eds. tappers in Central America (2) and tea pick. Proteins.

Part I by John Parrillo Proteins are found in all cells and tis. You must be selective when these can be made within the body. So it makes sense that someone who bloodstream. nutritionists assert that athletes body weight each day (g/pound/day). kg body weight per day (g/kg/day). greater than estimated by the nitrogen obvious that you would have to eat some balance technique (2). Animal proteins provide then it may not need any extra after all. nutritionists point out that ply building blocks for growth. a new way lifts weights would have to eat more pro- then serve as building blocks your body of measuring the protein status of the tein than a sedentary person because his uses to build its own proteins. increased efficiency of protein utilization the protein needs of athletes range from and milk. a 200 pound bodybuilder. male and about 72 grams per day for believe they need more. skinless chicken breast. it is well known that weight short fragments (peptides) and individual amount required by most of the aver- lifting causes damage to muscle tissue amino acids which are absorbed into the age population—not for athletes or other (1). kg/day (1.9 g/pound/day) to maintain nitrogen a profile of amino acids different from If it did. called “incomplete” proteins. a problem amino acids. it’s not that easy. While animal proteins are generally and the links of protein chains are called high quality protein foods. Occasional red meat is fine. are called “complete” proteins in the trained athlete (1). about twice the RDA (3). Protein is required in the Always trim all visible fat. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 63 . if you want to increase the amount can’t make new protein molecules. eggs. Unfortu. mass (5). profile found in animal proteins. Proteins are chain-like molecules. If any one body has been developed—the metabolic body has to repair that damage. For this reason animal food and get more muscular. Proteins this increase need for protein is offset by Much modern research indicates that from animal sources such as meat. Instead. your body tracer technique. Using this method. cial in maximizing gains in strength and ity protein foods. that comes along with them. Twelve of a lot of fat.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 7 Protein: Superfood For Bodybuilders. fish.6g/pound/day) may be benefi- proteins are considered to be higher qual. it seems all have to be there at the same time. His- works out to be 0. as long as you consume the leanest cuts. muscles combination can approach the amino acid are made of protein. On method of measurement. we would just eat more protein balance (4) and that as much as 3. Good lean ids” because they cannot be made by the protein sources include skinless turkey body. a conventional Protein is required in the diet to extra protein to support this growth. the balance of amino acids in the special interest to bodybuilders. Other studies amino acids. eating excess protein does athletes require in excess of 2g/kg/day of human tissues. torically. diet to maintain tissues and There has been a lot of debate about organs and to supply build. If your body 1-2g/kg/day (0. it is essential that they breast. therefore. maintain tissues and organs and to sup. sues and are required for the structure and if vegetable proteins are combined prop- function of every part of the body. About 20 different amino arises in that many of them also contain acids occur in human proteins. the increase in ef- The National Research Council sets teins are deficient in one or more of the ficiency of protein utilization which has the recommended daily allowance (RDA) essential amino acids and are therefore been reported to occur during adaptation for protein intake at 0. There is some porated into your body tissues. Apparently. (0.8 grams protein per © 2004. Recently. Plant proteins have not in itself make you more muscular. The individual amino acids very active people.45-0. And of erly. Athletes. This value reason behind both points of view.36 grams per pound ing blocks for growth. The proteins egg whites. you eat as food are not directly incor. This the protein requirements of athletes. On the protein chains are digested to yield for the RDA was determined to be the one hand. They tein requirements are seen to be 23-178% of muscle mass on your body. suggest that some hard training strength a balance of amino acids similar to that Furthermore. however.5g/ human proteins. Further- of the amino acids is deficient. the other hand. However. and be obtained from the diet. Most vegetable pro. nitely.9g/pound/day)— because they supply all the essential utilizes its protein food more efficiently. The using animal proteins to avoid the fat other eight are called “essential amino ac. do not require any more protein than which is 56 grams per day for a typical sedentary people. pro- more.

Use Parrillo Performance Hi-Protein Powder™ for increased protein needs. eds. See bulletin #8 for more on protein. 1970. Med Sci Sports Exercise 19: S179-A190. 4. Part I to exercise may not always be enough to offset the increase protein demand. The Netherlands: Wageningen. 1991. In: Nutrition in exercise and sport. Effect of increased supply of protein on elite weight lifters. 64 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Nutr Metab 12: 259-274. eds. The RDA protein recommendation may be enough for sed- entary people but endurance athletes and very muscular athletes need more. Lemon PWR. CRC Press. 5-36. 1989. p. p. 1985. Protein and Exercise: update 1987. Gasesloot TE and Tinbergen BJ. 99-103. Protein and Amino Acid Needs of Strength Athlete. In other words. Human protein intake and metabolism in exercise and sport. Celejowa I and energy balance in Pol- ish weight lifters during training camp. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. 2. Georgescu E. 5. Lemon PWR. Interna- tion Journal of Sport Nutrition 1: 127- 145. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. REFERENCES 1. Dragen GI.Protein: Superfood For Bodybuilders. Vasiliu A. the RDA for protein may not always be enough even if it is utilized with 100% efficiency. 1987. 3. In: Milk Proteins.

4 g/kg/day (0.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 8 Protein: Superfood For Bodybuilders. studies involving low inten. When weight lifters for glucose synthesis in the liver.2 g/pound/day) was found to produce © 2004. After all. suggesting that protein To extract several examples from protein need as the athlete adapts to the is being used as an energy substrate the scientific literature: In a group of 10 training regimen.6 g/kg/day day following a 10 to 12 mile run by increased at the expense of hemoglobin (1. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 65 . tein intake of 2 g/kg/day (0. requirements use subjects who are not be elevated substantially (2. day (0. we should realize oxidation of amino acids can approach hemoglobin. Nearly all studies weight lifters exercising intensely and which include nitrogen loss through Oftentimes.2 and coworkers (10) found an increase for their formation could be obtained to 3. The harder neogenesis. these results suggest that a pro- (2).0 to 1. In other words. During prolonged exercise training (6).45 g/pound/day) (8. an athlete experiences a consuming 2 g/kg/day (0. reconcile these views. isoleucine.6 g/pound/day) in urinary urea excretion (waste prod- from destruction of red blood cells (6. Under the recovery period following exercise.” The branched chain amino you weight train the more damage you acids (BCAAs) leucine.9g/pound/day) sweating find subjects to be in nega- decrease in red blood cell count and se- protein. amino acids with three or and they must be repaired(1). is increased. In Increased nitrogen excretion (in training intensely enough to stimulate contrast. the the body will draw on red blood cells. if performed prop.8 g/kg/day (1. release of glucagon from the pancreas. greater nitrogen retention than 1 g/kg/ bolic stimulus and.If dietary protein intake is inadequate. Another derived from the digestion of protein reason athletes require more protein foods. aged during intense exercise training. sity exercise actually indicate decreased after exercise.6 is made of protein which is synthesized g/pound/day) works better for at least from amino acids. known as intake of 2. While strength This becomes significant during high and this damage must be repaired during athletes have known this for years. 10). will be stored as fat or glycogen.9). to repair that damage. for example).5 g/kg/day (1. 6). Taken erly. the amount of myofi. (2. Muscular more carbon atoms can be converted growth occurs by over-compensation into glucose via a process called “gluco- during the repair process. could be due to the fact was found to result in higher nitro. during intense weight it begins to burn amino acids (the build- lifting. eliciting a sports anemia. composed of actin and day) is inadequate for many athletes myosin. 4 were in negative nitrogen tive nitrogen balance during endurance rum iron levels during the early phase of balance (4). Therefore. This condition. and the protein and iron required increased their protein intake from 2. source of protein to repair the muscles strate that exercise increases protein and dietary amino acid needs could (17). Part II by John Parrillo Strength training is a powerful ana. eating more protein than sedentary people is that amino ac- foods provides more building blocks ids are used as fuel during exercise. the muscle fibers are damaged ing blocks of protein) and fat for energy. myoglobin may be (5). they increased in strength and lean mass ucts from protein catabolism) during the 17). Dohm tissue. to fuel activity (1). and plasma proteins as a that most studies which fail to demon- recomended daily protein requirements. a protein activities.9 g/pound/ brillar protein. To ercise (a 10-mile run. Af- for the synthesis of new muscular tissue ter the body uses up its glycogen stores. and the more protein you need in the muscle. In another study. Further- do to your muscles (which stimulates valine can be burned for energy directly more. The amino acids are some hard training athletes. that aerobic training causes an increase gen balance and greater muscular gains This hormone mobilizes amino acids in myoglobin ( an oxygen carrying pro- than an intake of 1.64 from muscle tissue to serve as substrates tein) and cytochrome content of muscle g/pound/day) (7). (this is why you’re sore after a workout). and if protein intake is inadequate. nutritionists assert that excess protein conditions of prolonged endurance ex.5 g/kg/day (1. Muscular tissue and that as much as 3.urine and sweat) is commonly observed increases in lean body mass. In the liver. Specifically. skeletal muscle fibers are dam- growth).3 g/pound/day) blood glucose levels drop. results in increased lean body mass together. A protein intake of 2. many intensity endurance exercise.

Acid Needs of the Strength Athlete. balance can be maintained during high health and is very effective at burning ing or endurance exercise. should still participate in (kidney stones). Each of our in aerobic exercise but eat enough ad.two hours of aerobic conditioning per Mineral-Electrolyte tablets provide 250 ditional protein and calories to compen. 1989. but not both. synthesis in the liver.Protein: Superfood For Bodybuilders. which increase in protein catabolism.” The athlete should per pound of body weight coming from 3. 13). the and calories tocompensate diet contributes to the progressive nature increased efficiency of protein utilization for the energy expense. Protein and exercise: bear in mind the importance of adequate 66 © 2004. For growth to occur. Each scoop provides 20 grams cle. Protein catabolic in nature. leading to an acute mum guidelines from the literature. We’ve seen increase in protein catabolism induced adequate protein and calories must be bodybuilders greatly improve their phy- by endurance exercise. Athletes interested in increasing Many professional bodybuilders perform cium and phosphorus intake (at least the muscular mass should still participate two hours of intense weight lifting plus RDA. starchy and fibrous carbs. Aerobic that protein improves calcium absorption exercise is required to condition the car. This result indicates an energy intake. experimental support to the contrary. for an individual athlete. The published studies generally use while others show the opposite. The amount consumed to maintain the body as well siques by following these guidelines. Lemon PWR. In- pound of body weight. intensity. Some studies show training alone (15). to extract some mini- water and to get enough calcium. of protein metabolized was calculated as provide enough building blocks for If you don’t consume enough pro- to be 57 grams.. protein intake and metabolism in exer- does not recognize that protein/amino tion.5 gram resistance exercise. while at the same mg calcium and 250 mg phosphorus. Human current recommended dietary allowance regimen as they prepare for competi. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. Lemon PWR. (among intensely training is converted to urea and excreted in long term studies suggest an adaptive athletes) seems to be increasing protein the urine and sweat. Part II male runners. with the remaining . 800-1200 mg/day). protein supplements also seem and calcium excretion (16). CRC Press. Calcium diovascular system and maintain overall subjects engaged in either strength train. to provide precursors for glucose ditioning of the athlete (14). lean proteins. One gram per creased amino acid availability and the ternational Journal of Sport Nutrition 1: pound of body weight should come from enhanced anabolic stimulus of heavy 127-145. 12.5 Many studies have demonstrated a posi- accommodate the demands of intense or g/kg/day (1. Other experts suggest that protein creasing muscular mass cium salts which could form precipitates requirements of trained athletes remain elevated after adaptation (11. and level of con. The metabolism generates ammonia. your rate of muscular growth will be of the energy expended during the run. (or even more). we have developed Hi-Protein catabolized. endurance training is not sufficient to muscular gains. sate for the energy expense. “Although the with many athletes following such a 1.5 grams of protein a day per advantageous. p. there is no evidence suggesting that strength athletes For example. Some general trend. gram. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . These athletes undoubtedly have cise and sport. eds. In: Nutrition in Exercise acid needs are higher in strength ath- exceptional protein requirements. On and Sport.may be catabolized as fuel during The data suggesting that a high protein a 10-12 mile run (10). of ultra quality protein. we deal Lemon (2) states. Since protein needs vary depending retarded. engaging in aerobic exercise. we recommend that bodybuilders If high protein/amino acid diets are 2. It is pos- diet should be sure to drink plenty of ies indicate that endurance exercise is sible.. Notably. 5-36. of kidney disease come from people which occurs as an adaptive response to with pre-existing kidney problems (2). Drinking plenty response to endurance training whereby intake increases nitrogen balance and of water aids the kidneys in removing the proteins are utilized more efficiently Athletes interested in in- this nitrogenous waste and dilutes cal- (1). REFERENCES Rather than being exceptional. at least to a level of 3. there is a substantial amount of The Parrillo Perfromance Nutrition Pro. Apparently. time consuming a calorie restricted diet.6 g/pound/day). Results are to be effective in improving gains in Of course. it is impos. Encourag- tive correlation between protein intake prolonged endurance exercise. sible to make exact recommendations People consuming a high protein In summary. needs. tein. man . sky I. protein diets by assuring adequate cal- fat. Protein and Amino consume 1. Powder. To help you meet your protein The authors suggested that protein was on exercise type. 57 grams of protein— aerobic exercise but eat consuming a high protein diet have an equivalent to the RDA for a 158 pound enough additional protein increased incidence of kidney disease. environment. the short term stud. possibly from skeletal mus- duration. frequency. Hickson JF and Wolin- letes. however. 1991. enough to supply 18% new muscular tissue. it may be due to in. these arguments should equivocal regarding protein intake and muscle mass over that resulting from not discourage strength athletes from calcium absorption.

nopolsky MA. Lemon PWR. 5. in: Nutrition in Exercise trogen balance experiments. 399-406. Nutr Metab 12:259-274. Lemon PWR. 27-55. p. p. 1989. J Appl Physiol 64: 187-193. Williams MH. Dohm GL. and Effect of increased supply of protein on 10. J. Gasesloot TE and Tinbergen BJ. fect of chronic endurance exercise on Chapter 5: Calcium. 1990. 79: and Sport. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 67 . Berning JR and Steen camp. Wapnir RA. 99-103. 1989. 1985. Iron Nutrition excretion in sweat and its relation to ni. 15. mineral absorption. and energy balance Dougall JD. The Netherlands: Wageningen. Celejowa I and Homa M. Kasperek Evans WJ. and Atkinson SA. 77-98. 1983. 8. Houck J and Slavin J. Nelson RA. (abstract) Can. tus and effect of proteins. (abstract) Can. Nitrogen 12. and Atkinson SA. Vasiliu A. Sci. 2. Aspen Publishers. Sherman and Kramer. J. 291-308. and Canham. Dragen GI. and Atkinson SA. J. 1991. Human Kinet. 1963. Part II update 1987. nitrogen. ed. magnesium and ics Publishers. Ef. 1990. Sports Sci. Food 9. Consolazio I. 7. 1970. 17. J. Effect tion for the athlete. p. 1987. Harding RS. Lemon PWR. strength gain and hypertrophy during eds. 1988. Protein nutri- intake. Ef- fect of dietary protein and bodybuilding 13. Med Sci Sports Exercise gains. 15: 22’s. Influence of dietary exercise on muscle mass and strength protein and total energy intake on © 2004. Frontera WR. rats and humans after a bout of exercise. Haymes E. status on nitrogen balance and lean mass. Hickson and Wolinsky. 13: 13P. Influence of protein intake and training CRC Press. Williams RT. Protein nutrition and Iron. MacDougall JD. 14. cise Physiol 52: 27. Sports Sci. (abstract) Can. p. MacDougall JD. p. CRC Press.1982. 1989. Tar. 4. eds. eds. Sports Sci Exch 19: S179-A190. and Exercise. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exer. Tarnopolsky MA. Dietary effects on muscle elite weight lifters. 11. tion of urea and N-methylhistidine by heavy resistance training in older men. Matoush LO. Vitamins. Meredith CN. Proteins.Protein: Superfood For Bodybuilders. and Van Rij AM. retention of dietary protein. In: Milk Proteins. Mac. Int J Sports phosphorus absorption. 14’s 1990. In: Ergogenic Aids in Sport. 15: strength improvement. 1-14. nutritional sta- Med 10: 118-123. 1988. Nutr. Sports SN. GJ. Tarnopolsky MA. 6. requirements. Friedman JE and Lemon PWR. In: Sports Nutrition in Polish weight lifters during training of body building exercise on protein for the 90’s. Georgescu E. and 16. Increased excre.

68 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

oatmeal. you can eat all regularly consume a diet high in complex an insulin release. two servings of starchy carbs and one to Animals have a very limited ability to two servings of fibrous carbs at each meal. and fruit. you eat at least one to products. avoid the consumption of vegetables. Program further subdivides complex carbs which is easily converted to fat in the liver into two classes: starchy carbs and fibrous (1). contain a lot of natural sugars which are and whole grains. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 69 . Because simple sug. they can store more energy in gests the complex carbs into simple sugars of glucose into the bloodstream and more less space and with less weight. This way. Milk contains lactose. Cellulose. and other fresh energy level. asparagus. On The Parrillo Performance sugary foods. Glycogen is stored mostly sugars—but it does. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 9 Carbohydrates: Ultimate Food Fuel. or milk sugar. insulin them as glycogen. as the storage form of energy. a process that slows throughout the body and by the central down their rate of release into the blood. When you combine probably varies according to the individ- wouldn”t make any difference whether ual’s training state. insulin come depleted. Also. Since ani- are nothing more than simple sugars linked and protein slow the digestion of starchy mals are mobile. Because the human stream. provides to four calories per gram in carbohydrate. together into long chains. Many experiments indicate that © 2004. liver glycogen is broken causes the excess to be converted to fat. bloodstream for use by working muscles must be digested. as compared Carbohydrates are grouped into two humans cannot digest. on your body than one hundred grams of These include not only processed sugar starch. in the muscles where it will be used. they store energy as fat. Fruit The Parrillo Performance Nutrition contains a simple sugar known as fructose. green beans. Based on this. rather than the (the body’s storage form of carbohydrate) are converted into glucose before they are sharp spike of insulin released in response can be stored by the human. causes the excess to be into glucose units and released into the Complex carbs. Complex carbohydrates is good for your intestines. store carbohydrate and instead rely on fat along with a lean protein source. lettuce. it is insulin release and a more uniform energy nutrition program. nutritious foods. Your body di. resulting in a more gradual release That way. Although fresh fruit and low fat dairy carbs. resulting in a more moderate foods in the way recommended by our body cannot store much carbohydrate. causing a rapid ars are released faster glycogen is not released into the blood- increase in blood sugar level and an insulin than the body can burn stream and is only used by the muscle in surge. Part I by John Parrillo grams of sugar will have a different effect Be sure to avoid simple sugars. general classes: complex carbohydrates bulk which helps with elimination and and because it does not require water for and simple sugars. all carbohydrates release is more moderate. In the end. then. and releases them into the bloodstream as sustained energy levels. although this used. beans. products are healthy. and Simple sugars are released into the also to a small extent in the liver. and amount of you get your carbs from starch or simple muscle mass. converted to fat. Also. complex carbs are not as the vegetables and salad greens you want carbohydrates to fuel the body. spin. One hundred and still stay lean. milk. they drates are potatoes. a plant carbohydrate that tains nine calories per gram. including fruit and dairy Nutrition Program. Plus. nurvous system. especially for athletes. to level. of carbohydrate. If you’re fibrous carbs include broccoli. rice. you have more energy very important. striving for ultimate leanness and a high ach. since they don’t cause as big and less fat storage. on the other hand. and good sources of easily converted into body fat. Good sources of starchy carbohy. carbs. you might think it to simple sugars. Fat is a more High fiber foods such as fibrous carbs efficient way to store energy because it con- contain cellulose. faster than the body can burn them for After muscle glycogen stores be- energy or store them as glycogen. fiber storage. as does carbohydrate. Muscle bloodstream immediately. diet. even though both supply 100 grams but also foods like honey. prone to be converted to fat. insulin Only about 600 grams of glycogen glucose. Because simple sugars are released them for energy or store which it’s stored.

such as weight In conclusion. eds. Shafrir E. TD and Brunn. The conversion of lactic REFERENCES also be metabolized anaerobically (without acid back into glucose requires oxygen. muscles to power contractions. anyone interested in having a 3. More than 99 percent product. ATP is not down energy production and forces you but a Pro-Carb™ drink also supplies water stored by the body so it must be constantly to stop and rest.Carbohydrates: Ultimate Food Fuel. The anaerobic production of ATP this is why you continue to breathe hard 1. The liver is able to convert at 1-800-344-3404. To produced from the aerobic metabolism of makes its way from the muscles into the order Pro-Carb™. By the eat. and the more fat you eat. (aerobic means “with oxygen”). Part I carbohydrate is the body’s preferred fuel is that it produces lactic acid as a waste high-carbohydrate. your body likes to burn CRC Press. or ATP (2). Kretchmer N and Hollenbeck CB. and oxygen). disadvantage of anaerobic metabolism 70 © 2004. which is formulated with form adenosine triphosphate. Lifting weights requires so much carbs for energy and to store energy as fat. JC. the more carbs your body will burn for damentals of carbohydrate metabolism. I. time oxygen can get from the lungs to the energy.” ers. fat. it’s physiological and pathologi- Glycolysis makes a big contribution to after a set. call our toll-free number carbohydrates. The accumulation of lactic acid shuts drate. Fructose/sucrose me- from carbohydrate is called glycolysis. the lactic acid back into glucose so it can be Carbohydrate is unique in that it can used as fuel again. it offers the advantage of gen. a slow-releasing carbohy- ATP is the fuel source used directly by the set. Not only is it high in carbohydrates. This is why athletes—and Hickson. lifting. especially bodybuilders—should eat a diet 1989. for the burning sensation at the end of the maltodextrin. fatty acids. We also during exercise. 1983. This pay-back from anaerobic cal implications. One lean. Most of the lactic acid which is needed for glycogen storage. Fun- can’t keep up with the demand. your set is fat you’ll store. In fact. Pate. JF and Wolinsky. Biochemistry. energy so fast that aerobic metabolism Generally speaking. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . eds. low-fat diet. In: Sugars and Sweeten- the energy expended during very intense metabolism is called “oxygen dept. the more In: Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. the more carbs you 2. high-energy body should consume a ley Publishing Company. Although glycolysis is relatively high in complex carbohydrates and low in inefficient. exercise of short duration. Lactic acid accumulates inthe recommend carbohydrate supplementation of the carbohydrate is used in the body to muscles and the blood and is responsible with Pro-Carb™. 1991. muscles and inside the cells. and amino acids bloodstream. CRC Press. Addison-Wes- erating energy instantly upon demand. for a few minutes while you’re recovering tabolism. already over. Zubay.

the longer the body (1. This allows progressively lower during exercise. triphosphate (ATP is the fuel source used relatively more fat to be used at a given During long bouts of exercise.the morning before breakfast. especially weight training. The dif. oxygen requirement. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 71 . This not only helps you ance exercise. glycogen deficient. they can deliver Muscle glycogen reserves become on the anaerobic pathway for adenosine more oxygen to the tissues. This means that carbohydrate. Furthermore. lungs. if aerobically trained reserves is often interpreted as overtrain- Fat cannot be metabolized rapidly and untrained individuals exercise at the ing. This is one reason why you spend exercising. thus This is why it’s best to do your further increasing endurance (4). Not getting a good pump aerobic capacity).through the liver by untrained individu.2). especially endur. At low to moderate inten. activates enzymes involved in the Krebs An excellent time for aerobics is in the cycle and oxidative phosphorylation . ance training increases the size and num- and the hormones released during exer. bic threshold is the intensity of effort at . increases the muscles’ ability to use fat as glucose derived from muscle glycogen an energy source. The point of muscular fatigue can be fueled almost entirely aerobically produced from anaerobic metabolism of coincides with glycogen depletion (5).) Under these conditions. more part by decreased clearance of lactic acid grams of carbohydrate per day was seen energy can be obtained from carbohy. relies get bigger and stronger. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 10 Carbohydrates: Ultimate Food Fuel. be alleviated by increased carbohydrate of intense exercise (above 70 percent the untrained individual will accumulate consumption. fat. and these at about 70 percent of aerobic capacity. glycogen directly by the muscles to power muscu. This is explained in group of athletes consuming 300 to 350 For a given amount of oxygen. ber of mitochondria in the muscles and cise have had time to mobilize fatty acids. This increased ability is the primary fuel. it takes more lactic acid in the muscles and blood in the gym is a clue that you’re probably more oxygen to burn fat than to burn than the trained individual (3). fat for energy. Glycogen Hormones are released into the athletes start to accumulate lactic acid reserves can also be depleted gradually bloodstream during exercise. reserves may drop to critically low levels lar contractions. The anaero. A effort. This makes carbo. endurance training also to use as fuel (1). overtraining may enough to meet the energy requirements relative intensity (the same % VO2max). carbohydrate (1. when oxygen supply is limited. for aerobic energy production. Part II by John Parrillo is the fuel source used for most forms metabolism of carbohydrates and fat in of exercise. fat and carbohydrate each about 50 percent aerobic capacity. to become progressively more glycogen drate than from fat. Furthermore. Muscle glycogen als (3) and also by more efficient aerobic depleted during successive days of train- © 2004. the more fat will bodybuilders should engage in aerobic be used as the fuel source.accumulate lactic acid in their blood at exercise. It takes 30 to 60 minutes of exercise for In addition to increasing muscle fatty acids to be available to the muscles glycogen storage. Lactic acid is intensity. increases aerobic capacity. to burn fat spares glycogen stores. because you’re central energy producing pathways of glycogen depleted then. only glucose can be used as fuel (1).ference would be even greater if exercise The amount of carbohydrates you hydrate a better fuel choice for intense was performed at the same absolute take in affects your training intensity. Endur- aerobics when you’re glycogen depleted. the trained athlete (4). so the anaerobic threshold is a This is separate from momentary muscu- and amino acids can all be used as fuel measure of how well your body is trained lar failure at the end of a set which is due for low intensity exercise. exercise: It increases the ability to burn Exercise training.3). And. (1). In some cases. which lactic acid begins to accumulate The athlete then feels exhausted and must Exercise of low to moderate intensity and is usually expressed as a percentage stop exercising or dramatically reduce the (up to 60 percent of aerobic capacity) of aerobic capacity (1). Trained to lactic acid accumulation. such as weight the point of glycogen depletion (1). duration. glucose. and blood system can train harder and longer. This feeling of fatigue from sity exercise.level of exercise intensity. stay lean but also spares glycogen so you High intensity exercise of short As the heart. Up until this time. failure of adequately replenish glycogen supply about half of the energy (1). over a period of days if carbohydrate in- promote fat mobilization and the use of while untrained individuals begin to take does not match that utilized during fat for energy.

1976. Carbohydrate drinks are very useful in this situation. Carbohydrate beverages are also Metabolism in Exercise. tivities and replenish glycogen stores (1). and is not conducive Physiology. Also. during prolonged exercise on succes- Some athletes train so heavily that 1. and muscle glycogen training schedule. Bowers R. Bassett DR Jr. these numbers are not in our Pro-Carb™ powder drink mix in Sport. The longer and harder 6. Published by require the most energy and the most McGraw-Hill Book Company. was seen to result in complete repletion best carb drinks contain slow-release of glycogen reserves. on the type. a slow-releas. bloat. 90’s. Carbohydrates: the sive days. 31: 834- they have trouble consuming enough master fuel. you train. duration. 5. W. Sherman. JR and Stenn. Nutrition in training. 1991. Saun- to optimal exercise performance. Appl. Williams. and fre. eds. An individual athlete’s made from maltodextrin. (6). ics Publishers. or discomfort.The Mechanisms quency of exercise. chapter 71. which in turn depend simply call our toll-free orderline at 1. SN. muscle glycogen. Human Physiology . Muscle glycogen utilization you need. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . ed. This is the formula contained supercompensation. the more carbohydrate calories REFERENCES Sparks K. high carbohydrate foods to fuel their ac. JF and 500 to 600 grams carbohydrate per day petitions to help maintain energy. In. Published by W. this diet were able to maintain a heavy simple sugars such as glucose. Physiol. In: Sports Nutrition for the 838. intensity. carbohydrates. p. Berning. Textbook of Medical ing. Vander. and athletes on glucose polymers (dextrins) rather than 4. as well as for 72 © 2004. Sherman. 1989. these athletes athletes trying to further increase caloric 3. carbohydrate requirement depends on ing carbohydrate. his energy needs. 2. After several days. a diet providing useful during training and athletic com. CRC Press. eds. I. ders. Coleman. J. or fructose. 1983.B. 800-344-3404. To order Pro-Carb™. Carbohydrates. Energy were unable to continue with heavy intake. M. Guyton. Exercise and Sport. In contrast. Branam G. Endurance athletes of Body Function. Nagle FJ. Hickson. In: Ergogenic Aids Of course. sucrose. The Wolinsky.E. 1980. Costill DL. 236. Human Kinet- prescriptive. consuming a huge volume of food can cause gastrointestinal distress. and Luciano. Aspen Publishers.

and increase your carbohydrate intake. carbs) such as brown rice. ate carbohydrate diet (50% of calories) late glycogen supercompensation without Details are described in the The Parrillo resulted in glycogen levels of 106 mmol/ causing a loss of lean body mass. three days. potatoes. The endurance athlete practic- The technique of glycogen super. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 73 . ing glycogen loading should glycogen- compensation (glycogen loading) allows A more moderate approach has also deplete using the same form of exercise an athlete to nearly double the level of been developed which seems to work just as he will perform in competition. the used. cogen reserves for supercompensation ars. a classic study was per. diet (5% of calories) provided muscle For most occur. Endurance was measured reserves because at that point it’s very converted to fat. which sustained 115 minutes of ex. In this protocol. to gauge this is to train to fatigue using endurance time. carbohydrate intake is in- which can be stored by the body is re. for the last two or three days be- glycogen stores of 38 mmol/kg.endurance limits. kg. During this recovery period. The high carbohydrate diet (82% amino acids (Parrillo Performance Mus. high rep sets until you lose your pump. it was found ultimate stimulus for increased muscle that glycogen stores could be even further glycogen synthesis. be aware that endurance training is the Taking it a step further. Also. (1). the enzyme responsible as usual but consumes a low-carbohydrate for glycogen storage (1). The greater as well (3). and exercise If you supply your body ported to be 600 grams (1). rests and consumes a high-carbohydrate bohydrate as either com- more muscular athletes have the ability to diet. A low carbohydrate fourths of the way through the workout. Presumably. we suggest while de-carbing that A direct relationship was found between you adjust your carbohydrate intake so days before carb loading.supplementation with branched chain Starchy carbohydrates (complex ercise.creased to 70% of calories. line. For three days. Then.per day . by exercise time to exhaustion at VO. which supported 170 any skeletal muscle protein catabolism. Glycogen depletion and subse- athlete rests and consumes a high-carbo. As a general guide- 2max (75% maximal aerobic capacity). When used before promote glycogen loading in legs but not competition. both will help replenish In 1967. the athlete bodybuilder getting ready for a show the pre-exercise glycogen content. while training hard. Performance Nutrition Program. Endurance increased by a supercompensation tech. diet that completely depletes the glycogen the effect is specific for the muscles reserves. Furthermore. minutes of high intensity exercise.last day before competition. training increases the activity of glyco- nique. glycogen stores. For the body overcompensates and stores more example. Bodybuilders should probably not hydrate intake on glycogen levels and strive to totally deplete their glycogen of the simple sugars will be endurance (2). quent supercompensation is localized to hydrate diet.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 11 Carbohydrates: Ultimate Food Fuel. The stored muscle glycogen (1). but more formed to examine the effects of carbo. endurance training legs will glycogen than amount sufficient to stimu. although this time is decreased to 20 minutes. yams © 2004. the consumes a 50% carbohydrate diet for should train all major muscle groups to greater the endurance potentionial (1). this turns out to Then. which be between 100 and 300 grams of carbs fore the show. taper down your activity sustained one hour of exercise. For the the point of glycogen depletion for a few The maximum amount of carbohydrate next two days. A good way carbohydrate content of the diet and that you lose your pump about three. the athlete with a given amount of car- al’s amount of muscle mass. for the next three days. this technique helps extend in arms. This Bodybuilders who want to use gly- experiment provides solid evidence that cogen supercompensation to pump up a high carbohydrate diet is beneficial for their muscles during competition should endurance performance. the muscles which are exercised (4). On the probably varies according to the individu. the athlete trains gen synthase.easy to lose muscle. Part III by John Parrillo of calories) resulted in glycogen stores cle Amino Formula™) may help prevent of 204 mmol/kg. A moder. This experiment demonstrated that plex carbs or simple sug- store more glycogen and thus would be it’s not necessaryto totally deplete gly- expected to have more endurance.

during exercise can increase endurance during workouts to supply the added trin beverage. Athletes stores. the muscles and the central nervous sys.Carbohydrates: Ultimate Food Fuel. mentioned. it vestigate the effectiveness of a maltodex. this is the ideal time for sured by biopsy and endurance was mea. eds. muscle is used only by that muscle and improves endurance but not speed. basal metabolic rate they are released into the bloodstream trin—a slow release glucose polymer. Part III and grains seem to be more effective in and assimilation of carbohydrate calories to 600 grams of carbs per day (4). Furthermore. The Pro-Carb™ sured by run time to exhaustion at 75% symptoms of hypoglycemia (dizziness. Of course. limit during extended training. muscle glycogen stores are re- cogen synthesis pathways. can both compromise athletic perfor. This slow release maintains Maltodextrin beverages like Pro-Carb™ It is important to consume carbo- elevation of insulin. After the muscles deplete their gly. 9). have failed may increase endurance by providing and carbs consumed in excess of this will to reproduce this observation. your body with a given amount of carbo. For this reason. 74 © 2004. depending of replenishing glycogen stores because since it provides glucose as maltodex. blood glucose. Subjects glycogen-depleted nausea. After liver glycogen is depleted. Also. however. In other words. sociated with repeated days of heavy REFERENCES lowing the 90% carbohydrate diets were training (1. to maintain glycogen reserves (1). 500-600 grams of carbohydrate per day recovery period following glycogen-de. Drinking During the next three days. After muscle and liver gly- from simple sugars causes some of the for endurance athletes and hard training cogen stores are full. ing does not improve speed at the begin- use complex carbs to minimize any “spill While the glycogen stored in the liver ning of a race but rather allows the athlete over” of carbs into fat stores. JR and Stenn. glucose to muscles after their glycogen probably not result in proportionately It seems reasonable to expect that stores have been diminished (1). glucose drops and central nervous system a Pro-Carb™ drink. 4). hydrates it needs to replenish its glyco- During the glycogen loading phase. Other studies. containing maltodextrin. and activity level. our synthesize glucose from amino acids in full glycogen stores (4). liver glycogen the increased insulin release resulting mance. starch resulted in greater Carbohydrate feeding during exer. carbohydrates needed to maintain a high resulted in lower muscle glycogen levels Replenishing depleted glycogen energy level during intense workouts. Next. can be mobilized and released into the to maintain the same pace longer before One study has been performed to in. subjects in the letes who train every day generally need sugars (5). than did the 90% maltodextrin diet. the amount master fuel. glucose levels during exercise and to in. and insulin in turn have been demonstrated to increase blood hydrate immediately after exercise in stimulates glycogen synthase (4). 4). Dehydration and glycogen depletion exercise. 8). plenished first (4). blood after training. adequate car- essentially identical. additional carbohy- sugar to be stored as fat. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . As pleting exercise. supplementation during exercise increas. is ran less and consumed a 90% carbohy. so Pro-Carb™ drinks are perfect is replaced. When consuming carbohydrates after idly. As most athletes aren’t hungry right sation (6). more slowly. after a 48-hour maltodextrin group reported less gastro. cose. In one study. both will help replenish glycogen blood glucose for energy. crease exercise time to exhaustion (7. If you supply bodybuilders. on lean body mass. cise events lasting longer than 90 minutes store about 600 grams of carbohydrate. Muscle glycogen was mea. SN. Carbohydrates: the that the greater glycogen loading in the glycogen stores. but more of the simple sugar will its own glycogen stores and can also finish best times when they begin with be converted to fat. the body has the ability to muscle glycogen synthesis than did glu. 1991. The 90% rice-pasta diet by 30-60 minutes (1). complex carbs would do a better job Performance Pro-Carb™ is ideal for this. cannot provide glucose for the blood (2). at least up pen Publishers. It has been shown that glycogen hydrate as either complex carbs or simple cogen stores they begin to use more supercompensation increases endurance sugars. the subjects es endurance by helping to maintain Pro-Carb™. The authors suggest bohydrate intake is required to maintain 1. Ath- replenishing glycogen stores than simples in liquid form. Carbohydrate themselves to the glycogen depletion for three days while continuing to train. The liver has time of runners and cyclists (4). In general. glycogen stored in a slowing down (1. Pro-Carb™ can also be taken and another group received a maltodex. Experiments with cyclists have gen stores following extended periods of group received carbs from rice and pasta demonstrated that carbohydrate feeding training. Berning. intestinal discomfort. one tem (1). trin beverage for glycogen supercompen. Total stores is essential to prevent fatigue as- endurance times for the two groups fol. Formula is perfect for endurance athletes VO2max. Parrillo greater glycogen storage (4). Of course. bloodstream. which provides fuel for a great way to get your body the carbo- drate diet to replenish glycogen stores. Glycogen load- program recommends that bodybuilders a process known as gluconeogenesis. drates will be stored as fat (4). of glycogen stored is proportional to 90s. fatigue) develop. order to maximize glycogen storage (1. In: Sports Nutrition for the group receiving the maltodextrin supple. As- ment may be a result of better absorption carbohydrate consumption. in addition to and bodybuilders who constantly push by consuming a 20% carbohydrate diet local muscular failure (1). individual requirements vary. potentially overwhelming the gly. Simple sugars are released more rap. E. Coleman.

Costill DL. W. Cutler CL. Hermansen L. Connors D. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 75 . Fink WJ. muscle glycogen. and muscle glycogen supercompensation. In: Ergogenic Aids in Sports. 15: 126. 8. Hult- man E. J. Scand. 1981. Part III 2. Clin. Miller JM. 1983. © 2004. Nu- tritional beverages: exercise and sport. Sport Nutr. Snyder AC. CRC Press.. I. Miller JM. Sci. 71: 140-150. Bergstrom J. Sherman WM. 9. Int. 1967. 7. Sher- man WM. 1985. Carbohydrates. The role of dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenuous running. Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen super- compensation and its subsequent utiliza- tion during performance. Buskirk. Williams. Hickson. Ivy JL. 3. M. ER and Puhl. Sherman. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effect of time of carbohydrate ingestion. Fink WJ. 1981. ed. Diet. Med. Witten MW. Malto- dextrin feeding immediately before pro- longed cycling at 62% VO2max increas- es time to exhaustion. Nutr. 1: 52-60. Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid carbohydrate supplement. 1989. Sports Exerc. S. 6. J. Datz AL. Appl. Coastal DJ. Baur T. Saltin B. Lamb DR.Carbohydrates: Ultimate Food Fuel. 4. 34: 1831-1836. J. 2: 114-118. J. eds. and Baur TS. 1983. In: Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. JF and Wolinsky. Human Ki- netics Publishers. muscle glycogen and physical performance. Coyle EF. Sports Med. 5. 1991. 64: 1480-1485. Int. and Brodowics G. Snyder AC. Physiol. Am. Acta Physiol. Lamb DR. Sherman WM.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .76 © 2004.

for use able to produce 5 calories from carbohy. At rest. the body also draws on amino acids Pro-Carb drink also supplies water which can tell from the respiratory quotient as fuel (4. it takes less oxygen use of fat as fuel. to burn carbss than fat. meaning that if adequate carbs are In carbohydrate metabolism. This those calories come from carbs. Also. to burn carbs than to burn fat. only 4. Although running is high the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to intensity and is fueled partially by carbs. In carbohydrate as the fuel source increases a glycogen-loaded state.your set point — the amount of fat your during training and athletic competition drates but only 4. a great energy source for fueling athletic meet the energy demands of high exer. as intensity of exer. body is programmed to store.3). Carbohydrates are fat cannot be metabolized fast enough to by roughly equal amounts of fats and car. At 90-95% VO2max. Moderate inten. the body can produce burns more calories per hour. a low-carbohydrate energy derived was from protein. muscles rely mostly on fat ers need to ensure adequate carbohydrate as their energy source (5). chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine. and as a source of extra calories. iso- Intermediate values of RQ indi. The liver can convert most is needed for glycogen storage. be burned as fuel during a 10-12 mile run ies and muscle biopsy assessments of (6). more of This makes carbohydrate more ATP from carbs than from fat. activities and supporting weight gain. hour.2). you ing. Liquid what kind of fuel is being used by the amino acids into glucose in a process carbohydrate meals can be consumed body. Furthermore.” The branched closer to competition than solid foods © 2004. the relative contribution of were in a glycogen-depleted state (7). is the recommended daily allowance — could body’s preferred fuel. Using this sort of measurement study showed that as much as much as during cycling exercise. 10. was derived from protein if the subjects cise increases.4% of the energy In general. One of the best exercises for losing The respiratory quotient (RQ) is fat is running. Obviously. the VO2max) such as walking. 5).0 (1. while muscle gly. a better fuel source dur- makes carbohydrate a better fuel source intensity exercise is fueled mostly by fat. 4). the more it glycogen is used as fuel. As the their amino acids to be used for building ercise (1). intake: Carbs have a protein-sparing ef- During low intensity exercise (40-50% fect. bodybuilders want proportional to the intensity of the ex. the primary available. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 12 Carbohydrate: Ultimate Food Fuel. When glycogen stores are limit. cise. only is it high in carbohydrates. oxygen consumed. This is diet reduces exercise time to exhaustion another important reason why bodybuild- (1). at 61% VO2max. 4). leucine and valine can be oxidized as cates that a mixture both fuels are being fuel directly in the muscles (5). more muscle protein. during above 70% VO2max which precludes the lism. Low. One used. it takes less oxygen aerobic metabolism. Radioisotope stud. but a ferent amounts of oxygen to burn. This is because sity exercise (50-60% VO2max) is fueled hydrate supplement. ing intense exercise when during intense exercise when oxygen is a but doesn’t burn very many calories per limiting factor. not as fuel.0 indicates carbs are called “gluconeogenesis. Furthermore. carbohydrates can be carbohydrate provides as much as 95% of metabolized to produce energy anaerobi. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 77 . oxygen is a limiting factor. One liter of oxygen is it has the additional benefit of lowering Pro-Carb is ideal for carb loading. protein. research found 57 grams of protein — equivalent to the that carbohydrate.4% of (1.7 calories from fat (2.bohydrates (2. Part IV by John Parrillo being used exclusively for energy (4). An RQ of 1. cally (in the absence of oxygen) while fat 2.the energy and the RQ approaches 1. when available. Pro-Carb is the ultimate carbo- relies on carbohydrates. the faster the exercise intensity increases. body needs to produce energy. Many athletes train at intensities During aerobic metabo- metabolism requires oxygen. Not Since carbohydrates and fat require dif.cogen degradation is minimal (1). In other words. they will be used instead of rate of glycogen utilization is directly metabolic fuel is fat. For a give Although high-intensity exercise amount of oxygen. Lemon and Mullen showed that dur- energy stores before and after exercise ing a cycling effort lasting over an hour have confirmed this finding (4).

ter 71. Mixed with out Hi-Protein powder. GJ and Van Rij. Maltodextrin is a complex carbohydrate glycogen. Hickson. eds. 1982. Guyton. Sherman. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Hickson. making it ideal for replenishing glycogen stores. ed. JR and Stenn. 1976. Published by W. Effect with subsequent hypoglycemia. Liquid meals also produce grams of complex carbs. Basset. Coleman. AM. Carbohydrates. Human Kinetics and humans after a bout of exercise. dextrin is a glucose polymer. One scoop provides 22 Wolinsky. chap- will “spill over” into fat stores. GD and Massaro.because of their shorter gastric empty. Malto. EJ. Textbook of Medical Physiol. Aspen of initial muscle glycogen levels on pro- Pro-Carb. 1991. slowly. cellent supplement to add extra calories References 1989 during heavy training. Berning. Energy Pro-Carb mixes instantly and tastes great. That 2. CRC Press. Dohm. 1989. Pro-Carb is also an ex. W. DR Jr. hydrate in ultra-endurance performance. Pro-Carb utilizes maltodextrin as its carbohydrate source. way to get calories in without filling up it makes a balanced liquid meal. muscle 6. Williams. JF and Wolinsky. Publishers. ing time (2). GL. 1980. Lemon. PWR and Mullen. Physiol 52: 27. Carbo- intestinal bulk. M. Nagle FJ. I. J Appl gy level because the carbs are released 3. with less than a gram of 5. Increased excretion derived from starch with a low glycemic compensation. 4. Exercise and Sports. SN. eds. you get a more even ener. meaning sport. J that it is released into the bloodstream Publishers. 1. I. 7. E.B. minimizing the chance that any ogy. cial sweeteners. your intestines. Physiol 48: 624-629. In: Sports Nutrition for the 90s. In: Nutrition in and contains no simple sugars or artifi. Miller. In: Nutrition in Exercise and Sports. cose has a glycemic index of 100). Metabolism in Exercise. you don’t get a large insulin surge ter fuel. Using eds. RT. Liquid meals are a good fat. Saunders. Williams. JF and 78 © 2004. In: Ergogenic aids in of urea and N-methylhistidine by rats index (ranging from 22 to 29). Kasparek. tein catabolism during exercise. CRC Press. 1983 Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Excerise more slowly than simple sugars (glu. and muscle glycogen super. Carbohydrates: the mas- way. JP. 4 grams of high a low stool residue and thus minimize quality protein.

2). skeleton of amino acids is burned. the availability of glucose. not just on days of chain amino acids” (leucine. We don’t This is because your body was muscles require a constant supply of cut any corners when it comes to nutri- using some amino acids as fuel but was oxygen. We want not able to clear the waste products ef. Amino ize” the ammonia as soon as it forms noticed that many endurance athletes are acids can be converted to glucose in the enables you to have more energy and en. is quite toxic and is converted to urea ity of red blood cells to deliver oxy- we also work with world class endurance in a metabolic pathway called “the urea gen to all the working tissues of your athletes. best quality supplements clothes after a hard workout? for those carbs to be used as fuel your in the world.7). leav. except it’s the Ultra-endurance activities are associ- Eliminating these waste products helps blood system that takes a beating. not and we want you to reach your goals. our approach to diet and supple- developed this product specifically for strength training actually breaks down mentation is sure to help. to make red blood cells. The so-called “branched consistently everyday. Have you ever muscle tissue to use as fuel (3). it’s use during endurance activities. In addition ing ammonia as a byproduct. Many people build up the ids science has shown most importance of carbohydrates in endur- beneficial. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 79 .” which prepares it to be excreted body (4). Ammonia As you know. In this article I will describe cycle. We suggest the product be used genesis” (4. Parrillo Perfor- Have you ever noticed Carbs are your body’s best fuel source mance provides the an ammonia smell in your for endurance activity (3. protein and B vitamins. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 13 Supplementation For Ultimate Endurance Performance by John Parrillo liver via a process known as “gluconeo. more importantly.” We have Bodybuilders have long recognized that energy. anyway? It’s can also be used directly about producing energy over an extended as fuel by the muscles (5).6. What you may not know is some of our best supplements for endur- in the urine (4. In addi. When this happens the carbon cells which limits energy production. period of time. However. It works muscles and that this damage provides also worth mentioning that many of the by providing nutrients which are used by the stimulus for subsequent growth dur- best bodybuilders also rely on our endur- the body to detoxify the waste products ing the recovery period. What is en- acids are unique in that they durance activity all about. you have more energy and recover faster. Even if you’re not an endur- partates.” I cannot overemphasize the cose in the liver. if you want to recover and be stronger Endurance activity causes loss of lean tis- Ammonia is very toxic and will stop as a result of your workout. and valine) seem to be especially pre. And ated with loss of lean body mass (1.5). oxygen (3. you have to provide the nutrients longer and harder. Period. The same is true recover faster and more completely. isoleucine endurance events. the amino importance of this product.5). for endurance athletes is our “Liver-Ami- tion to being converted to glu. Liver-Amino helps in at These are the amino acids least three ways — by providing heme included in our product iron.5). it is the responsibil- to our famous success with bodybuilders.” Muscle Energy production in the human body Amino contains the balance requires two things: a fuel substrate and of branched chain amino ac. body generates during intense training.5) which are included in our them up — if your nutrition’s not right. We’re here to help you win. for endurance training. it tional support for our athletes. you have to sue because as fat and carbohydrate fuels energy production in the cell. why they work and how to certain chemical compounds called “as. “Muscle Amino. To build more ance supplements when they want to train of protein catabolism. durance.” (4. stroy red blood cells rather than building use them. is usually the rate of oxygen delivery to you to get the most from your training. no Formula. Contrary to popular belief. Finally. very thin and don’t have much muscle © 2004. ance performance — and rightfully so. helps filter out toxic waste products your muscles are made of. ficiently. and. Max Endurance muscle. The urea cycle requires that endurance training actually can de- ance athletes. Perhaps the most crucial supplement ferred as fuel substrates. ance athlete and are just looking for more “Max Endurance Formula. Using the feed your body with the nutrients it needs are exhausted the body draws on its own aspartates in Max Endurance to “neutral.

Iron Deficiency. p. Plus it’s 9. Friedman JE and Lemon PWR. which are nutrition and exercise. tein like hemoglobin. 62. as cooking can destroy the heme group and 7. Yamada and in cytochrome enzymes (enzymes T and Shiraki K. 2. tion to the reduction of red blood cells you produce the more mitochondria you Next month we’ll examine several induced by physical training. quently borderline anemic and why they commonly experience muscle wasting. Japanese J. p. involved References physical training (sports anemia) and its in aerobic energy production) (12). 1991. 51- for more information. mass? Why is that? To understand why precisely the nutrients your body needs this happens. 10: 118-123. from red blood cells and plasma protein. Fun- decrease its incorporation in red blood damentals of carbohydrate metabolism. 1991. Vitamins. Int. Guyton AC. transporting oxygen inside muscle cells). Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. and you 5. Nagle FJ and Bassett DR Jr. Couple this increased protein need 4. Proteins. This way you 8.Supplementation For Ultimate Endurance Performance is the body needs to build up its energy producing systems inside muscle cells 3.) The product con. Addi- can see why endurance athletes are fre. Hickson JF and Wolinsky of training (9. muscle cells to find protein is to steal it 1989. Heme iron and protein are Press. supplements that can be used in an endur. Shiraki K. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . This occurs rapidly with the onset used in energy production. Nutrition in Exer- 11). and what to do about it. mance. Nutrition in Exercise structures to adapt to changing condi. En- to adapt to the training stimulus. to sacrifice one for the other. retention of dietary protein. 35: 1-86. Eds. (Refer to our article about Liver-Amino Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. To achieve this in. 5-36.Williams. CRC Press. Physiol. are increased as an adaptive response to Effect of chronic endurance exercise on Diet. 46-52. meal) when you’re training hard and tent of the muscle tissue (mitochondria definitely at least six weeks before your 10. Inoue T. since it takes that long to build up shimura H. 27: 413-421. Iron tion referred to as “sports anemia” (8. Start taking cise and Sport. proteins as a source of protein (10-12). ed. CRC tein per tablet. 37-50. the body — the body remodeling its own exercise and sports.5 grams of complete pro. Miller GD and Massaro EJ. 1989. what’s happening Eds. Eds. All causal mechanism with special reference of these are protein structures which 1. tions. son-Wesley Publishing Company. causes amino acids to be used as fuel substrates instead of as proteins. need to know a little about physiology can build your energy producing systems Scientific American. p 27-55. Hu. October. CRC Press. Anemia during hard of the electron transport chain. And the easiest place for your Wolinsky I. 1977. CRC Press. J. 1989. causes an increase in mitochondrial con. Nutrition energy producing systems are made of in Exercise and Sport. you to produce red blood cells. 80 © 2004. and how the body adapts to endurance inside muscle cells and your blood sys. 87-106. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. 11. Yoshimura H. Relation of protein nutri- fuels are burned — the more energy red blood cells. Hickson also provides 1. which is involved in ance program for ultimate performance. 1980. Car- Liver-Amino contains heme iron bohydrate in ultra-endurance perfor- — the most bioavailable iron source (8). training. Liver-Amino formula Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. to protein nutrition. Yamada T and Yo- are the furnaces inside the cell where event. Human Kinetics Publishers. This is an example of the “plasticity’” of man protein intake and metabolism in 1983. need). and Sport. cells by 50% (8). without having Endurance activity causes a condi. Ergogenic Aids in Sport. Nutr. Eds. 1989. Sherman AR and Kramer B. 6. 1989. p. Saunders. hemoglobin and plasma and Iron. Hickson JF and protein. Pate TD and Brunn JC. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. 12. 1983.B. endurance training. Zubay G. Eds. JF and Wolinsky I. In other words. pg. the body draws on its erythrocytes Med.11). These ergy metabolism in exercise. tains desiccated liver (not cooked). (red blood cells). pg. in myoglobin concentration (a pro. Textbook of Medical with the fact that endurance activity Physiology. Endurance training the Liver-Amino (five to eight with each I. Biochemistry . World Rev. tem all at the same time. Scrimshaw NS. 1989. a rich source of B vitamins. CRC Press. Haymes. p. Sports crease. 291-308. W.

but not better—from chicken. Thus. In other words. body adapts to CapTri. This is why think of CapTri as human jet fuel. CapTri has a thermogenic ketone bodies produced by CapTri help effect. CapTri is an (11). this protein powder is the highest detailed information about Pro-Carb. You cannot store the energy ready to eat and great tasting. This leads directly Refer to our recent series about carbohy- to our “Hi-Protein Powder.5). Continue to use CapTri — in just the right ratio for opti- CapTri up to and during your endurance mum energy production. During hard training. red blood cells and the of protein and carbohydrate (8. der. It is gram of complete protein per pound of digested and absorbed more rapidly than bodyweight—1. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 81 . these same added benefit. which are used as acids your body needs to build proteins. used as fuel for energy. so you need to use it at each very popular with cyclists and hikers and meal. people are surprised to learn that studies Carbohydrate is the body’s preferred actually show endurance athletes have energy source (6. for optimum endurance performance. This is powder. competition. your aminos get used as extremely concentrated source of calories protein instead of being burned as energy.7) and Pro-Carb is the even higher protein requirements than world’s most sophisticated carbohydrate most strength athletes (1. increase to one tablespoon by endurance athletes. liver to ketone bodies. bodybuilders eat them between meals for Another key point which many peo. As an you really need it. Most Bar. Part II by John Parrillo Endurance athletes experience in. extra calories. instead of be.5 gram of additional protein per pound Maltodextrin provides a much more uni- of bodyweight coming from incomplete form energy level than do simple sugars. CapTri is preferentially gets used to it.2). Maltodextrin has been found fuel during endurance training (1. I to be the ideal carbohydrate source for suggest that you consume at least one replenishing glycogen reserves. which are rapidly absorbed and metabo. per gram for CapTri versus 4 calories per by peripheral tissues improves as the Now we can turn our attention to fuel gram for carbs and protein) and is ab. CapTri provides twice the energy density fuel by the muscles (9. The Parrillo Supplement Bar is the many athletes go as high as two or three endurance athlete’s dream.5 grams would be even conventional carbs from food. Also. The Bar is from CapTri. After lean body mass commonly experienced a few days. Start CapTri is effective in reducing the loss of with 1/2 tablespoon at every meal. carbs and found to be beneficial.3 calories of utilization of ketones as fuel substrates energy producing systems mentioned. or . turkey or egg so fast that it causes an over-release of whites each day with at least another . Energy-dense. CapTri and the Parrillo Supplement creased need for protein (1-4). vegetable sources.25 insulin and subsequent hypoglycemia. fish. CapTri is a special kind of fat known energy from CapTri is converted in the It contains exactly the balance of amino as a medium chain triglyceride (8-10).11). a complex carbohydrate building blocks of protein) are used as from corn. The carbohydrate is supplied due to the fact that the amino acids (the as maltodextrin. using it consistently supplements to help meet the needs of se.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 14 Supplementation For Ultimate Endurance Performance. that way. will allow you to get more out of it when rious endurance athletes: Pro-Carb Pow. CapTri also decreases catabolism of skel- lized for energy by the human body. ple don’t understand is that some of the quality protein food available anywhere. It is a combi- tablespoons per meal—a level they have nation of everything — protein. ing stored as fat by the body (9). which means that it is converted prevent the use of amino acids as fuel to energy very rapidly (9).” Calorie for drates and athletic performance for more calorie. sorbed into the bloodstream as rapidly as your body gets better at using CapTri as it We have developed three high-energy glucose (8-10).11). © 2004. We etal muscle protein (9. The efficiency including muscle. with each meal.

choice because you get protein. 1989. p nutritional supplements for endurance 1-14. Con- sistency and dedication make the differ. Clin. 1: 129- 136. Hickson six weeks before your event to build up JF and Wolinsky I. CRC Press. needs to build muscle. Car- the edge and want to explore the limits bohydrate in ultra-endurance perfor- of your potential. J. Houck J an Slavin J. thing to add. Inc. and Medical Applications. Part II your nutrient level reserves. 1987. tamin Formula and Mineral-Electrolyte Long chain versus medium chain triglyc- Formula. Grant JP and Young VR. The Supplement Bar is a nice Med. Nutrition in Exercise mal man. I suggest you begin us. Amino Acids — Metabolism and Sport. I suggest 3. CapTri or the Supple. not just around competition time. Me- ence between champions and recreational dium chain triglycerides: an update. Don’t forget your Essential Vi.. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . 8. etary protein and total energy intake on mula. and that applies to nutrition and J. 5-36. 1989. 37-50. Hu. Bach AC and Babayan VK. Haymond MW. matter. 7. 1991. This is espe. cially true for Liver-Amino. Lipids supplements regimen is followed daily. clinical use. P. 9. Nissen SL and 1. carbs and CapTri all in one. Eds. 22: 417-420. Int. 36: 950-962. hard and definitely for at least three to Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. Pate TD and Brunn JC. Formula and Muscle Amino. Berning JR and Steen SN. 10. Eds. Aspen Publishers. pg. pg 89-95. Effect of chronic endurance exercise on go with Pro-Carb. retention of dietary protein. 10: 118-123. 1983. Fun- ing endurance supplements when training damentals of carbohydrate metabolism. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. Miller GD and Massaro EJ. 1991. Sports Sci. 1989. Protein and Amino to go from there is a highly individual Acid Needs of the Strength Athlete. References 11. J. Press. p. Record. Lemon PWR. red blood cells and energy producing systems. Lemon PWR. Medium chain tri- We get better results if the nutrition and glycerides and structured lipids. p. Feel free to Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. Influence of di- you start with the Liver-Amino For. supplementation as well as to training. athletes and anyone who wants more energy. add in Max Endurance mance. Kolpeck and Rapp. Prac. CRC 82 © 2004. Effects of ketone bodies on man protein intake and metabolism in leucine and analine metabolism in nor- exercise and sports. Am. CRC Press. Protein nu. strength and stamina. Nutrition in Exercise and Sport. iron — the precise nutrients your body 2. protein from conventional sources. Miles JM.S. 1989. Friedman JE and Lemon PWR. since it provides protein and heme strength improvement. Published by John Wright PSG 2. In general. Sports ment Bar. GL. both of which can be doubled erides — a review of the metabolism and when in hard training. If you’re not getting enough Sports Nutr. Blackburn Eds. Nutr. 1989. Eds. Babayan VK. the Hi-Protein Powder is probably the next 5. Where 4. Clin. 1986. If you need more calories. To sum up. 1: 127-145. Parrillo Performance has trition for the athlete. Eds. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I.Supplementation For Ultimate Endurance Performance. Exch. 51- call or write and we’ll help you work out 62. your individualized program. athletes. Nutr. Sports Nutrition for developed a unique and powerful line of the 90s. 1982. since it takes about six weeks to build red blood cells. If you’re training on 6.

endocrine system controls processes that a little deeper into how all the nutrients sages sent by the endocrine system are occur over a longer period of time. in turn. eral nervous system). the thyroid gland. it’s more exercise and behavior in general. interested in physiology now?) control of the body. tem works by transmitting information can also be classified according to their ing of biochemistry and sports nutrition. So. hypothalamus and the pituitary are con- try to explain how you can control nutri.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 15 Muscularity & Mass: Optimize Your Hormonal Response Through Diet by John Parrillo If you’ve been reading my articles from the all parts of the body (the periph. eral ways (1. gland is connected to it. are released into the blood. messages. fat and medium chain The endocrine system consists of of fat molecules resembling cholesterol). we never lose sight of the parathyroid glands. sponsible for nutrient partitioning into the the body are the nervous system and the terstitial space) and thus exert their ef. Your diet and ex- it is convenient to consider the body ercise habits. rapid adjustment of heart invariably get better results than they it’s like making a phone call. all the energy used by your body and all the Hormones have a profound effect on whether the food matter that makes up your body ultimate- ly comes from food. Your diet and exercise the brain called the hypothalamus. including protein hormones. The nervous sys.” Testosterone. The In this series. the testes or ovaries and hormone are protein hormones. amino acid derivatives. They are tied together by a part of and how does it work? Obviously. located on the bottom surface of the brain how the body works and how it is con. production.” This sci. Examples include I’ve covered the metabolism of proteins. impulses). peptide hormones and use each for maximum results. energy system consists of the brain. and the pituitary trolled is called “physiology. The nervous fect only on nearby tissues. the pancreas. the pituitary gland. Together. and lean compartment.) The chemical mes. mode of release. for example. This simply gets burned for energy? How can habits.2). stream and are carried throughout the sidered to be the master endocrine gland ent partitioning into the fat compartment body. the ence merges beautifully with biochemis. perception of the world People who follow the Parrillo Program to each other using the nervous system. One way is by their roughly in the middle. energy storage and growth. the classical hormones. cord (the central nervous system) and the some hormones exert their effect only And this means control of growth of both nerves that transmit information to and © 2004. What sets us apart is not just the superior the kidneys. have a profound effect on these as being divided into fat compartment hormones. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 83 . on the cells that produce them and are consistently over the last couple of years. But why does it work whether the food you eat ends up as rately. in the form of electrical signals (nerve chemical structure. called “autocrine” hormones. triglycerides in detail. The nervous system acts to con- quality of our products but also that we mits information in the form of chemical trol actions that require a fast response teach you how to get the best results. explaining how to several organs in the body. the steroid hormones (which are made carbohydrates. At Par. and when rate and breathing rate in response to ever thought possible. they use the endocrine system. The endocrine system trans. the steroid hormone while insulin and growth the fact that results are the bottom line. controlling the function of all or the lean compartment. the spinal called “paracrine” hormones. adrenal glands. let’s talk a “telecrine” hormones.2). growth as fuel metabolism and growth (Making the body to produce results. the lean compartment. in turn. You know hormone and insulin are examples of a phone call is faster than writing a let- that getting ultimate results requires an hormones everyone knows about. or muscle or fat. These are tem deals with fuel metabolism. have a profound effect on is the main way the two systems commu- you control this? This is the subject of these hormones. you eat ends up as muscle or fat. are not released into the blood but rather The endocrine system is chiefly re- The two master control systems of into the space between tissues (the in. The hypothalamus is The branch of science that explains Hormones can be classified in sev. These are called “endocrine” or of the body. Hormones by now you have a better understand. Other hormones other endocrine glands. (Are you starting to get nicate to each other to ensure coordinated this series of articles. Finally. little bit about physiology. What determines whether the food you eat goes to the fat compartment. These ter. the nervous system and the intense training program and consistently hormones have a profound effect on endocrine system do not function sepa- perfect nutrition. (When parts of your body talk time: movement.) Notably. around you. This sys- endocrine system (1. Testosterone is a rillo Performance. fat or lean compartments (1. such that we’ve discussed come together in called “hormones. For our purposes.2). we’re going to look like sending letters.

by directly activating certain genes in the Your body’s ratio or insulin to glu- nucleus. By these reactions. are set up.5). has a profound effect on muscle growth work by controlling enzymes. 1978. 5.5 times as many calories from car- muscle growth and fat loss are insulin. nutrients directly effect enzymes inside the control system of metabolism and cells to influence the rate of fat storage growth. Nutr. the endocrine system is 1992. 1. the biochemical work of obey.” “store carbohydrates. the cell what to do. Gannon MC. 1990. En. Nutritional Bio- and fat loss. Psychol. and it issues its orders in the 3. Textbook of Medical prostaglandins through Physiology. LR. muscle stores and fat stores. and of prostaglandins your body produces. more insulin so you eat a little more car- sulin-like growth factor bohydrate. which activates genes Nuttall FQ. The ratio of these two hor- ing the command sent by the endocrine hormone secretion by pituitary tumor mones produced by the pancreas largely system is carried out by enzymes. You’ll see this is exactly how our dition to explaining the Nutrition Program and Pre-Contest Diets control of these hormones. determinants of body weight set point hormone release. Testosterone is an example of 7. Am. one of the most im- hydrates. bodybuilders we found that this approach “build muscle protein. You want results? blood pressure. Ehrhart K. W. 6. This is how your body composi. Prostaglandins 2: 79-91. When you’re 84 © 2004. our attention for the next few bulletins. cose ingested with various amounts of Generally. de Castro JM. Elsevier Science Publish- Parrillo Performance Nutrition Program glands and are carried to all the tissues of ing Company. And it works. 1991. inflammation. and this in turn can also have a big the endocrine system will be the focus of 2. prostaglandin partitioning is your ratio of insulin to the body. on growth hormone secretion VI. 52: 267-272. Comp. testosterone. you want a little growth hormone and in. This ratio also starts a cascade control the rates of chemical reactions of events which regulates the balance going on inside cells. form of hormones. Raven Press. other work Physiol. Metabolic response to glu- of protein to carbohydrate in your diet. J. the body by the bloodstream. bind to special molecules on cells called 4. a little. E1.” “burn simply works the best. Hertelendy F and Keay l. Studies on growth hormone all of this knowledge of biochemistry signal being sent by the hormone and tell secretion IV. You will see that it was developed with “hormone receptors” that interpret the and Blute R.” and so on. Follow the Program. It all flows together. an impor. The transmissions glandin E1. In ad.” “store fat. growth hormone release and many References other processes (3). Clin. Saunders. Paullin SK. and indomethacin on growth and glucagon (6). Johnson. 1991. diet. Effects portant factors in determining nutrient Once these signals are received by of dibutyrl cyclic AMP. While some hormones and microregulation in rats.B. Studies in the next bulletin. Therefore. involved in protein synthesis. Linder MC. 1974. When you’re trying to lose (IGF). You can control your levels of 1. Guyton AC. you want to consume about The main hormones involved in protein. To do this you control all of them through adjust your ratio of carbs to protein down diet and exercise. Todd H. 92: 571-579. Hertelendy F. And guess what? fat you want to decrease insulin levels We can teach you how to and increase glucagon. Westphal SA. and cagon is determined solely by the ratio such a hormone. trying to gain weight. J. We’re also going to talk about the ways Remember. Physiology. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .” “burn carbo. As you will see fat. Essential Medical effect on growth hormone release (4. blood clot. off the shelf and take another look at it. In vivo effects of prosta- and physiology in mind. to help your body work naturally at peak tant class of hormones efficiency to become a muscle-building. involved in regulation of fat-burning machine. There they That diet didn’t fall together by accident. the enzymes can make or degrade proteins DeLugas GM. and fat loss. ting. lose fat. And growth hormone tion is regulated. These hormones chemistry and Metabolism with Clinical The first thing to do is to take your are released from the various endocrine Applications. Over many years of working with the top sent by the hormones are messages like 1972. cells in culture. bohydrate as protein (7). Prostaglandins 6: 217- determines whether you will gain fat or zymes are special protein molecules that 225. we will also talk about The Parrillo System was designed prostaglandins.Muscularity & Mass: Optimize Your Hormonal Response Through Diet glucagon. New York. Insulin and glucagon as which in turn has a big effect on growth and fat. New York.

Does this mean This is what nutrient partitioning is that if someone injects growth hormone all about. The your body which determines if nutrients bodybuilders have learned how to chan- will be stored in the lean compartment or nel their calories to the lean compartment the fat compartment. Muscle growth and fat loss are which tries to maintain a constant body weight people who starve themselves on controlled almost entirely by these hor. rice and broccoli will tend to are mediated by the nervous system and burned for energy.000 calories from rate of energy expenditure). thyroid hormone. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 85 . The most important hormones in fat © 2004. portant organs in the body because a better bodybuilder? By careful control those rats lose weight [fat] (2). (Have I got your attention now?) the hypothalamus and pituitary gland We also know that some bodybuilders You’re probably asking yourself. or your body composition. These effects eat ends up as muscle or fat or just gets chicken. by hormones and enzymes involved in fat responsible for this are insulin. used the same approach to lose weight just as you would expect. How can and exercise?” Yes. only to remain fat. injected with insulin. the primary regulators of blood fect is largely mediated by the paracrine 3. ent foods have different effects on your metabolism. diet and exercise this be? Obese people are very rarely do determine muscle growth and fat overweight because they overeat. hormones and use this information to be another group is injected with glucagon. These it is responsible for secreting the of your diet and exercise habits. however. mones. If you want to change your gon. I content in determining whether or not it gland of the body. (We were doing it before it was work that way. If your metabolic hormonal responses. The addition. and non- 2.000 calories a day and are I thought this was determined by diet extremely lean and muscular. The hormones chiefly make you lean. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 16 The Insulin-Glucagon Axis and the Control of Nutrient Partitioning by John Parrillo In Part I of this series we began our seems to be as important as its caloric together represent the master endocrine discussion of endocrine physiology. Why? Because differ. growth hormone. but these effects are mediated by rather because the way they eat and their hormones. This is how nutri. We all know examples of over- 1. ent partitioning works. ing. if The Pancreas is one of the most im. insulin and testosterone amount of protein. testosterone.) It works like a “fat role in nutrient partitioning. This is because there is a weight control it in this article. carbohydrate and fat) (3). cortisol and epinephrine (adrenaline). important hormones involved in muscle haps the most important factors in deter- hormones insulin and glucagon. “But eat 6. consider the following: regulating center in your hypothalamus 5. bodybuilders climb the ranks. Over 90% of people who lose ratio of insulin to glucagon is perhaps prostaglandin E1 may also play a role. If two groups of rats are fed and bodybuilders all over the country have exercised the same. If weight by caloric restriction return to the most important determinant of the this sounds more like a boring medical their original weight within two years set point (2) and we’ll teach you how to lecture than an article about bodybuild.000 calorie a day. Your diet and exercise habits lack of exercise raise the set point and act set up a “hormonal environment” inside to channel calories to fat stores (1).2). The most hormones. The composition of your diet (the sugar levels in the body. body’s hormones which control energy body weight. If one group is permanently. (Remember from last month that 1. that group So how do you get control of your becomes very fat (1. in. aldosterone and 4. At Parrillo Performance we’ve and insulin he can get lean and muscular been teaching people how to do it for without having to exercise? No. as they say. two thermostat” by controlling your hunger nutrient partitioning? This is the process thousand calories from pizza will tend level and your body’s metabolic rate (its of determining whether the food you to make you fat. But 2. and to minimize fat stores. Furthermore. you have to change the set point. insulin and glucagon.) We’ve had great suc- for reasons we’ll explain in Part III of cess helping amateur and professional this series. In usage and fat storage. (1). but loss. are per. weight. it doesn’t years. growth are growth hormone (whose ef- mining body composition.000 to 8. Exercise is still required. But what is rate is around 2. hormone IGF1).000 calories a day. they weigh the same. controlling all of your explained that hormones play a central will make you fat (1). gluca.

For weight loss. how the insulin-glucagon axis acts to hormones are among the most potent site nutrient partitioning we want. storage. These regulate blood sugar levels. so thalamus programs your body to store ing for energy and increasing glycogen we can control them by carefully regulat. The precise levels called “facilitate diffusion. Essentially. all Combining protein and fibrous is determined entirely by the of the carbohydrate you eat is converted carbs with your starches. but it has the opposite of carbs and CapTri.5 and use more CapTri. dairy prod. if insulin levels get too es glycogen stores. Glucagon is muscle gain you will want to increase the cally to decrease to a lower level than released several hours after a meal when carb:protein ratio as well as increasing 86 © 2004. tors (if not the most important factor) in determining your set help move glucose into cells by a process insulin release. The problem arises when carbohy. the most important role contest diet. stimulating glucose burn- mones are entirely determined by diet. so you can control it exactly. but longer. Also. the levels of these hor. but longer. It also increases ment by eating 1. Last. Your brain requires a resulting in a lower. some of the carbohydrate is con. causing nal the body to begin using fat for energy ing these hormones is with insulin and too much insulin to be released. As mentioned earlier. season and reduce carbs during the pre- out of gas. into the cells. Glucagon has epinephrine. then paradoxi. be released. On the Parrillo and stimulating breakdown of body fat of these can be controlled by diet and ex. Too much insulin has limit fat calories to 5% of your total daily high this actually causes too much sugar the effect of promoting fat storage.0 to 1. sugar. Their chief and refined carbohydrates. Insulin is an anabolic hor- When you eat carbohydrates they of insulin is to regulate blood glucose mone. For blood sugar level to spike. so release. insulin carb-burning to fat-burning. If your blood sugar is too low you effect of insulin. growth or fat loss are described drates are released into the bloodstream in detail in the Parrillo Perfor- too fast.4). ergy level and channels calories toward more carbohydrates during the growth lated to make sure the brain never runs muscle and away from fat. It does this by moving glucose you want to meet your protein require- high. these channels calories to fat stores—the oppo. Insulin is required to resulting in a lower. This is why the rate of digestion of the effect of reducing glucose for energy thyroid hormone and cortisol (3). caloric intake. This rise in of glucose into the bloodstream one of the most important fac- blood sugar triggers a release of insulin from the pancreas. Next. This since it’s running low on carbs. This is glucagon. First. growth hormone. This causes too much insulin to mance Nutrition Manual. This is why you have to eat relatively the blood glucose level is tightly regu.5 grams of protein verted to fat instead of being stored as the use of glucose for energy and increas. When insulin levels get too levels. inhibits glucagon release.The Insulin-Glucagon Axis and the Control of Nutrient Partitioning loss are insulin (lack of insulin. and avoiding simple breakdown. and pasta) because these are released glucose levels back to normal and to sig- The best place to start in explain. foods also have the effect of raising the creases blood sugar by moving glucose Luckily for us. diet you stay away from foods containing and the use of fat for energy. Glucagon ercise and will fall within optimal levels simple sugars (sweets. before (because of insulin over-release). into cells after a meal. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . slows the re. This gives you a uniform en. intestine and transported directly to the The insulin to glucagon ratio liver via the portal vein. make up the remain- to be moved into cells. away from fat. set point—the amount of fat your hypo. Insulin and glucagon Combining protein and fibrous carbs glucose levels by stimulating glycogen are both produced by the pancreas. An increase in blood you generally want to limit carb:protein feel very tired. In summary.der of your calories with a combination “hypoglycemia. Glucagon acts to increase blood ing what we eat.” Once inside uniform energy level and chan. that is). (1). glycogen. stimulating glucose synthe- have exactly opposite effects. Insulin de- determiners of fat storage and fat loss. the glucose is burned for energy or stored as glycogen.of protein and carbohydrate to cells. slows the release glucagon ratio is believed to be carbohydrates are released. Simple sugars cause your sugar triggers a release of insulin but ratio to 1. sis (by a process know as gluconeogen- concern is the regulation of blood sugar lease of glucose into the bloodstream esis) and by shifting the metabolism from (glucose) levels. if you follow our nutrition and training ucts) and refined carbohydrates (bread The net result of glucagon is to raise the guidelines. also stimulates the glycogen breakdown. and ratio of carbohydrate to protein to glucose by the liver before being released into the bloodstream. glucagon. This results in Glucagon is another hormone secret. into the bloodstream too fast. fruit.” which means low blood ed by the pancreas. Most your meals is important. After a avoiding simple and refined car. The insulin: meal your blood glucose level rises as bohydrates. This gives you a point (2).in your diet (3. but with your starches. Glu- are digested and absorbed by the small cagon acts to stimulate fat loss. constant supply of glucose for fuel. acting to stimulate growth.per body of body weight per day. blood sugar levels drop. Everything is fine so nels calories toward muscle and eat in order to optimize these hormones to maximize muscle far.0:1.

which is the process of disposing of worn increase enzymes involved in the conver. To gen synthesis. the enzyme responsible for glycogen muscles and used for energy. clined. How- metabolism? By activating or inhibiting [Again.] In summary. the most impor- der™ are very useful tools for dialing in (the first stage in the conversion of glu. the key enzyme regulating glyco. insulin acts to It promotes growth of fat cells as well as both of them together at the same time activate the two most important enzymes muscle cells (3. which increases glycolysis and lipoprotein lipase. out proteins. and inhibits phosphorylase stores. these same two enzymes. do we want to go and you need all of the amino acids pres. Glu. to take your Muscle-Amino Formula™ sugar and glucagon by increasing blood obviously not. acids cannot get inside cells (3). Insulin glucagon activates adenylate cyclase slowly add in more Pro-Carb™ until you increases the activity of glycogen syn. and to Glucagon also increases the activities any other machine.] increasing protein and CapTri®. then transported to the muscles and used der these conditions muscle growth is How do insulin and glucagon exert for energy. Glucagon has the opposite ef- of going to the trouble of weighing our fects. and this is why it is important sugar levels—insulin by decreasing blood to get our insulin levels really high? No. your body’s protein requirement then cose from from amino acids.5). of the cell. In addition. the activity of glucokinase and phospho. respectively. Un- to occur (3). respectively. This at least partly due to the fact regulating fat synthesis and storage. fructokinase. respectively. When insulin levels (3). tant enzymes regulating fat synthesis and your own body’s optimal insulin:gluca. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 87 . Re.6-biphosphatase and phos. cogen synthase. for those of you attuned to ever. it is also required for trans. breakdown.” out these processes (5).] Of course. This is why this information is impossible because some of the amino their effects over carbohydrate and fat important for bodybuilders. stabilize blood sugar levels—insulin only to find out the numbers don’t work els—insulin by decreasing by decreasing blood sugar and gluca- out right and we have to do it all over blood sugar and glucagon gon by increasing blood sugar. and to inhibit the en- how to optimize your body’s hormonal zymes glucose and glycogen break- responses. control over the enzymes regulating from food to make your numbers work These effects are brought carbohydrate metabolism. obligatory loss of proteins from the body and glycogen breakdown. to stimulate growth—you have to have garding fat metabolism. The fats are then transported to the lose fat you want to decrease carbs while A. In addi. We’ve all had the experience These two hormones act down. meet gluconeogenesis—the synthesis of glu. acts to stimulate aceytl-CoA carboxylase Hi-Protein Powder™ and Pro-Carb Pow. The fats are and maximize glucagon? No way. carbohydrate metabolism. To gain lean body mass. out right on your Diet Trac Sheets. is a powerful growth-promoting hor- tion to it enhancing transport of glucose over the enzymes regulating mone —some people consider it the inside cells. Hi-Pro. In addition. which decrease glycoly. enzymes involved in the conversion of way for you to experiment and find These two hormones act to stabilize blood glucose synthesis. about by exerting control By now you know that insulin One last thing about insulin. These again. esis and glycogenolysis. this means that insulin increases [Regarding fat metabolism. These effects are brought about lutely required for muscular growth since It has been found that neither insulin by exerting control over the enzymes it transports certain amino acids inside nor growth hormone alone is sufficient regulating carbohydrate metabolism. © 2004. at about the rate of 30 grams per day. which initiates a cascade of events result- find the optimal caloric level and insulin thase. phorylase. different sets of amino acids inside cells. Insulin also decreases storage. sugar. ing in mobilization of fatty acids from fat level for your body to gain lean mass. Does this mean we want to overeat These include the branched chain amino carbohydrates or eat simple sugars acids (3). Hi-Protein™ and Pro-Carb™ are effects are brought about by exerting perfect for adjusting your dietary intake by increasing blood sugar. Insulin acts to decreases phosphofructokinase and gly. [For those of you technically in.The Insulin-Glucagon Axis and the Control of Nutrient Partitioning total calories. and they get worn out like carrying out glycogen synthesis. there is considerable bio. Although insulin is abso- with meals and not on an empty stomach. over” into fat stores. which increases gluconeogen. glucagon initiates a cascade When dieting. insulin chemical variation among individuals. cose to energy). These two hormones act to food and filling out our Diet Trac Sheets to stabilize blood sugar lev. most powerful anabolic hormone. get too high some of the carbs “spill that these two hormones act to transport cagon inhibits these same two enzymes. of events resulting in mobilization of on a zero-carb diet to minimize insulin ent at the same time in order for growth fatty acids from fat stores. it is not very selective in its actions. glucagon process called “obligatory protein loss. Glucagon inhibits gon ratio. insulin acts to increase tein™ and Pro-Carb™ are a convenient Glucagon has the opposite effects. port of certain amino acids into cells.) This amounts to the inhibit the enzymes of glucose synthesis of fructose-1. your body continues to undergo a the key regulatory enzymes which carry strict biological terminology. (Proteins are the machinery sion of glucose to energy and enzymes sis and glycogen synthesis. cells.

and it will take you a long way toward a top physique. Guyton AC. Paullin SK and and breaks down proteins to supply ami. Manual. Nutr. find the perfect ratio for you. So Thermostat. J. but moderation is the 3. go on a zero-carb diet. Experiment with Hi-Protein™ and Pro-Carb™ to 5. if you want a sure way to lose lean mass. 1991. Gannon MC and of protein. cose ingested with various amounts of eral. DeLugas GM. Redwood. This and microregulation in rats. as outlined above. WB Saunders. Physiol. 92: 571-579. Insulin and glucagon as no acids which are converted to glucose. makes the problem even worse. J. Comp. SA. When consuming a References normal diet. Am. Clin. 52: 267-272. because they lost so much Nuttall FQ. 1978. stick to the formula in the Nutrition protein. Remington DW. 2. People have actually died from zero-carb diets even while getting plenty 4. Textbook of Medical key. Going to extremes is asking for Physiology. de Castro JM. Benjamin/Cummings control the insulin-glucagon axis is one Publishing Company. Westphal. 1983. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . but this can’t happen if Parent EA. Mathews CK and van Holde KE. Fisher AG and simply replaced. Of course you want to adjust your carb:protein ratio. During a zero-carb diet the body is in a very catabolic state. How to Lower your Fat the amino acids can’t get inside cells. you real close to optimal. determinants of body weight set point which the brain requires for fuel. In gen.The Insulin-Glucagon Axis and the Control of Nutrient Partitioning during starvation (3). 88 © 2004. of the most important aspects of nutrient partitioning. Psychol. Provo. disaster. Vitality House International. 1990. these worn out proteins are 1. Metabolic response to glu- protein from their heart muscle. That will put 1990. Learning to Biochemistry.

such as body fat stores. control these hormones and add them to loss are controlled largely by hormones large insulin release. We saw that muscle gain and fat hydrates. glucagon is when they’re confronted by an enemy use Pro-Carb Formula™ and Hi-Protein released from the pancreas and transport. Therefore. This underscores the relationship Insulin is required for muscular growth. you start sweating and your fact to keep insulin and glucagon at just heart pumps really hard and fast — that’s the right levels to build muscle and burn polysis). This triggers epinephrine to be released that the brain doesn’t run out of fuel.4). the insu. the whole body. This month we’ll begin our discussion discussing nutrient partitioning and di. you feel cold was designed to take advantage of this and clammy. This surge of lin is a powerful stimulus for fat growth the liver. This gland has a large blood supply for its protein inside muscle cells. which helps minimize any fat storage. Now we’re metabolism. The located one just above really scared or suddenly startled. It’s the “adrenaline rush” you The bad news. The bad news about glucagon is that. While enough insulin is released to effect most of us have experienced at one time lism. its actions are mostly limited to epinephrine. This also provides a acts as a neurotransmitter in the nervous ergy and the building blocks for growth. It stores very potent stimulator of lipolysis in pe. glucagon is not a epinephrine is mediated by a large sym- as well as muscle growth (3. Insulin building is a slow and difficult process. Glucagon has the after eating simple sugars. and epinephrine. Any time you empty your arsenal you’re likely to see the best — chemical signals sent out by the en. smaller amounts and most of it stays in get from bungee jumping. Last month we talked about how to the liver (3. to ensure body’s most powerful stim. periods of hypoglycemia you experience of the nervous system and the endocrine and indeed for life. is that insu. fat inside fat cells as well as it stores ripheral tissues. a lot of carbohydrate calories into your gains in your life. serves not only as a hormone by also amino acids into cells.” The body to the layman as adrenaline. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 89 . system working together as a control opposite actions of insulin. the adrenal medulla. and have to either fight or run away. It’s a reaction animals have fat. by the sym- work in balance to provide a relatively pathetic division of the nervous system. uniform blood glucose level. size and the epinephrine is rapidly carried on the Parrillo Program meals are struc. Like insulin. epinephrine hormone. ulus for fat breakdown. testosterone the lean compartment and not to fat from any products high in simple carbo.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 17 Maximizing Anabolic Drive by John Parrillo In the previous bulletins we’ve been lower and more uniform insulin level. but it has most powerful stimulus for fat break- regulating center of the body that decides an unlimited ability to store fat. The good news is that insulin and is produced by the adrenal Epinephrine has many effects. pathetic discharge in the adrenal medulla. These products elicit a rapid. two small glands located one just is the body’s most powerful anabolic and it works better when you supply your above each kidney. is the gland. and communication network to provide cose and amino acids out of cells and into although it stimulates fat breakdown (li. Nerve impulses the bloodstream when blood sugar gets are conducted to the center of the adrenal too low. two small glands flight” response that occurs when you’re these hormones by our eating habits. It primes your mus- tured so as to release carbs into the important controllers of nutrient parti. When Parrillo Performance Nutrition Program each kidney. It is produced by the adrenal how much fat we will carry (1. acting to transport glucose and body with slow and steady supply of en. These two pancreatic hormones Epinephrine. It into the bloodstream. This is why But don’t get discouraged. This supplies en. It increases © 2004. Actually. ergy and nutrients. the feeling of being “scared to death” that levels to optimize your body’s metabo. and get more ripped docrine glands which direct the body’s bloodstream very rapidly and have a high than you though possible. We discussed the insulin. It moves glu. is the body’s point in the hypothalamus — the weight can only build muscle so fast. Muscle down (3. This results in a tioning — it’s just not the whole story. however. insulin level you will store those calories pulling out the big guns! glucagon axis in detail and saw that it has as fat. more uniform energy level instead of the system. of three other hormones that complete etary strategies to channel nutrients to This is also why you should stay away the puzzle: growth hormone. cles for action and mobilizes fat from adi- bloodstream slowly.4). One glucagon levels are determined solely by you’ve probably noticed is the “fight or diet. Once you learn how to stores. glands. glucagon is released in or another. pose stores to provide energy.4). more commonly known a major influence in determining the set better called “fat optimizers. lin-glucagon axis is still one of the most throughout the body. instructions to the body.2). your skin and lips turn pale. It’s Powder™ to fine-tune these hormone ed directly to the liver by the portal vein. High sugar products would be Epinephrine. so we can exert great control over glands.

This Physiology. W. The most effective training style for increas- FFAs then leave the fat cell and are car. Kraemer simply by increasing calories (without to build new muscle tissue. Physiol. the most effective results in optimal increases in size and 1992. to come! Of course. This is rep. 24: 1346-1352. Psychol. and sensitive lipase. Tes- 90 © 2004.6. and epinephrine. 1978. The Provo. One determinants of body weight set point and generates a metabolite called cyclic is to get a good night’s sleep. cer. There are several things you can do DeLugas GM. eat right and do your sympathetic nervous system. Guyton. Comp. Its release is is “growth hormone releasing hormone” References increased during exercise. AC. muscle gain. Raven Press. So train hard. tune nutrient partitioning to sculpt the In the following bulletins we’ll con- ultimate physique. DMC Health Sciences.4). rather than the pituitary gland when it receives the aerobics. Kraemer RR. Take it on an empty stomach (this ergism. Growth hor. maximally stimulate all the muscle fibers 4. Paullin SK. adaptations. 1992. Exerc. Fourth. Growth hormone (GH) is the most The most exciting part of the story is yet important hormone responsible for nor. 7. Strength and Condi- to lose weight by cutting calories. Exercise tain combinations of amino acids have mone.7). half of the weight you will lose will be only stimulates GH release. Crist DM. Don’t Under normal conditions. 1991.Maximizing Anabolic Drive your heart rate. Natl. Growth hor- exercising) you’ll just get fat. AMP. Without tailed intellectual understanding of how growth hormone. 14: 47-54. This not tioning J. J. and this is the (GHRH) which comes from the hypo- primary mechanism whereby exercise thalamus. a person will never nutrition and exercise come together in attain adult stature. Conversely. eat a high protein diet. 1992. The ultimate training program terone and epinephrine is by exercise for bodybuilders is described in the Par. and testosterone responses is required to set up the proper hormonal been shown to increase GH release and to resistive exercise. IGF-1. Sports milieu allowing selective fat loss and result in increased lean body mass (7). and serves as a stimulus for fat loss. GH release is increased during Thermostat. 1991. GR.6). Textbook of Medical ried by the blood to the muscles. Kilgore JL. consistency and hard direct innervation of the fat cells by the adults. puberty cause the skeleton to mature and in the gym and at the dinner table. Growth hormone has your body to build muscle and burn fat profound effects on the growth of the does nothing to achieve those results. merely having a de- mal growth during childhood. free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol. blood pressure and the tosterone and estrogen produced during up to you to put this information to use force of your heart’s contractions. How to Lower your Fat breaks down triglycerides (the molecular Second.B. cAMP activates an en. Kraemer WJ.6). zyme called protein kinase. de Castro JM. and microregulation in rats. epineph. If you try High Performance Bodybuilding book. which in turn normally about three hours after you fall activates another enzyme called hormone asleep. strength. where (5. Hormone sensitive lipase getting enough rest is nearly impossible. Remington DW. Fisher AG. Med. testos. and Castracane VD. One of these signals from the adrenal medulla. Johnson LR. Albu- through growth hormone. Parent EA. about Third. about growth hormone and testosterone. 1. Growth hormone is released from work. Influence of the (5. but also muscle. Growth Hormone Syn- decreasing fat stores are mediated largely oped. if you gain weight provides the building blocks you need 6. form in which body fat is stored) into and just after intense exercise (5. we have to talk about tinue our discussion of muscle-building effective training strategies to optimize and fat-burning hormones and talk more these hormones. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Essential Medical While insulin and glucagon are con. they are burned for energy (3. testosterone is important) just before training and querque. medium rep and high rep work to how exercise works to help you lose fat. Saunders. as well as train the nervous system. Trying to build muscle without 2. to really fine before bed. Sci. trolled entirely by diet. stop growing. or cAMP. 1983. It’s skeleton as well as the muscles. Epi. 5. 92: 571-579. This is why exercise is required rillo Performance Training Manual and endocrine system on resistance training to gain muscle and lose fat. Insulin and glucagon as nephrine binds to receptors on fat cells to naturally increase your GH levels. And have a great summer! systematic release to the whole body appropriate signals. ing GH release is high volume training 3. New York. The favorable effects of Enhanced GH Formula™ contains the exercise in increasing muscle mass while most effective combination ever devel. mone is released maximally during sleep. Therefore. We recommend a mixture of low Physiology. but growth hormone still forget the basics of the Parrillo Philoso- rine is delivered to fat cells mostly by promotes muscle growth and fat loss in phy: dedication. Vitality House International. way to control growth hormone.

maximum results. its actions and what maximize this most important controller amino acids inside muscle cells (5). present at the same time to stimulate hormones which generates the physi- Every athlete who has struggled to muscle growth (5).2). Parrillo Performance knows ex- (5. GH also has a lipolyt. growth hormone levels are diminished). Without GH. building activity. Part of this effect is believed to be growth hormone. In a study of old men (whose mass and body fat are determined by ultimate weapon — growth hormone. training. Since muscles are made from nutrients in ing since it has powerful actions in build. I will discuss growth hormone in fact that you have to lift weights to do it. loss (1. lowering phase of muscle contraction) it is so important as to bear repeating: the serves as a stimulus to the muscles more central reason behind all of your body- responsive to the growth-promoting ef. Furthermore. hormones in bodybuilding. There- build muscle is painfully aware of the ic effect. Growth hor. ological adaptations to exercise.4). we’ll help need adequate amounts of GH in insulin It is the combined interaction of all the you reach the stars.6). As you know by now. Growth for the process of tissue remodeling — hormone acts to promote growth of all that is. portant questions about growth hormone. If the discussion sounds a little medical the food we eat. The high levels of GH and in this series). Although you can exert system. most important hormone for bodybuild. This includes increas. willing to train hard enough. lifestyle which optimizes anabolic drive ing muscle mass and decreasing body mone is anabolic. we’re here to show you how. Your body’s level of muscle In this bulletin we’re pulling out the (3. you can do to control your GH levels for of nutrient partitioning. the damage to This again underscores the central role of muscle tissue which results from exer. If you’re ferent set of essential amino acids. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 91 . normal adult Hormones are ultimately responsible stature will not be achieved (5. The most effective training strategies are new body tissues. acting as a powerful stimu- moted an increase in muscle mass and a in this series and in the Parrillo Nutrition lus for muscle growth and fat loss. in places. This in turn which it synergizes to produce its effects. which means it mobilizes body fore. exercise is required to gen.6).4). By following the guidelines bodybuilders. During the next couple of bulletins those which maximize growth hormone ing protein synthesis in the muscle tissue I will explain in detail the physiology of release.6). hormones and by the set point of your hy- This is the most important hormone for it was found that GH administration pro. Many decrease in body fat even in the absence and Training Manuals you will adopt a of the effects of exercise in increas- of exercise training (3. tably. GH levels reach maximal levels great control over some hormones by diet in the late teens and gradually decline alone (refer back to the previous bulletins with age. including both diet and fects of anabolic hormones (1). is to manipulate your hormone Growth hormone (GH) is the most levels so as to promote muscle gain and anabolic substance in the human body fat loss. bear with me. testosterone in young adult males explain erate the complete hormonal spectrum why most bodybuilders make their best which will result in muscle gain and fat gains during their late teens and twenties. the process of laying down new tissues of the body except the nervous muscle tissue. You will come why can’t we build muscle just by eating The most important role of growth away with a thorough understanding of the right foods? The answer to this ques- © 2004. insulin also acts to transport a dif. you have to lift weights very in- use of fat for energy (5. fat from adipose depots and increases the the context of the other hormones with In fact. No. including its mecha- actly how to eat and how to train to due to GH promoting transport of certain nisms of release.6). childhood. so you hormones do not work alone in the body. meaning that it acts to and sets up the proper hormonal environ- fat are mediated by growth hormone. you may logically ask ing muscle and burning fat. cise training (especially the eccentric. promote incorporation of nutrients into ment for achieving a top physique. or Although I’ve discussed this before. tensely and consistently over a period of spares carbohydrates so glycogen stores I have decided to organize this discussion some time (months to years) to accumu- are preserved (5. pothalamus. GH is probably the around some of the most basic and im- late significant increases in muscle mass. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 18 Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon by John Parrillo tion takes us back to the theme of this hormone is in promoting growth during series: hormones. And like always.

but there is also a strict amino acids.information on IGF1.actions of GH. compensatory growth? largely due to the effects of intense exer. Insulin stimulates Infantile (0-1 years): Insulin is re. 12-16 for males): The sex steroids are re. breakdown is severe. are a bit unusual in that they continue to regulatory effects. in this regard in mediating many of the during postnatal life. growth in humans. The in normal levels for normal growth but its not going to make very good gains. mind in very important to bodybuilding. late growth in each? healing. The kidney is removed. while growth of an organ to compensate for damage to body fat is commonly considered obese. 5. or under-nourished experience a growth body fat. breakdown. What are the roles of insulin. the problem accumulation. Insulin promotes during prenatal and infantile growth (6). insulin and the sex els are probably not needed for compen- hormone. sation by the liver and kidney. since 1. GH. IGF1 Insulin: Optimal concentrations of (6). normal re- mones as well (6). T3. Human placental lactogen. Nor. growth at greater than the normal rate mal growth involves both linear growth 3. GH) are NOT required during catch-up stores out of proportion to the rest of the stream to exert their effects on target tis. obesity or paracrines) to stimulate growth.tional state) can directly influence normal 92 © 2004. This is mones do not stimulate growth directly. growth factors? increased levels of hormones (including Obesity specifically refers to growth of fat Hormones are released into the blood. Glucocorticoids are also required some personal problem. and what low) and attainment of final adult height. mass increase and obesity? required for normal growth during this but are totally stressed out about work or The common feature of growth is time. if one Growth is normal and healthy. sulin and GH must both be present at the Adolescent (age 10-14 for females. regeneration or glucocorticoids. Administra.steroids. Abnormal growth can be caused most important growth-regulating hor. it connects the endocrine system to the is the difference between linear growth. Compensatory lean compartment and away not work alone in the body. blocks for protein synthesis. minerals and es. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Most growth factors act as regu. and a good psy. although titioning of nutrients to the As you know by now. hormones do IGF1 may be increased. (6). Bodybuilders to allow other hormones to exert their outside stresses. GH causes par. vitamins. Quantitatively. and a deficiency of ological adaptations to exercise.lators of local processes such as wound 6. No doubt this effect Get ready to annihilate the competition. factors act mainly locally (as autocrines that organ or its pair. What is the difference between to recover from a time when growth (increase in body length or height) and growth-regulating hormones and local was retarded.hormones to be active.sential fatty acids) rest. spurt when they correct the problem. the organized addition of new tissue that sive actions of hormones describe effects You must maintain a positive and ag- occurs normally in development from of hormones on enzyme systems so as gressive attitude and not be distracted by infancy to adulthood (6). as during illness. What are catch-up growth and grow after reaching adulthood. If you’re eating and training right.Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon growth hormone and how to control it. mones and growth factors? growth primarily by shuttling nutrients Juvenile (1-12 years): GH is the Proper nutrition (including energy. Notably. mass increase (increase in body weight). Note that in- tamin D is also required. growth. 2. is likely due to elevated cortisol levels. sex steroids and thyroid Prenatal: Hormonal control during ordinary replacement of aged cells. Many athletes who are over-trained muscle mass and decrease mones which generates the physi. anything above 30% sues throughout the body. the remaining kidney is not. closure of the epiphyseal plate (see be. (glucose and some amino acids) inside most important. but hormone in normal growth? How do prenatal development is largely unknown. vitamin D and insulin are still mind. same time for normal growth to occur. Permis. mal growth and the hormones that stimu. will grow larger.6). For example. Without insulin. chosocial environment are all require. is (somatomedin C) is especially important insulin are required for normal growth probably also involved. Interestingly. providing energy and the building requirement for T3 and insulin (5. In GH will result in excess fat the case of over-training. which are catabolic. What are the other requirements sponses to GH are not seen and protein T3 (thyroid hormone) are not required for normal growth in addition to hor. tissue repair. Mental state (emo. T3. ments for growth (6). Vi. hPL. GH and 4. Compensatory growth is growth body. cells. The common definition of growth refers to action is mainly permissive (6). some are found in the circulation and these relate to growth hormone? but insulin is believed to be important may function as true hormones. sponsible for the adolescent growth spurt. What are the main stages of nor. you’re probably an increase in mass (body weight). panied by increased levels of ACTH tion of GH will increase combined interaction of all the hor. The permissive hor.but rather allow other growth-promoting Catch-up growth is a period of cise in increasing growth hormone. is mediated by the hypothalamus. Exactly what is growth. See the below for more protein synthesis and inhibits protein quired and possibly other unknown hor. It is the growth of the adrenal gland is accom- from fat stores. Increased hormone lev- by an excess or deficiency in growth mones are GH.

Androgens why linear growth stops a few years after previous bulletin. Estrogens also antagonize the somatotropes (the cells that make GH) growth in children whose epiphyses (the effects of GH on nitrogen retention. ties in turn are regulated by the other ly as devastating an effect on hormones. In addition to Sex Steroids: centrations estrogens appear to inhibit its permissive effects on GH synthesis.concentrations of estrogens which inhibit T4. the basis for the complex interaction appears to be exerted directly at the between estrogen and GH? High con. they also thus growth) to occur. This is health and optimal gains. anymore. in your forehead. T3 in sufficient amounts to allow allosteric ate breast development and is probably and T4 have little if any growth promot- regulation (enzyme regulation via small attributable to very low concentrations ing effect in the absence of GH however. estrogen is also responsible for deficient individuals is largely due to GH closed. Much of mass than females and why females have ids inside cells. roid hormone is present in two tisol (increased protein breakdown).Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon Guyton (5) suggests that this is because the sum of the two hormones alone.This is an example of the synergistic on average contain 50% more muscle ENT compliment of essential amino ac. Normal levels of GC’s seem to be compliment of essential amino acids Most of the circulating hor- needed to permit optimal function of inside cells. can still in- Glucocorticoids: Glucocorticoids Note that insulin and GH must crease in thickness.of estrogens (6). GC’s sort of set the stage growth as does hypophysecto- and make sure all of the machinery is in Estrogens: In normal girls. explain why males insulin and GH each shuttle a DIFFER. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 93 . effector molecules such as metabolic in. and of course all of the the growth-promoting action of androgen a higher body fat percentage.mote breast development actually inhibit and GH action.T3 acts to promote the actions of GH at termediates) and enzyme regulation by trations of estrogen sufficient to pro. concen.The differential effects of estrogen and of GH cannot sustain normal growth bined treatment with androgens and GH testosterone. however. Paradoxically. This action is independent of GHRH tively would seem important for normal growth increase GH secretion.growth by interfering with the actions of T3 maintains normal responsiveness of tosterone) are potent stimulators of linear GH (6).action of certain hormones. Of to GHRH. cortisol is impor.cells. Excess GC’s inhibit suggests that this is because insulin Thyroid Hormone: Thy- growth by the catabolic effects of cor. Flat bones. Restoration of T3 the key regulatory enzymes are present estrogen secretion is sufficient to initi. essential amino acids must be present at appears to be mediated by increased GH At the same time that gonadal ste- the same time for protein synthesis (and secretion (6). but it will promote mone-receptor complex in turn binds to present and active. GH and the sex steroids are still create muscle mass. such as the bone sponse (7. as well as their different in thyroidectomized animals unless thy- together promote more rapid growth than © 2004.8). The concept here which is converted to the more is that glucocorticoids act to stimulate essential amino acids must be pres. but com. excess insulin cannot bind to nuclear receptors and the hor.and T4 promptly reinitiates growth. GH secretion other hormones. whose activi. Neither insulin nor frequency and amplitude of GH secre. androgens also stimulate elongation occurs) and therefore limit the the body’s hormones to produce optimal growth of muscle. Thyroidectomy (removal of metabolic enzymes. Cortisol functions to make sure lesent growth spurt usually occurs before body’s source of GH). Androgens can promote some the characteristic female fat distribution. Plasma concentrations of tant in maintenance of glucose levels growth (6). known as acromegaly.level of gene transcription. and GH each shuttle a DIFFERENT forms. promoting actions. Stranger still is the fact the GH are very low in the absence of T3 or and resistance to stress. (primarily cortisol) promote optimal People who abuse growth hor- function of a wide variety of organ both be present at the same time for mone experience this condi- systems. of the thyroid gland) has near- thesis to occur. Guyton (5) tion. However. As noted in a in the absence of GH or (removal of the pituitary gland — the place. but do not have direct growth normal growth to occur.three levels: GH synthesis.accelerate closure of the epiphyses (the GH alone is sufficient to support normal tory pulses (6). interactions with GH. In addition to promoting sites at the ends of the bones where bone growth — it takes optimal levels of all linear growth. known as T3 and T4.puberty. Also. and this can occur final height that can be attained. What is (growth hormone releasing hormone) and T3 form inside target (or maintain) optimal levels (amounts) ent at the same time for protein syn. which intui. the ado.of specific genes. deficiency. Failure of growth in thyroid growing ends of bones) have not yet course. but the ends of bones fat storage. Androgens increase the roids stimulate linear growth. even large amounts growth in the absence of GH. Androgens: Androgens (such as tes. and of course all of the mone is in the form of T4 the other hormones. It’s not the calories in sugar chromosomes and activates transcription are permanently sealed and cannot grow that make you fat — it’s the insulin re.

in which proliferating cartilage is Both forms are secreted and have similar modeling. optimal growth GH interacts with insulin. Immediately after GH ance that makes a great bodybuilder. glucose uptake is suppressed by GH. The GH is a protein. ness of the growth plate remains constant glyceride (body fat) which increases ficient amounts so that GH. GH interacts with insu. Ninety percent of of cartilage progenitor cells slows mark. Thyroid hormone Proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage in muscle and adipose tissue. mainly as muscle. 9. GH has an insulin-like lin. Describe the major effects of GH cose deprivation. The thing to remember is GH ing is to control them to produce a lean. What exactly is the molecular severe atrophy of the epiphyseal plates.Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon roid hormone is also given. As much portion of body fat. tion. and if cortisol is too high the sex steroids and thyroid of body fat. reflecting stimulation bone re. effect in increasing glucose uptake and directly to stimulate growth. after GH is given to more muscular. plasma free fatty acids (FFA). protein and fat. glycogen stores are preserved. plasma amino acid concen- These hormones control muscle and exercise. hours. combined result is a net loss are too low.2). ther apart by the elongating shaft of the decreases glucose uptake and utilization muscular body. other 10% has a MW of 20. a hypopituitary subject. How do bones grow and how does 15 amino acids corresponding to residues which involves bone remodeling. replaced by bone. In the absence of GH there is and spares glycogen. After about two core of the adaptations which occur in eton. Treatment with GH and exaggerates the magnitude of the as half of the GH in plasma protein and causes a decrease in body fat accom- response (increases efficacy).000 MW form. glucose metabolism is inhibited response to exercise. so in the Fat Metabolism: In adipose tissue supporting role. excretion. tention and increases protein synthe- nephrine is released during exercise only crucial to growth during sis. uptake and conversion of protein. If cortisol is too low. long bones and to increase its effects on hGH used for therapy today is produced Carbohydrate Metabolism: Some- protein synthesis in muscle and liver. nificance is a mystery. These ac. These cannot occur because enzyme levels effects. fat for energy by mobilizing fat stores structure of human growth hormone? which become narrower as proliferation and it increases protein synthesis. T3 and T4 a substantial fraction is in the form of panied by an increase in body protein. 8. insulin and as the as the epiphyses are pushed far. Linear growth: Linear growth is a pears quickly and its physiological sig- ing childhood but are also at the very consequence of elongation of the skel. in bacteria from the cloned gene. the sex steroids and thyroid hormones on growth (linear and mass) and metabo. Treat. times. particularly after a period of glu- In summary.000 and lacks accompanied by an increase in diameter. GH promotes nitrogen re- promote protein breakdown.000 daltons (6). especially the spine and leg bones. Part of this and is the most potent stimulus for childhood but are also at the effect may be due to GH’s role in fat breakdown. epiphyseal plate — the ends of the bones 94 © 2004. side cells (5). Conversely. also required in normal levels to play a generation at the diaphyseal end. hind a bodybuilding diet and train. cise-induced increase in growth hormone (MW) of about 22. bone (6). Thyroxin reduced. GH is stored in the anterior creasing nitrogen retention. Epi. Both ment with GH often induces a transient Growth of long bones occurs by a forms are products of the same gene increase in urine calcium and phosphorus process of called endochondrial ossifica- and arise from differential RNA splicing. There is a is required for optimal GH release and cells) at the epiphyseal border of the decrease in glucose uptake and muscle function. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . The seal plates to widen. which occur in response to injection. mostly muscle. fat synthesis is also suppressed. it increases use of 7. Bone growth is also (1. Cortisol ensures that the normally growing individual the thick. GH promotes breakdown of stored tri- metabolic enzymes are present in suf. These actions are not discussed. Many of the effects of the pituitary gland where growth hor. you will actually lose mass because hormones directly to stimulate Protein Metabolism: As already high cortisol levels are catabolic and growth. This anomalous effect disap- tions are not only crucial to growth dur. although the Mass: GH increases lean body mass drocytes (cartilage cells) occurs at the metabolic effects of the 20K form are by stimulating protein synthesis and in. It is the interplay of very core of the adaptations transport of certain amino acids in- these hormones in the proper bal. lism of carbohydrate. utilization. and the strategy be. GH affect this process? 32 to 46 of the 22. Since testosterone can exert their effects. Glucocorticoids (cortisol) are growth plate is balanced by cellular de. GH-deficient decreases the amount of GH needed to pituitary and is the most abundant of the individuals have a relatively high pro- stimulate growth (increases sensitivity) anterior pituitary hormones. net effect is to make the body leaner and GH produced by somatotropes (cells of edly. Proliferation of chon- growth-promoting activity. seem to potentiate the effects of GH on dimers or oligomers which are inactive. resumption of exercise in making the body leaner and mone is made) is comprised of 191 cellular proliferation causes columns of more muscular are mediated by an exer- amino acids and has a molecular weight chondrocytes to elongate and the epiphy. trations decrease as a result of rapid fat metabolism.

Now. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 95 . valine and ornithine) alone is not sufficient to stimulate pro. These experiments by IGF-I. myocytes (muscle cells). of one leg of a hypophysectomized rat which acts as a paracrine to stimulate eration of chondrocytes. absolutely which is absolutely dependent ing. one to 12. lease of somatostatin by the hypothala- tor from plasma to be active. primarily by the liver. Apparently eccentric (lowering) of small cells in the germinal zone at the The DUAL EFFECTOR HYPOTH. in vitro. T3 and T4 seem to potentiate factor (IGF). of the pituitary to GHRH. indicating act locally in processes such as wound the adolescent growth spurt and persists many of the actions of GH are mediated healing and compensatory growth. Its insulin-like effects on glucose and undergo clonal expansion (cell division) creases sensitivity) and exaggerating the its molecular resemblance to proinsulin in response to IGF-I. throughout life. an increase The SOMATOMEDIN HYPOTH. (growth hormone releasing hormone) there was a sharp increase in protein and somatostatin (which inhibits GH synthesis. Thus. IGF-I appears to increase re- demonstrate that GH requires a fac. muscle and liver. 10. and thus bone produces growth in only that leg.Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon where growth occurs. rate of secretion is controlled by two or plasma from a hypophysectomized hormones in the hypothalamus: GHRH rat which had been treated with GH. IGF. and this mus and to reduce the responsiveness factor itself is induced by GH. whose production is magnitude of the response (increases ef- gave rise to the name insulin-like growth also triggered by GH. How are the effects of GH me. How does the integrated GH con- to specific carrier proteins in the plasma. mediated treated with GH. Lack of GH greatly retards cultured fibroblasts which can differenti. means that things are a little more com. somatotropes to GHRH. GH secretion is also con- hypophysectomized rat which was not trolled by negative feedback. and one to centration change with age? IGF-I can cause hypophysectomized rats stimulate cell division (IGF-I). Thus we have two effectors. DNA synthesis and bone ma. Frequent division by IGF-I. It is tightly bound sion. How is GH secretion regulated diated at the cellular level? What is the cells to initiate differentiation. leucine. in certain amino acids (especially ar- ESIS explains the observation that GH ginine. and without GH normal ate into adipocytes in a manner which is serves as the stimulus for tissue remodel- height cannot be achieved. cartilage GH secretion is stimulated by sleep. cartilage cells are isolated and anterior pituitary. and to produce the micro-trauma which bone growth. when stimulated by GH. muscular contractions result in tearing distal end of the growth plate provides ESIS explains the observation that in. in an episodic fashion with maximal or protein synthesis by cartilage cells. two IGFs are known: other cells can synthesize and secrete GH the effects of GH on long bones and to IGF-I (somatomedin C) and IGF-II. When normal is controlled via its rate of secretion. Its blood plasma was added to the mixture. long after the epiphyses © 2004. According in humans? “somatomedin hypothesis” and the “dual to the dual effector hypothesis. Chondrocytes and ficacy). GH secretion is thus under trix formation. stimulate differentiation (GH). T3 stimulates GH substance that stimulates chondrogene. Exercise is re- tic progenitor cells to proliferate causing plicated than explained by the original quired to induce a GH response (which bone remodeling and an increase in bone somatomedin hypothesis. IGF-I may GH secretion is most active during to grow in the absence of GH. In addition GH may not directly promote growth to direct regulation by the hypothala- itself. and its plasma level grown in culture dishes. but rather stimulates the liver to mus. GH stimulates prolif. This differentiation of satellite cells into new elongation. These effects could not minute-by-minute control by the ner- be stimulated by adding plasma from a vous system. Normally GH is secreted liferation of cartilage progenitor cells. on GH may act directly on precursor 11. release by maintaining sensitivity to sis and perhaps other processes as well. Studies with in turn induces hepatic IGF-I production) diameter. To study the cellular effects GH is synthesized and stored in the of GH. GH also stimulates osteoblas. release). of myofibrils (muscle fibers) and this in for continual elongation of the columns jection of GH into epiphyseal cartilage some way causes local release of IGF-I of chondrocytes. low blood glucose. secretion occurring during deep sleep. effector hypothesis?” progenitor cells in the epiphyseal plates stress. IGF-I may then increase its effects on protein synthesis in I is a small peptide (MW 7500) produced act as an autocrine to stimulate cell divi. and exercise. T3 enhances This substance was originally called GH’s actions by decreasing the amount somatomedin C (somatotropin mediator differentiate in response to GH and then of GH needed to stimulate growth (in- C). GH release is indirectly regulated produce and intermediate blood-borne by thyroid hormone.

from the contracted position. Growth hor- 96 © 2004. emphasizing the ec. Most people stop a set ages 20-40. If you want to get bigger change. high-rep work volving heavy. The GH release resulting from high ing cycle” with moderate weights and abnormal growth of the ribs. a potent GH stimulator (3) and this may ATP is required for muscle relaxation References explain the well-known anabolic effects as well as muscle contraction. Don’t get the idea that what works best for you. or abuse of GH. Finally. Most advanced bodybuilders never have to worry about acromegaly Of course. more effective in stimulating GH release rep work is to train in the four-to-eight production of GH in adulthood resulting (1. You stimulus for fat loss. 1992. liver and volume training also serves as a potent higher reps for the next four-to-six spleen and thickening of the skin. Also remember our weight and do sets of eight. weeks. make sure you get enough sleep. relax properly. low-rep work for four- um and mandible and enlargement of the is very effective in increasing muscle to-six weeks followed by a “bodybuild- bones of the hands and feet. Fourth. aerobics.9). some will probably stimulate a growth exercise on GH? corporate both heavy and light work spurt. Use Max GH Formula be. Start with one but they usually relate to over-training. and we’ll supply the fore bed and before training. if possible. heavy weights — but you also have to calories and try training less frequently aly only results from pituitary disease or incorporate high-rep work for maxi. There is also size. egies at some point. Of course. This results will definitely suffer. Use a light weight when warming up enough rest. some produces acromegaly. but that’s the way it is. eat an adequate diet containing at and do not go to failure. and stimulates GH release. Sorry. You can in. Second. 14: 47-54. Maximal GH release occurs during deep the muscle elongates. Kraemer Third. mum development. the high-rep part of your training. Heavy. Then decrease the weight nutrition. for ten reps. loss of First. by with heavier weights. Take all working sets to posi. This state is known as adaptations. You supply the hard work. stretching rest.” When the muscle is tioning J. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . creasing muscle strength. produces giantism — and adult height of High-rep work with moderate weights is Another way to incorporate high over eight feet may be achieved. muscles. There are several been doing any high-rep work. The ones who GH in humans before and after the end increasing strength. under-nutrition or not naturally increase your GH levels (9). This is and dedication. Kilgore JL. Influence of the tein Powder and Pro-Carb Formula are up” in the contracted state and cannot endocrine system on resistance training fortified with significant amounts of gly. If you neglect any part of creases GH release. When of glycine. What are the effects of diet and strategies for doing this. The Par- plement your diet with Max GH Formula helps pump the blood into the muscle rillo Program is a balanced approach containing the most effective combina. low- previous bulletin about dialing in your four reps. there are many rea- What should I do to naturally in. Constant fatigue. or supplementation — your insulin and glucagon levels. It’s a huge mistake to leave out rep range one week and the 12-to-20 from a pituitary tumor. rep training. If you haven’t abuse of exogenous GH. You can ing progress. consistency produced (10). just as this starts to happen because the 13. Continue increasing the enough rest. Acromeg. Kraemer WJ. While rep range the next week. sup. a muscle runs out of ATP it “locks 1. The key is to find body’s own production of GH. you will always have to lift To break out of a plateau. A high protein meal in.2. along with the right diet. and do a set of 20 reps to failure.Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon have closed. Parrillo Performance Hi-Pro. This is probably due fight through the pain and crank out a of adolescent growth? to an increase in testosterone levels and few more reps are the ones who get big Overproduction of GH in children a training effect on the nervous system. centric part of the contraction. Nat’l Strength and Condi- cine. This condition is low-rep work is more effective in in. increase the side effects of acromegaly. doing 14. but not enough to experience muscles. GH secretion gradually de. into the same training session using sons for reaching a training plateau. Always take especially important at the end of a set winning strategy. Then pick a libido and failure to recover from work- least one gram of protein per pound of weight you can handle in good form outs are signs of over-training and not body weight. it on an empty stomach. Take a nap during the afternoon painful. the fibers 2. “ischemic rigor. body fat. it is. Kraemer RR. crease GH levels? There are several a pyramid technique. you don’t have to lift heavy weights at a plateau. train smart. If this sounds creases in both men and women between sleep. under-training. If you’re naturally increase GH enough to dramati. What are the effects of excess low-rep work is known to be effective in pain gets unbearable. you need both high-rep have experimented with all three strat- resulting from naturally increasing your and low-rep work to make continu. Lower the covering every facet of bodybuilding. things you can do as a bodybuilder to or two warm up sets around 15 reps. This combination of supplements. it’s probably time for a cally increase muscle mass and decrease anymore. protein to carbohydrate ratio to optimize tive failure. six and the program — high-rep training. cannot relax and literally get torn as GR and Castracane VD. tion of amino acids for GH release ever weight slowly. has proven in rigor and your are lowering a weight over the years to be incredibly anabolic. Over. Glycine is also when ATP is the muscle is depleted. people do a “powerlifting cycle” in- characterized by thickening of the crani.

© 2004. Insulin and glucagon as determinants of body weight set point and microregulation in rats. Vitality House International. Growth Hormone Syn- ergism. Sports Exerc. Albu- querque. and Cappa M. W. Saunders. Rudman D. Advanced Research Press.Growth Hormone: The Ultimate Weapon mone. Fisher AG. Effects of Hu- man Growth Hormone in Men over sixty years old. A study of growth hormone re- lease in man after oral administration of amino acids. 1992. 6. New York. 1990. Optimum Sports Nu- trition. Paullin SK. 1991. Lo Monaco A. Raven Press. Johnson. et al. 1993. IGF-I and testosterone responses to resistive exercise.B. 1978. J. Colgan M. 8. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 9. and DeLugas GM. 24: 1346-1352. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 97 . Provo. 7: 475-481. New York. Comp. How to Lower your Fat Thermostat. 5. J. 10. 92: 571-579. Psychol. Crist DM. and Parent EA. Isidori A. Remington DW. 1983. Physiol. de Castro JM. 1981. 7. Sci. Essential Medical Physiology. 323: 1. DMC Health Sciences. 1992. 1991. Med. 4. LR. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Guyton AC. N Engl. Med. 3.

98 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

We will discuss the Without that as the foundation. ed with low HDL cholesterol levels genesis. how much association with serious disease states. increased caloric intakes over those of As you read. so you can increase metabolic problem in the U. hypertension. the Parrillo Performance Nutrition Man. For every competitive of these diseases or that obesity bodybuilder. hyper- been cutting calories in a desper. Hi. Furthermore. return to some “programmed” value fol- body composition by diet and exercise. We’ll start with petitive bodybuilder trying to get down to the cases. keep in mind that this Protein Powder.S. Among the obese. already in great shape. and explain how to do it cor. since this is a major medical in better shape. While remarkable progress has tail the biochemistry and physiology of scientific basis for the diet described in been made in recent decades in many are- weight loss. of cancer. million people in the United States are we work with competitive bodybuilders This series of articles represents the obese. (1). That’s what we’re about. the best way to lose fat and keep it off. Results. The place studies of deliberate over-feeding and lose fat and get lean. which obesity management seems warranted. We can teach you how to lose fat ual. obesity is often associat- energy metabolism and thermo. The It is generally assumed that obesity is extra tricks you can use to get into com. weight loss reduces the risk for Many people have had a these same diseases (4).4). however. most obese people do not have program is the same. maintaining lean body mass is the same to eat and how to structure your meals. defined as 20% above ideal body pushing the human body to its weight (1). bolts of how to build your diet. We convert begin. In In this series of articles about addition. © 2004. Nutrition Manual is really the only piece the result of excess caloric consumption. under-feeding in humans and rats dem- apply to everyone. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 99 . Our greatest satisfaction is for diabetes. Whether you’re a com. This approach diabetes are two times more com- is doomed to fail. tension is three times more com- ate attempt to get rid of a few (or a mon and hypertriglyceridemia and lot) excess pounds.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 19 Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat by John Parrillo Everyone is concerned about their We will discuss the effects of low calorie Everybody has a dream. We will explain the proper way a discussion of obesity and low calorie 4% body fat or just someone trying to get to structure your diet to fuel your me. widespread prevalence of obesity and its The strategy of how to lose fat while ing exactly which foods to eat. There are a few you will need to weight your food. dieting. Here in Cincinnati than ever before. the successful treatment rectly.4). diets and explain why they fail in 95% of you make it come true. everybody wants to know tabolism. coro- seeing our athletes improve and nary artery disease and some types win contests. describ. but the foundation of the of equipment you will need. we explore in great de. These ob- weight problem all their lives and servations suggest that obesity may have tried all the diets without play a causal role in some cases success. Obesity is a risk factor limit. The manual contains the nuts and of obesity remains an enigma. lowing periods of altered food intake (4). rate while dieting instead of decreasing it. a re-evaluation of current approaches to regardless of whether you’re obese or It also comes with a food scale. As a natural result of this program. Given the and keep it off for the rest of your life. We can help body fat level. Supplements However. Pro-Carb Formula. your Obesity rillo Performance are world class experts body will be leaner and have more energy Current estimates indicate that 35 at getting in shape. petitive shape. The same concepts to start. It’s no exaggeration to say that we at Par. as well as being an ners into winners. into champions. you may find helpful include CapTri. mon than in the nonobese (1). and nonobese people (3. there are probably a shares a common cause with these thousand other people who have diseases. long-term article is written for anyone wanting to Advanced Lipotropic Formula. nas of medicine. is with the proper diet. you will onstrate that body weight is regulated to process of fat loss and how to control never achieve your goal. amateurs into independent risk factor for prema- professionals and professionals ture mortality (3. In fact.

25-50% of weight lost by returns to its pre-dieting level (i. A synthesis of the available lit- Lean body mass is the In addition. regimen is not solely a replacement of but is rather a Homeostatically regulated ine by maintaining fat stores in times muscle mass. evolution. enzymes.10). hypocaloric di- who lose weight by restricting calories tive energy balance and ets also decrease the level of thyroid hor- experience relapse of obesity within five mones (specifically T3) and this further years (2.500 for women (4). at a higher body fat percentage (4). TEF is reduced and the efficiency of caused by hypocaloric (high calorie) con.4.11). 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . but in is not available). is to return to the original body weight occur so as to compensate and try to Chronic caloric restriction causes before dieting (or slightly above).8. Many theories and ex. and that weight reduction can (food efficiency) is increased. Individuals which ensues following a hypocaloric human body is not a bomb calorimeter who have adapted to the stress of fam.4). every other parameter of body function.9. weight gain occurs (3). Fat stores steady state. approach to long-term weight control is terminant of basal meta. albeit recover the original steady state. but in fact is biased to. When body weight energy balance (5). Finally.e. nervous mechanisms by which this occurs are body for the next famine.12). This effect is The conventional treatment for obe. The net result system activity.” The evolutionary strategy to survive bouts of most important of these will be discussed famine. This simplistic thermodynamic ap- This makes perfect sense from an Unfortunately. During under-feed- from the assumptions that obesity is ducing calories. decreases basal metabolic rate (3. and body composition now understood. loric deprivation biased toward the fat The successful approach to obesity man- 100 © 2004. Thus.] storage (3. (3. [“Normal caloric con.5). LPL activity also regulating its weight in the face of altered This result is observed even when using returns to its normal level (5). the amount of food energy wasted as now within reach. creases the thermic effect of food (TEF). when suggest that the body has some way of caloric restriction is muscle mass (3. Lean enzymatic mechanism underlying relapse periments have been devised to elucidate body mass (LBM) is the single most of obesity. and BMR is the largest com. heat (3.3).6. fat stores are repleted). nonobese increases the activity of lipoprotein lipase feeding or under-feeding is smaller than people. and presumably represents an this “weight regulation mechanism. sympathetic nervous system by carbohy- rie) diet (3. the body repletes is also reduced. Historically.. weight gain occurs. below. The reduced. so that a normal contributes to obesity relapse following empirical reality is that 90-95% of people diet then results in posi. the biochemical are preferentially repleted to prepare the changes in hormones.” are homeostatically regulated just like gain) when normal caloric consumption How is weight gain following ca. This is not necessarily a con. This also be achieved by reducing calories. energy requirement is also conversion of food energy to body weight sumption. sity has been attributed to consumption vation as starvation (i. but occurs even empirically observed to fail in the treat- when reasonable form of caloric intake is ment of obesity in 90-95% of cases resumed following weight loss.e.4. the body’s energy requirement fact obese people do not consume more consumption resumes. This fruitful approach might be to consider ergy metabolism and substrate utilization weight cycling phenomenon is common.4). and BMR is nificant proportion of the excess calories Low-Calorie Diets the largest component of is liberated as body heat. This is one energy intake. the weight gain proach fails to take into account that the evolutionary point of view. Fortunately. low calorie diets.4. ponent of energy expenditure (3. In summary. the key enzyme regulating fat predicted by simple considerations of men and about 1. This is important determinant of basal metabolic (3. During over-feeding.Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat Furthermore. when weight is lost by reducing of calories in excess of needs. machine which strives to maintain the of plenty have been selected through ward the fat compartment (4). largely mediated by stimulation of the sity consists of a hypocaloric (low-calo. that body weight and body composition which favors weight gain (especially fat ly referred to as “yo-yo dieting. “protein-sparing” low calorie diets. hypocaloric diets are lowing caloric restriction.400 calories per day for (LPL). on theoretical grounds. the observed increase or sumption” refers to the level of food compartment? Hypocaloric consumption decrease in body weight following over. the body’s ing.4) and would be expected to do so explained intuitively by saying that the rate (BMR). is resumed (3. obe- body interprets periods of caloric depri. This approach derives when weight is lost by re.. adequate food Thus. caloric restriction de- erature suggests that perhaps a successful single most important de. If caloric intake is reduced. drate ingestion (3). These observations Specifically. so that when eucaloric calories. about 2. a sig- bolic rate. energy expenditure. sequence of hyperphagia (overeating fol.4. so that a normal diet then calories than nonobese people nor do its fat stores as a defense mechanism to results in positive energy balance and they have reduced energy requirements withstand the next bout of famine. intake consumed by healthy.7). A more changes in the body’s pattern of en.4).

J. Blunted glucose-in- 1. 111: 252-289. Vitality House International. 1981. Levin BE. 149: 1514-1520. 1985. Hunter G. 1981. Baltimore. chapters 1. 159- 180. 1990. J. multifunctional enzyme relevant to com- rather than reducing energy intake and mon metabolic diseases. Obesity. James LD.. Lippincott Co. and hypertension. Van Zant RS. and Sullivan AC. Darnell B. Ltd. Novel approaches and Drugs for Obesity. Kunin AS. and Garrantini S.Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat agement involves changing the steady 9. J. 1992. Med.S. Nelson KM. New Engl. setting into play the body’s compensatory Med. 1990. Nutr. New Engl. Intern. 1989. pg. 12. 6. glucose intolerance. © 2004.. 1989. J. hepatic mitochondrial metabolism vices. Sims NM. John Libbey and Co. Effect of weight reduction on energy ex- penditure. Nutr. Lipoprotein lipase: a state which the body strives to maintain. 16 and shuttle system activity in rats. Cryer A. J. Guide to Clinical Preventive Ser.). How to lower your Fat Ther- mostat. and Parent AG. 4. Influence of diet composition on 2. Sul- livan AC. Clin. Int. 1993 Arch. Intl. (Ed. 2: 1-19. Preventive Services Task serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentra- Force. Fisher AG. Sports Nutr. 55: 924-933. et al. Philadel- phia. 17 (Suppl 1) s23 s27.tion. and Brodoff BN. and ther- mic effect of food in moderately obese women. Tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and its action in lipoprotein me- tabolism. Williams and Wilkins. Kaplan NM. Golay A. U. mechanisms. 1992. References 11. Weinsier RL. J. and 18. substrate utilization. Am. 322: 1053. Regu- lation of thermogenesis in obesity. Pro- vo. 5. Tyzbir RS. 13: 525-541. we continue 10. Kern et al. Int. the effects of weight our series on fat loss with a look at how loss on the activity and expression of energy metabolism affects your ability to adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase in very get lean and musclular. 3. Eds. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 101 . 1983. 8. 2. Obesity hypertriglcyeridemia. Bjorntorp P. 3. Remington DW. which cannot be overcome. 320: 1060-1067. and Long CL. Fisher M. The deadly quartet: duced thermogenesis: a factor contribut- upper body obesity. ing to relapse of obesity. 7. In the next bulletin. Biochem. J. J. obese humans. Eckel RH.B. Influence of diet and exercise on energy expenditure — a re- view. 1992. Med.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .102 © 2004.

normal. defined as the calories consumed of a carnitine shuttle is inhibited by malo- sisting mostly of maintenance of body particular food divided by the resulting nyl-CoA. and the energy can experience three general fates: 1) cost of protein turnover they can be oxidized to release energy. CapTri® is fat). shuttle.5. as well as its passive diffusion independent of the car- perhaps better success could be achieved extent of digestion and absorption. or 3) they can accounts for 65-75% of be excreted. a byproduct of carbohydrate temperature. heart rate. expenditure while at rest during the post.7. intensity. required to maintain cells. on the other hand.9). calorie. Regular fats are not used ing when all the food has been digested burned as energy. but have to be carried inside by the thermic effect of feeding (TEF). lean body builders and other athletes. TEF (1). to store it. to be stored as body weight versus being metabolism. will get burned before the body has time intake is reduced. and drugs. breathing. The basal bolic rate to different extents. converted to body weight. foods. © 2004. is like pouring gasoline on the fire. If eating regular food is like is reduced to compensate. age.2). That different foods. since the requirements of maintaining life. Since greater has a very low food efficiency. This termining body weight is energy balance. slowing the depletion of stored energy. fat or glycogen). percent of calories from This concept is the basis for use of protein. Conventional ap. sex.5. ably reflects tendency of a particular How does this work? Medium chain Since weight reduction strategies based food to be burned for energy versus be. If energy caloric intake affects oxygen consump. nerve metabolism. This concept is known as fuel to a significant extent as long as and absorbed). hormones profoundly thermogenic (4. That nitine shuttle and thus are immediately in manipulating the expenditure side of protein increases the metabolic rate more oxidized as fuel. giving them metabolic rate is the body’s rate of energy that different foods.5. the the thermic effect of feeding. Part II by John Parrillo weight gain (3. increase the throwing a log on the fire. energy expenditure tion (3. This results in regular fats being adaptive thermogenesis (1). foods with a low food efficiency are more dietary composition (the prone to be utilized as energy. 2) they can be retained as body weight The basal metabolic rate (muscle. This represents the energy as “food efficiency.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 20 Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat. It consists of several energy expenditure caused by feeding is cannot get inside mitochondria by them- components: basal metabolic rate (BMR).8. than carbohydrate and fat suggests that (4. than 95% of the energy expended by the means that it is preferentially burned defined as energy consumption minus body is derived from the oxidation of for energy and has very little tendency energy expenditure. and dura. eating CapTri® to enhance survival during famine by metabolic rate to different extents prob. known as diet-induced thermogenesis or selves.7.8. CapTri®. CapTri® is mass.” Food efficiency is carbohydrates are available. furnaces inside cells where foods are energy expenditure commonly expressed late thermogenesis (3. activity (dependent on a highly fractionated medium chain tri- type. Foods with a high food efficiency fected by many parameters are readily stored as body weight while including energy intake. a transport system called the carnitine thermic effect of activity (TEA) and Since different foods increase the meta. different dietary items while maintaining Tri® as an immediate energy source that ent composition of the diet. Normal fats in calories per hour.9) and The pre-eminent consideration in de. Mitochondria are the little Metabolic rate is the body’s rate of certain amino acids may directly stimu. of how efficiently a particular food is ical gradients across mem. Calorie for proaches to obesity management fail be. have characteristic tendencies this serves as a way of regulating fat absorptive phase (several hours after eat.6) and is thus a measure transmission. ing stored as body weight. this means burned relatively slowly. Also. electrochem. normalized for ener. triglycerides enter the mitochondria by on caloric restriction are observed to fail. metabolic rate is proportional to to be stored as body weight. The increase in burned to produce energy. gy content. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 103 . bypassing regulation the energy equation. glyceride formulated especially for body- tion of activity). more time to be stored as body fat. Think of Cap- to caloric intake as well as macronutri. carbohydrate and CapTri® for weight reduction.4). This serves ized for energy content. con. The relative balance between daily energy requirements these possibilities determine a food’s effi- (1). Ingested foods brane cells. Metabolic rate is af. CapTri® contributes less to body cause they do not consider that the body’s Perhaps one of the most significant weight gain (fat gain) than carbohydrates energy expenditure changes in response discoveries in nutrition is that feeding or conventional dietary fat. ciency. oxygen consumption (2).

This 104 © 2004. brane (15). NO! REMEMBER. This increases the ergy as heat. uncoupled from oxidative phosphoryla- thereby reducing food efficiency of the tion.11). acetyl-CoA is produced so player in glucose-induced thermogen. and the ensuing catecholamine-mediated excess acetyl-CoA produced during the Finally. The house fats are converted to energy. The ob. phosphate. the energy spent to establish an elec- diet. For example. which branched chain amino acid metabolism). fect reduces fat storage because a higher ies (6. Ask for our technical effect can be blocked by propanolol (3). By replacing regular tissue. which then diffuses out of the increment in energy expenditure above This process is energetically costly and mitochondria to complete the cycle. to digest. and spares beta-adrenergic antagonist). Rather the Krebs Cycle in the liver. We have used this technique at trochemical potential gradient across the Parrillo Performance to convert amateur mitochondrial membrane is dissipated as bodybuilders into professionals (12). in. The glycerol-3-phosphate how to use it. The the resting rate and is expressed as a could account for the lesser efficiency of net result is the shuttle of glycerol-3-phos- fraction of the energy content of the food storage of MCT-derived energy. the This is termed the obligatory component vation was corroborated by Crozier (13) energy ultimately appears as heat (16). The most important MADE FROM EATING MCTs THAN being burned. Carbohydrate feeding is known to working with isolated rat hepatocytes The malate/aspartate shuttle works in the stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (liver cells).11) demonstrated that MCT then diffuses into the mitochondria and The thermic effect of food (TEF) is overfeeding results in increased hepatic is oxidized to reform dihydroxyacetone defined as the postprandial (after eating) de novo fatty acid synthesis is man. In the glycerophosphate shift your metabolic pathways into a sympathetic nervous system. cytoplasm. to heat. of energy was expended in the process.10. Hill and co.Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat. The stimulation of sympathetic activity. Free TEF (50-75%) is simply the energy used well with the energy cost associated with energy is consumed to drive the cycle. phate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate consumed (3). since this shuttle. but since no net work is performed. Does phosphorylation. workers (10. if electron transport is conventional dietary fat with CapTri®. FROM EATING AN EQUAL NUM- fast that as to overwhelm the capacity of BER OF CARBOHYDRATES. This means that some of the same manner. believed to occur in liver glucagon to insulin ratio generated by mitochondria. this ef- acetyl-CoA is converted to ketone bod.11). This obser. together just as it was before. then putting it all back is due to its rapid oxidation (burning). Our heat instead of being conserved as ATP secret is CapTri® — the most powerful (14). in brown adipose MCT on the market. The the thermogenic effect of MCTs. carbohydrate for glycogen storage. A substantial part of the served increase in thermogenesis agrees across the mitochondrial membrane. Before contests. increased activity of NA- increase in metabolic rate is known as the rapid oxidation of MCTs is used to build K ATPase has also been suggested as facultative component of TEF (3). of TEF. a pathway exists allowing proton dietary fat with CapTri®.16). then feeds into the pathways of the Krebs increased redox cycling and stimulation This is the biochemical basis for part of cycle. a house apart brick by brick. electron transport and oxidative of protein and fat synthesis (3). etal muscle. transport and store food (3). LESS BODY FAT IS in our technical series. energy is spent to pump reducing fat-burning mode. (The biochemistry of relative contribution of each of these this mean that MCTs will make me fat? all this is explained in much greater detail probably varies according to the fuel sub. As compounds such as lactate (from an. bodybuilders also substitute CapTri® for Another method of dissipating en- starchy carbohydrates. the initial aerobic metabolism) and alanine (from hasn’t changed but a tremendous amount breakdown product is acetyl-CoA. equivalents outside the mitochondria to series on CapTri® or consult our Nutrition The major contributor to MCT-induced drive the reduction of dihydroxyacetone Program or CapTri® Manual if you want thermogenesis appears to be increased phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate in the the scientific details on how it works and de novo fatty acid synthesis. The strategy is to replace Alternatively. moving it TEF and low food efficiency of CapTri® creased substrate cycling of three-carbon a hundred yards. is redox cycling involving the diet as well as further reducing food the glycerophosphate and malate shut- efficiency. This excess than contributing to fat stores.13. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . This Mechanisms which may be involved taking it apart and using the parts to means more carbohydrates are available in facultative thermogenesis include build new fat molecules? Think of taking for strength and more endurance. Part II is used as fuel even in the presence effect can be blocked by propanolol (a new fat molecules. de novo lipogenesis (10. What is the net result of available carbohydrates.) As CapTri® is strate being oxidized. This all works together to esis (GIT) is probably activation of the tles (6. of starting with a fat molecule (MCT). Ketone bodies produced percentage of dietary energy is converted in the liver are then used as fuel by skel. you can achieve leakage across the mitochondrial mem- lower body fat levels.

This concept is at economy is of critical importance (4). constant body weight will be fat metabolism. Part II a thermogenic mechanism for wasting oxidized by the body. RQ increases following feed- energy expenditure required to replace 1 consumption equals energy intake. We see the same thing at Parrillo as 40% fat. the increase in lean body mass tion of gradient of sodium and potassium (3). while pro- (3). By reduc. but a mixed diet to a high carbohydrate diet eating 3. More of his dietary closely regulated. ent efficiencies. if RQ is less than to maintenance of carbohydrate balance. since skeletal muscle energy as heat (17). provided not its fat content (4). and increase in response stant body weight requires not only that be available for ATP production. It is also known if only excess [conventional] fat is con. Since penditure. Thus. tion to carbohydrate intake is carefully 45% efficiency (detailed calculations can plied by the diet. chapter 8). On days carbohydrate. that the body’s glycogen reserve is on sumed (3). one can bring about of carbohydrate (200-400 g) (4). carbohydrate oxidation. This tains absolutely constant body weight the fuel mix. weight loss without activating the body’s the importance of maintaining blood glu- fat and protein are converted to usable homeostatic mechanisms to maintain cose. Thirty percent of excess car- fuels are converted to ATP with differ. but if excess fat is consumed it is than ever and still losing fat. It is adipose stores. weight lifting is largely fueled by carbo- the cell is used to maintain the concentra. only will he lose weight while maintain. Of course. in energy balance because the fuel mix nearly constant protein content (as long nism for spending ATP (5. tion of a representative sample of the diet hydrates. (If fat stores long term energy balance be maintained. but not lost as heat and less will be available as bohydrate in the diet (4). and since glycogen stores are generally (RQ) describes the substrate mix being Increasing lean body mass will also help far from full (especially in exercising © 2004. fat feeding does we switch them to a high protein.18).000 calories per not promote fat oxidation (4). Given perhaps not surprising that carbohydrate. diet (4). When protein. Let’s say this person is carbohydrate and protein content.7. energy will be lost as heat and less will not regulated. excess calories from protein the nutrient distribution in the diet (3). the same order as on the daily turnover follow different metabolic pathways. from carbohydrate is converted to ATP simply stored in adipose depots (4). but this weight will people. the energy intake required the constraints of substrate availability). were regulated we wouldn’t have obese but also that the average composition of ing energy balance. Not to over-consumption of fat. This fat is coming from regulated to result in stable glycogen be found in reference 3. verted to ATP at 90% efficiency and en. 40% carbohydrate and 20% tein and carbohydrate feeding promotes Performance in our bodybuilders. high tinues to consume 3. being oxidized is inefficiently converted as the diet provides sufficient protein) re- Notably. Energy from carbohydrate is converted the heart of successful weight reduction. In ity level dictates a certain RQ (within or carbohydrate can also be converted to other words. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 105 . one can draw upon reserves under widely varying dietary evident from these considerations that the stored fat for energy even when energy intakes (4). an increase in the is less than FQ. We know level. the rapidly day and does not modify his activity when carbohydrate excess carbohydrate lose body fat and gain muscle.000 calories per day. So while 10-40% of the total energy expended by produced to O2 consumed during oxida. will increase BMR and result in greater ions across the cell membrane (18). ATP to maintain body weight. The change in RQ following explains. since different by fat (a low RQ) while high intensity an. but this is quantitatively insignificant to maintain body weight varies according Aerobic activity is preferentially fueled for most people consuming an American to dietary composition. BMR is increased following to ATP. but changes his diet to 10% fat. the increase in BMR ob. consider someone who main. The glucostatic theory of food intake to ATP with an overall yield of 75% ef. Since different fuel substrates ing food efficiency and while maintain. If RQ It is known from nitrogen balance by passive diffusion. It is estimated that quotient (FQ) describes the ratio of CO2 is the main site of fat oxidation. but it’s not the whole story. FQ this means that more fat is being The adjustment of carbohydrate oxida- ergy from protein is converted to ATP at burned by the body than is being sup. Thus. portion of carbohydrate being oxidized in substrate mix being oxidized (3). Of course. In intuitive terms. Now imagine this person con. Thus. in part. Thus. fat. For ing. This increased to limit excess glycogen depo- because they are eating more calories person will lose weight because energy sition. low fat diet. these ions also can cross the membrane maintained only if RQ equals FQ. we train them harder than they’ve ever with less efficiency than energy from fat while protein and carbohydrate stores are trained before too. and whose energy intake exactly equals feeding is determined by the test meal’s served when subjects are changed from energy output. energy from dietary fat is con. aerobic activity (weight lifting) is fueled bohydrate calories are wasted as heat. it is ing energy balance. weight will be lost even studies that the adult body maintains a activity of the enzyme could be a mecha. carbohydrate oxidation is that energy expenditure has increased 70% carbohydrate and 20% protein. is consumed. constant body weight. more dietary energy will be gardless of the proportions of fat and car- excess feeding of a mixed diet. is converted to ATP. we see that maintenance of con. regulation describes the priority given ficiency. If energy intake equals energy ex. The respiratory quotient primarily by carbohydrate (a high RQ). demonstrating an increase in the pro- mol of ATP will vary depending on the example. proper control of the carbohydrate energy (ATP) with differing efficiencies. while the food you burn more fat.Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat. fat stores are generally Thus.) the fuel mix oxidized be equivalent to come from fat stores since his activ.

Peters JC. body composition will change 17. and Wallace. Crozier G. and Brodoff BN. Bracco EF. Hu- narrowly regulated. J. Biophys. Complex 2. Thermogenesis in humans during over- 1. Yang D. 2: 1-19. and Greene HL. can be accommodated without view. Int. Geliebter A. Notably. Bracco and Hashim. Girard J. W. Role is famous for its tendency to be converted ished depositions of fat in response to of brown adipose tissue in thermogenesis to fat. 1990. Bach AC and Babayan VK. Warenko These arguments show that a meal MK. Am. Nicholls. and Luciano. Bjorntorp P. 5. Metabolic ef. Metab. J. Medium chain triglycer- are released into the bloodstream faster sity. Sports Nutr. Philadelphia. This is of medium chain triglyceride on lipogen. 13. a given dietary intake with some aver. Lavau MM. Lipid Res. 1980. Effect man Physiology — The Mechanisms of consume less fat than one burns. Nutr. age FQ. Clin. Sharp References T. Vander. (3). and Van Ittalic TB. weight D. Nutr. Nutr. of 500 g. pg. 1987. Saunders 1991. Eds. will be converted into fat and will “spill 4. Brown adipose tissue ture and energy consumed in the form of um chain triglycerides: and update. The steady state is 7. 15. J. In effect. the fat mass. Enhanced thermogenesis and dimin. J. Simply put. Abumrad N. Kaler M. Van Zant RS. average RQ is influenced by the degree of repletion of glycogen stores and by 6. Obe. 1992. Thermic effect with a high carbohydrate:fat ratio (CHO: of medium chain and long chain triglyc- FAT) is more thermogenic than a meal erides in man. fructose SA. Baba N. Parrillo Performance. Lippincott Co. Abumrad N. Since the J. In other words. 38: 641-648. Hill JO. Berry.Energy Metabolism and Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat. Welle SL. Over. Clark.B. Clin. 159- mix being oxidized is the same as the diet results in diminished deposition of 180. 35: medium chain triglyceride. original research results by John carbohydrates which are broken down Physiology. 108: Graw-Hill Book Company. J. J. Hill JO. Sul- ergy expenditure and when the substrate feeding with medium chain triglyceride livan AC. The contribution of hepatic metabolism only when a particular body composition fects of induced by long-term feeding to diet-induced thermogenesis. ide feeding over the long term: the meta- than they can be converted to glycogen. Also. Guyton AC.. Hashim SA. approaches and Drugs for Obesity. Weight 613-620. Regu- until RQ equals FQ. and Peret J. 1985. J. and Sullivan AC. mitochondria. Body Function. Metab. fat. Nutr. 34: 141-147. Ltd. Am. 1988. bolic fate of the C-14 octanoate and C-14 This means some of the simple sugars oleate in isolated rat hepatocytes. Lipids 22: future article. has been reached (4). and Greene HL. and Garrantini S. 36: 950-962. Peters JC. Seaton EB. Novel achieved when energy intake equals en.B. and Hashim SA. and Hashim 118: 297-304. Bracco EF. Medi.. lation of thermogenesis in obesity. weight maintenance occurs M. 1989. which 3. protein balance are closely regulated. 44: 630- with a low ratio. Am. 1992. During over-feeding. PhD. and that’s why we limit fruit and overfeeding with diet containing medium induced by overfeeding a diet containing juice on our diet — more on that in a chain triglycerides. Part II individuals). Parrillo and Arthur Roberson. Baba. While carbohydrate and 634. p. by performing aerobic exercise. not 12. 37: 1-4. Bois-Joyeux B. 1982. 1986. John Libbey and Co. 549: 1-28. J. Metab. 1985. Sharp T. of overfeeding with medium or long plains why the incidence of obesity rises chain triglycerides. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Clin. 1982. 1978. slowly are more effectively stored as glycogen than are simple sugars. over” into body fat stores. an excess carbohydrate load exercise on energy expenditure — a re. 14. Textbook of Medical Ohio. fuel mix being consumed. Cincinnati. all carbs are created equal. 678-682. 1983. The Changes in blood lipids during six days body’s inability to regulate fat stores ex. Clin. since protein and carbohydrate stores are 18. Biochem. Nutr. 1987. and Campbell RG. Levin BE. 442-444. an increase in body fat. 1979. 9. Influence of diet and feeding with medium chain triglycerides. Yang the diet (3). 236. 11. 31: 407- as the fat content of the diet increases 416. Published by Mc- achieved by consuming a low fat diet and esis and body fat in the rat. Grivell. to lose fat one must 8. training helps by increasing lean mass and therefore the BMR. oxidation is determined by the difference between energy expendi. Nutr. fat balance is related to the amount of fat in 10. for of medium chain triglycerides in the rat. 36: 807-814. Chanez 16. 106 © 2004. Crozier. Acta carbohydrate and protein (4). gain is closely related to fat intake. Am. Swift LL. Sherman. Torbay N.

Eight obese non- that these theoretical concepts are correct diabetic patients were examined and really work in humans. After weight loss This is likely to be due to loss of lean energy metabolism in the obese state. resumed.3). tion. GIT in the diabetic group. This obviously could play a role in relapse suggests that repeated cycles of was measured by indirect calorimetry the development of obesity since if less hypocaloric dieting just make it even for three hours following administration energy is wasted as heat more is available harder to lose weight. This will give you Results and Discus- some idea of how these experiments are sions: Although energy expendi- performed. We do the same sort of thing ture was increased in all groups at Parrillo Performance except our sub. ance.3). That relapse of obesity. we have dis. many of the principles discussed in the ing energy metabolism in the same indi. in fact. Reduction of body weight by effect can be overcome with exercise. Regression mechanism. so (internal control) as well as compared to loss. obese following weight loss may thus be of excess caloric consumption because. ports that postprandial thermogenesis This sort of compensation is exactly ated with obesity and impaired glucose. and ly reduced in non-diabetic obese patients. of body weight gain. Furthermore. The glucose-in. “anti-starvation” response which works induced thermogenesis and its relation to sulin levels. How. In addi. body mass (skeletal muscle) during ca- after weight loss by hypocaloric diet. insulin resistance. After relapse sibility was not investigated. many of the concepts previ. This report confirms that a examined. ever. To illustrate six months. Obese subjects were di. following glucose ingestion is lower in what one would expect of a homeostatic induced thermogenesis (GIT) was also obese than in lean subjects. resistance may play a role in suppressing BMR was not recovered after obesity Methods: Energy expenditure GIT. original value before weight loss. although this pos- loss. and diabetic (NIDDM). GIT was lower in fitness athletes and our end points of obese patients than in nonobese measurement are lean body mass. cose tolerance. basal energy expenditure failed to introduction. Part III by John Parrillo In the previous bulletins. for storage. on average. The further reduction in GIT in phasized that obesity is not a problem degree of glucose tolerance: normal glu. obese patients had significantly The study by Golay (1) was lower GIT than non-diabetic selected for review because it examines obese patients. involved in relapse of obesity. which was not replaced after relapse of obesity following weight Weight loss induced non diminution of during obesity relapse. following administration of the jects are competitive bodybuilders and glucose load. Thirty-two while GIT returned to its pre-diet level consume more calories than non-obese obese individuals were studied before following obesity relapse. obese people do not. measur. This suggests that insulin by decreasing energy expenditure. BMR did not. ously discussed are empirically tested. six years later after relapse of lected one of the articles in the reference obesity had occurred.2.6 to 33. body controls. GIT returned to its This experiment demonstrates The study was well controlled. Notably. duced thermogenesis was expressed as caloric restriction is associated not only An Integrated Approach To the percent of energy contained in the with a decrease in BMR but also with Body Weight Control glucose dose. diabetic fat percentage and competitive wins. Caloric restriction reduces viduals before and after hypocaloric diet return to the same level as before weight the body’s rate of energy expenditure.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 21 Energy Metabolism & Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat. which is associ. people (2. body weight (fat) is recovered. GIT was dramatical. by hypocaloric diet. a blunted thermic response to feeding Throughout this report it has been em- vided into three groups according to their (1.5 kg achieved and why traditional approaches to weight by hypocaloric diet for four to loss are doomed to failure. Therefore treatment of obe- © 2004. in obesity is an increase in plasma in. loric restriction. list for detailed review. These results confirm other re. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 107 . I have se. and after body weight loss rang- cussed how to effectively lose body fat ing from 9. that when normal caloric consumption is lean controls (external controls). Thus. This undesirable of a 100g glucose load. The goal of the investigation analysis showed that the main factor in hypocaloric diet fails to achieve body was to examine the impact of weight explaining the decrease in GIT observed weight control and in fact activates an reduction by hypocaloric diet on glucose. impaired glucose toler.

Energy Metabolism & Thermogenesis: The Ultimate Formula For Losing Body Fat, Part III

sity by caloric restriction does not make energy deficit of 500 calories. It is best stored as glycogen, excess calories from
sense on at least grounds: 1) It is unre- to achieve this deficit by performing 500 fructose are converted to fat.
lated to the cause of obesity; 2) The body calories worth of aerobic exercise per day In summary, obesity is not a
has compensatory mechanisms to adapt (which is about one hour of moderately problem of excess energy consumption,
to the low caloric diet and to recover intense activity). If a reduction in energy but rather is a direct consequence of the
fat stores when caloric consumption is intake is needed, limit it to 10% of the of American lifestyle. This is supported by
resumed; and most importantly, 3) It is the maintenance requirement. It is best to the observation of increased incidence
empirically observed to fail 90-95% of lose weight slowly, since this seems to of obesity in American immigrants from
the time (2,3). achieve more permanent results (2,3) and Asia and Japan. A person may consume
Five great discoveries in nu- minimizes loss of lean body mass and an appropriate number of calories, but if
trition now make it possible to devise consequent reduction of BMR. Monitor he is sedentary and derives 40% of his
a successful approach to body weight body composition (percent body fat) dur- calories from fat, his RQ will be greater
control. These are: 1) The body has a ing weight loss to ensure muscle is not than his FQ and he will necessarily ac-
weight regulation mechanism located in being lost. cumulate excess body fat. Caloric restric-
the hypothalamus; 2) Different foods 2) Increase the CHO:FAT ratio tion in such an individual would serve
are converted to ATP with different ef- in the diet. This increases thermogenesis no useful purpose. What is called for is a
ficiencies; 3) The insulin:glucagon ratio and FQ. (A diet with a low fat content has diet low in fat and high in complex carbo-
is determined by diet composition (CHO: a high FQ.) Remember that fat deposition hydrates combined with regular exercise.
PRO) and can exert powerful influence is related to fat consumption. The successful dieter will realize that
on body weight; 4) the sympathetic ner- 3) Perform regular low to mod- permanent weight loss requires a lifelong
vous system is activated by carbohydrate erate intensity aerobic exercise. This de- commitment to healthy diet and exercise
feeding and can direct partitioning of in- creases RQ. When RQ is less than FQ habits. The strategy presented here will
gested energy; and 5) While carbohydrate this means that the body is burning more work for anyone trying to get in better
and protein stores are tightly regulated, fat than it is consuming. This fat comes shape, from the man on the street to the
the size of adipose depots correlates most from adipose stores. Low to moderate Olympia competitor. You want results?
strongly with fat content of the diet. intensity aerobic exercise is fueled pri- Get with the program.
From these considerations a marily by fat, and if little fat is provided
simple prescription for long-term body by the diet, stores will be reduced. References
weight control follows: 4) Consume a CHO:PRO ratio
1) Caloric intake should not be which will result in an insulin:glucagon 1. Golay A. Blunted glucose-induced
drastically reduced below maintenance ratio compatible with fat loss. Remember thermogenesis: a factor contributing to
requirements. This simply reduces BMR, that insulin promotes fat storage while relapse of obesity. Intl. J. Obesity 17
TEF and increases lipoprotein lipase. glucagon increases use of fat for energy. (Suppl 1) s23 s27, 1993
One cannot make the body healthier by Empirically, a diet consisting of 30%
depriving it of food. It is infinitely prefer- protein, 65% carbohydrate and 5% fat 4. Bjorntorp P, and Brodoff BN. Obesity.
able to achieve negative energy balance (as energy) has proven very successful J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1992.
by increasing energy expenditure through for many people (4). The Parrillo Per-
exercise. This does not activate the star- formance Nutrition Manual has all the 5. Remington DW, Fisher AG, and Parent
vation response, and in fact increases details of how to fine tune the diet to fit AG. How to lower your Fat Thermo-
BMR as well as increasing energy expen- your particular needs. stat. Vitality House International, Provo,
diture in activity. For the average obese 5) Choose complex carbohy- 1983.
person consuming the typical American drates and limit refined carbohydrates,
diet (40% fat, no caloric restriction is especially simple sugars. Selecting car- 22. Parrillo Performance, Cincinnati,
needed. The simplest way to determine bohydrates with a low glycemic index Ohio, original research results by John
total daily energy expenditure is to weigh will reduce insulin levels and decrease Parrillo and Arthur Roberson, PhD.
your food and calculate how many calo- fat storage. Limit fructose consump-
ries you are consuming per day during tion, which is profoundly lipogenic even 24. Shafrir E. Fructose/sucrose metabo-
a time when you weight is not chang- though it has a low glycemic index (5). lism, its physiological and pathological
ing. This represents the energy intake Fructose enters the glycolytic pathway implications. Sugars and Sweeteners ,
required to maintain your present body beyond the phosphofructokinase step and Kretchmer N, and Hollenbeck CB, Eds.
weight. In general, this is proportional thus its metabolism is largely unregu- p. 63-98. CRC Press, 1991.
to lean body mass and activity level. Try lated. It is rapidly metabolized to acetyl-
to lose fat at the rate of one pound per CoA which serves as a substrate for de
week. Since one pound of body fat equals novo fatty acid synthesis. While excess
3500 calories, this represents a daily calories from carbohydrates are readily

108 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 22

Fruit and Your Diet
by John Parrillo
lack of nutrients, you must this point the skin is paper thin (in the hu-
realize that no amount of man most fat is stored just under the skin).
supplements can redeem a You can see the striations of muscle clearly
poor diet. through the skin. As you can imagine any
One of the most com- little change at this point really shows
mon questions about our up. This is why I like to use competitive
program is why we omit bodybuilders for the most demanding nu-
fruit from the diet. Although tritional experiments — they are a very
it will take a few pages of sensitive indicator of what works and what
biochemistry to explain it, doesn’t. With the athlete in contest shape,
I can tell you the answer we measure body weight and percentage of
in one sentence: FRUIT body fat every day. We weigh the food the
MAKES YOU FAT. This subject will eat and calculate how many
little-known fact has caused calories are being consumed and break
such a stir that sometimes I it down into calories from protein, car-
almost regret bringing it to bohydrate and fat. If the subject’s weight
light, but my job is to get doesn’t change, this means caloric intake
At Parrillo Performance we have the best results possible for exactly balances caloric expenditure, so
always said that proper nutrition is the the people who follow our programs. Can we have a direct empirical measurement
foundation of bodybuilding excellence. you eat some fruit and still have a good of the total daily energy expenditure for
And we continually emphasize that food is physique? Sure you can. But people who the subject. Everything is measured and
the cornerstone of nutrition. Our philoso- come to Parrillo Performance want the controlled, and nothing is left to chance.
phy is to lay the foundation by eating the BEST RESULTS POSSIBLE. Professional Okay, here’s what happens: Let’s
right foods. The details of exactly which bodybuilders don’t want good physiques say we remove 300 calories worth of
foods to eat, how much to eat, and how to — they want perfect physiques. If you’re complex carbohydrates from the subject’s
combine meals for maximum metabolic ef- not interested in biochemistry or physiol- diet in the form of rice, and replace it
ficiency are all spelled out step-by-step in ogy, you can skip the rest. All you need to with 300 calories worth from fruit. The
the Parrillo Performance Nutrition Manual. know is that fruit makes you fat, and juice subject’s total caloric intake remains the
We specifically address the questions of is even worse than whole fruit. same as does the percent of calories from
how to gain lean mass and lose fat. Of course, fruit is generally a protein, carbohydrate and fat. The training
One of the best things about healthy food — high in fiber, vitamins and program remains exactly the same. The
working with people who have given our minerals and low in fat. But try to think only change is in the form of carbohydrate
program a try is when they call to tell me of fruit as nature’s candy, because that’s supplying 300 of the calories: rice has been
how much they’ve been able to change exactly what it is. If your goal is to build replaced by bananas. You would expect the
their lives — how the Parrillo program has a lean and muscular physique, then you subject’s body weight and percent body fat
allowed them to achieve the body of their don’t want to eat candy. Sugar and fat are to remain the same, right? To everyone’s
dreams. Sometimes it’s an up-and-coming natural, but that doesn’t mean they’ll make surprise, the subject starts to gain fat. We
bodybuilder, but just as often it’s a middle- you lean and muscular. let this go on for a couple of weeks and the
aged man or woman who has been trying I originally learned that fruit subject continues to gain fat. Now, we pull
their entire life to get in shape. Helping makes you fat not by reviewing the bio- the bananas out of the diet and put the rice
people achieve their goals is my greatest chemical pathways of metabolism, but by back in — i.e., go back to the original diet.
reward. actually doing nutritional experiments with Guess what? The subject loses fat. Amaz-
Can supplements help? Try to find real bodybuilders. Rather than being some ing, but true.
a champion bodybuilder who doesn’t use theory out of a book, this is an experimen- We’ve done countless experiments
them. The key is to use the right ones and tal fact. For a long time I didn’t understand like this with just about every food imagin-
use them properly. Again, you must first it — I just knew from our work in the gym able. That’s how we came up with our diet
lay down the foundation by eating the right that certain foods made bodybuilders get — by finding what really works. The Par-
foods. On top of a diet of lean, nutritious in better shape and other foods made them rillo Performance Nutrition Manual tells
foods, the supplements can boost levels of get fat. The experiment goes like this: As you which foods work to build a lean, mus-
specific nutrients even higher. For those a bodybuilder gets closer to a contest, his cular physique and which foods don’t. The
people who eat a lot of junk food then body fat level gets very low — maybe 3- competitive bodybuilder is our laboratory.
expect supplements to make up for their 5% for a male and 8-9% for a female. At The same diet developed to hone champion

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 109

Fruit and Your Diet

bodybuilders works equally well for any- run optimally, including the human body, tain a lot of glucose. I know, I know, all of
one seeking to lose fat and gain muscle. it requires the right kind of fuel. you budding biochemists out there are go-
So far, those who have given our program During the last year in this col- ing to point out that fructose is very low on
a sincere effort have been thrilled with the umn, I’ve explored two major themes in the glycemic index. This means that it does
results. Granted, some specific parameters detail. The first was the central role of hor- not elicit a large and rapid insulin release,
have to be adjusted to optimize the pro- mones in determining your body composi- and so on that basis we would not expect
gram for your individual metabolism. We tion (amount of muscle and fat) and how it to promote fat storage. Right you are.
tell you how to do that too. The optimum to control these hormone levels through Although the reason fruit makes you fat
number of calories and the optimum ratio diet and exercise. The second theme was is because of the fructose it contains, the
of protein to carbohydrate varies among thermogenesis — the thermodynamics of effect is not mediated by insulin. The prob-
individuals. For example, some people, food metabolism in the human body. The lem with fructose is that it bypasses the
especially ones who have trouble losing bottom line you should have gotten out of enzyme phosphofructokinase-I (PFK-I),
fat, do better with more protein and less this was that different foods have different the rate-limiting step of glycolysis (3). In
carbohydrate. People who have suffered effects on the body, by virtue of the hor- other words, fructose bypasses the control
repeated bouts of yo-yo dieting have lost a monal responses they elicit and the route of point that decides if a dietary sugar is going
lot of muscle mass and consequently have energy metabolism that they follow. These to be stored as glycogen or fat. Complex
a slow metabolic rate. They may actually concepts are so important that we devoted carbohydrates, such as rice, oatmeal or po-
need to increase calories and put on some about 50 pages to them in the Performance tatoes, are preferentially stored as glycogen
muscle before they have any of the physi- Press during the last year. They form the until glycogen stores are full. Fructose, on
ological machinery to burn fat. theoretical underpinnings of our experi- the other hand, gets directly converted to
ments with the diets of bodybuilders that I fat in the liver, then gets whisked off in
Different foods have described earlier. Like all good scientists, the bloodstream to be stored in fat cells
different chemical com- we make progress by combining scientific (3). Next month I’ll walk you through the
theory with real life observations. metabolic pathway, step by step.
positions and therefore Some foods, such as simple sug-
have different effects ars, are undesirable because they cause a References
inside your body. All large and rapid insulin release, and insulin
is a potent stimulus for fat storage (1). 1. de Castro JM, Paullin SK and DeLugas
food is fuel, but what Other foods, such as conventional dietary GM. Insulin and glucagon as determinants
type of fuel it is matters fats (but not MCTs like CapTri®) are of body weight set point and microregula-
undesirable because they have a low TEF tion in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92:
alot. (Thermic Effect of Feeding) and lower the 571-579, 1978.
FQ (Food Quotient) of the diet (2). Please
Well, back to the story on fruit. Why does see the series on thermogenesis in the 2. Bjorntorp P, and Brodoff BN. Obesity.
it make any difference what kind of food December 1993, and January and Febru- J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1992.
you eat? For a given number of calories it ary 1994 issues in the Performance Press.
seems like it shouldn’t matter what foods Remember that the energy contained in 3. Shafrir E. Fructose/sucrose metabo-
they come from. This is one of the most all foods is converted to ATP (adenosine lism, its physiological and pathological
common mistakes people make when try- triphosphate) before it is used as fuel in the implications. Sugars and Sweeteners,
ing to lose fat. They think that if they re- body. ATP is the chemical form of energy Kretchmer N and Hollenbeck CB, Eds.
duce calories they will automatically lose directly used to power muscle contractions p. 63-98. CRC Press, 1991.
weight. This is true, but only for a little and other biological functions. Simply put,
while. And if you lose weight by drasti- if a food is efficiently converted into ATP,
cally cutting calories, about 50% of the then all of the energy contained in that food
weight lost will be muscle. What people is available to do work in the body. Any ex-
fail to realize is that the types of food you cess energy from such a food will be stored
eat is just as important as how many calo- as fat. If a food is inefficiently converted
ries you consume. If cutting calories was to ATP, then a substantial portion of the
the answer, then those low-calorie weight calories contained in the food will be lost
loss drinks would work. But they don’t. as heat, and therefore cannot be stored as
The key point is that different fat.
foods have different chemical composi- The problem with fruit is that vir-
tions and therefore have different effects tually all of the calories it supplies come in
inside your body. Of course, all food is the form of simple sugars. The most abun-
fuel, but what type of fuel it is matters a lot. dant sugar in fruit is fructose (commonly
Try putting kerosene in you car sometime known as fruit sugar), although some fruits
and see how it runs. For any machine to (oranges and grapes for example) also con-

110 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 23

Fruitless Dieting: More On Why Fruit Turns To Body Fat
by John Parrillo
In the last bulletin, we began our As you know, from previous So excess calories from any car-
discussion of fruit and fructose metabo- articles about carbohydrate metabolism bohydrate source can be converted to
lism. As you know, I do not recommend and thermogenesis, the dietary energy fat. The enzyme that regulates whether
fruit or fruit juice in any of my diets. (calories) supplied by carbs is used for dietary energy supplied by carbohydrate
This is a controversial issue that a lot of several purposes. Some of it is simply is stored as glycogen or fat is PFK-I. It
people don’t understand. Don’t get me lost as heat during its digestion and me- shuttles carbs into glycogen stores until
wrong: Fruit is generally a healthy, nutri- tabolism in a process we know as diet- full , then it switches the flow of carbohy-
tious food. Fruit is high in fiber, low in induce thermogenesis. You can loosely drates from glycogen synthesis to fat syn-
fat and calories and is a good source of think of this as “friction” in the metabolic thesis. Glycogen is the storage form of
vitamins and minerals. If you want some- pathway, and this energy loss contributes carbohydrate in animals, and the amount
thing sweet for dessert, fruit is a good to the generation of body heat. Most of of glycogen you can store is quite lim-
choice. However, there are two groups of the dietary energy is used to maintain ited. the upper limit is generally believed
people for whom fruit is not the best food the basal metabolic rate (BMR) — the to be between 250-400 grams, depending
choice: bodybuilders and and anyone on the amount of skeletal muscle mass
trying to maximize fat loss. you have. This amounts to only 1000-
I originally discovered this by 1600 calories — not even enough energy
conducting carefully controlled nutrition to fuel your body for one day.
experiments with bodybuilders. Simply The deal with fructose is that it
put, I found that when fruit was added totally skips the enzyme PFK-I, which
to their diets, they got fat. This was is the regulatory step responsible for
not due to an increase in calories, making sure glycogen stores are full
because in these experiments fruit before fat synthesis is switched on.
was substituted for another carbohy- Instead of being stored as glycogen,
drate source so that total calories were fructose gets directly converted to
kept constant. So I knew it had to be fat by the liver. Now I think you can
something special about fruit itself that see why I have a problem with rec-
caused fat accumulation. In this bulletin ommending fruit for bodybuilders. to
I will explain what it is. get a detailed understanding of fructose
The problem is that 80-90 per- metabolism, we should start at the begin-
cent of the calories in fruit are supplied ning. Fructose is absorbed from the small
by simple sugars, fructose and glucose.
Fruit is a very healthy, nutrious intestine and directly transported to the
Some fruits, such as grapes and oranges, food source. But if your goal is liver by the portal vein. The first enzyme
contain a lot of glucose, but most fruits to lose body fat and become as to act on fructose is fructokinase, which
supply the bulk of their calories as fruc- lean as possible, it should be adds a phosphate group to the sugar to
tose, which is also known as fruit sugar. excluded from your diet. form fructose-1-phosphate (F1P). Glu-
The bottom line is that fructose is rapidly cose is similarly phosphorylated at the
converted to fat by the liver. Whereas energy cost of keeping your body alive. six position of the hexokinase, forming
most other carbohydrate sources are pref- Some of the energy is used to perform G6P. All cells have hexokinase and thus
erentially stored as glycogen, fructose is work, like exercise and activities of daily have the ability to phosphorylate glucose.
preferentially converted to fat and stored life. After that, any energy left is stored This means that all cells can metabolize
in adipose tissue. This is a consequence as glycogen in muscles and in the liver. glucose for energy.
of the molecular structure of fructose, If you consume too many calories from On the other hand, fructokinase
which allows it to skip a key regulatory carbohydrate after glycogen stores are is virtually confined to the liver (1). So
point in carbohydrate metabolism. This full, the rest will be converted to fat (tri- while glucose is a general substrate for
regulatory point is a step in the glucolytic glycerides) in the liver, and transported all body tissues, fructose represents a
pathway catalyzed by the enzyme phos- by the blood to fat cells (adipose tissue) carbohydrate load targeted for the liver
phofructokinase-I (PFK-I). for storage. (1). The next thing that happens is F1P
is split by the enzyme aldolase to form

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 111

Fruitless Dieting: More On Why Fruit Turns To Body Fat

glyceraldehyde (GA) and dihydroxyac- want from a sports bar, but without the From your reading of our series on endo-
etone phosphate (DHAP). Refer to the fructose. Each Parrillo Supplement Bar crinology, you know that a slow, steady
figure, which is adapted from Shafrir also contains CapTri® (which is legend- insulin response is good. Since insulin is
(1). This means that products of fructose ary by now) and an ultra-high efficiency a potent stimulus for fat storage, we want
metabolism enter the glycolytic pathway protein source. to keep insulin levels fairly low, so be this
at the triose phosphate level (i.e., as three As we discussed in an earlier reasoning it seems like fructose would be
carbon sugars). Glucose, on the other bulletin about carbohydrate metabolism, good. The problem is that the REASON
hand, is phosphorylated to yield G6P, complex carbohydrates (such as starch fructose has a low glycemic index and
which may proceed directly to glycogen and maltodextrin) are more effecitve at results in a small insulin release is that it
synthesis (1). To be broken down for replenishing glycogen stores than sim- is converted to fat in the liver. It doesn’t
energy, glucose must first pass through ple sugars (3). This makes sense be- raise blood sugar very much because it is
the rate-limiting PFK-I step. Fructose cause complex carbs are released into released from the liver as fat instead of
metabolites enter below this step, and the bloodstream slowly whereas simple sugar.
thus bypass an important point of regula- sugars are released very rapidly, poten- Fructose has a MUCH greater
tion. Fructose therefore is more prone to tially overwhelming the glycogen syn- tendency to be converted to fat than
be converted to fat, while glucose is more thesis pathway and “spilling over” into other carbohydrate sources, so why use
prone to be converted to glycogen. fat stores. Furthermore, the increased in- it? Now you understand the biochemistry
The biochemistry is much more sulin release resulting from simple sugars behind my controversial stance on fruit.
complex than is appropriate for this ar- causes more of the sugar to be converted I’m not just making this stuff up, folks.
ticle, but I have pointed out the salient to fat. There’s a reason behind every part of my
features of the pathway to explain why This is why Parrillo Performance program.
glucose-based carbohydrate sources are Pro-Carb™ Formula is based on malto-
better than fructose, especially for people dextrin instead of sugar, like most other References
trying to minimize body fat stores. Sci- carbohydrate supplements. Maltodextrin
entific studies have proven that while is a medium-chain glucose polymer made 1. Shafrir E. Fructose/sucrose metabo-
fructose is effective at replenishing liver from corn. It has been found that malto- lism, its physiological and patholigical
glycogen stores, starch (glucose poly- dextrin is 15 percent more efficient at implications. Sugars and Sweeteners,
mers) is much more efficient at replenish- restoring muscle glycogen levels than Kretchmer N and Hollenbeck CB, Eds.
ing skeletal muscle glycogen stores (2). conventional carbohydrate foods like rice CRC Press, 1991, pp. 63-98.
When we were designing the and pasta (4).
Parrillo Supplement Bar, we surveyed This makes Pro-Carb™ ideal 2. Paige DM, Clinical Nutrition. C.V.
every available sports supplement bar we for glycogen supercompensation (carb Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1988, pp.
could find. We found that 25 out of the loading). Maltodextrin beverages like 703-704.
26 bars had fructose as either the first or Pro-Carb™ have also been demonstrated
second ingredient. (If you use somebody to increase blood glucose levels during 3. Costill DL, Sherman WM, Fink WJ,
else’s bar, go read the label.) exercise and to increase exercise time to Witten MW, Miller JM. The role of di-
etary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen
resynthesis after strenuous running. Am.
J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 1831-1836, 1981.

4. Lamb DR, Snyder AC, and Baur TS.
Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid
carbohydrate supplement. Int. J. Sport
Nutr. 1: 52-60, 1991.

5. Snyder AC, Lamb DR, Baur T, Con-
nors D and Brodowicz G. Maltodextrin
Why? Because corn syrup and fruit juice exhaustion (4,5). feeding immediately before prolonged
(good sources of fructose) are real cheap At this point, I think I can an- cycling at 62% VO2 Max increases time
and they’re also very sweet. We pio- ticipate a question from the biochemists to exhaustion. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.
neered the use of a new carbohydrate in the crowd. You’ve probably heard that 15: 126, 1983.
source in our bar called rice dextrin. It’s fructose is low on glycemic index, which
a short-chain glucose polymer made from means it raises blood sugar very slowly
rice. This gives you the quick energy you and elicits only a small insulin release.

112 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 24

Activating Muscular Growth, Part I
by John Parrillo
Mention the words “Belt Squat” is a special machine
to anyone’s who’s trained at the Par- where the trainee
rillo Performance Gym in Cincinnati, and wears a harness
you’ll get a reaction that’s a mixture of which suspends the
fear and nausea. The mere thought of belt weight between
squats is enough to make most people his legs. This ar-
need to sit down. There’s really noth- rangement takes the
ing quite like it. Anyone’s who’s done stress off the lower
it will agree that it is the most mentally back, allowing you
and physically demanding exercise ever to maximally over-
developed. The belt squat will take you load the legs. It’s
to a new level of intensity. the same movement
At this time, the Parrillo Per- as the conventional
formance Gym is a private gym, not squats, except you
open to the public. It’s really more of a can use a lot more
research facility than a gym. We experi- weight for a lot more
ment with new equipment and new tech- reps.
niques, developing the next generation of Of course
bodybuilders. We work with a lot of top your legs will grow.
The Parrillo Belt Squat Machine doesn’t look very
competitive amateurs trying to make it to This will be the high-
the next level and break into the profes- est intensity exercise imposing. But strap on the harness and you’re asking
sional ranks. We also deal with a lot of your legs will ever for trouble. Your body will thank you in the long run,
professional competitors, all the way up experience. But the but forget about dancing that night.
to people training for the Olympia. amazing thing about No doubt you’ve heard that an-
I guess you could say that’s our the belt squat is the overall effect it has aerobic training and aerobic training elic-
specialty — taking people to the next lev- on your entire body. It allows you to take it different adaptive responses which, to
el. That’s really what brings me the most your whole body to failure, including all some extent, work against each other (2).
satisfaction and is my biggest reward of your energy producing systems. You In other words, strength training and en-
— helping people realize their dreams. will be breathing as hard as you can, durance training are not completely com-
And this applies to everyone from the your heart will be pumping as hard as it patible, and if you want to maximize your
over-weight 45-year-old mother of three can, and every cell in your body will be results in one form of training, you should
to the next Mr. Olympia. Everybody trying to produce energy as fast as it can. avoid the other form. Everybody’s favor-
wants to look good, feel good and have Adding belt squats to your routine will ite example is to compare the physiques
more energy. Everybody has a dream. strengthen your cardiovascular system of a marathon runner with a bodybuilder.
What keeps me going are the people who and improve oxygen delivery to your To be sure, endurance training improves
call in to tell me they’re in the best shape muscles. The belt squat is unique among your endurance and strengthens your re-
of their lives. I get just as excited whether resistance training exercises in that it spiratory and cardiovascular systems, but
it’s someone who’s used our program to truly combines extremes of intensity in marathon runners don’t have big muscles
lose those 30 extra pounds they’ve been both anaerobic and aerobic work. It is — not even in their legs. Marathon run-
struggling with for years, or someone well-documented that high-intensity aer- ners don’t want big muscles, because too
who’s just won his first contest. obic training increases capillary density much weight would actually slow them
Among conventional bodybuild- in muscles, as well as the number and down. For them, it’s the ratio of strength
ing exercises, most people would agree size of mitochondria (1). It also increases to weight that’s important. All they care
that a set of squats taken to complete the level of enzyme systems involved in about is how far and how fast they can
failure is the most demanding. I devel- energy production (1). These factors act run. So for what they want, their train-
oped the belt squat to take people to the to increase the anaerobic threshold — the ing style is appropriate. All bodybuilders
next level of intensity — it’s probably the maximum intensity of power production care about, on the other hand, is getting
ultimate plateau-buster. The belt squat you can achieve aerobically (1).

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 113

Activating Muscular Growth

big muscles. So they lift weights a lot and training. And at this point in the argument happen if we could somehow double the
don’t run much. Too much running can most people think they’ve reached the capillary supply to his muscle. Blood
actually cause your body to break down conclusion and stop thinking about it, and supply doubles, the flow of amino acids
muscle tissue to supply amino acids to therefor miss and important point. and glucose into his muscle doubles and
burn as fuel. This would be a disaster Consider the following: Let’s his ability to carry waste products away
for a bodybuilder. So you don’t find too talk about a bodybuilder who’s been from his muscle doubles. Is it possible
many endurance athletes who can squat training hard and eating right for a few that if we could increase the supply of
405, and you don’t find too many body- years and has put on 50 pounds of mus- nutrients and energy to his muscle that
builders who can run a marathon. This is cle. Although he’s very happy with this we could get it to grow again? Could it
all well and good — decide what your achievement, lately he’s seen his progress be that when a muscle gets very large,
goals are and train appropriately to attain slow down and he really hasn’t changed maybe the reason it stops growing is it
those goals. much in the last year. He believes he has becomes limited by its supply of nutri-
Here’s what’s going on: All probably reached his “genetic limit.” He ents and oxygen? Of course may factors
forms of exercise of sufficient intensity has basically gone as far as conventional are involved, but we believe this is one of
represent a stress on the body. The body training and dietary strategies can take them.
responds by adapting to that particular him. Feeling that it’s genetically impossi- So while strength training and
form of stress, so it can tolerate it better ble to increase size much more, he shifts aerobic training do represent different
the next time around. Strength train- adaptive responses and interfere with
ing (resistance training, weight training) each other in the short term, there comes
represents a severe stress on the muscle The Belt Squat is Unique a point in muscular development where
fibers that make up your muscles, and increasing blood supply to a muscle may
they respond by building bigger, stronger
Among Resistance Train- help overcome a growth plateau. Does
fibers (1,2,3). This, of course, results ing Exercises In That It this mean I recommend bodybuilders
in bigger, stronger muscles. Endurance Truly Combines Extremes begin running marathons? Of course not.
training (running, biking, etc.) represents I’m just saying that a certain amount
a stress on the aerobic energy producing
Of Intensity In Both Aero- of high-intensity aerobics may increase
capabilities of the body, and the body bic And Anaerobic Work. nutrient and oxygen supply to a muscle
responds by increasing its ability to pro- and help it grow better. You think you’ve
duce aerobic energy. To run a marathon, reached your genetic limit? I think not.
you don’t need extremely strong legs, but his emphasis on “refining” his physique A few weeks of belt squat training, and
you need to be able to produce a lot of en- and perfecting his symmetry. Many pro- you’ll be growing again.
ergy sustained over a long period of time. fessional bodybuilders are at exactly this
It’s not easy. Aerobic exercise training level and stay there for the rest of their References
therefore results in a stronger heart and careers. The smart ones come to Parrillo
more blood vessels to deliver more oxy- Performance at this point. If there is a 1. McArdle WD, Katch VL. Exercise
gen to muscles. It increases mitochondria genetic limit, we haven’t found it yet. Physiology - Energy, Nutrition and
number and size in muscles. Remember Now let’s take a microscopic Human Performance. Lea & Febiger,
that mitochondria are the furnaces inside look at his muscles. We see huge muscle Malvrn PA, 1991
cells where foods are burned (combined bellies with huge, hypertrophied muscle
with oxygen) to produce energy. Increas- fibers. Crammed wall to wall with con- 2. Hatfield FC. Hardcore Bodybuilding
ing capillary and mitochondrial density tractile proteins — actin and myosin. His - A Scientific Approach. Contempory
in muscle increases its ability to produce muscles have reached a “steady state” books, Inc., Chicago, 1991.
energy. — a term from thermodynamics which
So to a large extent, the dogma describes a system where flow of matter 3. Lieber RL. Skeletal Muscle Structure
you’ve heard about the “incompatibility” and energy into the system is balanced and Function. Williams and Wilkins,
of strength and endurance training is true. by flow of matter and energy out of the Baltimore, 1992
One form of training results in bigger system. Here, protein anabolism (build-
muscles, and the other form results in ing up) is balanced by protein catabolism
higher energy producing ability. If your (tearing down). Flow of amino acids into
body’s adaptive reserve is split trying the muscle equals flow of amino acids
to achieve both goals, your progress on out of the muscle, so his muscles stay the
either will be compromised compared to same size. Now think about what would
if you were performing only one type of

114 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 25

Activating Muscular Growth, Part II
by John Parrillo
Conventional wisdom has it that I think the key point about the and warms up the joints. Two sets of each
strength training and endurance training belt squat is that it pushes all three of are enough, for about 10-12 reps with a
are incompatible, since they elicit differ- your energy producing systems to their moderate weight. Be sure and hold the
ent adaptive responses that compete with limit. Let me explain. Your body has contraction at the top. Next, two or three
each other (1-3). This is true, at least in three main energy producing pathways sets of leg presses are used to further
the short term. Last month I introduced that are used during exercise. These are warm up the legs and to prepare you for
the concept that at some point in the the phosphagen system, the lactic acid the squats. Start out light for about 15-20
muscle’s growth it may become “perfu- system and the aerobic system. All work reps, then do a moderate set around ten
sion limited,” meaning that any further performed by the body, including mus- reps, and finish with a fairly heavy set
growth is limited by the muscle’s blood cular contractions, is directly fueled by a around six reps. Be sure to go all the way
supply. Increasing the vascular supply to molecule called ATP, adenosine triphos- down on the leg press. You may even
a muscle will allow for greater delivery of phate. ATP is a “meta-stable” chemical want to briefly pause at the bottom to get
nutrients and oxygen and greater removal compound which is made inside all cells a good stretch. You don’t want to wear
of wastes. Ideally, a bodybuilder would of the body and powers their every func- yourself out during the warm-up, but you
like the benefit of increased capillary do want to get things flowing and loos-
density in muscle which accrues from If your strength and mus- ened up. Next, stretch your quads and
high-intensity aerobic exercise without hamstrings, and walk around the gym for
cular development are at
the catabolic effect that comes from run- a few minutes to rest. Don’t get a drink of
ning a marathon. The belt squat is prob- a plateau, the Belt Squat water because you don’t want anything in
ably the best way to achieve this. is a great way to blast your stomach. This is a good time to pray
The amazing thing about the belt and make sure all your important papers
through it - no matter are in order. We intentionally place our
squat is not that it makes your legs grow
— everybody expects that. The amazing what musclegroup you’re belt squat by the back door of the gym.
thing is the overall effect it has on your having trouble with. If this is not the case in your gym, get a
whole body’s ability to produce energy trash can and put it by the belt squat.
and perform high intensity exercise. If The belt squat is strictly a part-
your strength and muscular development ner-assisted exercise. We like to have a
are at a plateau, the belt squat is a great tion. ATP has a “high energy phosphate group of four people on the belt squat
way to blast through it — no matter what bond,” which means that when ATP is days. This allows for three spotters, which
muscle group you’re having trouble with. broken down a lot of energy is released. you will need to take it to the absolute
The belt squat increases your cardiovas- This energy is then used to power mus- limit (at least one spotter is required). We
cular reserve and your anaerobic thresh- cular contractions, maintain ion gradients usually do four sets each, taking turns.
old. Cardiovascular reserve is the ability transmit nerve impulses, synthesize pro- You develop pretty good friendships with
of your cardiovascular system to deliver teins, and provide energy for everything your belt squat partners. I honestly think
“extra” oxygen above what you normally a cell needs to do to live and grow. I can remember every belt squat workout
need. In other words, it’s your ability to While fat and glycogen represent energy I’ve ever done.
increase oxygen delivery to muscles dur- storage molecules within the body, ATP The first thing you do is put on
ing times of intense exercise. Anaerobic represents and energy transfer molecule, the harness. Adjust the shoulder straps
threshold is the maximum intensity of acting as a molecular bridge between the to fit your body and make sure the belt
exercise (power output, which is work energy contained in food and the energy is tight. Load the weight onto the weight
per unit of time) your body can perform used by the cell. To summarize, the en- carriage and sit on it. Your partner will
aerobically, before the anaerobic path- ergy released when food burned is used attach the straps through the hole in the
ways kick in. Simply put, the partner-as- to make ATP, and the subsequent break- plates, so that the weight is suspended
sisted belt squat is the most intense exer- down of ATP is the direct energy source by the harness. Grab the handle and
cise you’ll ever do. Acquiring the ability for cells. stand up, and your partner will remove
to exercise that intensely will carry over A typical belt squat workout be- the weight carriage, so that the plates are
into your other exercises. gins with some leg curls for a warm-up. hanging between your legs. When using
This gets blood flowing into the muscles

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 115

Activating Muscular Growth, Part II

feel of the exercise. to grow. The next set is the hardest and
You will probably is the one that will really stimulates your
need no help from cardiovascular system. In this set we do
your partner on this 100 reps with 100 to 200 pounds. This
set. Rack the plate is especially hard since you just went to
back on the car- failure on your last set. We rotate spotters
riage, take off the on this set because they go to failure too.
harness, and give it Change spotters after every 20 reps.
to the next person. Next month, I’ll take you through a 100
Next, stretch your rep set of belt squats and explain the en-
legs, using one of ergy producing systems involved.
the fascial stretch-
ing exercises in References
the Parrillo Train-
ing Manual. You’re 1. McArdle WD, Katch FI, and Katch
beginning to get a VL. Exercise Physiology - Energy, Nu-
pump, and it feels trition and Human Performance. Lea &
good — so far. Feiberger, Malvern, PA, 1991.
The Belt Squat Machine looks innocent enough. After your training
But once you’re on the platform with the harness partners take their 2. Hatfield FC. Hardcore Bodybuilding
strapped on, you’ll wish you had scheduled that turns, it’s back to - A Scientific Approach. Contemporary
dentist appointment that you’ve been putting off you again. This Books, Inc., Chicago, 1991.
time we go up to
for the last two years.
200 pounds for 3. Lieber RL. Skeletal Muscle Structure
about 15 reps. This and Function. Williams and Wilkins, Bal-
a heavy weight, your partners will help is somewhat harder, but much easier than timore, 1992.
you stand up. Removing the weight car- squatting 200 for 15 reps on the conven-
riage exposes “the pit” — a large slot in tional squat because your lower back is
the platform where the plates will travel taken out of the movement. On your next
as you squat. Place your feet slightly set you can either go for your heavy set
wider than shoulder width with your or continue pyramiding by doing 300
toes angled out and your heels placed di- pounds for 10-12 reps. Have a spotter
rectly underneath your shoulders. Grasp stand directly behind you on the plat-
the handle securely and keep your arms form. He will have his arms around you
straight. You want to keep your arms and hold the belt in the center in the front.
locked out so you don’t lose balance. If The spotter goes up and down with squat-
you maintain this stance and keep your ter, performing the exercise in parallel.
arms straight, you won’t get injured. The The spotter provides just enough help to
worst thing that can happen is you lose get you through any sticking points. On
the weight, which just means you sit your heavy set, you will be able to go
down on it in the pit. The beauty of the at least 100 to 200 pounds heavier than
belt squat is that it’s so intense and yet your max when you didn’t have a spotter
so safe. The harness takes the strain off — or maybe more. Five hundred pounds
your lower back so you can maximally for a big guy is not uncommon. Take your
overload your legs without fear of injur- heavy set to complete positive failure.
ing your back. This is an extremely safe You will still be able to resist the weight
exercise. on the way down, but you will need your
We usually start with one plate, spotters to get you up out of the hole. One
which is 100 pounds (we have special spotter behind you and one on each side
high density plates made up for the works the best.
belt squat). Do this for about 20 reps. The heavy set done to positive failure at
This is another warm-up set, to get the around 8-12 reps will stimulate your legs

116 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 26

Activating Muscular Growth, Part III
by John Parrillo
In the last bulletin, I left you known as the gly-
ready to start your last set of the belt squat colytic pathway
workout — the dreaded 100 rep set. This (1). Anaerobic gly-
set pushes both aerobic and anaerobic en- colysis is the path-
ergy producing systems in their absolute way used to make
limits. It elicits an adaptive response in ATP from carbo-
your cardiovascular system to strengthen hydrates in the ab-
your heart and increase capillary density sence of oxygen.
in muscle. This increases cardiovascular This is the second
reserve and anaerobic threshold and im- energy producing
prove nutrient and oxygen delivery to the system called into
muscle. play and is used
A cell contains enough ATP to to meet short-term
supply energy to last for about two sec- energy demands.
onds (1). So you would use this up When the intensity
during your first rep. Obviously you of exercise is too
have to immediately and constantly re- great and the body
plenish you ATP supply. Within about can’t supply oxy-
1.2 seconds of maximum contraction, gen fast enough,
80% of the ATP is being derived from carbs can be par- By doing 100 reps on the Belt Squat Machine, you uti-
CP — creatine phosphate (1). CP is the tially broken down lize all three of the main energy - producing systems
other phosphagen compound, along with to yield energy in the body.
ATP, which supplies energy very rapidly. without oxygen.
The phosphagen system is always the The advantage is
first energy pathway called into action. this is a very rapid way to produce en- ATP to keep up with the demand. Lactic
Since the machinery of the cell needs ergy, but the disadvantage is that it’s not acid production is maximal during exer-
ATP for power, it begins by using ATP, as efficient as aerobic energy production. cise of intensity that can be maintained
and then other energy sources are used to After six seconds of maximal for 1-3 minutes. So one minute into the
replenish the ATP. CP acts like a buffer to contraction CP levels have fallen to set lactic acid levels are soaring and your
maintain relatively uniform levels of ATP around 65% of their resting level and muscles are burning like crazy.
within the cell. As ATP is broken down to power output begins to decline. Con- The third energy producing sys-
release his energy, one of its phosphate tinuing beyond six seconds of maximal tem — the aerobic pathway — begins to
groups is split off to form a molecule of contraction, ATP and CP levels begin to kick in after about 20 seconds into the
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a free fall and lactic acid begins to accumulate. set, and becomes the major energy pro-
phosphate group. CP is able to donate These factors severely hinder power out- ducer after about 90 seconds (see figure).
its phosphate group to the newly formed put (1). So we can see that after just a Notice that there is considerable overlap,
ADP to regenerate ATP. The phosphagen few reps we’re using both of our anaero- with all three energy systems being uti-
system is able to supply energy in rapid bic pathways: the phosphagen system lized at the same time. It’s not like you
bursts, immediately on demand, but it and the lactic acid system. use up one energy source, turn off that
doesn’t last very long (about six seconds Back to our belt squats: during system, then turn on the next system.
at maximal power output). This is why the second 20 reps you will need some They all blend in together, with different
a typical set with heavy weights doesn’t help. ATP levels may be depleted by as systems playing the major role depend-
last very long — you run low on ATP and much as 60% of initial values (1). CP ing on the intensity and duration of the
can’t make it fast enough to continue. levels are nearly exhausted after about exercise. If we were talking about low
Within 2.5 seconds of maximal 40 seconds of maximal intensity exercise intensity exercise like walking instead
contraction, 50% of ATP is being sup- (1). At this point glycolysis is going full of belt squats, the aerobic system could
plied by the lactic acid system, also speed, but is unable to generate enough produce energy fast enough to fuel the

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 117

never be called in. That’s the glucose-ala. cannot undergo anaerobic glycolysis. While ultra-endurance activi- for a longer period of time. By 70 reps you get that adrenaline major energy producing systems at maxi- activities you need a lower energy level rush that comes from the fear of eminent mal levels. after a set? This extra oxygen is being The amino groups are removed from the used to replenish the ATP. During long term aerobic gen debt. but At this point you will be beyond positive creased. fore pulling themselves over to a bench.Activating Muscular Growth. nine cycle (2). 2. For weight lifting resist the weight on the way down. Malvern PA. Hatfield FC. The oxygen debt is the the bloodstream to the liver where it can difference between the amount oxygen be converted to glucose. — A Scientific Approach. Therefore. fat can only be used Some people have to throw up. with the spotters stimulate growth by providing increased the size and number of mitochondria doing almost all the work.” This describes a situation we exercise after blood glucose and glycogen 3. Alanine is transported by the exercise. tion. Hardcore Bodybuilding your program. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . The advantage of maxed out or have already failed. Training at this level of inten- the disadvantage is that it cannot produce failure and it will be difficult even to sity carries over into your other exercises energy very quickly. Now. anymore and your mind enters a strange productive for bodybuilders. VL. the body begins to break and Function. Feiberger. You know how are depleted. References the only way to burn fat. Fat consciousness may occur as the result about. bilities of the entire body. erybody wants to get to that next level. All energy systems are either belt squat boosts energy producing capa- the aerobic system. a certain hydrates and fat are burned — combined trance-like state. and consequently build up an “oxy. reserve and anaerobic threshold are in- energy for a very long period of time. This is another This corrects itself in a few minutes after reason to make aerobic exercise a part of you blow off some carbon dioxide. Williams and Wilkins. By 90 reps you’re vascular supply to muscles which may (which limits oxygen delivery) and by just along for the ride. Part III activity. By the time the and valine can be used directly as fuel oxygen debt builds up to 3-4 liters of by the muscles. isoleucine from the beginning (2). Inc. Loss of That’s what Parrillo Performance is all for energy via the aerobic pathway.. Lea & ergy faster than your cells can replace role in belt squats. back to our set: after 50 You’ll be breathing hard and sweating for reps the phosphagen system is long gone. in addition to strengthen. such as a marathon. experience is to lay down on the floor. Chicago. timore. From and allows you to perform them more you need to supply a tremendous amount here on out your life is in the spotter’s intensely also. people lie down for five minutes or so be. You kind of lose touch amount of high intensity aerobic exer- with oxygen — to release energy. amino acids and added to pyruvate to cogen you spend anaerobically during form alanine. inside cells. The for a while. but probably doesn’t play much of a trition. Cardiovascular the aerobic system is that it can supply By 60 reps you will beg to quit. and Katch and the glycolysis is pretty much shot One other energy system deserves men. muscle is 118 © 2004. The glucose is actually consumed and the amount that carried back to the muscle to be used as would have been consumed if the exer. you enter a severe level of ATP actually broken down and used as fuel. Katch FI. McArdle WD. By 80 reps you can’t feel your legs ties like marathon running are counter- In the aerobic pathway. In addition. ried out. Exercise Physiology — Energy. about 20 minutes after this. depletion. we find that the running and biking are fueled mostly by profusely. So in ultra-endurance activities. death. Most 1. Exercise will only continue on This is one reason why endurance ath- The aerobic pathway is able to a “pay as you go” basis wherein ATP is letes have small muscles and one reason supply energy for long-term demands being continually replenished by aerobic why bodybuilders don’t run marathons. 1991. Lieber RL. and the lactic acid system would oxygen. as of acute metabolic acidosis — the lactic can carbs. Power output decreases Amino acids may supply 15% of energy lifting draw mainly from the phosphagen and your heart and lungs are working at used in endurance activities (2). fuel (2). This may result from increased way is limited by your vascular supply your body gets limp. carbo. and Human Performance. Nu- too. it. Books. aerobic activity is acid builds up and acidifies the blood. Ev- in cells where aerobic metabolism is car. the branched chain cise had been fueled entirely aerobically amino acids (BCAA’s) leucine. while things like absolute maximum. 1991. nutrient delivery (1-3). and lactic acid systems. Mitochondria are organelles The universal reaction after this Everybody has a dream. — even for hours. CP and gly. much energy left to groan or scream and growth. Bal- you breathe real hard for a few minutes down muscle tissue into free amino acids. You will be sweating In summary. but for endurance hands. Belt squats tax all three of energy immediately. You probably won’t have cise seems to allow increased muscular rate of energy production by this path. 1992. Contemporary ing your heart and blood vessels. You have continued to expend en. Activities like weight metabolism (2). Skeletal Muscle Structure are all familiar with. Notably.

so the ketone bodies (4). glucose from that you run out of CP (3). CapTri® is a specially engineered cess calories from CapTri® which are not does require oxygen. This energy in the lymphatic system as is conventional is transferred to myosin. Fat is This is the secret of how Parrillo athletes lifting is a prime example of anaerobic a great molecule for storing energy (nine consume so many calories without getting calories per gram as compared to four fat. and protein are biochemists and muscle physiologists.2). immediate energy source which can be generated. which carried on for hours. CapTri® has a very high known as “anaerobic” which means they miracle when it comes to delivering energy thermogenic effect. transport. recruited is the phosphagen system. very quickly. which is not used as a (CP) to regenerate ATP. This can clusively by the phosphagen and glycolytic Since MCFAs (includes MCTs) supply energy at a maximal rate for two systems. This simply means that The advantage of the phosphagen and supplementation program to provide if CapTri® is being burned for energy. and this enables the for entry into mitochondria. This has a glucose- can supply energy for hours on end. which means that ex- don’t require oxygen. formation? To specifically design our diet spares protein (4). porated into chylomicrons and transported ken a lot of energy is released. at the energy system is the aerobic system. Since CapTri® is ate energy for long periods of time. This system can significant source of energy for exercise fuel maximal exercise levels for around until carbohydrates are depleted. Thus Cap- fibers to slide past one another. but has the disadvantage of being slowly ing systems of the cell and how they are metabolized. Carbohy- six seconds (1). When you want to increase cel.) absorbed directly into the bloodstream and A muscle cell has only enough goes to the liver where it is converted into ATP to last for a second or two. of long chain fatty acids for energy. less and glycolytic systems is that they are able the energy and nutrient profile we need protein needs to be burned for energy. one of the pro. same time as glucose. nor does it require the carnitine shuttle teins in muscle fibers. last. The longer glycogen stores oxidized (burned) what does it mean to bodybuilders and en. Let me tell you how. To ture of CapTri® gets around this problem. fat. ATP fat but is able to deliver that energy as rap- is referred to as a “high energy” molecule. and the energy released is durance athletes? How can we use this in. carnitine shuttle and thus prevents the use the blood stream or from stored glycogen Weight training then is fueled almost ex. The energy from CapTri® also used to regenerate ATP (1. and the reason you can carry on drate metabolism produces malonyl-CoA. The first two systems are about is CapTri®. In this All of this is very exciting to sparing effect (4) and helps glycogen stores system carbohydrates. called into play is the glycolytic system. the first thing to think burned immediately for energy. CapTri® does all this without contributing seconds. and can be are burned immediately for energy. the longer you can train before fatigue to produce CO2. CapTri® is almost a stored as fat. CapTri® is and explain exactly how this works. review briefly. Ketone bodies are an supply of ATP must be continuously re. This to produce enormous quantities of energy for maximum performance and muscular effect reduces protein catabolism. Weight made from long chain fatty acids. but they only last for a few growth. Regular fats and oils are body heat instead of being stored as fat. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 27 Diet and Supplementation to Maximize Energy and Growth by John Parrillo During the last few months we’ve calories per gram for carbs and protein) been discussing the various energy produc. rate of oxygen delivery to tissues. The unique molecular struc- called into play during intense exercise. resulting in Tri® skips these time consuming steps muscle contraction. a heavy set for only 30 seconds or so is a metabolic intermediate which inhibits the In the glycolytic system. sets in. which This is in contrast to conventional fat and uses energy stored in creatine phosphate stored body fat. to body fat stores (4). it is not a lower level. idly as glucose (4). and produces energy fat which contains medium chain fatty used to fuel exercise will be converted to at a slower rate because it is limited by the acids (MCFAs). CapTri® harnesses the energy density of rectly powers muscular contractions. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 119 . is broken down to lactic acid. The aerobic system can gener. The first energy system to be used at the same time as carbohydrates. CapTri® is not incor- because when its phosphate bonds are bro. Finally. fat. Aerobic metabolism to cells. Running and cycling are fueled do not require the carnitine shuttle they or three minutes (1. but last longer. but at lular energy levels. ATP is the molecule that di.3). The third and final mainly by the aerobic system. (Next month we’ll go that slow down digestion. To learn more about the metabolism © 2004. The second energy system exercise. and more into the molecular anatomy of muscle absorption of regular fats.

well as before weight training and for carb toxic waste products during long training loading. for our technical bulletins on CapTri®. Increased excretion of hard training sessions can actually be cata. humans after a bout of exercise. 1994. levels rise too high this acts as a trigger Formula™ was designed to do just that. Nutrition. If you’re seeking a natural advan- needs of athletes. and Katch VL. water. give it a try. urea and N-methylhistidine by rats and bolic to muscle tissue protein stores. 1991. It 36: 950-962 (1982). BCAAs are the most abundant during the race. After It contains CapTri®. IL. gas. and a tablespoon of CapTri® in a quart of tially used as energy sources before pro. Medium chain tri- without storing fat. As you know. J Appl carbohydrate stores are depleted and fat ate energy. muscle tissue is glucose polymers to help maintain blood 52: 27. its time to build muscle. McArdle WD. That amounts fuel exercise performance and muscular veloped specifically to fit the carbohydrate to about half a pound of muscle! The most growth. This is of special concern to bohydrate supplement. were burned for energy (6). Hatfield FC. the meta. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Snyder AC. Human Kinetics level and a gradual insulin release. Sport Nutr. Intense training produces a lot of Champaign. Lea & Febiger. Parrillo Muscle Amino™ contains Malvern. or bowel residue. Chicago. Clin. that the building blocks are in place when Inc. The big problem is that the BCAAs (leu.. Dohm GL. nothing can touch CapTri®. Muscle Amino™ 22-29. Wilmore JH and Costill DL. the diet. important thing you can do to prevent tage. metabolic waste products. take is not adequate to match your training This supplementation program For energy. Nutr. as endurance athletes. are burned for energy. Am. they be obtained in adequate amounts from and Human Performance. which are toxic to cells and need 4. without bloat. Parrillo Max Endurance glycerides: an update.A dant pool of free BCAAs in muscle ensures Scientific Approach. 2. Pro. This means it is slowly released also provides amino acids that can be used 3. around have plenty of other energy sources avail. Physiology into the bloodstream for a uniform energy as fuel so that existing muscle tissue won’t of Sport and Exercise. best energy sources available for athletes. ProCarb™ is an extremely provides aspartate. Parrillo’s exclu. Call us and let us know amino acids in muscle fiber proteins. ate consumed in the urea cycle.Energy.Diet and Supplementation to Maximize Energy and Growth and biochemistry of MCFAs call and ask can happen very easily if your nutrient in. ProCarb™ was de. Before your next protein catabolism. to provide immedi. carbohydrate has proven optimal for re. 5. Publishers. This makes it ammonia. CapTri® and ProCarb™ both have next workout mix a scoop of ProCarb™ a protein-sparing effect and are preferen. made by the body. and Baur TS. and valine ) are essential amino acids. protein catabolism. it with the right nutrients. and pack along a Parrillo Bar™ for formula. so it is essential that Exercise Physiology . Int. BCAAs in the proper ratio required to op- timize muscular growth. isoleucine. if insulin to be eliminated. No doubt you’re aware that long. Katch FI. for fat storage. Contemporary Books. level. plenishing glycogen stores (5) and the in. Drink half before the workout and tein. These are first line defenses against half during the workout. most notably sulin profile is perfect for building muscle ammonia. Bach and Babayan. bolic pathway responsible for eliminating Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid car- ing. All of these ingre- you imagine busting your butt in the gym dients are designed for rapid digestion and for two hours a day and losing muscle? It cellular uptake. PA. The Parrillo Bar™ is one of the and Van Rij AM. 1982. and help prevent muscle 120 © 2004. Kasperek GJ. 1991. ily digested and absorbed. It contains maltodextrin. Lamb DR. who generate a lot of 1: 52-60. muscle catabolism is to make sure you your body is capable of if you supercharge Carb™ has a low glycemic index. This be broken down during catabolic states. One study found that during a 10 combined with the Parrillo diet will result Next we need to talk about a good mile run as much as 57 grams of protein is maximal energy delivery to cells to carbohydrate source. and what happens . This means they cannot be 1. Before your able. This is the worst It includes a high efficiency protein source thing that can happen to an athlete. It provides carbohydrates as Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol metabolism is at full pace. You’ll be amazed what a partially digested glucose polymer. 10 Max Endurance™ along with the drink sive branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) above. Can with plenty of BCAAs. Having an abun. References cine. ideal for use during endurance activities. You may also want to bike race take 10 Muscle Aminos™ and consider Muscle Amino. broken down to release amino acids which glucose levels during prolonged exercise. which is an intermedi- clean burning energy source which is eas.maybe you’ll be featured during catabolic states muscle fibers are in the next Parrillo Performance Press! degraded and the BCAAs are used as fuel. 6. J. 1991. Hardcore Bodybuilding . sessions. J. Williams RT.

the muscle responds by getting stronger biochemistry. Even in ad. Part I by John Parrillo I am excited that muscle is now Bodybuilders. to get the by pushing it to the limit of its perfor- © 2004. Simply put. are concerned (such as falls) as well. In order to effective exercise stimuli tax the muscle increasing muscle size and performance. and it reduces injuries players. have to learn is the muscle to grow) the exercise more energy. You’ve probably seen medical er lifters care about muscu- reports on the news showing 80 and 90 lar strength. muscu. and a muscle to change. The most muscle as well as training strategies for bolic demand on the muscle..e. The first practical Strength training is also becom. is so common that it is considered a Each of these con- normal part of aging. we’ll mention is including women. if adequate nutrients are supplied. to it. muscle physi- lar. shapely body they desire by aerobic ology known exercise alone. exceeds some threshold of intensity. function. If your ity (1. and mone. goal is to be lean and firm with good It simply muscle tone. and relating to muscu- even reverse. During it’s in the gym. and metabolism of muscle. cal decline usually attributed to aging. improves glucose tolerance. but not to get big muscles. It allows people to be more active basketball and football and self-sufficient. means that a Resistance exercise increases lean body mass remember that muscles are the place muscle will where body fat is burned. The reason exercise causes mus. plore the structure. concept of intensity. improves glucose tolerance. many of the signs of physi. Simply put. training strategy ing more popular among young people. such as life. challenged by an exercise stimulus which the next few days after the training ses- This series of articles will ex.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 28 Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. The foun. It increases muscles. Resistance ferent parameter training can certainly slow down. Cyclists and year-olds lifting weights. recognized as being important for ev. The makes you look better. are primarily concerned with in- eryone. sion. So if you want specifically and thus metabolic rate. physiology. lean body mass and thus metabolic rate. feel better. you’ve got to work your adapt to the to burn more fat 24 hours a day. In actuality. it tical principle makes you look better. In order to cause stimulus must be intense enough to rep- tain of youth has been longer lowers cholesterol levels. Pow- athletes. runners train to improve vanced age. not just bodybuilders and other creasing muscular size. resistance exercise makes muscular endurance. People have found a principle of that they cannot achieve the lean.3). Muscle atrophy mainly with muscu- (when muscles get smaller and weaker) lar power and speed. elicit an adaptive response (i. and live longer. it hours a day.growth hormones. All of the that exercise challenge. Resistance exercise increases type of train. It increases growth hor. cles to get bigger and stronger is that the so that next time it will be better able to I will explain basic scientific concepts of exercise load places a physical and meta. of course. Fitness as training competitors I work with include weight specific- training as part of their program. and second prac. have more energy. muscles stronger and improves quality of Other athletes. lar performance. ing stimulus causing your body to burn more fat 24 that is applied and lowers cholesterol levels. disuse cerns describe a dif- is probably the main culprit. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 121 . causing your body to lose your fat. it must be resent a challenge to the muscle. or adapt.2.

Can the bodybuilder run another football player). pounds 20 times before failing has biceps power = (force X speed). the one rep maximum (1RM) is a size and strength. power lifters and Olympic muscle cross sectional diameter (1. power = to the type of stimulus applied. kinetic energy you can transfer to his the concept of the intensity threshold. Training for strength sprinting: because performance depends what your goals are. This is why lus is not intense enough to challenge the to increase in endurance. lighter weight and more reps (say 15-30) ing. and that’s one time is twice as strong as someone we have three mathematical equations where our Nutrition Program comes in. The same is true of athletes will not significantly improve in (3-6) to increase in strength. Increases fort where the set is carried to the point er. and over time if the person squatting 200 pounds can develops huge muscles. and different training programs a set of 5 reps with a weight which you will determine how much kinetic energy are appropriate for each. But if you’re knocking that person over is how much trained his legs to do that. We also know from physics that durance. a small trains by walking the 100 yard dash. doing reps until you couldn’t get another style weight lifters all train with weights. and endurance are all different.2. and many other sports.2. provided long a muscle can perform a given task (force X distance)/time. which is so heavy that you can perform hard you hit the baseball (force) but also speed. If you’re just (velocity squared). tennis. let’s training. Speed describes how fast a defined as work performed per unit time. basketball. If you’re just trying to tone training session it can take as long as defined as the maximum load (weight) and firm your muscles. The intensity is too low. speed. strength. strength. pushing pounds is stronger than a person who themselves to the limit. power is The training specificity principle one time. It’s not just how maximize muscle size. We’ll get into the cellular and molecular even if somebody was holding a gun to They perform largely the same exercises 122 © 2004. I increase in velocity can result in a large think you can see intuitively that these with heavy weights and low repetitions increase in energy. he will generate trains his legs by running long distances. you want to train to muscular football. in box- performance because the training stimu. A person who can squat 300 of them train their legs hard. baseball. you don’t have two weeks for the muscle to completely that a muscle can lift one time (1. In weight thus how far the ball will go. To illustrate this concept. From physics with merely adequate nutrition. you want to train (1. To illustrate going for size and strength. After a very intense basis of this later. For now. This is a result power is the most important parameter muscles to grow. The marathoner describes a level of effort do it twice as fast. in muscle size come about by increases in of momentary muscular failure . both cases. What matters in a marathon? Of course not.3). and how to train effectively for each of these good. Do you want to in the 5 rep range means picking a weight on both force and speed. but no more. Muscle strength is your head. Muscle power sity threshold). Someone who can curl 50 since speed is equal to (distance/time). with twice the endurance of someone then is the product of the force of con- compare the legs of a bodybuilder with who can curl 50 pounds 10 times before traction and the speed of contraction the legs of a marathon runner. Consider the sprinter who proportional to velocity squared. pow- start off with some definitions. or KE = (m X v2)/2. Training for size. that the stimulus is intense enough to before failing. Can the runner squat as much cular failure. pounds. nutrition and supplementation can speed measure of muscle strength. And finally. body. However. Endurance describes how is equal to (force X distance). a tennis ball. Both failing. that’s what it takes.3). Strictly speaking. and signing an exercise program is to decide failure on that set. power. But if you’re going for recover and adapt. body and how fast you’re moving when massive biceps by curling one pound you hit him. In general. to take it that far.3). Since kinetic energy is dumbbells. and how fast it can or power = (work/time).keep Bodybuilders. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . In of muscular performance in sports like So the first thing to do when de. states that a muscle will adapt structurally muscle can contract. optimum Thus. We’ll describe could have lifted 20 times will do you no is transferred from the bat to the ball. trains his legs with squats. of the training specificity principle. where the set is carried to more power than the guy squatting 300 and over time improves his speed and en. intensity describes a level of ef.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. He hasn’t take it that far. Since work and functionally in a manner appropriate move a load. or endurance? These goals are not 5 repetitions. Someone Muscle power is a little more up the process over what can be achieved who can curl a maximum of 100 pounds complicated to define. intensity can squat only 200 pounds. weight as the bodybuilder? Of course trying to tone and firm your Let’s say you’re a football player and not. and with hitting a baseball. but he never develops huge leg kinetic energy equals (1/2) X (mass) X muscles. The bodybuilder In weight training. you don’t have to heavy weights. who can curl a maximum of 50 pounds for power. elicit an adaptive response at all (inten. parameters as we go along.2. Of course. the point of momentary mus. He hasn’t trained his legs to lift you want to tackle someone (hopefully muscles. This depends on the mass of your consider someone who wants to build that’s what it takes. Performing how fast you hit the baseball (speed) that the same. Part I mance abilities.

while the bodybuilders have bigger the microscopic anatomy of muscle. Next month we’ll pick up with er. but also ics. strength.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. Our body- builders do go up to one to two hours of aerobics a day. It’s far better just not to get fat in the first place. but that’s only for a few weeks before a contest. For bodybuilders. then you won’t have to do too much aerobics and run the risk of losing muscle. Strength and Power in Sport.4). includes some work with lighter weights that are accelerated very rapidly to train 2. Champaign. Until then. not to become an endurance athlete. if he trained for it. 1991. For now. and Katch the speed component. However. the stronger it is.Energy. We’ll get into the specifics later. Wilmore JH and Costill DL. But remember. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 123 . But by the time he trained long enough to be able to run a marathon. the bigger a muscle’s into how to design training protocols to size (the larger its cross sectional diam. and we’ll get into that toward the end of the series. plyometrics (3. let’s just say you can either have legs like Tom Platz. 1994. and muscles. Human Kinet- includes some strength training. netics. IL. and power are similar. After we understand the fact that when you lift weights the structure of muscles and how they you’re not only training your muscles. Training for power ogy of Sport and Exercise. Howev. you’re not following the diet. Training for endurance is very different. and Human Performance. the power lifters can lift more explain the cellular and molecular basis of weight. 1994. Lea & with training for muscle power is called Febiger. eter). work. Human Ki- all result in bigger. Malvern. stronger muscles. ford. Physiol- in a future article. Baechle TR. This leads right tem. IL. PA. Training for 3. VL. Komi PV. we will discuss how they adapt to you’re also training your nervous sys. achieve your particular goals. results in a totally different 4. various training stimuli. Essentials of Strength size. I have no doubt that Tom Platz could run a marathon. Ox- muscles get bigger or stronger (1-4). but probably not both. Nu- ercise physiology concerned specifically trition. McArdle WD. Katch FI. Part I and train at maximum intensity. 1992. and does not make Blackwell Scientific Publications. or you can run a marathon. Exercise Physiology . power keep pumping! lifters have trained their nervous systems to recruit more muscle fibers to fire at References the same time. Champaign. 30-45 minutes of aero- bics a day should be enough. adaptive response. This paradox is explained by muscle contraction. The branch of ex. In general. his legs would be half as big as they are now. If it’s not. © 2004. We’ll cover how to train for size versus how to train for strength 1. you’re doing aerobics to burn fat. This is a complex issue and is still an area of active investigation. and Training and Conditioning. A note to bodybuilders: don’t stop doing your aero- bics! You still need aerobics to burn fat and promote cardiovascular health.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .124 © 2004.

ends of a skeletal muscle are attached to complexity of this system has only be. Other skeletal cardiac muscle. but that’s a story brae and between the ribs. Skeletal muscle. or sarcolemma. and that propels food down your esophagus spontaneously contract all by itself. Muscle cells are very sion about muscle. years. we find the contractile proteins. This connective tissue is called epimy- two different bones across a joint. system. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 125 . Here. about 1 micron in diameter. and is the same kind of contraction in pacemaker which causes the heart to So we have myofibers. it has a built the myofilaments are actin and myosin. When you the subconscious level. sometimes spanning the length of we’ll cover some basic concepts about which slows down movement.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 29 Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. Notably. Probably the best ex. (This is Actin and myosin. also called muscle fibers or actin and myosin proteins in your muscle © 2004. but at study of skeletal muscle. between muscle layers. helping the skeleton to have striations like skeletal muscle but Just under the epimysium the muscle maintain its proper shape. or about from your mouth to the other end. stored lacks striations. Each muscle is contained in a bag tendons to the skeleton. called that because it by conscious thought. fibers (cells) each (1). mostly what nervous system has two divisions: the and stronger. ex- particular joint spanned by the muscle. tion. food through the gut. Car. and mitochon- ample of smooth muscle is the stomach heart rate. The two main proteins in tract. the two main pro- is controlled by the autonomic nervous what makes heart transplants possible. myofibrils. It does for another day. the entire muscle. It’s really tough. a structural role. but instead and it will still beat just fine. The intestines are ringed by circular bands rate while the parasympathetic division myofibrils are made of the contractile of muscular tissue which squeeze the slows it down. which are huge muscular tube which propels food the autonomic nervous system. is attached via that there are nearly as many nerve cells fiber. The of tough connective tissue for protection. you should realize that there put from the autonomic nervous system look at a muscle fiber with a microscope.) teins responsible for muscle contraction. In this installment tive tract. The autonomic it works and what to do to make it bigger build more muscle tissue. It’s what gives us the freedom This is the stuff you’re stretching when and when it contracts (shortens) it brings to think about other things instead of you do your stretches and fascial plan- the two bones closer together. Each muscle cell contains adaptive response of muscle to exercise. play more of muscle and smooth muscle. Your digestive tract is a your heart rate. kind of like those causes movement of the skeleton at the consciously controlling the movement of nylon-reinforced mailing envelopes. It’s called the many nuclei which are located around so you can better design an effective pro. the intestines have their own nervous microns in diameter (about the size of a will lead to an understanding of the system built right into the intestinal wall. The idea is if you stretch Thus the function of skeletal muscle is The third type of muscle tissue is the connective tissue covering the muscle to move the skeleton. Your the sympathetic division speeds up heart 1/100 the width of a human hair (1). myofibers (1. myenteric nerve plexus. especially how al subunits called sarcomeres. This is called a peristaltic contrac.3).I didn’t when you swallow. the name for the Another type of muscle tissue is you thinking about it). This est. do its job. scious control (your heart beats without cell is the sarcoplasma. also movement. Usually the two in their intestines as in their brains. Most people don’t realize ning perpendicular to the length of the called striated muscle. cept thinner. only thing a muscle can do is contract. which contain as many as 150 which means that you control when a diac muscle is not strictly under con. The contractile proteins are grouped and intestines. When you First off. are three basic types of muscle tissue in to precisely control digestion and food you can make out cross striations run- the human body. but is influenced cytoplasm of a muscle cell (1). because it’s around the muscle. This too is mediated by into bundles called myofibrils. such as those between verte. You myofilaments. the fibers are arranged more like smooth cells are grouped into bundles called etal muscle is under voluntary control. It’s somewhere between striated muscle tissue to expand. Heart muscle has some proteins themselves. There smooth muscle. so it has elements of both. (Don’t blame me . and integrates the outside. Each muscle is made of you’re doing is increasing the amount of parasympathetic division which speeds muscle cells. Smooth muscle is can cut all the nerves going to the heart make this up. very special properties which allow it to myofilaments.2. This having to constantly be worried about ing. just beneath the muscle cell gram to achieve your training goals. Part II by John Parrillo This month we continue our discus. while relaxing will slow down dria. For example. membrane. information from the intestines with in. and the sympathetic division long. fasiculi. found exclusively in the you will make it easier for the underlying muscles. human hair). heart. Of inter. The autonomic nervous system The rest of this series is devoted to a are organized into structural and function- receives input from the brain. Inside the muscle skeletal muscle contracts. be. muscle. which are called food through the tube when they con. and are about 50-100 muscle anatomy and physiology. For one thing. up movement of food through the diges.) not under voluntary control. ing nervous or scared will speed up your glycogen and fat granules. The come understood in the last couple of sium. skel.

IL. or T tubules. To how all of this works. 2. pass to release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic bloodstream and are transported to all the the interior of the muscle cell. resulting in muscle contrac- These products are designed to supply electrical impulse is conducted inside the tion. 126 © 2004. The sarco. Enclosures of the sarcolemma called of the muscle cell.cellular and molecu- lemma receives electrical impulses from energy which is used to power muscle lar changes which make the muscle big- motor nerves at specialized structures contraction. the nerve terminal at the motor end plate. This to build different proteins. The proteins in muscle contain the myofibrils. This initiates an electrical po. Mitochondria are 1994. and Human cal energy directly used by the myofibrils Performance. Once you understand called motor end plates. This travels goals. This initiates a series of molecular events we’ll tie everything together and explain brane. The sarcoplasma contains miner.3). The T tubule system some protein your stomach and intestines blood cells. ing affects muscle performance. The Next month we’ll talk about exactly the other amino acids as well. Exercise Physiology which is the source of chemi. which is essential causes the actin and myosin proteins Formula™ and our Hi-Protein Powder. Human Kinetics. ATP is then bro- use them to build more actin and myosin. carries this information to the interior digest it and break it down into the indi. ions. able to design a training program specifi- the tendon.the sarcoplasma (2). eral nerve called a motor neuron. how ATP binding to the myofilaments the reasoning behind our Muscle Amino age site for calcium. Champaign. Part II cells. . PA.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. As you know. 1994. Simple eh? (BCAAs). where it triggers the vidual amino acids.™ for muscular contraction (2).2. Katch FI. The sarcoplasma end plate. This References Inside the sarcolemma is the cytoplasm nerve carries the electrical signal to the of the muscle cell . organelles called mitochon. movement of the skeleton and the body a lot of the branched chain amino acids lum is a series of membranous channels as a whole (1. Myosin breaks down the ATP to release response in muscle . thereby making the muscle bigger when they contract. What happens is when you eat like hemoglobin binds oxygen in red of the muscle cell. electrical signal. als. This energy Each protein has a unique sequence of colemma. Human Ki- that bathes the myofibrils . Finally cells are surrounded by a plasma mem. or wave of depolariza- made from building blocks called amino which functions to bind oxygen much tion. generated by your brain. Katch VL. Baechle TR. netics. When the to move. the sarcolemma fuses with sum up so far: when you decide to con. which inserts into bone (2). glycogen. Malvern. which brings about movement. These then enter the transverse tubules. At the ends of This is starting to get technical. muscle. fat. it reaches the sar. The membrane of a muscle cell which allows ATP to bind to myosin. along with a specific ratio of which run parallel to the myofibrils. proteins are also contains a protein called myoglobin. synapse and binds to receptors on the sar. arrives on the surface of the myofibrils which amino acids from the bloodstream and at a muscle cell it releases a neurotrans. tract a muscle an electrical impulse is cally to achieve your individual training When the muscle contracts force is trans. how exercise training elicits an adaptive is called the sarcolemma. When a reticulum. you will be better the muscle. called a wave of depolarization. muscle to a regulatory protein called troponin C. powerhouses inside the cell where carbohydrates and 3. This in turn initiates another and stronger. the contractile elements. Lea & Febiger. IL. thus making the muscle contract. dria (2). The sarcoplasmic reticu. or action potential. release of calcium. and fat are converted into ATP. This is sarcoplasmic reticulum serves as a stor. biochemistry part of our muscle super- amino acid building blocks it needs to coplasmic reticulum where it triggers the feature. just like you The T tubules function to bring this elec. causes the actin and myosin proteins in amino acids linked together in a chain. along the sarcolemma of the surface acids. That will conclude the anatomy and your body with the perfect balance of cell by the T tubules. Calcium then binds physiology to discuss how exercise train- Like all cells of the body. McArdle WD. Wilmore JH and Costill DL. normally prevents ATP binding. ger and stronger. and in turn to the down the spinal cord and out a periph- skeleton. ken down to release energy. You need a different ratio of amino acids along the surface of the sarcolemma. mitter called acetylcholine (ACh) from calcium binds. tions which subsequently allows ATP to Muscle cells absorb the amino acids and The ACh diffuses across a space called a bind to the myofibrils. causing words. and Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Calcium binds to a protein cells of the body. 1991. Essentials of Strength The sarcoplasma is a gel-like substance diffuses across the synapse at the motor Training and Conditioning. After then use them as building blocks to as. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . these proteins shift posi- semble whatever proteins the cell needs. the myofibrils to slide past each other. contractile force is transmitted to the need different letters to spell different trical impulse inside the muscle cell to tendons and then to the bones. Nutrition. tential. Then we’ll move into exercise build more muscle protein.Energy. Champaign. mitted to the tendon. The nerve releases ACh which 1. The cells absorb the nerve impulse.

gyrus also contacts the cerebellum. The the brain. of two neurons.important concept. it in turn sends a signal out to up a 50 pound dumbbell with one hand. All other the way to the lower spinal cord. is made of hundreds tor on the lower motor neuron. or nerve cells. 4. of the brain. like system. like those at exactly what happens inside a muscle motor strip in the brain. don’t The first thing that happens is that muscle contract in a smooth. a chemical called a neurotrans. and the cerebellum to help do the calculations Leverage factors. muscle. someone with better second which has its body in the lower the lower motor neuron. The number of muscle fibers you can three feet long! The body of the lower teleconference with the basal ganglia and stimulate to fire (contract) at once. The strength neuron fires or not. so the weight You will recall that a given mitter into the synaptic space. you would lose of your biceps is determined by a combi- neuron receives the signal to fire from your balance and fall over if you picked nation of four general parameters: 1. of individual muscle fibers. in the motor strip. Part III by John Parrillo In Part 3 of our series about muscle to the foot.moves smoothly and under control. The motor strip con. The with Parkinson’s disease have a problem either all of the muscle cells controlled second is in the spinal cord. The balance of when they use their muscles. controlled require such fine control and each lower you decide to lift a weight. Genet- spinal cord and sends its axon all the way One lower motor neuron can control ics is very important in athletics. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 127 . such as the length of its axon is called a peripheral nerve. controlled fashion. You see. leverage factors will be stronger. If the lower motor Without the cerebellum.few muscle cells. which helps the those in the quadriceps or glutes. People nothing phenomenon. it is an all or one is in the brain. the mus.weight moves smoothly and under con. and the When a motor unit fires. are also very long cells—sometimes over the frontal cortex. includ- © 2004. motor neuron is in the spinal cord.called a MOTOR UNIT. so that each review some basics about how muscles the computations necessary for good lower motor cell controls only one or a are controlled by the central nervous muscular control. or motor strip. cell. not just for muscle each muscle cell is controlled by a chain cle would sometimes contract too hard physiologists but for bodybuilders too. A lower motor neuron conscious thought occurs. one rep maximum (1RM). Other muscles.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 30 Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. The up. the motor strip sends its signal to things being equal. and sends a cellular process The motor strip contacts the basal ance of excitatory and inhibitory impulses arriving at that nerve (a long extension) called an axon ganglia. which happens almost instanta.factors. and the neously. the muscle cell. or none of the lower motor neuron. This is a very rus. tacts the basal ganglia. where get just the right balance of excitatory muscle cells. so that the weight is lifted under control your bones and the points of insertion Muscles in your feet are thus controlled in a smooth fashion and you don’t lose of the muscle tendons onto the bones. There’s no such thing as a into the spinal cord. depending on the bal- per motor neuron is a very long cell. full power. The frontal a muscle is defined by the maximum inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmit. The frontal and inhibitory nerve impulses. or not at all. and weight would jerk up and down. This means that is called the upper motor neuron. them do. by a chain of two nerve cells.hibitory nerve impulses. this is purely genetics. one that has your balance. This part of the brain helps motor cell may control hundreds of these in the frontal lobe of the brain. anywhere from one to several hundred we are going to take a microscopic look Before a message is sent out from the muscle cells. The strength of inhibitory or excitatory. let’s brain are also contacted to help perform under very fine control. so the and the muscle cells under its control is lobe sends a signal to the prefrontal gy. for example. the ters is what determines if the lower motor helps maintain balance and coordination. The first and sometimes not hard enough. which helps the muscle con. Lower motor neurons So after you decide to lift a weight in The size of each individual muscle fiber. After all the computations You can’t do anything about the leverage its body in the brain and sends its axon all are done. Some muscles. muscle cell partly contracting. with the lower motor neuron. trol. or Neurotransmitters can either be muscle cells. There it tract in a smooth. This part of the brain helps get just It either contracts completely. First. and is called in the basal ganglia. number of muscle fibers in the muscle. and have tremors by that motor neuron fire. or makes a contact called a synapse contracting at moderate intensity. Without the basal ganglia. are cell when you lift weights. at The upper motor neuron releases the right balance of excitatory and in. which weight you can lift for one repetition. like the biceps of the arm which then binds to a recep. other parts of the controlling the fingers and the eye. This happens fashion. 2. the motor strip has a 3.

The point here is subunits called sarcomeres. Only about 10% of the and powerlifting. With at all. even if not only training your muscles. (You might see a powerlifter more reps. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . but by how many of the may increase to about 70%. Now let’s pick up a you stronger. you’re fiber either contracts completely or not it’s only a little. These are the here’s where it gets interesting. After a few reps these sive movements using very fibers are tired. Powerlifters are the 10% of the fibers you started generally stronger because they with will eventually fatigue and were born with better leverage no longer be able to carry on. each muscle always have some strength left. about 50% of the fibers to lift the Powerlifters train with explo- weight. muscle fibers you can make contract at of a safety mechanism to make sure you You see. 1-3 rep maximum range. This is why you sis for drop sets. which would the time you’ve finished a triple drop set ticle that each muscle fiber is made allow the tired ones to rest. You re. address the other fibers to fire at once. Sarcomeres very few people. Start with ample. for this reason. After about 15 or 20 reps all of failure on a heavy set it’s still possible to care about the negative portion of the the fibers are tired and you can’t get any crank out a few more reps with a lighter exercise. between sets. You should realize that the above ex. or striated. you rep maximum in this example. The strength of your biceps ability to fire about 50% of his muscle to increase both size and strength and is determined not only by the size of the fibers at once. after completing a heavy snatch. Now let’s consider 5 reps and go to failure. Read on. in the rested and is ready to go again. Drop sets are a very effective way techniques. or strip sets. and often don’t take over. the ability to contract all of their muscle recover. the first set is well ing very heavy weights. factors and because they have Then a different set of muscle trained their nervous systems fibers will take over the work to recruit more motor units to while the first set rests. This is a key dif- a 5 pound dumbbell and begin ference between bodybuilding curling. if any. bodybuilders contracting. your single moderate weight that will allow you to for training to increase muscle size. Let’s say for example that your you from ripping the tendons off of the practice you can learn to recruit more single rep maximum in the dumbbell curl bones!) Everyone knows after going to muscle fibers to fire at once. Remember. get about 10 more reps and go to failure need to know a little more about muscle cruit 100% of the fibers to fire. The first set of fibers to fire weight. Here’s why: the fibers to recover. Finally pick up a very light weight physiology first. when you lift weights you’re the same time. appearance 128 © 2004. however. so the set is you will have recruited virtually 100% of up of hundreds to thousands of smaller done after one rep. Part III ing powerlifting. The way time you go through all of the you do this is by practice. thus increas- is 50 pounds. Then pick up a size however. By You will recall from a previous ar- other fibers left to recruit. This makes long time. we have to fire for powerlifting-style training. no other way to do it. The best estimates recruit the other fibers that haven’t fired three factors by using specific training are that a typical person only has the yet. because that would allow Myofibrils are long chains of still smaller ample is not quite accurate.) This is not the most effective can’t get as many reps as you could with a heavy weight where you can get about training style for increasing muscular the lighter weight. And this is why 25 pound dumbbell and do a set low rep work forms the basis of curls. To understand the basis curling a 50 pound dumbbell. Here. This is kind and powerlifter’s program. Don’t rest at all contractile units of skeletal muscle (1). forces This is why you can maintain your body to fire more muscle low intensity work for a very fibers at once. If but powerlifters can usually lift you keep curling long enough. so they again. This is the physiologic ba.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. (It also helps prevent also training your nervous system. because the fibers in that muscle. Lift- muscle fibers. Now you pick up ing strength. and the other 90% generally have bigger muscles are just along for the ride. all get “spent” after one rep. There are no and go to failure at about 15-20 reps. for ex- ready to go again yet. more weight. and the others heavy weights. As we men- muscle fibers in your biceps are tioned before. and that with training this should be a part of every bodybuilder’s muscle itself. By the fire simultaneously. There’s really units called myofibrils. which FORCES the muscle to You can. This means that there must be a virtually throw the weight on the floor didn’t get enough time to rest and aren’t few fibers left. actually have to NOT allow the first set of fibers to have a striped.

Champaign. 1991. Malvern. 1994. VL. The light I band You know from pervious articles is the region of the sarcomere that that the energy that drives this process contains only thin actin filaments. Wilmore JH and Costill DL. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 129 . where it interdigitates with the Simple. it undergoes a conformational called striated muscle. IL. This is referred to as In the middle of each I band is a dark line little shorter. Essentials of Strength myosin. Human Ki- to each other and are overlapping. while myosin is a filament theory” (1. When © 2004. Sarcomeres are other to pull the Z disks closer together. the way. One end of the myo. which is attached muscle. becomes apparent. giving rise to the term “sliding protein filament. it breaks away from from Z disk to Z disk. McArdle WD.2. a region in the middle actin filament (1. to the myosin chain by a cross bridge. Phys- sin molecule forms a globular structure When a nerve impulse arrives at a iology of Sport and Exercise. it binds to troponin. a muscle contracts. Each actin to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and Febiger.2. Human called the myosin head. Part III when visualized in a microscope. In a muscle’s resting state. which protrude from the surface of the T tubule system (discussed last time).3. 1994. As we actin. can break down ATP to release its en- nized in an overlapping arrange. here is that muscle is mainly composed action with myosin (1). Baltimore.4). When This in turn pushes tropomyosin off of netics. rotates back to its original position. Lieber RL. in the middle of the in here? Each myosin head group has sarcomere. IL. Katch FI. Immediately after called the Z disk (1). actin and is released.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. Williams and Wilkins. ergy. across the muscle cell membrane and is Each myosin molecule contains several conducted to the interior of the cell by 2. Lea & sites on the actin molecules. causing 4.3. MD. is a region containing an enzyme called an ATPase.Energy. called I Each sarcomere is only microscopic in which causes the two filaments to slide bands.2. These strands are lying parallel the protein molecule to change shape (1). called that be.4). Repeated cycles of attachments discussed in a previous article. cium ions. A myofibril is thus joined end to end. Training and Conditioning. It’s just waiting for calcium to bind cause it contains only heavy. release is triggered by neurotransmit- ward the middle of the sarcomere ters released from the peripheral nerve. PA. So the energy comes from Each actin molecule has ATP. and tropo. tropomyosin.4). Actin is now free each other to make the muscle shorter.4).3.2. When calcium of two types of protein strands. comes from ATP. The energy released from ATP ment. and Katch heads. A sarcomere spans is made up of thousands of sarcomeres the myosin head tilts. When the muscle is fully is used to bind the myosin head to the relaxed.2.4). But since each myofibril the power stroke (1). Baechle TR. the immediate signal to contract one end anchored in the Z disk. size. Nutri- the myosin fiber to interact with special The T tubule system carries the impulse tion. The basic idea of what’s happening active sites of actin. called A bands. Skeletal Muscle Struc- nin (1. tropomyosin molecules lie on top of the ture and Function. Actin is a thin fashion. 3. how does ATP tie The A band. this happen? 1. thick troponin and push tropomyosin out of filaments (1. eh? thick myosin molecules. change (a change in molecular shape) made of alternating light regions. when they contract the actin. blocking their inter. so when it contracts it only gets a past one another. The muscle is of the A band called the H zone thus “primed” and ready to contract. which both thin and thick filaments orga. Each myosin molecule is composed of References two protein strands twisted around each whole muscle gets shorter. Exercise Physiology . and Human Performance. and Each sarcomere acts as a single unit so a myosin cross bridge attaches to an ac- this is why skeletal muscle is sometimes when it contracts its fibers slide past each tin chain. comes from calcium. How does other (1. thick protein fiber. 1992. to bind to the myosin head groups. filament is actually composed of three causes the SR to release a bunch of cal- proteins: actin. a long chain of sarcomeres joined and attaches to a new active site on end to end at the Z disks. Champaign. the and power strokes cause the filaments two main proteins in muscle are to slide past each other in ratchet-like actin and myosin. the fibers slide past the active site of actin.3. So.3. and dark regions. the electrical signal is spread Kinetics. and the calcium and the other end extending to.

130 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

an EKG tracing of the heart . and talk of stimulation the twitches fuse (that is. but are able to generate tremendous Press for our articles about hormones ticulum. ing a chicken breast to a chicken thigh. cles range in color from deep red to pale a motor unit fires according to the all-or. You’ve probably A chicken breast is white meat (white Rather than being like the continuous heard of slow-twitch versus fast-twitch muscle fibers) and a thigh is dark meat flow of electricity that is delivered from fibers. tie in directly to muscle metabolism and erate maximal force on the tendons. there’s no time for the fibers to relax).this is the This results in different abilities to devel.” pumps begin pumping the relatively poor at aerobic energy produc- back issues of the Parrillo Performance calcium back into the sarcoplasmic re. Slow twitch feature on muscle and will discuss some Each action potential results in a short fibers generally are fatigue resistant and key concepts of muscle physiology. are your goals. and is referred to as a twitch (1). ber and causes another twitch before the white (2). level of force production. A slow twitch breast of a bird is involved in beating the a switch on and then quickly off again. it begins to relax Perhaps the oldest classification the motor unit: a lower motor neuron before maximal force is generated by the scheme is based on gross appearance. are involved in weight support © 2004. and therefore maximal force de. in contrast. are further subdivided into two subtypes. So period of activation of the muscle fiber. as well as cium released during a twitch is sufficient cellular energy metabolism). A fast twitch fiber (also termed (red muscle fibers). as the contracting muscle fibers the spine erect while sitting. op force and resist fatigue. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 31 Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. are easily fatigued. like walking or standing or keeping of muscle to exercise and how to design ever. found in red blood cells) and mitochon- (contract). myoglobin. I said that (nerve impulse) arrives at the muscle fi. the force when looking at the muscles of birds. ul. The first difference is easily seen when compar- to contract by triggering the release of approach is to classify muscle fibers ac. cording to twitch time. ter at anaerobic energy production. What determines the strength the frequency of action potentials we density and more myoglobin (an oxygen of a muscular contraction is then how will decrease the rest period between storing molecule like the hemoglobin many motor units are recruited to fire twitches. Part IV by John Parrillo In this bulletin we continue our super. It no such thing as partially contracting a together) to generate a greater force than is now understood that some muscles are muscle fiber. If a second action potential the early 1800’s it was noticed that mus- muscle fibers that it controls. which requires a high An example you may be familiar with is slowly and has a long twitch time (1). That means it either fiber has completely relaxed. At a high enough frequency dria (the little furnaces inside cells where this concept to the next level. production (refer back to our series on trastructure and biochemistry. energy). Fast twitch effective training strategies to achieve begin to pull on the tendons and “take fibers. These differences a battery. This is the highest force red muscle fibers better at aerobic energy axon of a motor neuron (nerve fiber) to that a motor unit can produce (1). The burst or pulse of electricity. In (nerve cell) in the spinal cord plus the muscle (1). you need to be able to sustain for a long ries we’ll discuss metabolic adaptations velopment by the muscle fiber (1). while a twitch stimulates a muscle fiber ATPase activity (2). Fast twitch fibers and cellular energy metabolism. This is most easily observed nothing principle. and mitochondria) make Nerve impulses traveling down the called tetany. The thighs. In Part 2 I introduced the concept of to contract maximally. and the summation of force in. have a high capacity for aerobic energy far we’ve covered muscle anatomy. action potential of the heart muscle. Thus the muscle fibers begin to forces very rapidly. There are more stored glycogen. There’s from the two twitches summates (adds where the differences are the greatest. Please refer back to your up the slack. like flipping a short twitch time (1). production. As we increase red because they contain greater capillary intensity. fires at full power or not at all. The along nerves that stimulates muscle fibers ing different muscle fiber types. fiber (also termed type 1) develops force wings during flight. The cal. These properties (more capillar- ment. time. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 131 . or it contracting at medium from a single twitch (1). less myoglobin and mitochondria but called action potentials. food molecules are burned to produce about patterns of muscle fiber recruit. however. as these relax before the muscle has time to gen. and force production reaches a plateau ies. In the final three parts of this se. according to differences in physiology. So 2a and 2b. making them bet- tial is an electrical signal that is carried many classification schemes for describ. eral different fiber types. tion. How. myosin. This makes control of muscle tissue by the nervous to allow optimal activation of actin and them ideal for low energy activities that system. This month we will extend creases (1). An action poten. White muscle fibers have a muscle cell travel in discrete bundles A given muscle is composed of sev. an action potential is a short type 2) develops force rapidly and has make sense if you think about it.

more fibers than ST units. week) to increase capillary supply of fuel sources. FT type 2a (corresponding aerobics (around 30 minutes 3 times a These include twitch time. so contrac. intensity threshold that we talked about force production. According lifting. 1994. fatiga. and to do that fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) (2). old nerve pathways. are better suited for anaerobic en. Drop sets to Function. There are many type. or bik- ing. Training and Conditioning. to stimulate these fibers to grow we must oxidative (SO). So for maximal muscular growth a discussion of muscle fibers types is found only a few motor units are recruited. Another classification scheme is based in the cell. At maximal intensity. This in a muscle is increased by increasing the we must apply a high intensity stimulus. When the acid level builds up too high in the first article of our muscle series. ST motor units because their rate of force production is not limited by the rate of 3. force and power (work per unit time) than Baltimore. Fast twitch (FT) fibers. Part IV and walking. contraction.” It is of great the fast twitch/slow twitch scheme. you interested in greater detail. but ties such as sprinting. 1992. Standard “bodybuilding sets” bility. basic function of these is to induce local In general. IL. big biceps. Williams and Wilkins. MD. During extremely importance to realize that the fast twitch also takes into account fuel types pre. High intensity ways to classify the different fiber types. to failure and to resisting the weight dur- gen and fuel are available. Curling 5 pound types (such as subtypes of ATPases) and twitches. and combinations of the above. For those of motor units participating in the contrac. when only a little force is needed. the conversion of stored muscle glycogen to lactic acid via glycolysis. fast glycolytic (FG). cruited. 4. because they exhaust their fuel supply (and other 132 © 2004. and thus the frequency of to get big muscles. this shunts down the cellular Exercise must provide a high intensity on metabolic and histochemical (micro. on the other 1. FT type 2b muscles. 3. In (3). enzymes that produce energy. As long as oxy. I’ll explain A comparison of different classification This gets us back to the concept of more about this in the future. fibers may be either slow to maximize force production. Human Ki- units are generally larger (contain more netics. small are recruited. ensure that nearly 100% of muscle fibers In summary: Within any given mus. FT motor ogy of Sport and Exercise. FT motor 2. muscle color. This is largely through netics. recruit them to contract. producing ATP from the oxidation of special attention must be paid to going carbohydrate and fat (3). ergy to contract. 1994. muscle fibers) than ST units. Physiol- oxygen delivery. threshold nerve pathways. the best tion. at the muscle. stimulus in order to recruit all of the fi- scopic staining) properties of muscle tion comes to a halt. Furthermore. Lieber RL. high intensity activi. Champaign. requiring a lower level of intermediates) and build up lactic acid. but the schemes is presented in the table. FT motor units fatigue easily however. high intensity exercise. Human Ki- ergy production. ST fibers can ing the eccentric (lowering) phase of the continue to produce ATP and thus the en. This is basically an extension of best suited for brief. ST fibers are therefore preferentially recruited for low intensity References activities like walking. both ST and FT units are recruited tential for hypertrophy (growth). IL. Skeletal Muscle Structure and Recall also that FT motor units contain distinct types of training: 1. Wilmore JH and Costill DL. Essentials of Strength hand. are recruited (3). roughly to FOG type fibers) are also re. I like to refer to these as the “high cells. carried to failure at 8-10 reps. jogging. enzyme subtypes. As exercise inten. Heavy sets around 1-3 cle different fiber types exist for perform. ST fibers are thus very efficient at the medium rep work (8-10 rep range). slow twitch (ST) fibers tissue trauma which serves as a stimulus have a high level of aerobic endurance for inflammation and remodeling. Therefore. Skeletal Muscle Struc- units can generate considerably more ture and Function. such as weight fibers are the ones with the greatest po- ferred by different fiber types. scheme is based on microscopic analysis frequency of action potentials arriving This is why you have to lift big weights of fibers looking at various enzyme sub. which are primarily the ST rep maximum to recruit the high thresh- ing different functions. 2. In order to this scheme. pages 70-89 (2). bodybuilder has to perform at least four in Lieber. motor units. FT fibers are thus bers. and by increasing the number of dumbbells all day will never give you it gets real technical real fast. Baechle TR. (or FG) fibers are called in. or Remember that force production with. sity increases. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Champaign. When only a little force is needed.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle.

as you might calcium into the muscle cell. “Isometric” means “the same resistance. which generate low forces and are during eccentric actions the sarcomeres fatigue resistant. following eccentric actions than for con- synaptic cleft. (Review previous articles in pulling the dumbbell downward. such as fine finger movements of a biceps curl at the moment of peak during concentric actions. external forces which are forcing it to tion.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 32 Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. just like we do activities. For low intensity the resistance. Gravity is the force resistance. as well as a generating force. but the muscle is actu. and this the muscle fiber literally get ripped apart this series in these concepts are fuzzy. “Isokinetic” means “the same ve. the microscopic structures of reticulum. If this force is while it is trying to contract. An example of damage to the muscle is far greater the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the is the lowering phase of a biceps curl. imagine. and ATP is occur at constant velocity. This to shorten the sarcomere. a series of events resulting in activation greater than the internal force generated Following intense training sessions of the actin-myosin cross-bridges. causing a release of resistance on the muscle. action that occurs at constant velocity.” isometric and eccentric muscle actions contraction. This dumbbell curl. Part V by John Parrillo In the previous bulletin I introduced tions. small contraction. is sufficient to overcome sarcomere. which states that a given mo. and fibers. to situations when the muscle is generat. (microscopic damage) to the muscle that happens when force generated within occurs when you work out. An example muscle is working but is not changing in from a muscle after a workout and look is the lifting phase of a biceps dumbbell length. but they’re to each nerve cell (that is. ATP by the biceps muscle. more fast twitch motor units are called into play. the muscle is still working and centric or isometric actions. the muscle is sufficient to exactly balance calcium release and activation of the ac- cle fiber recruitment. An example is at the top tin-myosin cross-bridges. During isometric actions the are primarily composed of slow twitch length. this causes quite a bit of dam- ing high forces although they fatigue erated within the muscle age to the cross-bridges and to the whole more easily. I also explained the pattern of mus. Isometric muscle actions refer to the we still have nerve impulses (action po- tor unit either contracts maximally or not situation where the force generated by tentials) arriving at the muscle. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 133 . This causes an influx of Here. and why these are important in ing. An isokinetic ditions you can even see rupture (break- consumed. The difference or precise movement of the eyes. If you take the muscle is sufficient to overcome the a muscle biopsy (a small tissue sample) resistance to shortening (1). or any time when you pause is that the force generated by the muscle motor units are recruited. then the muscle we see a phenomenon called “Z band is consumed as the sarcomeres shorten.actually get longer. bodybuilding. During eccentric force is required for an activity. Concentric muscle actions lifting phase of a biceps This is the main source of microtrauma occur when a muscle is shortening. you curl.” and thus describes any time a sarcomeres remain the same length. membrane of muscle cells) and leakage © 2004. they are larger happens when force gen.actions the actin-myosin cross-bridges are still trying to pull the Z lines together These have more muscle fibers connected cle is shortening. Small motor during the curl and the weight remains is no longer sufficient to overcome the units allow precise muscular control and stationary.just not strong enough. During this phase of contraction.guess. will lengthen instead of contracting. Under extreme con- vidual sarcomeres contract. Thus when a force. tions occur when a mus. even steaming. As progressively more Concentric muscle ac.will see that the normal structure of the action potentials are arriving at the neu. each of the indi. ing force but that force is less than the muscle has been disrupted. In concentric actions under heavy release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic ally getting longer.” which describes the Z band bringing the Z lines at the ends of the though it is still working and generating structure being disrupted and myofila- sarcomere closer together. but is being overcome by about different types of muscle contrac.ments streaming out from the normal muscle fiber contract. The sarcomere is working In this bulletin I would like to talk the resistance to shorten. The amount romuscular junction. locity” and describes muscle actions that sarcomere structure. As you might motor units) and are capable or generat. Concentric muscle actions contraction is simply a concentric muscle age) the sarcoplasmic membrane (the cell are really the only true muscular contrac.) force is transmitted to the forearm and as the muscle fiber is forced to lengthen The rising calcium concentration sets off then to the biceps tendon. An example is the lengthen while it is trying to contract. Eccentric muscle actions refer at it in the electron microscope. triggering at all. because contraction literally means It is important to realize that during the “all or nothing” principle of muscle “to shorten.

able to do more and more reps with 30 of these can be measured in routine lab The body doesn’t like this inflammation pounds. Muscle growth is really just an are recruited. and repair process however. it doesn’t cause so much damage to the this means it’s time to increase the load. tion process begins again. teins inside it. which muscle cells are damaged and the cell ability to overcompensate is very limited means lifting a heavier weight. So you membrane starts leaking. Some the tissue is returned to its original state. and immune the rest of your life and little. For maximal gains soreness 24-48 hours after a workout. Skeletal building training that are more important the 35 pound dumbbells for 12 reps and muscle cells also release CPK when they than all the others put together. Any time you’re doing more kinase (CPK) is an enzyme in muscle compensates a bit during the repair pro. so that next time you durance is just fine. and the adapta- has had a heart attack or not. to curl the 30 pound dumbbell easily. laboratory. Using tests like muscle is the principle of intensity. After a while. weeks or months you will be able to curl cells die and release CPK. Ini. but does very little to plenishing ATP (refer back to our series hit the weights hopefully the muscles can increase muscle size. if any. It is well known to bodybuild. The white without much strain or damage to the two basic mechanisms that come into blood cells release immune mediators muscle. Bradykinin is one of by a 30 pound dumbbell. and set into play the process of muscle helps ensure the high threshold pathways mation. The second of progressive resistance. inflammation and repair process. you will be able Just how does this process of muscle called in to clean up the mess of the dam. You see. In other words. growth and adaptation occur? There are aged and leaking muscle cells. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . you forced negatives sometime to prove it to further growth increases. remodeling occurs to help the muscle over the long haul involve some work builders? Because it is at the very heart of adapt to the stresses imposed on it. You can keep builds more myofibrils by adding more the immune mediators that is particularly working out with 30 pound dumbbells for actin and myosin (and other associated famous for causing pain. In hospitals CPK levels are size only about 0. At that point. say 3-6 reps. than 12-15 reps with a weight you’re cells which forms creatine phosphate.” or DOMS. This means that as you get stronger. you want to train with a and is called “delayed onset muscle sore.1%. scientists have deter. you external forces rip the myofibers apart. but that will do little to increase tests in a hospital. which help bring about adequately adapted to the stress imposed muscle cell gets bigger. As ness. before the workout. neutrophils. in muscle size. resistance to overload the muscle. making it increase in diam- after a workout. an individual mediators like bradykinin and prosta. by the time you signals the immune system to come into next time you curl a 30 pound dumbbell can perform 12 reps with a given weight play. For purposes of increasing occurs in damaged or infected tissues that adaptive response that occurs so that the muscle size and strength. This is the principle mined that most muscle damage occurs in order to stimulate growth. soreness. cytokines. Inflammation is a process that growth. This of course also makes it stronger process. A workout than it was when you could only curl 30 biopsy and CPK. you want to train with a heavy weight at low This is also the main cause of muscle have to keep progressively increasing the reps. White blood cells. and macrophages. er words. mainly lympho. To increase muscle on cellular energy metabolism). bradykinin. the muscle and play: hypertrophy and hyperplasia. cytes. it’s associated connective structures have cle hypertrophy means that an individual and interleukins. the cess. Training for muscle en- which is responsible for immediately re. structures). CPK is released however. must exceed some threshold of intensity pounds for 12 reps. For maximal gains in strength. and now you know why. tional growth will occur. and estimates are that with each go up to the 35 pound dumbbells and get into the blood and can be measured in the good workout your muscles increase in maybe 6 reps before your biceps fails. a 30 pound dumbbell curl may be the 6-10 rep range. Mus- such as histamine. consequence of the over-compensation increments (about 5-10% per jump) to ers that negatives cause the most muscle process I described above. In oth. The body’s size you have to increase strength. addi. in the 3-6 rep range and some work in muscle growth. are muscle.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. during eccentric muscle actions. since during really big muscles. This is a direct will need to increase the weight in small yourself. muscle size. This is why it This represents a new level of stress. and over. During the inflammation If you stick to the 30 pound dumbbells eter. Creatine phospho. when is the principle of progressive resistance. The first your biceps will be bigger and stronger are damaged. During the keep yourself in the proper rep range. After a few a heart attack some of the heart muscle There are two basic principles of body. The muscle has muscle cell builds more contractile pro- glandins are the reason muscles get sore grown and adapted to that level of stress. as the muscle gets stronger the weight you can handle for 6-10 reps. This occurs as it the repair process. not short-term energy reserve in muscle cells bit bigger and stronger than they were muscle strength. the microscopic tially. This helps train the tissue damage that occurs after weight intense enough to cause muscle damage nervous system as well as the muscle and training serves as the stimulus for inflam. Try a few sets of heavy intensity threshold required to stimulate the muscle adapts and gets stronger. a used as an initial screen to tell if someone takes years of consistent training to get higher level of intensity. The body makes the muscles a little primarily training muscle endurance. tissue The most effective training strategies Why is all of this important to body. damaged cells are repaired and you will find that over time you will be and able to generate more force when it 134 © 2004. When take it and not get damaged. Part V of cellular contents from the cell.

This type of training will structure each meal for optimal results. the way down. this will result in gainer or want faster results. Walk into the gym with a feeling but that each muscle fiber is bigger in can leak out when the cell membrane is of overwhelming power. vitally important for bodybuilders to pay ual. were placed in culture dishes it was found What do you do? First. can be induced to turn into new muscle peak efficiency. and add supplements to boost cellular cile these observations with the body of sistance training. You should always lower the even comes with a food scale and a food that most muscle growth occurs by hy. and are found along the periphery of phase. We know that most muscle chain amino acids . since it the rep to fully work the muscle and to Vitamins. results in the promise on nutrition.3). also know that high resistance training is in the gym and then not growing because perplasia to occur the training stimulus the most effective stimulus for increas. tract. You WILL lift heavy weights today. Don’t com- data suggesting that most muscle growth phase of the muscle action. . You have to attack training program. you have to ing body of scientific evidence indicates that they could be induced to differentiate make every workout count. sparing muscle fibers. The weights diameter. The idea is that satellite cells represent a Get in there. Finally. vitamins. Since the muscle Amino™. consistency. then add in supplements to boost muscle cells and the stimulus for their negative-only training. Pro-Carb™. This all makes sense if you think bohydrate. muscle cells contain some substance that tered. You nutrient levels even higher. Second. how many meals.3). The overwhelm. Part V contracts. Start with a solid bodybuilding diet resistance leg training (2. and hyperplasia is an increase muscle cells (4). While of each rep . When muscle cells do undergo hy. dicate however that muscle hyperplasia be called upon following muscle damage. with moderate to low special attention to the lowering phase avoid. if you use up the ATP in the positive acids in muscle protein. acids — the primary structural amino derive from differentiation and prolifera. Think of the weights as training there are still about the same not do the trick. Satellite cells seem to be ger a greater adaptive response and more amino acids so they can be used to build most active during the growth of the fe. with heavy re.which foods to trained subjects. to exercise training that is hyperplasia. add in Cap- little tiny cells not much bigger than nu. The Parrillo program is founded on The special thing about CapTri® is that © 2004. you will see that after muscle or from some other tissue could each workout. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 135 . a foundation of solid nutritious in fiber number following 101 weeks of of high resistance training with heavy food. carbs. And this.3). it needs to build muscle. branched trained controls (2. great interest to bodybuilders. Most it all fits together.3). resistance and higher repetitions. protein instead of being burned as fuel. will trig. what is the source of the new for muscle growth. This indicates that hypertrophy damaged. and get out. supply your body with more can occur. however. you. Thus it appears that enemies to be conquered . but it’s the best stimulus After the foundation is laid with the right perplasia. When satellite cells dedication. If you’re a hard tion of satellite cells. New muscle cells are believed to requires ATP to relax as well as to con. reserve source of precursor cells that can That’s your job.3).it’s the most important how many calories. In these studies it was found to make new muscle cells and repair the than adequate amounts of every nutrient that bodybuilders had more muscle fibers damaged muscle. It play in bodybuilders. and hard work.2. Start with the growth? This question is of course of still need the positive (lifting) part of basics: Hi-Protein Powder™. I don’t recommend foods. kill the weights. minerals. I’m sorry. but there Hypertrophy is an increase in muscle cells by factors released from damaged really are no tricks or secrets.3). Muscle hyperplasia describes cle tissue. and fat. Several studies with bodybuilders do in. To recon. and this substance acts as a simply are not strong enough to resist is a more important adaptive response signal to cause the satellite cells to grow. tus. make you sore. it was sug. in muscle cell number. while it is rapidly forming new mus. Every work- that most muscle growth is the result of (turn into new muscle cells) by adding an out must be intense enough to stimulate hypertrophy (2. One experiment about it. It takes cell size. ing muscle size and strength (1. Protein.2. During adult life. Which foods to eat . CapTri® supplies calories which clei. how much protein. If you take biopsy extract from minced or ground up muscle muscle growth. Satellite cells are phase of the be slaugh- number of muscle fibers (muscle cells). or you’re just wasting samples of muscle before and after a tissue (4). most experts agree growth.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. muscle growth. Can you imagine occurs by fiber hypertrophy. An extract from undamaged your time in the gym. we going to all that work of busting your butt gested that in order for muscle cell hy.and most impor- with cats demonstrated a 9% increase cell hyperplasia comes about as a result tantly. most muscle damage (1. And this is why it’s the Parrillo Performance Nutrition Man- studies in exercise physiology use un. satellite cells the basics to help this process work at the situation of adding more muscle cells. especially the eccentric nutrient levels even higher. So bodybuilding diet is laid out in detail in sistance and low repetitions (2. car- (cells) per cross-sectional area than un. greater microtrauma during the eccentric Tri®. for extra branched chain amino growth. We also now that high re. weight slowly and resist the weight on composition guide. of sub-optimal nutrition? The optimal must be of high intensity. so you can precisely pertrophy of existing muscle fibers. weight (2). presumably. and Minerals. are preferentially used for energy. both growth mechanisms are probably at part of the rep for stimulating muscle and everything else you need to know. Add in Muscle is the door to almost unlimited muscle exhaust its ATP stores.

We’re here for the few people out your own body’s recovery ability as well there who are really serious about reach- as how many other stressors you have in ing their goals. results.they get damaged in Start off with the Nutrition and Train- the gym. You have to keep slowly increasing References burned as body heat instead of being con. but more importantly the routine for your body. get adequate rest to allow mus. Kinetics. Williams and Wilkins. Exercise Physiology . or how many days a week should you sets us apart is that Parrillo is a compre.say. feel trition. cle. that’s just the other job to worry about. Part V excess calories from CapTri® are readily got. so they are at beginning of a relationship. metabolism. Some to educate customers so they can get the people even do well training every day. cellular energy gain muscle easily often can train more. The reason the way. but Some professionals train twice a day. that’s all be able to recover from daily workouts. Hard gainers you need to know to become the best you do better with less work and more time can be. That’s why the serious people body. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Champaign. But when you buy supplements Professional bodybuilders don’t have any or a manual from Parrillo. for example. Training and Conditioning. 1991. Human is a must. and ing and nutrition. ercise performance and sample routines. Champaign. You have to get adequate rest for free to call or write with questions or for Febiger. which are where you get 3. It’s a hard gainer’s dream come true. IL. Katch FI. supplements. Baechle TR. To supply not only will have to experiment to find the best the products. The growth phase occurs dur. You have to train hard. You have end up with Parrillo. Third. Human Ki- diet in a way that will minimize body fat. Lea & ing. most out of the workouts? Nobody else. At any time. and Katch ing the next couple of days following a the information you need to reach your VL. builders. this takes a big toll on your gym deserve results. McArdle WD. Physi- cles to recover between workouts. If you work 60 hours a week.Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle. Nu- workout while the muscles are recover. that are true for every. Essentials of Strength THE BEST way to add calories to your describes all the best exercises for body. MD. IL. nobody else does what we do. ing Manuals. Wilmore JH and Costill DL. and you probably won’t plements from somebody else. Remember. Baltimore. This makes CapTri® Parrillo Performance Training Manual 1.we don’t just sell you 4. Lieber RL. We supply information. We believe that people your life. We support our pro- There’s no simple answer to the questions gram all the way . PA. training one muscle group each day. Who else does that? Who else for recovery . and Human Performance. Skeletal Muscle Structure of how often should you train each mus. grow in the gym . muscles don’t the professional ranks. you get. netics. and muscle physiology just three on and one off. not just is that the optimal training protocol is dif. There are some support and information you need to get basics however. with scientific information about body- People who are naturally muscular and building endocrinology. training three days a sends out a free magazine to customers week on a one on — one off schedule. bodybuilding goals. which is supported all still don’t know the answer. Trainers and muscle physiologists hensive package. this recovery process to occur optimally. What and Function. When you buy sup- recovery ability. The verted to body fat. personal counseling. train. with descriptions of proper ex. A lot of people sell supplements. 1992. the resistance and getting stronger. to give each workout everything you’ve 136 © 2004. We actually teach you what ferent for different people. There’s enough in there to take you from 2. That’s our an advantage in terms of recovery. 1994. You commitment to you. Malvern. something and then turn you loose.Energy. This the beginning level all the way through ology of Sport and Exercise. We’re for The optimal schedule for you depends or real. who are dedicated and work hard in the for example. 1994. a total program of train- have been studying this for years.

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 33

Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part VI
by John Parrillo
Over the last five bulletins we’ve take can lift one time (1,2,3). Thus, the one probably do even better - maybe around
a detailed look at muscle. We’ve covered rep maximum (1RM) is a measure of 90%. It should be obvious that the more
basic scientific concepts of muscle struc- muscle strength. At first, you would think fibers you can get to fire at once, the
ture, function, and physiology all the way that the only important thing would be more force the muscle will generate. This
down to the cellular and even molecular how strong the muscle is, and since big- is why people see such great gains in
level. Now you know about the sliding ger muscles are stronger, the guy with the strength during the first six months or so
filament theory of muscle action and the biggest muscles would be the strongest. of training without seeing much increase
details of how muscle is controlled by the This is not quite true, however. The in muscle size. What they’re doing is
nervous system. In the last bulletin we important thing is how much force the learning how to more efficiently recruit
talked the cellular and molecular basis of the muscle fibers they have.
muscle growth, including muscle hyper- The important thing is how This is primarily a consequence of
trophy, hyperplasia, and the recruitment much force the muscle can gen- training the nervous system. With prac-
of satellite cells. In previous series we tice, your brain learns how to recruit
explored the aerobic and anaerobic en-
erate, which not only depends on more motor units to fire at the same
ergy metabolism of muscle as well as the how big and strong the muscle time, resulting in greater force produc-
hormonal regulation of muscle growth is but also on how efficiently the tion from the muscle. This takes us back
and the way to control hormones through muscle can be activated by the to one of the fundamental principles
diet and exercise. nervous system. (Obviously, le- of training - that of training specificity.
This month I want to talk about differ- verage factors like skeletal struc- For powerlifting you want to increase
ent training strategies for muscle and how strength, which means increasing your
ture and tendon attachments also
to tailor your training to achieve your 1RM. To do this, you want to train at low
particular goals. Bodybuilding, power- are very important, but there’s not reps with heavy weight. Since the com-
lifting, endurance running and biking, much you can do about that.) petition involves lifting at low reps, you
and sports like football and basketball all want to do most of your training at low
require muscle training, but obviously the reps. Scientific studies have consistently
performance goals of these sports are dif- muscle can generate, which not only de- shown that the greatest gains in strength
ferent and the best way to train for each pends on how big and strong the muscle come from training in the 3-6 rep range
of these is different. The place to start is is but also on how efficiently the muscle with heavy weight (1,2,3). This rep range
to decide what your goals are, and then can be activated by the nervous system. allows you to train with about 90% of
map out a plan for how to get there. (Obviously, leverage factors like skeletal your 1RM. You should also train some
Let’s start with powerlifting, since structure and tendon attachments also heavy singles, especially near the com-
this is one of the simplest forms of train- are very important, but there’s not much petition, but not at every workout since
ing to consider. Powerlifting is about one you can do about that.) You can easily these are very hard on your joints. You
thing: the guy who can lift the heaviest prove this to yourself simply by compar- should take plenty of time to rest between
weight in proper form wins. The win- ing the physiques of bodybuilders and sets, generally from 3-5 minutes. This
ner will thus be determined by two fac- powerlifters. Bodybuilders have bigger allows your nervous system and muscles
tors: his shear physical strength and his muscles, but powerlifters are stronger. to recover completely between sets so
mastery of technique. At top level lifting So muscle size must not be the only im- you can give maximal effort to each
events, technique gets to be very impor- portant thing. The higher the percentage set. The best gains in strength usually
tant. Elite lifters have great skill in using of muscle fibers you can recruit to fire come from relatively low volume train-
their strength to lift the heaviest weight (contract) at the same time, the stronger ing, around 3-5 sets per exercise. Keep
possible. The technique of competitive a given-sized muscle will be. Estimates the number of exercises and the total
Olympic-style lifting is a field in it’s own are that the average person has the ability number of sets fairly low. The concept
right, and is not the topic here. What I to recruit only about 50% of the fibers for strength training is to do a low vol-
want to discuss here is the strength as- of a muscle to fire at once, and that with ume of extremely high intensity lifting.
pect. Muscle strength is defined as the training this may increase to around 70%. Train mostly the basic compound joint
maximum load (weight) that a muscle I’m convinced that elite powerlifters can exercises, such as squat, deadlift, bench

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Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part VI

press, military press, and barbell row. detailed information on the best exercises important. Kinetic energy is equal to one
These are probably the best exercises for for bodybuilders and for instruction on half the product of mass times veloc-
increasing overall body strength. proper exercise performance. ity squared, so the faster you’re moving
Bodybuilding is a close cousin of The best bodybuilders also incorpo- the more kinetic energy you have. To
powerlifting, and the training styles are rate powerlifting-style training into their sum up, powerlifting and bodybuilding
very similar. The goal of bodybuilding workouts. Many bodybuilders actually are just concerned with muscle size and
is to maximize muscle size, more than start off as powerlifters for a few years strength, but these other sports add in the
strength, and to minimize body fat. Of factor of speed.
course, muscle size and strength do go For maximal increases in As an example, if two athletes have a
together, and big bodybuilders are indeed muscle size, it is best to train 1RM of 200 pounds on the bench press
very strong. As we discussed last month, mostly in the 6-12 rep range they have the same strength on that ex-
the main adaptation responsible for in- ercise. But if one athlete can perform the
creases in muscle size is hypertrophy
with a moderate load. By movement in 2 seconds while the other
- an increase in diameter of muscle fibers “moderate” I mean the heavi- requires 4 seconds to lift the weight, the
(1,2,3). This is accomplished by addition est load you can lift for 6-12 former is generating twice the power of
of more myofibrils inside the muscle cell. reps in good form. This rep the later. While absolute strength is an
Packing in more actin and myosin fila- range allows you to use about important component of performance,
ments will make the muscle bigger and 70-80% of your 1RM weight. power is probably even more important
stronger. The training strategy for this is for most sports (1). Muscle power is the
similar as for powerlifting. For maximal product of strength and speed, both of
increases in muscle size, it is best to train to get a solid foundation of strength, and which are obviously central to football,
mostly in the 6-12 rep range with a mod- then use bodybuilding-style workouts to basketball, and like sports.
erate load (1,2,3). By “moderate” I mean refine their size and shape. There are Training the speed component adds
the heaviest load you can lift for 6-12 several ways to incorporate both training another factor to your training. As you
reps in good form. This rep range allows styles into your workouts. One way is to might guess, this involves trying to lift
you to use about 70-80% of your 1RM do some very heavy sets to failure at 3-5 the weight as quickly as possible. One
weight. It is important to train to failure reps, followed by some moderate sets to effective approach to weight training for
at each working set, which means keep failure at 6-10 reps in a single workout. speed calls for using about 30% of your
performing reps until you absolutely can- This approach trains for muscle size 1RM weight and performing the positive
not get another. When you can perform and strength at each workout. Another (lifting) phase of the movement in ex-
12 or more reps with a given weight, increasingly popular approach is called plosive fashion. This is usually done for
increase the weight by about 10%. This is “periodization,” Which involves a cycle about 10 reps per set. Another technique
the concept of progressive resistance. of relatively light break-in training, fol- to increase muscle power is plyometrics.
Bodybuilders generally get better re- lowed by a cycle of bodybuilding style Plyometrics is a way of overloading the
sults from a slightly higher volume of training, followed by a cycle of pow- muscle prior to an explosive contrac-
training as compared to powerlifting, say erlifting style training. Each cycle can tion with speed-strength as the goal (3).
4-6 sets per exercise, and more exercises last from about 4-12 weeks, depending An example of plyometric training for
per muscle group. Powerlifters might do on what works best for you. When you legs is to step or jump off of a box, land
8-12 total sets per workout while body- hit a plateau in your training, it gener- and squat, and then jump up as fast as
builders usually do 15-30. Rest intervals ally means it’s time to move to a new possible. This does two things. First, po-
between sets are usually 1-2 minutes for workout. tential energy is stored by stretching the
bodybuilding. It is crucially important Sports like sprinting, football, and connective tissues, such as the muscle
for optimal gains in muscle size for the basketball require maximal muscle sheath, the tendons, and the muscle itself.
bodybuilder to emphasize the eccentric power, which is different from strength. Second, the rapid eccentric movement of
phase of the muscle action. This means Power is work per unit time, which is landing and squatting evokes the stretch
lower the weight slowly and resist the also equal to force times speed. Power reflex, or the stretch-shortening cycle
weight on the way down. This results requires generating a lot of force, and (SSC) of the same muscle (3,4).
in greater micro-trauma to the muscle generating it quickly. Force is equal to The basis of the stretch reflex is the
fibers, and this damage serves as a stimu- mass times acceleration, so the faster you muscle spindle. Muscle spindles are sen-
lus to the adaptation process resulting accelerate a given weight, the more force sory nerves located in special muscle
in increases in muscle size. Refer to the you’re producing. In sports like football fibers called intrafusal fibers. These fi-
Parrillo Performance Training Manual and boxing, the transfer of kinetic en- bers run parallel to the extrafusal muscle
and High Performance Bodybuilding for ergy from one player to another is very fibers, which are the ones we normally

138 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Guide to Muscle, Part VI

think of as being responsible for muscle fibers compared to type II fibers (3). it away by not eating right. Try to eat
contraction. When a muscle is stretched However, since type I fibers have less every three hours or so, and include the
this activates the nerves in the intrafusal capacity for hypertrophy than do type II right balance of carbohydrates and pro-
fibers, which sends a signal back to the fibers, endurance training does not result tein at each meal. Good protein sources
motor neurons in the spinal cord. These in as great an increase in muscle size as are chicken breast, turkey breast, fish,
send a signal out to the extrafusal fibers does resistance training. and egg whites. Good carbs include po-
to contract. The muscle spindle is a safety During endurance training there is a tatoes, rice, beans, oatmeal, peas, corn,
mechanism that causes a muscle to con- gradual conversion of type IIb fibers to and vegetables. Refer to the Nutrition
tract whenever it is stretched. This reflex type IIa fibers (3). Type IIa fibers, or fast Manual for detailed instruction. As far as
keeps the muscle from tearing from ex- oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers, have supplementation goes, the most impor-
cessive stretching. When you add in this a greater aerobic capacity than type IIb tant ones for increasing muscle size and
reflex arc, this results in a more powerful fibers, or fast glycolytic (FG) fibers (3). strength are Hi-Protein Powder, CapTri,
contraction from a stretched muscle than The result of this conversion is a greater and Muscle Amino. For endurance
can be consciously achieved
by contracting a muscle from
The basis of the stretch reflex is the performance, the most important
are Pro-Carb, The Bar, CapTri, and
it’s normal resting length. The muscle spindle. Muscle spindles are sensory Max Endurance. Never lose sight
elastic properties of the muscle nerves located in special muscle fibers called of your dream. Never give up. The
and tendons store energy dur- intrafusal fibers. These fibers run parallel to Parrillo Program has built a lot of
ing the eccentric (stretching) the extrafusal muscle fibers, which are the champions, and we’ll build a lot
phase, and this also contributes ones we normally think of as being respon- more. Be one. Parrillo Performance
to force production (3). An-
sible for muscle contraction. When a muscle - where dreams come true.
other form of plyometric leg
training is jump squats, where is stretched this activates the nerves in the References
a relatively light weight is used intrafusal fibers, which sends a signal back to
and you jump when coming the motor neurons in the spinal cord. 1. Wilmore JH and Costill DL.
out of the squat, with your feet Physiology of Sport and Exercise.
actually leaving the ground. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 1994.
Baechle (reference 3) contains an exten- number of fibers which can contribute
sive list of plyometric training drills and to endurance performance (3). Endur- 2. McArdle WD, Katch FI, and Katch
techniques for those of you interested in ance training increases the number of VL. Exercise Physiology - Energy, Nu-
more information. mitochondria and the concentration of trition, and Human Performance. Lea &
The best form of training for competi- myoglobin in muscle cells (3). As you Febiger, Malvern, PA, 1991.
tive endurance activities is training that know, mitochondria are the organelles re-
activity itself. In other words, endur- sponsible for aerobic energy production. 3. Baechle TR. Essentials of Strength
ance cycling is the best way to train for Myoglobin is a protein which can bind Training and Conditioning. Human Ki-
endurance cycling. That’s not to say that and store oxygen, much like hemoglobin. netics, Champaign, IL, 1994.
weight training can’t help, but weight Thus while weight training mainly results
training is mainly about muscle size, in bigger, stronger muscles, endurance 4. Komi PV. Strength and Power in
strength, and power, not endurance. En- training results mainly in increased aero- Sport. Blackwell Scientific Publications,
durance training is an aerobic exercise bic energy producing ability. Oxford, 1992.
activity, while resistance training (weight Bodybuilders should remember how-
training) is anaerobic. Endurance training ever to include aerobic exercise as part
involves a very large number of submaxi- of their training, since this trains a very
mal muscular contractions (3). Compared important muscle called the heart. Aero-
to weight training, the intensity is very bic exercise also burns fat and helps to
low and the volume is very high (3). The increase capillary density in muscle. This
adaptations to aerobic training are very allows for increased blood supply, which
different than those to anaerobic training. means increased nutrient supply, which
Endurance training reduces the overall means bigger muscles.
concentration of glycolytic enzymes, the This concludes our series on muscle.
ones involved in anaerobic energy pro- Whatever your training goals, don’t for-
duction (3). In endurance training there get the central role of nutrition. Seri-
is increased recruitment of type I muscle ous training is hard work - don’t throw

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140 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 34

Muscle Up - The Keys to Building Mass and Staying Lean, Part I
by John Parrillo
Sometimes as you read this column, who looked like bodybuilders before they be structured according to fairly narrow
you may get the impression that attain- ever went into a gym. But these people parameters. The nuts and bolts of how
ing a bodybuilding physique is pretty are rare. Most of us are all too familiar to do this is described in the Parrillo Per-
easy. I talk about how to control your with the scenarios described above. And formance Nutrition Manual, which is the
hormones, how to stimulate fat loss, how this is why attaining that bodybuilding cornerstone of the program. The second
to drive muscle growth, how to channel look is hard for most people. requirement for nutrient partitioning is
food energy to muscle stores, and so on, What’s the answer? How can the av- a training program. Training provides
and bodybuilding sounds not too hard. erage person attain a really spectacular the stimulus to build muscle as well as
The truth is, achieving a bodybuilder’s activating the body’s fat-burning path-
physique is very hard, and that’s why you The key concept is an ways. How does it work? What happens
don’t see too many bodybuilders walking idea called nutrient parti- is the nutrition program and the training
around. If it was easy, everybody would program come together to have certain
look great.
tioning, which means di- effects on the body’s hormones. And
The key reason why it’s so hard is recting ingested dietary these hormones control muscle metabo-
that you have to be in a calorie deficit to energy toward the lean lism and fat metabolism. If you follow
stimulate fat loss, yet in order to drive the program faithfully you can actually
muscle growth you have to supply all compartment and not to modify the hormonal environment inside
the nutrients and energy muscles need to fat stores. The idea is to your body in such a way as to signal your
grow. In a way it’s a paradox to do both at have your food energy muscles to grow and simultaneously sig-
the same time. But it is possible. nal fat loss. And by supplying nutrient
The easiest way to lose fat is just to go to build muscle while energy is a specific pattern you can direct
starve yourself. Starving people are not drawing on your fat stores this energy to the lean compartment while
fat. As you know, the problem with this at the same time burning body fat. If you
to fuel activity.
approach is that during severe caloric read my articles over the last two or three
restriction you lose about half muscle years you will have a virtual textbook on
and half fat. Your body tries to hang on physique? Hard work, consistency, and the science of how this works, down to
to the fat as long as it can so it won’t dedication. These are the core principles the cellular and even molecular level.
run out of energy. At the other end of the of the Parrillo philosophy. If you can So let’s say you want to do it. Where
spectrum, is pretty easy to gain weight if give me those, I can give you a great do you start? You start with the Nutri-
you just eat like a pig. There are very few physique. Without those, all the informa- tion Manual and a solid training program
people who can’t gain a lot of weight if tion and training and supplements in the which includes lifting weights and aero-
they just eat enough calories. This is what world just don’t matter. It’s really up to bics. It’s virtually impossible to achieve
the hoard of “weight gainer” powders out you. So how do you do it? the results of my program without the Nu-
there are for. If you add 1,000 calories a The key concept is an idea called trition Manual. Virtually every advanced
day to your diet, you will gain weight. nutrient partitioning, which means direct- level bodybuilder in the world is on this
The problem, of coarse, is that if you just ing ingested dietary energy toward the program, and that’s no exaggeration. You
indiscriminately add calories to your diet lean compartment and not to fat stores. have to start there. I’ve spent over twenty
most of them (probably about 75% by The idea is to have your food energy years researching this area and experi-
most estimates) will end up as fat. go to build muscle while drawing on menting with advanced level competitive
So we have to lose calories to lose your fat stores to fuel activity. Achieving bodybuilders. My approach has been to
fat, but if we cut calories half the weight this requires two things. First is a very assemble all of the scientific information
which is lost will be muscle. And we specific eating program which supplies on muscle and fat metabolism, and then
have to add calories to gain weight, but energy is a way which supplies nutri- try different strategies in real athletes to
about 75% of excess calories usually end ents to build muscle but not providing find out what really works. The Nutrition
up as fat. Genetically gifted bodybuilders calories which are stored as fat. There are and Training Manuals give you the ben-
may not have such a problem. I’ve met certain foods you should eat and specific efit of twenty years of research and work
several people who were quite strong and foods you should avoid. Each meal must right at your fingertips.
Are there any supplements that can

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 141

Muscle Up - The Keys to Building Mass and Staying Lean, Part I

down) during exercise, basis, and more during intense exercise.
especially intense aerobic In one study protein breakdown and use
exercise (2). These two of amino acids for fuel were measured
reasons plus the fact the in men following a 10 mile run. It was
body cannot make its own found that 57 grams of protein were con-
BCAAs increase the need sumed as fuel during the run, accounting
for BCAAs by athletes, es- for 18% of the energy cost of the run
pecially athletes concerned (2). This means that as much as the en-
about achieving maximum tire USRDA for protein can be burned
muscle mass. BCAAs seem to be during a single intense aerobic exercise
preferentially taken up by muscle bout. There seems to be little doubt
tissue and stored there, providing an that intensely training athletes need more
anabolic effect as well as a nitrogen- protein than sedentary people, since the
sparing (anti-catabolic) effect (3). energy cost of exercise results in a sig-
Muscle Amino™ is really the exact nificant amount of amino acid oxidation.
thing we’re looking for in a supple- Bodybuilders virtually unanimously
ment. It’s selectively taken up by muscle, agree that they need extra protein. Most
so it will add to muscle mass and not of them have the misconception that they
fat mass. It provides essential building need extra protein to supply the building
blocks which are used to build muscle blocks for muscle growth. The truth is
protein, having a anabolic effect. And it that two or three extra bites of chicken
blocks break-down of existing muscle every day will supply enough protein
tissue during intense exercise. This for your muscles to grow as fast as they
is a perfect example of positive nu- can. The real reason bodybuilders and
trient partitioning. Muscle Amino endurance athletes need more protein is
provides nutrient energy which is that they burn more protein for fuel dur-
help? Yes, definitely. One in particu- specifically targeted to building up ing exercise. If you don’t supply enough
lar that fits into this program is called muscle stores while not contributing to protein in the diet to make up for this
Muscle Amino™. Muscle Amino™ is a fat stores. You can see why I call it increased demand then the body will
pharmaceutical grade, ultra-pure, crys- “Muscle Amino.” actually break down muscle tissue to sup-
talline, free-form amino acid mixture of Exercise induces changes in the ply the amino acids to use as fuel. This is
leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These are body’s pattern of energy metabolism, your worst nightmare. Since the biggest
the so-called “branched chain” amino and these changes are driven by energy demand for amino acid fuel is during aer-
acids, because their side chain contains a needs, substrate availability, and hor- obic exercise, it turns out that endurance
branched carbon structure. The branched monal regulation (2). This change in the athletes actually have even higher protein
chain amino acids (BCAAs) are among pattern of energy flow in the body is what requirements than bodybuilders (2). Very
the essential amino acids. Of the twenty brings about the change in body compo- few people realize this, including very
amino acids common in human proteins, sition we seek. Energy to fuel to body is few endurance athletes. This is why en-
twelve of them can be made by the body derived from oxidation (burning) of the durance athletes usually have a very thin
and are called “nonessential” amino ac- carbon chains in carbohydrates, fats, and (sometimes referred to as “stringy”) look
ids. The other eight cannot be made by proteins. The ratio of the fuel mixture - they burn more protein than they take
the body and are called “essential” amino which is oxidized depends on the nutri- in, so their muscles get catabolized as
acids because it is essential they be ob- ent ratio consumed as well as exercise fuel. If endurance athletes would simply
tained from the diet. Obviously, body- type and intensity (2). In other words, increase their protein intake they would
builders need to be attentive that their whether you burn fat or carbs or protein become more muscular and stronger, and
diet supplies all of the essential amino ac- for energy depends on what you eat and probably become better, faster athletes as
ids they need, because they are required how you exercise. well. Usually in a contest between two
for muscle maintenance and growth. During normal conditions, 80 - 100% equally skilled athletes, the stronger one
There are two special things about the of the body’s energy requirements are wins.
BCAAs: they are among the most abun- supplied by fats and carbohydrates (2). Muscle mass is determined by the
dant amino acids in muscle proteins (1) This means that amino acids can provide balance of protein synthesis and protein
and they are heavily catabolized (broken up to 20% of energy needs on a daily degradation (2). When synthesis exceeds

142 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Muscle Up - The Keys to Building Mass and Staying Lean, Part I

degradation, protein mass accumulates tein synthesis. Virtually every book and effects accumulate over time. It is best
and the body is said to be in positive article about supplementation for athletes to take Muscle Amino™ with meals to
protein balance (or positive nitrogen bal- suggest the BCAAs as one of the core increase absorption. There’s a lot more
ance). When degradation exceeds syn- supplements. Of all the supplements out to be said about amino acid metabolism
thesis, the body is in a negative protein there, Muscle Amino is certainly one of during exercise, and how to use exercise
balance and muscle mass is lost. The the most high-tech, because it specifically and nutrition to shift your metabolism
proteins in your muscles are not excep- targets the metabolic problem at hand. into a muscle-building, fat-burning mode.
tionally stable over time, but rather are in By supplying more BCAAs to the body I’ll pick up here next month and get into
a constant state of “turnover.” This means less muscle tissue is catabolized during some of the molecular details of what’s
that every day some of your body pro- exercise, helping to maintain positive happening with amino acid metabolism
teins are broken down and destroyed to protein balance and net gain of muscle during exercise and how to use this infor-
be replaced with new proteins. Proteins tissue. This is a prime example of a low mation to maximize muscle mass.
are the mechanical workhorse of the cell, calorie nutrient which specifically targets
being responsible for doing the physical metabolic pathways to have a positive References
work of life. For example, during muscle partitioning effect. Muscle Amino™ is
contraction what happens is protein fila- selectively taken up by muscle where it 1. Rombeau JL and Caldwell MD.
ments called actin and myosin slide past acts to promote protein synthesis and pre- Clinical Nutrition: Parenteral Nutrition,
each other in opposite directions, thus vent protein breakdown. Since it is taken Second Edition. W.B. Saunders Com-
making the muscle shorter. Like any me- up by muscle and not by fat, this is a way pany, Philadelphia, 1993.
chanical parts that move and rub against to supply nutrient energy which will be
each other, they get worn out. After a partitioned to the lean compartment. It 2. Wolinsky I and Hickson JF. Nutri-
while the old proteins are broken down should be emphasized that endurance tion in Exercise and Sport. CRC Press,
and replaced with new ones. athletes will benefit from this supplement Boca Raton, 1994.
When you eat a protein food, it gets at least as much as bodybuilders, if not
digested in the stomach and intestine into even more. 3. Bucci L. Nutrients as Ergogenic
individual amino acids and short chains To see a real noticeable effect from Aids for Sports and Exercise. CRC Press,
of amino acids that are small enough to Muscle Amino™ you need to take a fair Boca Raton, 1993.
be absorbed into the bloodstream. Even- amount of it. At least ten grams a day, and
tually all of the protein is broken down twenty would not be too much. I suggest
into individual “free” amino acids. These three capsules with each of six meals per
can experience two main metabolic fates. day. Smaller amounts will have a smaller
They can be used to build new proteins effect, but this is a supplement where the
or they can be burned as fuel to produce
energy. Not all of the amino acids are
treated equally however. The branched
chains are used as fuel more than the oth-
ers (2). Muscle contains special enzymes
called branched chain aminotransferase
and branched chain keto acid dehydro-
genase which permit the breakdown of
the BCAAs for energy (2). This allows
muscle to use BCAAs as fuel whereas
the other amino acids are oxidized in the
liver. So while exercise increases protein
requirements in general, it especially in-
creases BCAA requirements.
This coupled with the fact that the
BCAAs are among the most abundant
amino acids in muscle protein make it
obvious why athletes have increased need
for the branched chains. They use more
for energy, plus they need more for pro-

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 143

144 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 35

Muscle Up - The Keys to Building Mass and Staying Lean, Part II
by John Parrillo
For years bodybuilders have asserted A little background: What body-
that they need more protein than average builders seek to achieve is a state
people, and all the while nutritionists of positive protein balance. This
have kindly replied, “No, you don’t.” means that more protein is com-
Most of the scientific studies show that ing into the body than is leav-
athletic activity does not appreciably in- ing. Protein is on average
crease protein requirements. Could it be about 16% nitrogen by
that bodybuilders really don’t need any weight. Since nitrogen
“extra” protein? Think about this for a is easy to measure in the
minute: Muscle is about 75% water, so a lab, nitrogen balance is
pound of muscle only contains about 100 used as a way to mea-
grams of protein. Most people would sure protein balance.
consider gaining 10 pounds of muscle a Nitrogen is also a good
year to be good progress, and that would way to keep track of
amount to 1,000 grams of protein. Over the protein economy
a year’s time, that equals out to gaining in the body because
2.74 grams of protein per day, which carbohydrate and
is about one or two bites of a chicken fat do not contain
breast. So, they say, eat a couple extra nitrogen. You see,
bites of chicken breast and that’s enough when we eat ex-
protein to grow as big as Arnold. cess protein it
Bodybuilders, on the other hand, can be stored as
have said that if they want muscles twice muscle, but it
as big as everybody else they have to eat could also be
twice as much protein as everybody else. converted to
They need extra protein to supply the fat. If it is
building blocks to build extra muscle. So converted to years a number of important stud-
who’s right? fat, the nitrogen is removed (as ammonia) ies have been performed showing that
Well, neither party turned out to be and is excreted in the urine (after the am- hard-training athletes may actually need
exactly right. Bodybuilders do need monia is converted to urea). This leaves vastly more protein than average people.
more protein than average people, but the carbon skeleton of the amino acids, The new experiments also measure ni-
not for the reason they thought. In fact, which can be broken down and used to trogen lost in sweat, which the older
those two extra bites of chicken every make fat. By measuring nitrogen balance studies failed to do. Also, the new ex-
day would be enough to grow muscles as we see how much nitrogen is entering the periments are much more realistic, using
big as Arnold’s, if it all ended up being body and how much is leaving, and any experienced athletes in intense training
converted to muscle. The problem is, that remains in the body must represent programs. It turns out that a significant
it doesn’t. The original studies looking new protein tissue. amount of nitrogen can be lost in sweat,
at protein requirements of athletes were The old studies measuring nitrogen and if this is factored in then intensely
flawed in several ways. First, they used balance in athletes looked at how much training athletes may need as much as
untrained athletes and the exercise proto- nitrogen was consumed as protein in the two or three times as much protein as
cols were not very intense. The subjects diet versus how much nitrogen was ex- an average person to maintain nitrogen
simply did not exercise long enough or creted in urine and feces. They found that balance (1-18). (I have included a rather
hard enough to see an effect of exercise athletes could remain in nitrogen balance extensive reference list here, as this con-
on protein requirements. Second, in the without eating much, if any, extra pro- troversial topic has been the subject of
old studies nitrogen lost in sweat was tein. This is the basis for the long-stand- much research. If you’re only going to
not measured, and this turns out to be ing disagreement between bodybuilders read one reference, read #17 by Peter
significant. and nutritionists. During the last few Lemon. It’s an excellent review that puts

© 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 145

Muscle Up - The Keys to Building Mass and Staying Lean, Part II

a lot of this in perspective.) by the liver (20). Thus a high protein
So what does all of this mean? Do meal only increases serum amino acid
athletes need more protein? Yes, defi- levels by about 20%.
nitely, they need significantly more pro- Well, so what, and what does all this
tein than sedentary people. The contro- have to do with bodybuilding? Remem-
versy is over on this argument, and now ber that the liver does not have the en-
even the old-school nutritionists agree. zymes to metabolize the BCAAs, and this
Do bodybuilders need more protein so means that the BCAAs increase mark-
they can have more substrate to build edly in the bloodstream after a meal. (In
new muscle tissue? No, they need more other words, they pass straight through
protein because they excrete more nitro- the liver without being broken down.) In
gen during exercise. In other words, very fact, the BCAAs can account for about
little extra protein is needed to build new 70% of the amino acids released from
muscle tissue, but a lot of extra protein the small intestine via the liver to the rest
is needed to make up for how much is of the body (20). Are you starting to get
burned as fuel during exercise. the idea that the branched chain aminos
The branched chain amino acids are important in muscle protein metabo-
(BCAAs) are of special importance to lism? Indeed, it has been shown that the
athletes because they are metabolized in sible for BCAA oxidation are activated. BCAAs account for 50-90% of the amino
muscle, rather than in the liver. Here’s Notably, however, during resting periods acids taken up by muscle tissue in the 3
what happens: After you eat the food is in the absorptive state (after a meal) when hours following a protein meal (20). The
digested and absorbed into the blood- other fuel sources are available such as branched chain aminos are also effective
stream through the small intestine. The glucose or ketones from CapTri®, these at stimulating insulin secretion, which in
blood from the small intestine drains alternate fuel sources “spare” the BCAAs turn stimulates protein synthesis.
into a special vein called the portal vein, from catabolism (degradation) leaving So what’s the bottom line here? First
which goes to the liver. So the liver gets them available for use in protein synthe- off, the branched chains account for 50-
first “dibs” on all the nutrients before they sis. Thus after a meal there is a small 90% of the amino acids taken up by
are transported to the rest of the body. burst in liver and muscle protein synthe- muscle after a protein meal. Once there,
(With the exception of long chain fats, sis, after which time any left over amino they are available to serve as substrate
which enter the lymphatics and bypass acids are burned for energy or converted for protein synthesis. They increase
the liver.) The primary site for degrada- to glucose and stored as glycogen (20). insulin, which further stimulates protein
tion of most amino acids also happens to It is estimated that about one third of synthesis. This is their anabolic effect.
be the liver (19). The liver thus has the the amino acids entering the liver from During periods of intense exercise, they
ability to break down most amino acids the portal vein are used for protein syn- can be burned for energy, helping prevent
for energy when it needs to, such as dur- thesis by the liver (serum proteins) or are breakdown of muscle tissue to use as
ing starvation or during intense exercise. converted to glucose or used for energy fuel. This is their anti-catabolic effect.
The first step is to remove the amino Parrillo Performance Muscle Amino™
group (-NH2) from the amino acid. This is a special formulation of BCAAs in the
is accomplished by enzymes called trans- proper balance to help promote muscle
aminases or aminotransferases. growth and prevent muscle breakdown.
However, the liver is very low in The best way to use it is to take it with
branched chain aminotransferase, which meals, and to eat six small meals per day.
means it can’t break down BCAAs to a The most important times to take it are
significant extent. This results in release the meal before your workout and the
of any BCAAs from the liver into the meal after your workout. I suggest taking
circulation (19). three to six Muscle Amino™ caps with
Skeletal muscle does contain a Pro-Carb™ drink after your workout.
branched chain aminotransferase and The carbohydrates will prevent oxidation
thus is able to break down the BCAAs of the BCAAs, leaving them available for
for energy. During periods of increased use in protein synthesis. The insulin re-
energy need such as starvation, trauma, lease from the Pro-Carb™ will help drive
or exercise, the enzyme pathways respon- the aminos inside the muscle cells, as

146 © 2004, 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404

Ef- fects of exercise on protein and amino 3. perek GJ. Nutr Metab 12: 259-274. intake and training status on nitrogen bal. 1989. which seems to be very effective is to use sedentary controls. and Canham. Laritcheva KA. Yalovaya NI. nutrition for the athlete. 1974. 12.The Keys to Building Mass and Staying Lean. retention of dietary protein. and Skala JH. New York. Aspen Publishers. leaving them available for 8. of the BCAAs. trogen balance studies in humans: long This is also the optimum time to replen. 1991. Physical Fitness and Health. Shu. Med Sci Sports Exer- about one tablespoon of CapTri® with cise 18: S64. In: Milk Proteins. p. 1987. Hu.need of man for physical effort on nitrogen balance in ergy expenditure and protein needs of man.Exercise Physiol 52: 27. Tarnopolsky MA. MacDougall JD. Elsevier Science Publish- and Atkinson SA. Combine this supplement ercise and sport. 19. Lemon PWR. Nutr Rep Int 11: 231-234. The influence of muscular 4. bolic activity. nitrogen. Protein and ex- Rogozkin VA. International Journal of Sport Nutrition use as protein. Dietary pro. Lemon PWR. Nu- 1. 79: 399-406. The ketones spare oxidation no Acid Needs of the Strength Athlete. Protein metabolism during intensive eds. 1991. Linder MC. Gontzea I. Nutr Rep Intl ish weight lifters during training camp. Celejowa I and Homa M. CRC Press. Effect of increased supply of protein Nelson RA. trition in Exercise and Sport. eds. 1975. Protein to nitrogen balance experiments. Influence of protein cise. Friedman JE and Lemon PWR. 1985. p. Dragen GI. Johnson HL. This enhances their ana. Baltimore. Altman SA. Exercise 19: S179-A190. J Nutr 109: 363-377. 1986 (abstract). Int J Sports 10. Harding RS. Consolazio I. Food in. Sutzescu P. Oddoye EB and Margem S. Dramise JG. Dohm GL. physical training in the young adult. The influence of adaption bin VI. 1988. J Clin Nutr 28: 29-35. J. University ercise: update 1987. 5-36. Williams RT. Ma- calories and protein. by rats and humans after a bout of exer. 1: 127-145.acid metabolism. 11. Tarnopolsky MA. Nelson RA. 1975. Lemon PWR. and energy balance in Pol. 1979. Vasiliu A. Med Sci Sports Exer- etary protein and total energy intake on cise 13: 141-149. p. top weight lifters. E. 16. Med Sci Sports Park Press. and Du- 5. MacDougall JD. Kas- Med 10: 118-123. Berning JR and Steen SN. In: Sports Nu. Lemon PWR and Nagel FJ. Applications. and I think you’ve I. CRC Press. and Du- mitrache S.Muscle Up . term effect of high nitrogen intake on ac- ish glycogen stores. toush LO. Influence of di. 1978. 6. 1982. Ni- © 2004. In: Nutrition in Exercise program with a healthy diet adequate in and Sport. 9. Part II well as stimulating protein synthesis (20).activity on nitrogen balance and on the take. References trition for the 90’s.mitrache S. eds. 7. and Van Rij AM. Another suggestion tein requirements for bodybuilders versus cretion. Nutr. Nutritional Bio- excretion of urea and N-methylhistidine chemistry and Metabolism with Clinical 2. Ni- got the best muscle-building program trogen excretion in sweat and its relation modern science has to offer. man protein intake and metabolism in ex. Sports Sci Exch 2. 13. 1991. Wolinsky I and Hickson JF. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 147 . p. Consolazio CF. strength improvement. 17. Effect of chronic endurance exercise on Boca Raton. Hickson JF and Wolinsky 18. 1-14. Hickson JF and Wolinsky I. Georgescu 15. and Shirnov PV. and Blimkie C. Sutzescu P. Gontzea I. Gasesloot TE and Tinbergen BJ. Houck J and Slavin J. Am 99-103. 1994. 1989. 1981. Study of en. Protein and Ami- each meal. ance and lean mass. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ ing Company. 155-163. eds. 1989. Increased 20. on elite weight lifters. J Appl Physiol 64: 187-193. The Netherlands: Wageningen. 1963. In: Nutrition. 1970. Pariznova J and 14. 10: 35-43.

148 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

that different dietary energy substrates in the liver. while having the greatest ten. let’s start with the differently in the body. are converted into ATP with different that they increase body temperature. tion following feeding. This meaning that they release a lot of heat seemingly simple question has a relative. and for most people. These hydrate. What you have to real. LCTs. confusion on thermogenesis. from over-eating will be fat mass. as fat. then they’re asking Let me clear up one minor area of you to take their word for it without fur. References 2-6 describe erides. while having the Different foods release different amounts literature. This is explained by the fact that matters like this it’s always nice to check into body fat if consumed in excess. The specific areas of uncertainty said this before many times. greatest tendency to con. Thermogenesis.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 36 MCT’s — Setting the Record Straight by John Parrillo There has been some confusion in not. It Does this mean we can eat all the MCTs yields. medium chain triglyc.6. with a small percentage being ferent efficiencies. Most fatty follow different metabolic pathways and noradrenaline levels and re-setting the acids in human fat are either 16 or 18 car. including studies in humans. are thus converted into energy with dif. he might to do so. but at dency to contribute to muscle tissue. Indeed. (2. sure the effect of replacing some part of Since what has been written contains ize is that different foods are metabolized dietary energy as MCT. It comes from metabolic pathway they follow. making it not available for storage be right or he might be wrong. If you eat too many calories you will with MCTs sought to determine if includ- the recent bodybuilding literature about gain weight. and 6 specially least you have the option of checking the So what is this business about dif. the same tendency to store as fat. but I’ll say what are the best studies done to date on revolve around whether MCTs are con. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 149 . and MCTs are profoundly thermogenic. any extra weight they gain mulation during over-feeding. So. it again to make sure I’m understood: too this issue.7). It has nothing to are triglycerides comprised of fatty acids usable energy in the form of ATP. with if MCTs are stored as body fat. These studies are well-con- verted into ketones and if they are stored many calories from any source can be trolled trails in rats and humans that mea- as body fat. because without any objective data it just refers to increases in body heat produc- in excess. important and count for a lot. heat. so a their references. tential to be converted on the subject. MCTs are 1 contains detailed calculations showing conversion of dietary energy to heat with- not stored as fat in the human (or in rats. but is bons long. in nutrition since vitamins. thermostat in the hypothalamus. This is a consequence of the ly complex answer. which the human animal stores fat in the form the realization that while protein. while I’m nishing any proof one way or the other. All foods re- Don’t get me wrong: expert opinions are builders want to do is lease heat when they are burned. If somebody takes a what bodybuilders want to do is pick the significant fraction of the dietary energy position and defends it by citing refer. Chapter 8 in reference merely a result of rapid metabolism and longer. This does not mean however where a lot of research was also done).4. When people to be converted to fat? This is one of the erence 7 is an excellent review article on comment on research results and don’t most exciting and important discoveries the subject. 4. has been well known for years that MCTs we want and never get fat? Of course The experiments done specifically are thermogenic without increasing body © 2004. All foods have the po. So all by MCTs this results in diminution of fat when people disagree about technical foods have the potential to be converted stores. of heat when they are burned. carbo. converted to fat. is in turn a consequence of their unique of long chain triglycerides. References 2. Ref- has interpreted it correctly. compared or more precisely. literally speaking. Literally speaking. It was found that come misinfomation. First. most ing MCTs in the diet can reduce fat accu- metabolism of medium chain fatty acids. or more I try to stay out of discussions like this into body fat if consumed properly the thermic effect of feeding. and fat can all be converted into molecular structure (7). they do with increasing thyroid hormone or 14 carbons long or longer. demonstrate the thermogenic effects of information out for yourself to see if he ferent foods having different tendencies MCTs. but you pick the food choices that maintenance of core temperature is one can’t really have much of a discussion have the least tendency of the main functions of dietary energy. and don’t all have if conventional fats (LCTs) are replaced general and move to the specific. cite any references. of the time. and what body- turns into an argument about opinions. of scientific research without citing the to do so. food choices that have the least tendency supplied by MCT is released as body ences to the scientific literature. I’ve to other foods. MCTs The next general issue has to do tribute to muscle tissue. happen to be profoundly thermogenic.

4. that the capacity of what to believe. which sticks a fatty acid onto store as fat than conventional fats or even carnitine. they are (8). idly burned for energy. are metabolized to produce ATP or else making them not available for storage converted into ketones. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . elevated body temperature then presence of glucose levels which inhibit ments of fatty acids (acetate) attached to we would get a fever after we ate. try MCT for yourself and see if than the mitochondria can produce ATP. MCT-derived calories for an equivalent cle. This means that MCT is burned faster more and more MCT. These acetyl-CoA we ate too much we would die from hy. The ketones then leave the liver too much and your supplement dollars ual. a byproduct of car. How this happens with as more heat is produced. and if ketone production from regular fats. This is because regular fats this means it is working like it is sup. fat than excess calories from other food require the carnitine shuttle to transport posed to. most commonly 16 carbons Regarding the question of ketogen. is that converted into ketones to any appreciable If you don’t see ketones in your urine calories derived from MCT have much extent as long as carbohydrate fuel is with Ketosticks while you’re using MCT. If foods. including following MCT ingestion. MCT is not directly stored as fat. it deserves mention that none ited by malonyl-CoA. Many studies Too many calories in any form can con. fat storage. The carnitine (2. and over in the literature (2-8). it can be converted into LCT which makes MCTs so special. and the ketones are being used sources. is a form of calories with less tendency to or CAT-I. less tendency to be converted into body available. it is liberated a sharp increase in ketone production MCTs is that they are broken down into to the environment. At that point it means you’re using the Parrillo Performance Nutrition Man- ketones. co-enzyme A (Co-A). is stored as fat. As I ex. long. benefit from this unique energy source. eventually you will Second. I’m glad that was brought up be. just like any other food. It doesn’t work that way. having what is called a “glu. Be sure to use it as instructed in so the rest of the energy is converted into urine. indeed see ketones spilling over into your it works. mitochondrial membrane. as we can from the literature. One is check out the scientific lit- ally reducing equivalents. The ketones are The point. This is because excess calories them across the mitochondria membrane from MCT are preferentially lost as heat to the mitochondrial matrix. I’ve given you that option. energy source for bodybuilders. By siting specific converted to ATP) is overwhelmed (7). ence of glucose (7). and that is the issue carbohydrates. including conventional cose-sparing” effect (7). by muscle (the brain continues to run on chain fats. which has been proven over dietary fats as well as body fat. which are two carbon frag- MCTs. as fuel inside muscle cells. take of simply adding several hundred in the literature for years. We’ve per- they can enter the mitochondria by pas.MCT’s — Setting the Record Straight temperature (7). and then and this is the molecular switch that does work on how to best use that information it. This makes MCT the ultimate shuttle requires the activity of an en. which are later erature for yourself. We learn as much as long as carbohydrate fuel is available. So while MCT is not stored directly cause that’s one of the key things that converted into ATP preferentially over as fat. Finally. are not burned first. This increases the thermo- MCT is that it is converted into ketones of storage of MCTs as body fat. even in the acetyl-CoA. Some people make the mis- is a well established fact that has been but it is a concentrated source of calories.6. of the scientific studies in the medical bohydrate metabolism. This means that literature were done with bodybuilders. This plained. where they are used for energy (7). sonally done the research over the years sive diffusion. Now I want to get back to a question amount of calories from convention fat or One of the most amazing things about I touched on earlier. in fact. since it zyme called carnitine acyl-transferase I. This means they are MCTs into a diet to derive maximum rapidly oxidized as fuel even in the pres. CAT-I is inhib. are just ending up in the toilet. The basic concept is to substitute cell and are carried by the blood to mus. without the help of the to determine the best way to incorporate carnitine shuttle (7). glucose as long as it’s available) and rap.7). It is quite correct glucose. fat metabolism is effectively shut down That’s where our research here at Parrillo (or at least significantly down regulated) Performance picks up. which then carries it across the carbohydrates. calories a day of CapTri® to their normal 150 © 2004. that regular fats. These ketones are taken up mostly units then can be re-assembled into long perthermia. saving the glucose for later. genic effect of the meal. If you use references. left. In fact. and subsequently stored as body fat esis. you have two options the Krebs cycle to produce ATP (liter. This just means that (reviewed in reference 7) have shown tribute to fat stores. The special thing about MCTs is that to make better bodybuilders. where they through the process of thermogenesis. thus decreasing even in the presence of glucose (7). The MCT is burned If you’re still confused and don’t know so rapidly.

B. Am. Thermic effect this training. J. © 2004. of course. 1978. hard and burning fat. Am. diet and may increase fat accumulation and as mentioned earlier. CapTri® is not a drug. Over- tion with the proper diet. with CapTri®. Seaton TB. Second. And Changes in blood lipids during six days while a low-carb diet alone would tired of overfeeding with medium or long and lifeless. Welle SL. 1983. Nutr. J. and Campbell RG. Ef- ways bodybuilders and other athletes fect of medium chain triglyceride on li- utilize this supplement in a positive way. Program. The key here is 634. Metab. Philadel- This. Am. Me- more fat is burned. CapTri® is used by of medium-chain and long-chain triglyc- bodybuilders as a replacement for carbo. So why use it? Here’s some of the 5. carbs ratio. bodybuilder and endurance athletes alike use CapTri® to increase energy for tremendous work- outs. minished deposition of fat in response to ing chemical. Nutr. References 1. J. 1992. There’s no feeding with medium chain triglyceride substitute for a sound nutrition program. Baba N. Third. without first establishing a good nutri. just adds calories to the phia. Lavau MM and Hashim SA. As with any supplement. 1982. Hashim SA. 35: energy in a way less likely to be stored as 678-682. 1989. It’s overfeeding with diet containing medium just a very special nutrient that supplies chain triglyceride. J. 44: 630- hydrates when dieting. Hill JO. 38: 641-648. by providing extra energy for increased intensity in workouts and by sparing ami. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 151 . CapTri® is not some magic fat-burn. 4. Lipid Res.MCT’s — Setting the Record Straight diet without making any other changes. Am. You use it for added calories in Thermogenesis in humans during over- your diet. Lippincott Co. 108: 613-620. Swift LL. 1990. metabolism for energy in the body. Kaler M. you increase your protein: J. But you can’t just start taking feeding with medium chain triglycerides. 1982. 36: 950-962.. J. Clin. the calories from CapTri® chain triglycerides. Sharp CapTri® is an extension of the Nutrition T. your nutrition program. J. Yang release of glucagon which promotes fat D. thus decreasing the amount of insulin in the blood. Nutr. 1986. Peters JC. and Greene HL. erides in man. That sparks the 8. diet results in diminished deposition of but by using supplements to complement fat. 37: 1-4. pogenesis and body fat in the rat. 31: 407- provide the energy to continue training 416. the key is 3. Bjorntorp P. and Hashim from your diet can be converted to body SA. Bracco EF. CapTri® can help you gain muscle. Peters JC. Hill JO. fat that regular foods. Clin. Clin. and Van Itallie TB. Nutr. and Greene HL. Bracco EF. Torbay N. Geliebter A. First. Warenko no acids that could be oxidized during MK. excess calories 2. and Brodoff BN. to use it in the proper way in combina. Clin. 6. Abumrad N. It’s an additional energy source that can be used in the presence of carbo- hydrates to keep you going harder for a longer period of time. tion program. By replacing carbs dium chain triglycerides: an update. Enhanced thermogenesis and di- fat. Yang D. Sharp T. Obesity. Abumrad N. Bach AC and Babayan VK. you can take your training and physique even further. Nutr. it. to change the insulin:glucagon ratio so 7.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .152 © 2004.

and So to lose body fat while maintain- keeping carbohydrate consumption to a the question is which one works best? ing muscle mass we need to consume a minimum. That’s not some fancy to support protein synthesis in the body. Almost all of the professionals Performance Press for an extensive refer. The truth is that because your metabolism has increased. The the loss of amino acids which simple truth is that the vast are oxidized as fuel during majority of bodybuilders stick exercise and to repair muscle to the high-carb approach be- tissue which is damaged during exercise. and this is where the an energy deficit is to increase your en- bodybuilding magazines recently about two diets differ. Just Let’s begin our analysis with the (calories) the body expends. what one gram of protein per pound of body you will also draw on stored protein from matters at this level is results. After meet- moting use of stored body fat as energy. while others may need skeletal muscle and internal organs for fat diet gave better results. This is the to a minimum. must be met is the body must function calories than we consume). One strategy is to supply ergy expenditure by doing more aerobic what’s the best dietary fuel for body.) Most bodybuilders do well on because if the energy deficit is too great high-carb/low-fat diet. to minimize these losses. and to keep conventional dietary fat tive nitrogen balance. most of this energy in the form of com. exercise. that’s what I as much as one-and-a-half or more. most basic concepts and move to we will lose body fat. The number one killer of the replacement of all sorts of cellular hoard fat at the expense of protein (1. Coronary artery dis- © 2004. Believe me. and endurance athletes need a general health considerations.You burn fat while doing the builders. day’s calories are derived from fat while either approach can be made to work. fat approach is for general reasons of to allow for protein turnover. or some combination. are damaged during exercise. I’ve trained just seem to do better on the ence list. but that’s not to say they work What the high-carb diet and the equally well. people in this country is heart disease. plain and simple. So both diets will more specific considerations later. If the high- weight per day. This is why it’s important to keep would use.) A much better way to achieve (including cancer). Some people are advocating plex carbs.2). Three general cat- first consideration of any body. Part I by John Parrillo Some debate has appeared in the is to provide energy. which is sponse that actually causes your body to good health. in which most of the supply the energy as fat. it’s just the bottom This is required to repair muscles that I do not advocate cutting calories to lose line. energy consumed (dietary calories) must the calories can come from carbohy- so let’s take a close look at the facts. we need to burn more insulin levels as low as possible. this were explained in detail in previous all other causes of death put together The rest of your daily calorie intake issues. proteins that “wear out” from every day (The biochemistry and endocrinology of which accounts for as many deaths as wear and tear. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 153 . If you are diet works better. This is a fine line to walk. But the fact is that in my ex- primary function of protein in the diet protein intake high while losing body perience with elite athletes the high-carb is to supply amino acids which are used fat. lot of protein to make up for and the scientific literature. and rate and sets into play an adaptive re. while the other approach is to aerobics and burn more fat afterwards the high-fat diet. The rationale for this approach To promote the use of stored body fat as diet adequate in protein and deficient in is to avoid carbohydrates in order to keep energy the one crucial requirement which calories (that is. in a net energy deficit. egories of reasons have lead me building diet. since this slows your metabolic The second reason I favor the low port growth of new muscle tissue. familiar with my program you know that technical explanation. your body burns more calories than you cause they have found it works better (See the July ‘95 issue of The Parrillo consume will it draw on stored fat for en. Only when so we burn more calories than we eat. thus pro. Many studies have in this direction: personal experi- documented that bodybuilders ence with real-life bodybuilders. to sup. ergy. be less than the total amount of energy drates. the rest of This is a topic near and dear to my heart. The energy. work. for them. fat. however. weight. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 37 Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth and Energy. I believe that it is best to high-fat diet have in common is that supply the bulk of dietary energy in they both emphasize consuming the form of complex carbohydrates adequate protein to maintain posi. This means that ing the protein requirement.

sity exercise like walking or riding the In contrast. When the heart how fast it can supply fuel and oxygen. The problem is the blood be delivered by the blood. The point of all this is that fat can- causing a blood clot to form in the When you go for a walk there’s no not be readily used as a fuel for lifting coronary artery. is very intense why bodybuilders should eat a high car- with some cancers. in mind that fat cannot be converted While this is happening blood is flowing cles to perform work faster than would be into carbohydrate. because the blood flow is adequate to preferred fuel the muscles can break duce blood cholesterol level and prevent supply the muscles with fuel and oxygen down without using oxygen (4). After that muscle stationary bike and then turn around and then they give out and can’t do another glycogen is broken down to pyruvate and eat 300 calories worth of fat your next rep. be burning fat that you just ate or stored gen. this makes aerobics the best way to lose ergy is produced without using oxygen. So during a set the carbohydrates. and is a way for mus. So protein instead of being converted to glu- from the point of view of general health cose (a simple carbohydrate) so it can be concerns. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . because and the amino acids are converted to gram for gram fat contains more than glucose in the liver in a process called twice as many calories as protein or car. oxygen. and to burn body your training partner has to help you rack the cell. The first few seconds are fueled fat to fuel my aerobic exercise. Furthermore. To me it makes more bohydrate. it takes some time for these cell are depleted and waste products ac- gina (chest pain) occurs. Sometimes chemicals to move from the bloodstream cumulate. why substrate which can be broken down to supply fat in the diet? Would you rather yield energy without reacting with oxy. until energy substrates within the muscle can’t get enough oxygen an.Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth and Energy. there is quite a body of re. This means high fat diet still manage to lift weights? doctors and nutritionists suggest eating a they are consuming energy as fast as Because they are breaking down protein low-fat diet to help lose weight. called glycolysis. Part I ease occurs when cholesterol plaques to the muscle supplying it with nutrients possible if they had to wait for oxygen to build up inside the arteries supplying and oxygen. and you can get 8 reps with 225 by the bloodstream. Why the weight. Here’s what’s going on: Let’s say body fat? It makes more sense to me you’re doing a set of bench presses to they can— faster than can be supplied to supply dietary energy in the form of failure. used as fuel. If your body requires carbs and obesity. on the other hand. weight lifting is is by necessity an aerobic activity. As you know. gluconeogenesis. or a heart your leg muscles. Carbohydrates ing in myocardial infarction. They fail because they run out of then to lactic acid without reaction with meal? That just puts the same amount energy and because waste products accu. So high intensity exercise such as search literature supporting carbohydrates lifting weights is fueled almost exclu- as the preferred energy source for athletes sively by carbohydrates. (Technically speak- 154 © 2004.3. Furthermore. If you’re going to do some Carbohydrate is the body’s preferred fuel aerobic exercise activity to burn fat. because it’s the gest following a low fat diet to help re. I don’t know of any scientific stationary bike can be fueled by carbs studies which have found conventional or fat. eating a low-fat diet seems to lift weights. the cholesterol plaques rupture (break). A diet high in as fast as it’s being used. and the muscles are performing work bohydrate diet. so cutting down on fat is the sense to let dietary protein be used as easiest way to cut down on calories. The glycolytic the heart muscle. Your pecs are working as by the phosphate energy system. cutting off some of can only flow so fast. while low inten- (see chapters 2. Is that to be the way to go. off the bat there’s a pretty good reason conventional fat has also been associated ing. cancer. Doctors and nutritionists all sug. so there’s a limit to pathway can supply energy for a minute its blood supply (3). So right coronary artery disease. and 7 in reference 4). so an anaerobic activity. This biochemical pathway is of fat right back into your system. This is a low intensity are essentially the only fuel your body attack. ATP burn 300 calories worth of fat on the hard as they can for about 30 seconds and and creatine phosphate. then feed it carbs. at the fastest rate they can. which can be used as fuel pounds but you fail on the ninth rep and muscles rely on fuel already stored inside for weight training. such as heart disease. That means the en. or two. enough to keep up with the demands of to be broken down (3. including breast can. This completely cuts off problem supplying oxygen and fuel fast weights because fat REQUIRES oxygen blood supply to part of the heart result. body fat.4). into muscle cells. Keep mulate which inhibit further contraction. exercise and you can keep it up for hours can use to lift weights. How can people on the cer and colon cancer (3). Weight train. This is why I recommend aerobic fat to be a superior energy source for exercise for bodybuilders: fat oxidation athletes. so complicated? Finally.

1994. thus minimizing the then they will be converted to fat and tendency to store as fat. strate for weight training. by tion in Exercise and Sport. Lippincott Co. Elsevier Science Publishing do two things in your body: it can be so it won’t be turned into fat. Pro-Carb™ is used to get it from your mouth to your also is an excellent supplement to add waist.B. CapTri® you can further slow the release They can’t end up anywhere else. References What got this debate started was the idea that by lowering carbs we could 1. and Brodoff BN.. Linder MC. If the is the ideal supplement to supply high glycogen stores are filled up and you still quality complex carbohydrates in a form have more excess carb calories around. 1992. of carbs. Each meal Company. This only represents a few percent first thing to do is to choose only complex Provo. Vitality House International. In fact. and see your intensity and only about 3% of the energy in dietary fat recovery ability skyrocket. than are calories from carbs. Neither can fat you eat at each meal so you get a slow istry and Metabolism with Clinical Ap- be converted to protein. 1983. Nutri- high fat diet just keep in mind that you released into the blood slowly. Bjorntorp P. New York. Wolinsky I and Hickson JF. J. Remember. as Besides providing energy sub. the other hand. So if you want to try the brous vegetables. By proper meal combining. Calories from dietary fat are thus quality calories to your meals when you stored as body fat much more efficiently are trying to gain muscular weight. which the excess will appear as body fat. lower insulin.) So you cannot use fat to re. Take one or two in a carbohydrate molecule is spent in the scoops 30-60 minutes before you train process of digestion. too carb drinks on the market. If you’re on the high blended 4 grams of protein along with 22 fat diet and consume too many calories. Nutritional Biochem- plenish glycogen stores. What if I told you how to keep insulin levels low but 2. 1991. The silver lining to this black no sugar. How to Lower your Fat carbohydrate. low level. Unlike the other stored as adipose tissue. Again. First is that excess carb carbohydrate supplement “Pro-Carb™” calories are used to replenish glycogen is specially formulated to be slow re- stores before they are converted to fat. or else store them in adipose tissue. The trick is to combine the foods 3. Fisher AG. which are digested and 4. that digests slowly. sugars. Since insulin promotes fat Obesity. assimilation. molecule into a fat molecule takes some and works very well to replenish glyco- energy. but the glycerol backbone Sounds like the best of both worlds. have to burn off all those fat grams combining your carbs with protein and Boca Raton. In contrast. That’s further slows digestion. based on a complex carbohy- Remember. Pro-Carb™ is an excellent way cloud is that converting a carbohydrate to supply carbs to fuel your workouts. of the calories in a triglyceride molecule carbohydrate sources and to avoid simple however. your workout. CRC Press. and ing. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 155 . seems like a good idea. We’ve but not fat to carbs. Also.Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth and Energy. and again immediately when you finish port. and conversion to fat. Dietary fat can release of carbohydrate into your system plications. Remington DW. about 25% of the energy gen stores after training. Philadel- storage and blocks fat breakdown. On tains no sugar or artificial sweeteners. this phia. Pro-Carb™ stored in the muscles and liver. ours contains many calories from any source can make © 2004. leasing. fatty acids cannot be converted into still consume a high carbohydrate diet? Parent EA. Part I you fat. can. The Thermostat. trans. if you consume excess It is fortified with amino acids which calories on the high carb diet the excess are required in increased amounts dur- carbs will be converted to glycogen and ing periods of rapid growth. you can convert carbs to fat. there are you can eat a diet high in complex car- several other advantages to supplying bohydrates and low in fat and still keep the bulk of dietary energy as carbohydrate insulin at a steady. carbs sound like a better deal to me. burned for energy or it can be stored should contain at least one serving of fi- as body fat. outlined in the Parrillo Nutrition Manual. Finally. grams of carbs into each serving. our instead of fat. drate powder called maltodextrin. The product con- the only metabolic fate available to it.

156 © 2004. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .

of protein per pound of body weight per 7). hard and so fast that the energy require- and anyone trying to minimize body fat ture that causes it to be metabolized dif. pasta. CapTri® are simply released as body make sense for bodybuilders to go really ment. are potatoes. It deprives your mus. If cles of carbs which they require for high ucts. high fat diet because it supplies the carbs disease and cancer. It can contribute to heart from unrefined. I classify carbs into lean body mass. dairy prod. cogen. Good starchy carbs it cannot be stored as to muscle and it cannot be stored as gly. corn. Instead. Last month I explained why the lat. sweet potatoes. it. The way the diet is structured. it would be great. Remember. Since insulin stimulates fat tent. verted to muscle and fat. If we could get fat diet? There are two big differences. spinach. excess calories from obic exercise is carbohydrate. around the problems with the high fat First. You should see and feel the release of carbs into the bloodstream. Avoid simple sugars. know what I mean. The only thing your body can do peas. you’ve ever tried going low on carbs. This results in lower in. starchy carbs. The only with excess calories from conventional carbs are vegetables like lettuce. low on carbohydrates? I don’t think so. for limiting carbs to 5-10% of calories depending on your size and so that you can enter a fat-burning state level of caloric intake (some called ketosis. With the Parrillo diet you people eat as much as five can maintain insulin at low levels and tablespoons per meal). This special fat called CapTri® which has been CapTri® does not. As I explained CapTri®! The Parrillo diet is very low in lar fat found in conventional food has a last month. Whereas regu. And bohydrates. and so on. Divide this equally among since it allows us to substitute fat calories six meals spread throughout for carbs in order to decrease insulin lev- the day. Part II by John Parrillo day. This is really a bodybuilder’s dream Let’s take a look at some of the © 2004. mixed with food. body fat. Work your way up to one you don’t have to. and oatmeal. Good fibrous glycogen. excess fat calories have three groups: simple sugars and refined Fat cannot be con- a very high tendency to be stored as body carbohydrates (one group). CapTri® oxygen) energy pathway. ment cannot be met by the aerobic (with stores. The second big difference is that on per meal. est diet craze —the high fat diet—doesn’t Then make up the rest of your calories This approach is far superior to the make any sense. fat (1-7). fat cannot be converted and fibrous carbs. CapTri® is a fat with means that your muscles are working so specifically formulated for bodybuilders a specially engineered molecular struc. while avoiding the pitfalls of regular Start out with ½ tablespoon fats. the Parrillo diet uses CapTri® in. A good rule of thumb is one gram heat in a process called thermogenesis (1. fat is to store them as sulin levels. to eat along with their nutritional con. the energy without carbs. And we can with stead of conventional fat. So does it eration is to meet your protein require.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 38 Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth and Energy. resulting in a much lower insulin level. complex carbohydrates. your body needs for top performance. (CapTri®) and fiber at each meal slows ries. els. and I think you’ll agree has almost no tendency to store as body fuel for your muscles to use during anaer- makes a lot more sense. You just don’t have diet. bread. and other refined car. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 157 . all while still consuming 40-60% derive 30% of your calories of your calories from carbohydrates. A good shift your metabolism into a fat burning rule of thumb here is to try to mode. a dramatic effect at this level. These carbohydrate sources if you are eating extra calories to gain will make you fat. this How does this compare with the high sounds like a good idea. The Parrillo diet is a more bal. rice. The preferred anced approach. aerobic (without oxygen) exercise. fruit. weight lifting is a form of an- conventional fat but instead relies on a very high tendency to store as body fat. you intensity exercise like weight lifting. green beans. The first consid. The high fat diet calls or two tablespoons per meal. This from CapTri® while limiting works because combining protein and fat conventional fat to 5% of calo. The do with excess calo- The theory behind the high fat diet Parrillo Performance Nutrition Manual is to use dietary fat as fuel in place of contains an extensive list of good foods ries from conventional carbohydrates. the Parrillo diet you never go real low until your system gets used to on carbs. ferently than regular fat (1-7). beans. Next comes CapTri®. cabbage. thing your body can fat is to store them as body fat. storage and blocks fat breakdown.

Since 25% of excess calories to ATP (energy in the molecular form from carbohydrate are wasted as heat. The body glycogen stores are full. This means expenditure to compensate for the loss of part of the TEF (50-75%) is simply the that if you eat more carbs you burn more incoming energy (calories). but if excess fat is CapTri®). Part II other benefits of carbohydrates. fat balance even when you’re at rest.9). less carbs. On the other calories are burned. body’s inability to regulate fat stores ex- apply to CapTri®. hand. Bummer. These calories not only on energy balance (calories in is related by the amount of fat in the diet which are being burned simply appear as versus calories out) but also on what (8). I think sound a little less attractive? CapTri® increases metabolic rate even it was explained very well in Bjorntorp Now don’t go crazy on this infor- more than carbohydrate. In simple terms. less left to store as fat. The more calories and they cannot be converted to glycogen you eat which are lost as body heat. because he has a higher metabolic rate. They fail be. on the high carb diet to stay lean. foods you eat..e. the or muscle. can store 100 pounds of fat (or more) excess feeding of a mixed diet (i. This effect can be only store 400-600 grams of carbs no line) metabolic rate (BMR). This is termed the obliga. The number of ing catecholamine-mediated increase in in this way and your body has an almost calories your body burns per hour while metabolic rate is known as the facultative limitless potential to store fat. meaning that your ratio. which is a specially ries than someone eating a high fat diet. (glycogen). transport. And since muscle tory component of TEF. as a fraction of the energy content of glycogen reserves under a wide range of cause the body reduces its level of energy the food consumed (8). While carbohydrate and protein body burns more calories all the time. Carbohydrate tant to maintain blood glucose levels to is the metabolic engine where a lot of feeding is known to stimulate the sym. After want to know how carbohydrate feeding drate stores but not fat stores. A substantial dietary carbohydrate intakes. when they pointed out that the human criminately eat all the carbs you want For you biochemists out there who body very narrowly regulates carbohy. fat. a nor. The other 25% of far from full. The Now keep in mind that this does not carb diet will naturally burn more calo. It has been blocked by propanolol (a beta-adrenergic matter how much carbs you eat. This is because it is so impor- which is lost is muscle. an excess carbohydrate load the calories in the carbs gets released as of 500g can be accommodated without body heat in the process. and the ensu. CapTri® is a fat. This means to ATP with an efficiency of 90% (8). These arguments show that a meal this is just saying that eating a high carb with a high carbohydrate to fat ratio is diet instead of a high fat diet results in a more thermogenic than a meal with a low higher metabolic rate. Everyone prandial increment in energy expenditure drate oxidation to carbohydrate intake knows by now that diets based on severe above the resting rate and is expressed is carefully controlled to result in stable caloric restriction fail (8. It just isn’t so. and body composition. which is usable by cells) with an overall and since glycogen stores are generally efficiency of 75% (8). A person eating a high is closely related to fat intake (8).Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth and Energy. During very energy used to digest. component of TEF (8). This means that carbohydrates promote fat oxidation (8). plains why the incidence of obesity rises designed MCT. if you over-eat on the high carb diet the This means that if you feed your body excess carbs get stored as glycogen. weight gain body heat. and if you eat less carbs you burn low calorie diets about half the weight store food (8). if you lose muscle pathetic nervous system. carbohydrate mal diet that contains carbohydrates) but weight. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . On days when increase your metabolic rate more than excess carbs are consumed carbohydrate conventional fats do (but not more than oxidation is increased. but you shown that BMR increases following antagonist). Fat is converted an increase in body fat (8). During over-feeding. body fat stores are not regulated you burn less calories. higher metabolic rate. any more excess stimulates metabolic rate: The thermic ef. Excess converted to heat. balance are closely regulated. which translates into a fat calories are not released as body heat. has a limited ability to store carbohydrate carbs get converted to fat and stored as fect of food (TEF) is defined as the post. and carbs. Thus. lows a different metabolic pathway from This will make it easier for the person Is this starting to make the high fat diet regular fats. but carbohydrates instead of fat a higher if you over-eat on the high fat diet the percentage of the calories you eat will be excess fat gets stored as body fat. You can you are at rest is called your basal (base. It’s jet fuel for and Brodoff’s classic text “Obesity” (8) mation and get the idea you can indis- muscles. and never get fat. depend feeding promotes carbohydrate oxida- not if only excess conventional fat (LCT) tion (burning) but fat feeding does not is fed (8). From this we can see that body if you eat enough. The adjustment of carbohy. as the fat content of the diet increases (8). allow proper brain function. Your body is very good at converting 158 © 2004. How does this happen? It consumed it is simply stored in adipose turns out that carbohydrate is converted depots (8). It’s a whole other animal. but fol.

Plus I’ve added 4 grams out to be around 30% protein. J. 35: refined carbohydrates. as propo. and Greene HL. Sharp T. Pro-Carb™. include a fibrous carb with each starch. Bracco EF. The other thing is your 4. Lipid Res. greater insulin response and therefore are carbs as the hard-core high fat people do. you feel better. 31: 407- probably one of the best carbohydrates weight in the off season or lose fat before 416. Part II excess carbs into body fat. J. feed ‘em some carbs. using only slow-release complex carbo. The reasons for this it’s healthier. Simple sugars are present in sweets and to 5-20% of daily calories. and Greene HL. Am. It is based 30% of calories as CapTri®. J. Bracco EF. pains to structure my diet the way I have. 3. Me- polymer with a glycemic index of 22-26. The other main difference is chain triglyceride. hydrates. the high fat diet and I’ve had great suc. Welle SL. but this in. 1992. Fisher AG. This is also why my one to one-and-a-half grams of protein erides in man. and Hashim fat diet.Carbohydrates: Mega Fuel For Growth and Energy. 108: 613-620. Yang further slow glucose release. Torbay N. Baba N. Hill JO. and difference being I use CapTri® instead of scientific literature backs me up. lized and that it has almost no tendency to be stored as body fat (1-7). 1982. literally. If you eat as outlined in the My experience with top bodybuilders 5. fect of medium chain triglyceride on li- response. The down side of carbs. about 634. 1983. feeding with medium chain triglycerides. Yang D. J. than with the high fat diet. considerations in mind. and Brodoff BN. Nutr. the main works better and an overwhelming body 9. Parent EA. a naturally sweet ami. Over- desserts (obviously) and are also found on who you read. and you Thermostat. Remington DW. and sults in muscle break-down to maintain T. I think it cess with it in bodybuilders. Seaton TB. Am. Am. with these in the Nutrition Manual.) This usually works J. Geliebter A. phia. Bjorntorp P. Peters JC. with or without Cap. The high fat diet calls for restricting carbs 2. Sharp your carbs with protein at each meal. I’ve 6. How to Lower your Fat of conventional fat. J. 8. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 159 . Lippincott Co. Changes in blood lipids during six days no acid. These generate a that I never recommend going as low in 678-682. a slow release glucose as complex carbs. Tri®. This is in stark contrast to 1. Philadel- The truth is I can see the logic of a high carb diet. 1983. Once carbs get below feeding with medium chain triglyceride in significant quantities in fruit and dairy about 100 grams a day. If your pogenesis and body fat in the rat. meaning that it increases metabolic rate and excess © 2004. Lavau MM and Hashim SA. Nutr. vary among individuals depending on D. 1986. amino acids to make glucose in the liver. It’s not that complicated. per pound of body weight per day. taken them from the basement to the dium chain triglycerides: an update. a more potent stimulus for fat storage. Clin.B. Clin. Plus. and 40% carbs. but the percentages 7. is formulated the way it is. 36: 950-962. 38: 641-648. Nutr. Provo. 1990. if you have to lose a pound of muscle at nents of the high fat diet are quick to the same time. have to do with how CapTri® is metabo. available. Warenko Parrillo Nutrition Manual. Peters JC. Clin. Hill JO. and the rest on maltodextrin. CapTri® is profoundly thermogenic. 37: 1-4. 30% Cap- of complete protein to every serving to Tri®. have more energy to train. Pasta and bread are made from to break down muscle tissue and uses the fat. instead of sugar or corn syrup. Am. J. their protein and calorie requirements. and Van Itallie TB. Bach AC and Babayan VK. The point is calories from CapTri® are simply lost References that body fat accumulation is less likely as body heat instead of being stored as with the high carb diet than the high body fat (1-7). Swift LL. Enhanced thermogenesis and di- if you consistently consume too many which has very little thermogenic poten. 44: 630- carbohydrate supplement. My opinion is you’re better off with Obesity. Thermic effect to eat a high carb diet while minimizing that the best diet is one which provides of medium-chain and long-chain triglyc- insulin response. into the blood. but sure to mix Intentionally constructing a diet that re. Kaler M. It is sweet. The ratios also change depending on of overfeeding with medium or long For good glucose and insulin control. blood glucose never made much sense Thermogenesis in humans during over- These things slow the entry of glucose to me. you’ll be able over the last twenty years has taught me MK. Losing a pound of fat doesn’t re. ened with glycine. your body starts diet results in diminished deposition of products. and Campbell RG.. 1982. The exact protocols are given for bodybuilders and athletes. refined carbohydrates (sorry. This is why I’ve gone to such aerobic activity of lifting weights. 1989. This is just about as low a glycemic index Olympia. Nutr. Clin. it’s whether you’re trying to gain muscular chain triglycerides. 1978. Nutr. muscles need carbs. minished deposition of fat in response to calories. (And believe me. Also. Abumrad N. a carb can have. Vitality House International. ally get you anywhere as a bodybuilder Metab. It was designed specifically a contest. is that they induce a big insulin muscles require carbs to fuel the an. I’ll reiterate the most important tial and has a high tendency to store as overfeeding with diet containing medium guidelines are to avoid simple sugars and body fat. but it is possible with any diet conventional fat found in regular foods. depending Hashim SA. SA. Ef- point out. cludes bagels). Abumrad N.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .160 © 2004.

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 161 . Sure. Bodybuild- offer is our information. to make it what looking for. What is bodybuild. If developing a championship my profits. physique was as easy as taking supple.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 39 Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. what it’s doing. lism. and stretching. may be to become a top amateur mance apart more than anything or professional bodybuilder. I sent him to medical school and a comprehensive program of nutrition. I’ll tell you up front it doesn’t work expense that eats a huge chunk out of it is a comprehensive approach. supplements information. If you come in. Seeing people make best looking guy on the beech. The can help. supplements are only with research in nutrition and metabo- the only company offering bodybuilders part of the picture. Most people take the ap. weight training. Mas- that so many people work out in the age body. Your destination probably what sets Parrillo Perfor. It’s about gym and try to watch what they eat. is wrong. or road map. Or else. sense of mastery. Like any journey. best shape of your life. your brain has to know workout have truly impressive phy. Bodybuilding is hard work—in and in a few months we’ll be proud to have supplementation. and no that way. and that’s ing is a journey. that’s the bottom line. And it’s all done in the to increase muscle mass and decrease only the beginning. this is a tremendous The beauty of our program is that ies. and we offer. Usually it’s because they’ve to see many remarkable transformations. you want it to be. As ing success. You set a goal and you’ll find ad after ad promising that ing and I love to see people get results. The you’re not making good progress. You can’t get that positive changes in their lives and achieve to finally lose that weight and get in the anywhere else. Bodybuilding is about mastery. get results. supplementation. interest of increasing the knowledge of body fat. but I want to stay in touch doubt that’s why it works so reliably. That’s why I publish this Program is your road map to bodybuild- ing for that magical supplement that will magazine I publish this magazine. How physique into that of a body- many people in the gym where you builder. I have a scientist on staff with Nutrition Program comes with a food the most effective supplement line on the a Ph. That’s the way I want to do aerobic conditioning. Or the bodybuilders by teaching people how to in people of all ages. reading muscle magazines and was just about lifting weights!) talking to their friends in the gym. That’s where I siques? Probably not many. Or a model. with my clients and continue to bring It includes exact instructions on nutri- ments you’d see a lot more impressive them up-to-date scientific and practical tion. Or just become bodybuilders. in molecular biology to help us scale and instructions on how to pre- © 2004. It’s unfortunate ordinary body. and then plan out a strategy. Your work in the gym is an MD on staff. That isn’t discipline and self control. I’ve been privileged mind to control your body. and turning it into something tery of your body and your life. But still. or even a less-than-aver. A lot of young bodybuilders because people need the information to you want to be. In my business. And before you can use left out some part of the formula your brain to transform your that’s required for success. a certain supplement will transform your We’reabout education and information to get you from where you are to where physique. Parrillo Performance makes a fitness star. without doubt. It’s using your just never seem to get the results they’re easy. to me what bodybuilding is re- proach of trying this and trying ally about. of controlling that means you’re doing something your life and your destiny. Part I by John Parrillo Parrillo Performance is proud to be market. Pick up any bodybuilding magazine I do this because I love bodybuild. I teach people what to don’t have the body you want or if do to become bodybuilders. physiques in the gym. pack pounds of muscle onto their bod. their goals is my greatest reward. (And you thought it that. business. People develop a sense of self- hoping that sooner or later they’ll worth or self-esteem when they find something that will work. after all? It’s about taking an maintaining a healthy human body. Our program is about results— ing about. you might imagine. but special— something beautiful.D. The set a goal for themselves and single most valuable service we follow through on it. you take it a step at a time. The Parrillo Performance get trapped in the mentality of search. and training optimized out of the gym.

Every element of the program product is the magical key to success. I’d like to do now is give kind of an So start with one gram of protein per 874-3305) where you can call with any overview of the program that integrates pound body weight in the off season or questions. limit fat to 5% of daily calories. supplements can boost the 68% carbs. The role of carbohydrate is as petitive bodybuilders. and fat because turned. During extreme conditions. I was training competi.Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. but daily energy (calorie) needs. and fat you line came out. Supplements can help. tein per pound of body weight per day muscle. down into percentages of calories from to bodybuilding. We’ve talked about more calories you have coming into your sure you’re gaining muscle and losing hormones and how to control them with body the less protein it needs to burn fat. I’ll make the to maintain nitrogen balance (1). I’ve helped more than a few starvation or prolonged endurance exer- muscle or lose fat. such as your diet throughout the year to gain their best. was a lot of controversy on this issue. are the foundation of nutrition. which is based on to supply the bulk of calories. so carbohydrates are used I developed my own line of supplements the RDA for protein. the numbers work out to be different for has been tested on top level bodybuild. nies. the raw materials you need to build more If you make a commitment to those ide. form of calories provided by the diet is calipers so you can monitor your body ten a lot of articles detailing the science said to “spare” protein. program is polished and honed—and it Properly used. and over the years mass. We ranks. carbohydrate. As your muscle commitment to teach you what to do to means they need that much protein to mass increases. and 5-10% fat for warded with results. It tells you how to bodybuilders move up to the professional cise. All of this is backed Nutrition and Training Manuals. The role of protein in the body is to sup- As with any worthwhile goal. you deserve to be re. To make up for this routines. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . The next step is to line of state of the art supplements to the practical information. The basic rationale is this: level bodybuilding physique is not easy. port your lean body mass and to provide dedication. To achieve a top tein. and tells you how to stretch information is spelled out in detail in the you should increase protein intake when each muscle group. It includes a food composition knowledge of what to do is much more increase protein intake to 1. 17 grams of fat. if foods alone. and hard work. now it is well understood that intense ex- the number of calories and grams of trients a long time before my supplement ercise training increases a person’s need protein. carbohydrate. of carbs. Parrillo Performance is here to teach of the protein you eat is burned for en- contains instructions on how to modify serious athletes what to do to become ergy. All of the guesswork is removed. This amounts to about 2. a bad of protein. the protein in your muscles can even carb load and peak for your contest. The way to calculate your diet is simple. Supplements cannot 3.5 grams pre-contest. It’s impossible to accurately break this With this comprehensive approach in stark contrast to the other compa. It be. Any provide a Body Stat Kit with skin-fold Over the last few years I’ve writ. That’s a pretty simple formu- propriate for you.5 times a fuel source. meaning that the composition.) My philosophy basically is that. be broken down and used for energy. advocate a diet low in fat. So let’s start with the diet.000 calories would consume 200 grams experiment with training. diet. So protein requirements are de- als and put forth the effort. The practical “how-to” some protein as fuel. (2). up by our technical services line (513. and other calories than during the off season. Dietary fat 162 © 2004. This is la. I’m a trainer of com. The car- because I saw in my athletes a need for non-exercising people. Nutrition Program is that healthy foods bohydrates. During dieting I suggest you need. and 5% fat. What you reduce calories. nutrition. most people. I The ratios usually work out to be 25-30% you work hard. metabolism of fat. exercise physiology. it requires Research has shown that intensely train. As an example. we leave no stone un. Call us if you have The basic premise of the Parrillo of your calories come from complex car- questions about which ones are most ap. During the last they’re supposed to be used to fortify or weighing 200 pounds and consuming twenty years I’ve done just about every enhance your diet. When you’re dieting to lose weight the manual tells you what changes to ogy. In other words. can practically be obtained from whole per gram and fat has 9 calories per gram. 60-65% carbs. and high in complex carbohydrates. Part I cisely construct each meal to contain tive athletes and experimenting with nu. a bodybuilder ers many times over. ing athletes need about one gram of pro. Here’s why: Some of the foods you should be eating. This would be 27% protein. The rest help enrich your diet. unsure they have enough to build muscle increases. muscle physiol. protein. levels of specific nutrients beyond what protein and carbohydrate have 4 calories It truly is a formula for success. but remember that every one. has suggested is the way it is. (Remember that works.5 grams per guide listing the nutrient breakdown powerful than any supplement could ever pound of body weight. The diet plus supplements is still a bad diet. medium in pro. consistency. This way you can make behind the program. We provide a comprehensive some of the technical information with 1. who want you to believe that their protein. That termined by body mass. and the for protein. your protein requirement become your best. and 510 grams supplementation you could imagine. If things aren’t going the right way. energy metabolism. and redeem a bad diet. The Training Manual describes the nutrients. For years there bohydrate requirement is determined by better products. I’m a trainer first. biochemistry of for a contest you will be consuming less make. This proper execution of the most effective topics that represent why the program increases the chances your body will use bodybuilding exercises.

As activity level eat too many calories in increases. protein. of the day to promote fat burning at night. es- instead of being stored as pecially insulin.” I introduced muscular than three large ones. you can force your body to burn its own age. Six small thrown into the furnace. Excess calories growth hormone. average your Parrillo diet increases metabolic rate by foods to eat and which foods to avoid. equal portions and eat six small meals carbohydrates do not (2-5). it’s important not to from fat. Simply put. and is de. There are also some highly last few weeks before a contest you may to start weighing your food and use the technical aspects about how various fuels want to decrease carbs in your last meal Food Composition Guide in the Nutrition are metabolized by your body that fac. it does better with a more constant and One of the toughest questions is. Keep a food my series about thermogenesis a couple need to worry about now. trol these hormone levels to Consider this: metabolic maximize muscle mass and studies have shown that minimize body fat. Study a good idea of how many calories you direct thermogenic effects of the nutrient after study has shown that body fat is need to maintain your present lean body profile. glucagon. You can adjust this up or down by So we’ve talked about how many content than by dietary energy content 300-500 calories per day depending on calories to consume and how to divide (2-5). your energy is derived Also. meals will make you So your body burns a much leaner and more certain amount of fat every day as fuel. determined by how much fat is in your weight. Since then ries at one meal will elevate insulin levels things about the low fat diet that make it it’s caught on in the popular diet literature too high and will promote fat storage. I’ll get back to too. metabolic rate increases. and fat into six whereas lean protein and complex continually adjust your calories upward. out the day. lism so that you constantly burn more after feeding (2). The next major concept is how diet. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 163 . more carbs are any one meal. and now you see info-mercials on Also. so your calo. muscle can only grow so fast and that in the future. and genetics. carbs. work if you eat only protein ly burning a mixture of at one meal and only carbs carbohydrate and fat for at the next meal. your metabolic rate ity level. mass increases you’ll need to slowly and calories. uniform supply of nutrients instead of “How many calories should I consume?” ply it with all the nutrients it needs to be three big doses. as well as by The best lean protein sources are skinless © 2004. There are several about bodybuilding nutrition. After a week or so. Manual to calculate how many calories tor in here. It won’t your body is constant. and by hormones released from the gut but I’m not going to list them here be. Excess As your muscle mass increases your spaced about three hours apart through- calories from protein and carbohy. lose weight. how fat you are is whether you want to gain weight or lose those up among protein. Each meal energy. The diet is from dietary fat are simply specifically designed to con- retained as body fat (2-5). The only time to change this is the est and best way to handle this is simply fat for energy. that’s what. perfect for bodybuilders. carbohydrate. I explained these concepts in but that’s a small technical point we don’t you normally consume. TV about it. An important part of the drate tend to be lost as body heat rie requirements increase too. Remember that muscle tissue is and fat. I call this diet is its effect on hormone levels. even if What would happen if your diet supplied this concept six or seven years ago and you consume the same total number of less than this amount? You will burn it revolutionized the way people thought calories during the day. daily calorie intake and this will give you fostering muscle growth. muscle mass you can build your metabo. Dietary fat has a itself. calories. There are several starvation response that shuts down your increases as a result of stimulation of the mathematical formulas you can use to metabolism to save fuel.Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. most of must be properly balanced. Another important factor This is a very individual thing. Frequent. The indi. Too many calo- body fat. termined by your lean body mass. even at rest. By increasing sympathetic nervous system by nutrients estimate your maintenance requirements. journal and write down every bite of food years ago. In other words. So as your muscle should divide your daily requirements for strong tendency to be stored as body fat. Part I is kept to an absolute minimum. You need to feed your body and sup. The bottom line is that the Finally we need to talk about which you eat. At rest. And by restricting dietary fat ings increase TEF and decrease fat stor- vidual variation is tremendous. healthy—even when you’re dieting to is the thermic effect of feeding. small feed- cause they don’t work reliably. Caloric restriction sets off a Every time you eat. more closely determined by dietary fat mass. The easi. and this is more important than how constantly burning calories to maintain to structure your meals. you many calories you eat. “building your metabolism. or TEF. activ. and fat (2-5).

eggplant. Obesity 17: S32-S36. eat fish several times a week. sugar. need and the process will become second per day. and yet and Mineral Electrolyte Formulas were and fibrous. Parrillo Performance one serving of starchy carbohydrate. believe me. and so on. J. and anything in a vending eating! overall glycemic index of the meal is machine. ments (for the omega-3 fatty acids) are for most people. and and there are no forbidden foods. in the appropriate it just isn’t so. You’ll get This sounds like a long list of J. It comes with a food scale and a food muscle and not fat. broccoli. cheese. Dietary composition. oils. candy. how many meals to mushrooms. seeds. teaspoon to one tablespoon per day of fat dairy products) because they derive flax oil to provide essential fatty acids most of their calories from simple sugars. hydrate. pizza. Part in common is they are all either high in 4. celery.. other foods. cau. Good starchy carbs include construct precisely engineered meals. An experienced bodybuilder may las out there don’t come close to that. margarine. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . and cream of wheat. but junk food. lettuce. corn. complex substrate balances and body fat in sub- You’ll notice these are all whole. so you can construct your foods in this way you really don’t hot dogs. Fi. Clin. J.Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. salad to do to get it. willingness to fix your own food and take These are things you want to avoid to be Nutr. convenience food. natural. To attain the physique of your dreams. much better results eating healthy foods “don’ts” but you’ll see what they have like this that you prepare yourself. asparagus. lentils.B. 2. available for those who want more infor- so you get a slow. should avoid refined carbohydrates such 1. cabbage. composition guide. Brachey especially if you’re not used to weigh. Your 5-10% fat calo. meals precisely to meet your exact nutri- have to worry about glycemic index. and most fish (including nature. cake. omit fruit and dairy products from your 5. ice cream. muf. take more time than working out. the Parrillo diet.000 mg 164 © 2004. Combining fiber and protein with are butter. unprocessed foods. diets. one of the sacrifices you have to make is eat. how much protein. but difficult. 1993. make it worthwhile. pie. Protein and Amino ries will come along naturally with the as bread and pasta. snack food. I wish I could foods at each meal. or take an EFA supplement such Bread. and ent needs. Fat ing your food and calculating its nutrient mineral supplement. avocados. prepare meals in bulk and put them in calcium requirement. Philadelphia. but is about information. onions. You may want to add one fruit and dairy products (including low J. with all the calculations already glycemic index when eaten alone. in restaurants. unprocessed. Astrup A. Obe- (EFAs). how to combine carrots. and dairy products are sity. Each meal to avoid certain foods. Int. peanut butter. J. jects with a predisposition to obesity. 1991. few bowls in the cooler. Fish oil supple. The results will following this diet. Nutr. and Hill JO. Peters JC. jelly and jam. or refined carbohydrates. shortening. At first this will be a major chore. Reed GW. 62: 19-29. mation and more detailed instructions. Lemon PWR. pasta. rice. Please notice that if you go. For the first month or so this will supplements which are truly required on different effects on energy storage. It is possible to get a low References you don’t have to add any fat source fat meal in a restaurant. You can mineral formula per day will meet your oatmeal. but you won’t need these if you for bodybuilders. pretzels. crackers. but they just don’t work fine too. Soon. If you want a cham- one fibrous vegetable. all sweets. brous carbs are basically any and all fresh Tupperware dishes in the freezer. Pay special attention to Clin. spinach. as evening primrose oil. olives. Four tablets of the varieties are okay). nuts. These are the only and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: values. which helps channel the calories to desserts. You’re better off with 3. The tuna packed in water). cookies. Part I chicken breast. how to divide it up liflower. however. Examples are salad you have to do in the morning is throw a calories to eat. peas. into individual meals. and the typical one-a-day formu- egg whites. Carbohydrates even spend less time on food prepara. diet you’ll have to take a vitamin and A. If you combine fins. It designed specifically for bodybuilders potatoes. In general you should not eat very low. fruit. Parrillo Performance Essential Vitamin are divided into two groups: starchy tion than the average person. Swinburn B and Ravussin E. Intl. peppers. and fat to eat. processed meats and deli meats. Sport Nutr. steady insulin release. hamburger. You need 1. As far as dietary fat goes. so all So that’s a summary of how many or frozen vegetables. 1993. avoid. natural. You should also avoid Acid Needs of the Strength Athlete. Bjorntorp P and Brodoff BN. and which foods to should contain one serving of protein. say all things are okay in moderation. done for you. Foods you should avoid pion level physique. which foods to eat. sweet potatoes. skinless turkey breast. En- of the commitment to this program is the fat. mayonnaise. Lippincott Co. ergy balance or fat balance? Am. 57: 766S-771S. tomatoes. 1: 127-145. Like I said. you’ll learn what portions you get enough calcium. Until next month— happy when combined in a meal like this the all fried food. salt. I can teach you what ratios. beans (all just takes a little practice. carbohydrates. perfectly healthy foods and they’re great 1992. You should avoid all fast food. it with you in a cooler where ever you healthy anyway. Am. grits. carbo- greens. unrefined. Horton TJ. You at all to the diet. It also contains a lot of sample White potatoes have a relatively high chips. The Nutrition Manual is the starch slows the rate of glucose release dressings. 1995. Drougas H.

many people. so that your body the only one designed to be taken at each ones for gaining lean mass. sup. Each If you are eating a well-balanced diet. One reason I did it this way is very Formula™ could probably fit into this training pushes your recovery ability to its simple: Since you need the vitamins and group as well. necessary. That is. point.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 40 Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. vitamin E. and 5. Hi-Protein Powder™. 200 required to achieve optimal results? Are IU vitamin E. all the while noting the action mium picolinate to stabilize blood sugar most hard-training athletes is yes! and reaction this had in their training and and optimize insulin function. Makes sense. My vitamin and mineral formula is Pro-Carb™. Again. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 165 . do seem to help aid recovery by neutraliz- not receive all the nutrients necessary to ing free radicals (reactive oxygen species) support intense training and growth. Supple. own experiments with bodybuilders and This makes more sense to me than taking The answer here is based on an indi. contain a complete and balanced array of and train the same way. faster. then pulled them Each Mineral tablet contains 25 mcg chro- potential? The answer to this question for back out. we were able to optimize all the other vitamins and minerals your enriches the nutrient density of his diet by the formulas for maximum effect in lean body needs for optimum health and maxi- adding high quality supplements. ing four a day you can meet the RDA for tivity is such that you never deplete certain calcium. supplements needed to reach your ultimate into the athletes’ diet. The goal in training is to ap. and nutrition are what your body needs to synthesizing food. Think of CapTri® as a source of ments are simply ultra-concentrated nutri. (the B group and vitamin C) are excreted pure energy—calories. Let’s talk about how to incorpo- determines how fast you can grow. The anti-oxidant vitamins prevent ments can be used to prevent deficiencies this damage by binding to and neutralizing in the diet. it Few bodybuilders (if any) make it to physique. it only makes sense that CapTri® is a remarkable supplement recover from intense workouts.000 IU beta-carotene. The special thing ents. you’ll have all the vitamins around you tritional supplements to your diet. was because the water soluble vitamins body fat. Supple. And generated during exercise. Of course. and your level of training ac. and adding them to a healthy diet of from your body in your urine within 3-4 about it is that it’s used immediately by © 2004. It makes sense that increasing back down again. Part II by John Parrillo In the last bulletin I presented a gen. Nutrition program are vitamins and miner- much. so that by tak- through food. this provides a more steady that discussion by talking about strategies muscles will help them recover and grow and constant blood level. I also fortified my vitamins with nutrients. These are the most important ply a maximum stress. Essential Vitamin Formula™ and Min. ecules. This kind of meal. People When I started putting together my need to help incorporate dietary protein often ask if nutritional supplements are formulas for supplements. So supple. you provide those vitamins and minerals and should be at the center of any body- ments allow you to increase the cellular with the food you are eating. sedentary person. and beta-carotene. Mineral-Electrolyte™ tablet contains 250 plyling all the nutrients your body needs mg of calcium per tablet. They can’t afford not to. During this experimentation a huge dose of vitamins every morning vidual’s diet. process we introduced certain nutrients and excreting most of them by noon. one do you think will get better results? To incorporate supplements into your The core supplements on the Parrillo When you’re training that hard and that diet. and to it’s limit. CapTri®. natural foods increases the nutrient density hours after you take them. I conducted my into new muscle tissue after each meal. are supplements Vitamin tablet has 500 mg vitamin C. so levels drop eral overview of the Parrillo Nutrition of your diet. whose nutritional needs far exceed those of which can damage cells and protein mol- the average. C. are reactive molecules containing oxygen. But by trying different combina. which muscle mass. Nothing fancy. but one of them tions of nutrients. This is how I found out what makes more sense to take a small dose of an advanced level without using nutritional worked and what didn’t in competitive chromium with each meal instead one big supplements. just simple trial dose once a day. our Formulas Let’s face it. and this month I want to extend the amount of nutrients delivered to your each meal. training intensity and goals. These whether they are eating healthy or not. and your ability to recover is what minerals to assist and control the molecular calories. but is not a major source of limit. you may find that supplements large amounts of the anti-oxidants: vitamin are not necessary. Liver-Amino is forced to adapt and grow. other athletes. By taking vitamins with Program. Rest processes associated with metabolizing and rate these into your diet. However. if two men eat the same diet and error. athletes. builder’s supplement program. Free radicals that extends all the way to the bodybuilder. you’re really pushing your body eral-Electrolyte Formula™ are the starting als. whether levels of nutrients beyond what can be right? Another reason I did it that way you’re trying to gain lean mass or lose obtained from whole foods alone. mum gains. It also ensures to maximize your results by adding nu. Each Parrillo Essential supplementation. But there is still another level of the free radicals.

166 © 2004. What happens in dietary protein is lost as heat. more prone to be used as body heat (en- body fat. J. something that doesn’t and lost as body heat. so you 1. if the rest of your diet is good. Insu- sue more efficiently. some and if you’re producing more energy. the thermogenic effect of feeding (TEF). this is called the thermo. being stored by the body (1. Every time you eat. You can learn more about regulating energy gets converted to body heat instead of any food known. Am. needs more energy. not all of the energy in CapTri® calories help you lose body fat? Simple. The thermogenic (heat-pro. which less body fat. Clin.2). so it burns more body stores. CapTri® draw on it’s fat stores for fuel. You may be wondering. 1982. Adding CapTri® to your diet increases CapTri® is absorbed by the body and cally speaking. Start by adding Why not just eat less food? Two reasons. Here’s the deal: adding pounds of Conventional fats found in regular food fat. burned for energy almost instantly—faster. and diet. So by your dietary calories are lost as heat. Also. until you’re gaining weight. your food at each meal. excess calories burned for energy. one-half tablespoon of CapTri® directly to Eating less food will help you lose weight. is lost as body heat—most of it is used to To use CapTri® while dieting replace fuel activity and maintenance of the body. your body ally no tendency to contribute to body fat less there is remaining to be stored as fat. as well as having an lin is released in response to carbohydrate anti-catabolic effect to block muscle break. Cutting calories also causes your body to ly to put on fat at the same time. Babayan. the increase your metabolic rate. CapTri® shifts your me- needs to function and the energy cost re. nutrition program. the Parrillo Sports Nutrition Guide. genic effect. How it works is down your metabolic rate. CapTri® contributes less to body fat ergy) than are the calories from regular way) you can greatly increase your caloric stores than does carbohydrate. which slows CapTri® supplies the energy your body down fat loss. can occur because CapTri® is digested ducing) effect we just talked about actually so rapidly. if this stuff is just converted into energy In the next bulletin. although some use as much as above. The net result of increasing calories in regular fat is lost as heat. About 15% of fat. And this will work. Part II the body as a preferred source of energy some of your carbohydrate calories with an The point is. Every three days. Lipids 22: athletes. Metaboli. as mentioned erides and structured lipids. Usually between one and three works to increase your metabolic rate so 2. are not converted to heat much at all. slows down your metabolic rate. but a significant proportion of it will be References increase your intake by another one-half muscle mass. meaning that it blocks the use last important reason why CapTri® helps of proteins as fuel (2). which means burning dium chain triglycerides: an update. tabolism into a fat-burning mode without quired to build more muscle. ally helps avoid an upset stomach. feeding and blocks the breakdown of body down. Since it’s con. can add muscle mass. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . and about 20-30% of the energy of body fat as fuel without sacrificing your an excess of regular food. Also. And if you verted into energy so rapidly it has virtu. That is. About 3% of the calories the proportion of dietary energy available lean proteins. burn less calories. you in fact. because it’s food. caus- increasing calories from regular food you ing your body to draw on fat stores as fuel. CapTri® energy level and lowering your metabolic if you eat too much CapTri®? The excess has the most profound thermogenic effect rate. won’t lose muscle while you’re losing fat. have a higher metabolic rate. Nutr. decreasing calories tablespoon. which is why CapTri® is less prone intake without risking getting fat. Me- Increasing the amount of CapTri® gradu. The protein cutting calories and slowing your metabo- foods that you eat supply the raw materials lism. such as complex carbs and stores so much. of course. Many bodybuilders go on CapTri® to (amino acids) that are used to build new lose body fat and are surprised to find they muscle. five or six. With CapTri® you can decrease carbs in this way is more muscle mass. from CapTri® can be lost as ketone bod. The more energy that’s lost as heat. we’ll talk more ies in the urine. but you’re more like. CapTri® spares the oxidation of actually gain muscle at the same time. 36: 950-962. so it’s basically all the Glucagon-Insulin ratio by consulting of being stored as fat. isn’t that a waste? about the benefits of supplements in your happen with regular food. but this itself is not converted to muscle—that’s approach leads to muscle loss and slows not what’s happening. This helps dietary you lose fat is that by substituting CapTri® protein be incorporated into muscle tis. By incorporating CapTri® into your muscle mass to your body takes calories. The CapTri® problem is regular foods are more prone diet helps you lose fat because more of to be stored as fat than CapTri® is. but the for retention as body weight. Medium chain triglyc- tablespoons per meal works well for most you’ll burn fat faster. Plus. the energy from CapTri® is and has almost no tendency to be stored as equivalent amount of calories from Cap. for carbs you decrease insulin levels. The amino acids. How can a supplement so rich in Of course. you’re reducing what is called the You could supply the extra calories from that’s why they contribute to body fat “food efficiency” of your diet.Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. without the energy from carbs is converted directly to lower insulin levels and promote the use the increase in fat that comes from eating to heat. It’s a way (and probably the only Tri®. of the food energy is converted to heat. it blocks protein breakdown so you 417-420 (1987). immediately converted to energy without to be retained as body fat than regular food. Bach AC and Babayan VK. which is regular foods. than glucose (1).

Hi-Protein be repaired after each workout. mon problem is not enough calories. as your muscle mass efficiency protein in a way that supplies even at rest. Change something. your muscles with nutrients is to take a grams of carbohydrate. Liquid not enough calories. gaining muscle. but obvi. of protein. which must constantly calories increases as well. If you can’t acids to adjust the amino acid profile of thing to try is increasing your calories. Hi-Protein with a spoon and tastes great. Muscle is metabolically active tissue. a slow release glucose reviewed the benefits of Parrillo’s Es. supposed to be about getting good gains probably because they taste so good. ment increases. or a problem with nutrition is an easy way to supply more your training program. In this bul. If you find yourself at a start with casein and whey (which are plateau in your training and are having a milk proteins) and add purified amino hard time gaining more muscle. This means your One scoop of each mixed together pro- glutamine. If If you’re stuck at a plateau. there’s no reason they shouldn’t The Parrillo Bar has proven to be be gaining muscle. Hi-Protein of our athletes are eating 5. The highest efficiency way to eat more. 28 grams of complex carbs. body needs the most to build muscle. 120 grams of protein and gain any more muscle. and are looking for a sources known. for a year and then staying at a plateau They’re another great way to supply for the rest of your life. Part III by John Parrillo In the previous bulletin we dis.000 is formulated from a base of casein and calories a day (or more) to maintain whey proteins. branched chain amino acids. let alone get bigger. and less Each scoop provides 20 grams of ultra. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 167 . simply because 134 grams of carbohydrate. diet. the first wrong. this will supply 1. A great way to flood high efficiency protein along with six to your body. Pro-Carb is formulated with supplements in an individual’s diet and maltodextrin. If you do this as you gain more and more muscle. carbohydrate content of your diet. and your metabolic rate. It’s very easy to put a scoop in If you’re at such a plateau there are a shaker bottle and drink it down when three places to look: not enough rest. polymer. venient way to increase the protein and We’ll start with the tandem of Hi. So how do you use Hi-Pro- letin we will review the importance and tein Powder and Pro-Carb? These prod- relevance of several other nutritional ucts are designed as an easy and con- supplements. A five times a day. This is why you need to scoop of each mixed in water with each cluded to provide a small. Supplying nutrients in protein of all is whole eggs. what we’re here for. calories without feeling full and bloated. That’s the formula to match that of whole eggs. acids. adding Hi- somebody is training hard. the higher to meet this need for quality nutrients.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 41 Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. which helps muscle cells absorb cussed the importance of nutritional the aminos. The most com. give us a call. your daily energy require. two of the best protein their muscle mass. release. steady insulin slowly and constantly increase calories meal or between meals.000 . Bodybuilding is not one of our most popular supplements. muscles. If you’re not quality nutrition when you’re in a hurry. The and Pro-Carb were specifically designed Powder is very rich in essential amino more muscle mass you have. supply of energy and nutrients for your leaving none left to support growth. By taking it their existing muscle mass is using up between meals you maintain a constant all of their dietary energy (calories). Pro-Carb contains 22 grams of sential Vitamin and Mineral-Electrolyte carbohydrate per scoop and four grams Formulas as well as CapTri.050 lot of people hit a plateau and don’t extra calories. It takes a lot of energy to increases your need for protein and no fat or cholesterol. and eating a solid be all you need to do. Many Protein Powder and Pro-Carb. Obviously. So what we did was more growth. liquid form is an easy way to increase ously whole eggs wouldn’t make a very calories and nutrient levels to support good supplement. with heavy Protein and Pro-Carb to your diet may weights to failure. to maintain itself. 24 grams of protein. This way we’ve generated the highest meaning that it burns a lot of calories. get it figured out. you don’t have time for a meal. you’re doing something Each Bar contains 12 grams of high © 2004.6. It mixes easily maintain muscle. So with every pound of muscle you add than a gram of fat. The carbs are in. These are the aminos your body needs more calories every day just vides 210 calories.

To get in contest green leafy vegetables like spinach con- shape you may have to cut back on tain a significant amount of iron. they also have the ability to be used for our Hi-Protein Powder. amino acids leucine. athletes are the greatest at risk. It’s an grams of CapTri. It cle. Formula is a blend of crystalline “free release carbohydrate. and contains 240 Essential Vitamin Formula. not used for weight gain. anced nutrition for the bodybuilder. If you’re having trouble eating deficiency is the most common nutri- all of your scheduled meals or getting tional deficiency in the world. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . and heme iron. Regular iron. Each Bar also contains 5. Parrillo Bars. Liver-Amino Formula has been into muscle tissue.) The BCAAs thus athletes. want to use to gain muscular weight. minerals. only 1. but most of it is free in the profile. this is not what you bike. is found in hemoglobin in red blood Finally. Hi-Protein Powder is caught without food or be forced to eat alone will usually add several pounds of a better choice. Pro-Carb. This cytoplasm rather than incorporated into is a core supplement for many strength contractile protein. the ratio of the ultimate protein. The exact details of how the food. form” (single) amino acids profiled in calories. Put and Liver-Amino Formula are the core requiring no digestion. and you’ll never have to miss a and CapTri are really the entry level eting. Part III heme iron. The vitamins. provid- This should be considered an essential ing high quality protein. increase CapTri. Iron letes. Iron and increase aerobics to an hour a day. from vegetable sources is said to have a I have yet to meet a person who could low bio-availability. extremely efficient amino acid source. like that used in bodybuilders. and is in your required amount of calories. It’s designed for a few bars in your pocket or your gym supplements. low in calories. If you’re trying to (3. This complex Nutrition Manual. Why is this so important? Because doesn’t contain many calories. products. in the optimal ratio for assimilation diet.5 eral-Electrolyte Formula. Beyond that your needs de. and use one-half to one tablespoon of commonly supplied as ferrous sulfate. Ultimate Amino carbohydrate from rice dextrin. we have several other cells and is responsible for transporting supplements designed specifically for oxygen in the body. Female athletes and endurance lose fat and have hit a fat-loss plateau.4% of it is absorbed (3). with cut back on 100 grams of starchy car- as many as 22% of American females bohydrates a day (400 calories worth) deficient in iron (3-6). The best iron source is called 168 © 2004. try Liver-Amino. To nutritional insurance. the surprisingly common even in America Bar is a great answer. in muscle protein (7). 38 grams of tritional product to give you increased energy in the muscles. supplements. try Hi-Pro. CapTri at each meal. It’s real benefit they must be obtained from the diet or is in increased strength and endurance. preparing for a contest. isoleucine. Muscle Amino For- in red meat. muscle in a month or two. The BCAAs have been This should be a core supplement for shown to be anti-catabolic (8). so it’s your body cannot make the BCAAs. this is it. Ultimate Amino is for something you’re not supposed to. A box of Parrillo Bars is a kind of If you’re stuck at a plateau. Hi. so it represents bal- Protein Powder. and increased oxygen transport blocks your body needs to build mus- improves energy and endurance. de-fatted beef liver and casein. B vitamins supplement for serious endurance ath- including B-12. resulting all endurance athletes and hard-training in a net increase in muscle mass since efficiency protein. (Note that gluta- It’s fortified with pre-digested amino mine is the most abundant amino acid acids to further improve it’s amino acid in muscle. but carbohydrates further. periods of intense training and strict di- bag. Endurance athletes love them too.4). leaving a good most abundant amino acids incorporated source of quality protein and heme iron. Heme iron is found advanced athletes. and also has added B-12. This will get your is poorly absorbed by the body. and va- lesterol so I don’t recommend it on my line. CapTri.Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. The branched chain specially prepared so all of the fat and amino acids (BCAAs) are among the cholesterol is removed. a slow- performance. The iron helps build red blood supply a concentrated source of building cells. If you’re looking for a nu. to help prevent muscle loss while meal. which is iron complexed to structure your diet are in the Parrillo to the molecule heme. but red meat unfortunately mula is a mixture of the branched chain contains a lot of saturated fat and cho. Since it’s very they’re easy to eat while you’re on the pend on your diet and level of training. meaning that only not get exceptionally lean by following a small fraction can be absorbed from this protocol. Some fat loss going again. If you need the guy who wants to compete at 240 Liver-Amino Formula is a blend of more energy to train. That combination gain muscle mass. so you’ll never be tein and Pro-Carb. Min.

A carnitine (9. We’re here to support you and you which is then filtered out by the kidneys strive to achieve your training and nutri- and excreted in the urine. Growth of calories from CapTri. nutrients and co-factors it needs so that need to be eating right in order to derive all the fat-burning metabolic pathways the maximum benefit from your supple. Medium chain triglyc- Advanced Lipotropic Formula is a foundation of everything. Nutrients as Ergogenic Enhanced GH Formula is a mix. This is another advanced product. Competitive bodybuilders should 7. pany. two amino teau while losing fat. Hi-Protein. which includes a list Protein Powder before adding it to your of all the ingredients and the amounts 10. good low-fat diet and a regular exercise approach to designing your own indi. and Sports Nutrition Guide. usage guidelines. I want to be very clear in add Liver-Amino. mula. but it CapTri. Hickson and Wolinsky. 129-151. requires aspartate for activity. p. Bach AC and Babayan VK. Clin. Lea and Febiger. Haymes. Strength athletes should Williams. CapTri. p. and Call for a free supplement catalog 1994. Aids for Sports and Exercise. in Sports Nutrition for the 90s. Carb to your program. Vitamins and Miner- on nutrition) and exercise regularly. and substitute an equivalent amount crease growth hormone release. 1991. hard and getting lean. This product ensures healthy diet of wholesome food is the 3. 4. in Nutrition in Exer- have to get back to the basics. to believe that if they simply take a lipo. that your body has all of the required foundation of good nutrition.0% body fat. and Iron. minerals. the References energy source of the cell. 8. Iron Nutri- can operate at full efficiency. should add Max Endurance Formula. Boca Raton. 1993. Whitmire. 291-308. 239 pounds and 4. I ments. add Hi-Protein Powder and Pro. So if CapTri and Advanced Lipotropic For- your goal is to optimally burn body fat. CRC ture of arginine and lysine. a break down technical services line (513-531-1311) product of protein metabolism which is staffed to answer any questions you occurs during endurance exercise. add M. Philadelphia. Sherman and Kramer. and include Advance builders should add Muscle Amino and Second Edition. Bucci L. and you October. 36: 950-962. Pro-Carb. make sure to pay close attention to your add Muscle Amino. your diet and training program first. tropic compound. look at 417-420 (1987). 1982. If als: A perspective in Physical Perfor- Advanced Lipotropic Formula supplies you want to gain muscular weight use mance. Scientific American. Linder MC. you. won’t burn fat for you. Elsevier Science Publish- signed to increase energy and endur. Professional body.B. and up your diet (see last month’s article the Bar. Philadelphia. I mean? It’s used when you’re training your nutrition program for best results. which includes ferulic acid. Pro-Carb. Liver-Amino. liver to metabolize fat. 1989. Disease. J. Our body detoxify ammonia. Nutritional Bio- program. Part III pounds and 4. If you want to lose body fat use 1991. cut back on carbs Press. See what telligently incorporate supplements into Am.10).1% body fat. including L. program. in Ergogenic Aids in Sport. Again. nutrients used in fat metabolism. has all the nutrients it needs to perform If you’re at a plateau in gaining the metabolic fat-burning processes. dium chain triglycerides: an update. Olson JA. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 169 . Some companies lead people vidual supplement program. tion and Exercise. Lipids 22: special blend of nutrients used by the making the progress you want. Endurance athletes 1983. they’ll automatically and Hi-Protein. You still have Bar. More information Applications. 46-52. If you hit a pla. Inosine is a precursor (building block) of ATP. Babayan. Proteins. p. ance in endurance athletes. you should start with CapTri and Hi. stating that to lose fat you need to clean should add Liver-Amino.Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. Aspen Publishers. Modern Nutrition in Health and muscle mass and decrease body fat. 1991. p. Remember that the proper diet is the 2. Clinical Nutrition: Parenteral Nutrition. It contains supplements can be found in the Parrillo magnesium and potassium aspartates. If you’re not erides and structured lipids. and the Berning and Steen. in each formula. 1993. Human Kinetics Publishers. Saunders Com- Lipotropic Formula to ensure your body Ultimate Amino. New York. W. CRC Press. phenylalanine. which is a I’ve also tried to describe a rational cise and Sport. Nutr. acids which have been shown to in. If you want 9. Me- © 2004. as well as suggested chemistry and Metabolism with Clinical Max Endurance Formula is de. The aspartates help the technical and scientific information. and Shike hormone acts in the body to increase to improve strength or endurance. (800-344-3404).27-55. instead of I’ve tried to summarize how to in. muscle. 1. Shils ME. Performance Nutrition Manual and our as well as inosine. The may have in optimizing your program urea cycle is a metabolic pathway in the and selecting the best supplements for liver which converts ammonia to urea. to do that yourself by exercising. Rombeau JL and Caldwell MD. The urea cycle tion goals. diet and exercise. Start with 5. lose weight. the basics: vitamins. Scrimshaw. Vitamins. Advanced endurance athletes 6. about maximizing your results from ing Company.

Programmed For Success: Supplementation For Optimal Results. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Part III 170 © 2004.

since the molecule still has to own trials here as well and have seen itself binds a phosphate group. This is it a ton of fat. loses one of its phosphate groups it forms because it doesn’t work. It provides the building ing the capillaries. which is the nu. the three dimensional configuration (i. which would bring with contain negative electrical charges. When one of the phosphate high level of intensity. which are hydrophobic. As you know. You’ll notice our creatine is in the the shape) of the filaments. and how does it is broken down to ADP. or CP. exercise (aerobic exercise like bike rid. is intensity of effort) the creatine phosphate are a good source of creatine. This stands for is also used up. Creatine monohydrate is readily product to our supplement line—Parrillo form ATP. in the body to be broken down before it can be ab- We are excited to announce a new release energy. plus a molecules such as CP and ATP are not free phosphate group. bly bogus. Briefly. a lot of red meat. including muscle contraction. contains only enough ATP to power’ve used up all your ATP and CP. When this hap. During the process of muscle contrac. by our muscles is obtained through diet. and against each other and try to tear the mol. ing) can be continued almost indefinitely it has also been found that the body can © 2004. Cell membranes are blocks that body tissues are made from. cell it is converted to creatine phosphate. the muscle rapidly declines. ries of articles about cellular energy me.e. The problem is to get a significant cleoside adenosine with three phosphate happens when you fail at the end of a set amount of creatine you would have to eat groups attached.. and does in fact reach Performance Creatine Monohydrate™. Creatine supplementation since negative charges repel each other also why high intensity weight lifting sets allows you to get much higher levels of the molecule is inherently unstable. This is probably the involved in some detail. This is what cient. No other foods activity. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 42 Creatine: Why this Supplement has become a Must Among Bodybuilders by John Parrillo tion this energy is transferred to the actin because you can generate CP and ATP and myosin filaments which make up the fast enough to keep up with the energy muscle fiber. ecule apart. Triphosphate adenosine diphosphate. strength. contractions to continue. Creatine occurs naturally in meat. Creatine is bogus. phate steps in and donates its phosphate down when stored as a solution. This energy is used to sorbed. made of lipids. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 171 . food If you feed someone ATP or CP it must is oxidized. forming cross cell membranes to reach the circu- impressive results. Lower intensity Though much of the creatine used groups breaks free. each muscle cell (2). is used to form ATP. What about the sublingual route? This endurance (1-6). In usually last about a minute before you creatine in your muscle than you could other words. Therefore. or burned. Why don’t to slide past each other. or ADP. This means they repel molecules with a The chemical energy contained in food strong electric charge like ATP and CP. We’ve been doing our That’s where creatine fits in. we just use creatine phosphate or ATP it- pens the muscle contracts. This is why it can be used as an effec- appeared in the scientific literature docu. and power production by why vegetarians are often creatine defi- adenosine triphosphate. creatine phosphate. cellular activity. the negative charges push fail. Once inside the muscle menting the effectiveness of creatine in tractions for a few seconds. and it supplies energy to fuel the body. tabolism and explained the biochemistry ecule (1). Thus muscle con. be regenerated fast enough to maintain a without supplying any fat. regenerating an ATP mol. the im. which then goes on to power absorbed. This results in a change in demands of the activity. To reach traction is powered by the breakdown of the bloodstream nutrient molecules must ATP to ADP. and which means you’re out of fuel. This allows high energy muscle especially red meat. tive supplement. After the CP is used up. creatine phos. The phosphate groups . energy is released. After about 45 main reason red meat has a reputation mediate source of energy for all cellular seconds to 2 minutes (depending on the for increasing strength. The body’s stores of ATP the muscle cell when administered orally During the last year several reports have are very limited. however. ATP cannot ever get from conventional food. group to ADP. causing them form of creatine monohydrate. and this is a molecule called ATP. When ATP lation. and ATP must be continuously regenerated. In fact. When ATP self as a supplement instead? Simply put. What about liquid creatine? Dou- What is creatine. increasing muscle mass. absorbed through the intestine. first cross the membranes of the cells Food provides two basic purposes lining the gut and then the cells form- for the body. since creatine tends to break work? You’ll recall last year I did a se.

that creatine will allow faster and greater extramuscular sequence. mass is a measure of everything in your muscle can’t hold any more. but a lot of this de- from meat (1. Remember. arginine and glycine undergo of lean mass during the first month of term. you’ll workouts. firmer composition testing. Creatine is very more creatine you can assimilate and pens during the first month when you’re popular among endurance athletes. strength on their maximum lifts. including the skel. This the onset. At some point the to swell. using creatine. Most people will see a about one gram/day. Small bodybuilders usually You will experience an immediate gain Creatine increases muscle size be.2. which is then shipped off for from water. This increase in training can improve the intensity and duration of Creatine is not incorporated into protein. and an ing on more muscle month after month. Regarding performance. which will indeed increase And when you add to this proper nutri- protein mass of muscles over time by your gains in muscle protein mass over tion. high-calorie. allowing longer. This lows more rapid ATP and intense training. you increase the creatine pool inside the What’s the down side? As explained. dons also determines how much weight How do I use creatine? As with What can you expect from creatine? the muscle can lift. The guanidino. That is. diet. firm numbers cannot be attached at transamidination. While it seems clear nearly all supplements. lean mass each week. expect a very rapid and dramatic gain in increase muscle protein. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . indirectly increase the on the muscle. a solid. we’ve seen athletes experience same mechanism explains why creatine more energy is avail. most notably It increases strength when using creatine. actual usage will 172 © 2004. Remember. increased sue and carbohydrates to provide energy. but after that creatine supplemen- in conjunction with a solid bodybuilding bodybuilder who gains 10 pounds of lean tation is mainly maintenance. contractions. pounds of creatine. gain 4-6 pounds and the really big guys in strength at the outset because of the cause it attracts water. So you can ize that creatine itself does not directly body that’s not fat. loading the muscle cells with creatine. and the rest received significant increase in size and strength through dietary sources. It’s lean mass (muscle + water) for the first plements. muscle this increases the cell’s energy ing it to work harder. allowing it to work harder. most of the immediate weight gain result- reserve. This results in larger. it is vital that you use creatine hard to imagine anybody happier than a month. including water. if you are individual can make may differ consider. where it attracts water. So the creatine pool cells. a 5-10% increase in speed and a 10-20% increases endurance performance too. As with all sup. creating guanidinoace. working weight. creating the weight gain and size increase comes itself has little impact on gaining muscle creatine. most of ries to support gains. Creatine is stored in muscle when taken alone. By using creatine you carbohydrate and fat oxidation to ATP. Please real. pends on the amount of protein and qual- So how does creatine increase muscle tracellular levels of ity calories you are eating. ing creatine. But with creatine and creatine phosphate. This is remarkable. . Remember. We have verified that increased leverage advantage from the sorbed into the muscle cell and pulls a lot this weight gain shows up as an increase increased water gain as well as the cre- of water along with it. you by increasing the intracellular levels of creatine and creatine won’t see any. If able to the cell. which is gains to be made. because the strength of your ten. your muscle gains means more energy is available to the can be incredible. You need protein to build muscle tis. eton and muscle. of course. It will. mass in one month. If you don’t size and strength? It increases strength eat enough to support muscle gain. increase in time to fatigue. allow. and is the more weight you will gain from us. rather it acts as an energy buf. intensity allows you to put a greater load your training for better overall workouts. fer to transfer the energy derived from increase of about 2 reps per set with their year after year. we’ve seen calories and nutrients from supplements Creatine itself is not burned to produce athletes experience a 5-15% increase in and intense training are the keys to pack- energy. proper nutrition from food. creatine enosylmethionine in the liver. which phosphate.Creatine: Why this Supplement has become a Must Among Bodybuilders create its own creatine in a two-reaction Typically in hard-training bodybuilders. This production. be right on track to gain one pound of eating enough lean protein and quality ably. does not mean you have to consume 4-14 you are eating enough protein and calo- acetic acid is then methylated by S-ad. The more (amino acids) and extra calories must in the muscle is really a composite of the muscle mass you have to start with. the also be present in the muscle for serious amount synthesized by the body. it’s that simple. as well as more ing from creatine supplementation hap- powerful. however. This means exercise. The building blocks usage in the muscle. Creatine is ab. The amount of strength gain each ity protein and increased calories.3). which includes plenty of high qual- allowing you to perform higher intensity time. by increasing the in. high-protein diet allows more rapid ATP production. Starting in the we observe an increase of 4-14 pounds gains in size and strength over the long- kidney. Remember that lean creatine pool becomes saturated and the muscles and a better pump. A lot is dependant on whether tic acid and ornithine. which al. gain 10-14 pounds. widely used in track and field. causing the muscle in lean body mass when you do body atine phosphate stores. Regarding endurance cell. calories to support muscle gains.

Five to ten bodybuilder. durance. It’s also fine to mix it in Formula™. the diet is fundamental to every- 30 grams at once you might feel stomach should use it year round. es- your existing store. Ex. tients). and Hi-Pro- take as many as four weeks. teaspoon is five grams. that. Endurance athletes or as a source of extra calories for athletes © 2004. If you take athlete. CapTri®. creatine supplementation would increase Collegiate level and professional endur- Are there any medical concerns with creatinine levels further. Don’t mix creatine say they are essential for an endur- in water too far in advance of when ance athlete to reach his ultimate po- you take it. but Vitamin Formula™. and Creatine plain water. Creatine has no flavor. We recommend one to is contraindicated if you have pre-exist. GH For- creatine stores in your muscle. the loading phase has filled the trouble gaining weight. it can help in body fat loss. The only plement program? Creatine should abso. or with a level. Cycling priate for competitive bodybuilders. ing severe kidney disease (for example. Even though it atine Monohydrate™ is key for en- doesn’t dissolve completely. the loading phase. Creatine Monohy- two weeks. and definitely one. Don’t be concerned that Monohydrate™. Of grams shouldn’t bother you. Creatine does ers and strength athletes are Essential 200 pounds. Pro-Carb™ should find that you’re really getting a good be added for those bodybuilders with pump. Hi-Protein Powder™ should down. Bodybuilders and powerlifters course. that you’re using creatine. creatine is of no advantage. A great way to pack creatine be strongly considered for any endur- is to take a shaker bottle with a scoop ance athlete who’s losing weight or of Hi-Protein™ or Pro-Carb™ plus training at the edge. but it is a have trouble eliminating creatinine. The Parrillo Bar works well on any cramps or nausea. which takes 4-8 pecially in the months leading to a weeks. Another convenient renal dialysis or kidney transplant pa. Then just add water. just Liver-Amino Formula™ and Cre- drink the suspension. If simply someone trying to lose fat and for the first one to two weeks you use you have any blood work done you might stay in shape. The core supplements for even when taken in huge doses. but usually not. Muscle Amino Formula™. even bodybuilders. The core supplements for en- is to mix it with a scoop of Hi-Protein durance athletes are the Vitamin and Powder™ or Pro-Carb™ and drink it Mineral Formulas™. But as you gain ex- Hi-Protein™/Pro-Carb™ drink. aids fat loss. so one of these creatinine level and expresses some con. Formula™. little grainy. 5-10 grams a day is enough to and Ultimate Amino™ are appro- maintain your creatine stores. So indirectly. or endurance and Advanced Lipotropic Formula™. CapTri®. If you take too much creatine tition. There’s no evidence that creatine. If you’re not a serious athlete but changes. servings taken with each meal. Liver-Amino immediately. I guarantee your compe. Doctors use the creatinine level in by itself. When you tein Powder™. The combination of creatine doesn’t dissolve fully. of endurance athletes above those of shake. If you stop Liver-Amino Formula™ should be taking creatine you simply deplete increased for strength athletes. To start out we recommend you’ll just lose the excess in your urine. Mineral-Electrolyte over 200 pounds. Liver-Amino™. The best way to take creatine contest. This is the blood as an index of kidney function. and in performance likely need more protein. people on the fat loss program are the Vi- known side effect is stomach upset if lutely be a core supplement for any serious tamin and Mineral Formulas™. tra muscle and increase you metabolism. with each meal is about right. before a contest. and drink. but the loading phase may drate™. it gets ab. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 173 . After mula™. ance athletes should add Max-Endurance taking creatine? Creatine is nontoxic How does creatine fit into your sup. CapTri®. and the upper end if you’re not damage the kidneys in any way. then you don’t necessarily 20-30 grams a day divided into even find that creatine elevates your creatinine need it. and I would go as far as to sorbed very well. you take too much at once. since it begins to break tential. One scoop or heaping If your doctor notices an increase in your you ultimately will burn more body fat. People with severe kidney disease experiencing over-training or a decrease meal. Extreme training a scoop of creatine and put it in your can elevate the protein requirements gym bag or cooler.Creatine: Why this Supplement has become a Must Among Bodybuilders vary from person to person and will (note the similar spelling) and excreted in should use it during training and compe- likely change as your body and training the urine. Formula™. Endurance athletes way to use creatine is to mix it into oat. Use the cern about your kidneys. of these programs as a meal replacement cess creatine is converted into creatinine tition will be using it. tell him or her The core supplements for bodybuild- lower end of these ranges if you’re 150. powerlifter.

it. like our Parrillo Perfor- dogenously synthesized in the kidney and muscle gains. Soderlund K. energy production from in placebo-controlled clinical trials to Rodriguez R. Greenhaff PL. ing hard. and Almada AL. Greenhaff PL. supplement to take. and how to use his caloric base was too low. day for 5 days experienced greater torque and put that into CapTri®. Clin. The reason I tell this story is not Health and Disease 8: 9-10. In- on an isokinetic dynamometer (4). If you’re not eating enough Influence of oral creatine supplementa- demonstrate a measurable increase in and providing the necessary nutrients tion on muscle torque during repeated peak power production and endurance for growth. 1995. One energy to fuel his workouts. creatine is a terrific supplement creatine use. Creatine and its production. The intake with good food. lular energy production. Not much of an effect energy and growth. Why? Because tritional tool to help you push your phy- atine is. Short AH. So much so. Hi-Protein™ production. the necessary energy and amino acids for S110. In summary.3). budget on creatine. Effect of carbohydrate and fat oxidation can keep improve exercise performance. These studies concerned. 2. and fatigue index. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Maughan RJ. time. We’ve seen many athletes Parrillo Bar very useful.2. providing his body with tional Journal of Sport Nutrition 5: S100- a group of endurance athletes (5). increasing his protein and calorie mentation and exercise performance. Any weight 174 © 2004. but his gains were insig. Not too long ago I began mance Creatine Monohydrate™ supple- liver) vegetarians have a reduced creatine working with a bodybuilder who was ment. strength and man. sique and performance envelope. expect given the role of creatine in cel. Mitchell TL. During low in. and strength during their first month of for all vegetarian athletes. if you’re providing your body 5. Proteins in the creatine group. during high intensity Creatine is stored in the muscle and does exercise (2). Although the Sure. Viru M. nificant compared to the effort he was Creatine Monohydrate™—one more nu- With this background on what cre. Sure. work production. by sustaining energy production.000 meter runs the growth. We know from our work here Sci. how it works. seem to be most pronounced during very with the calories and protein it needs for and Haltman E. Endurance cyclists also find the depletion during maximal exercise while compartment. performance. Make sure to look at the nutrient pool because their diet does not provide spending a large portion of his limited content on the label and not just the price any additional creatine (1. 1993. cycle ergometer after 4 days of creatine far as your nutrition and training are Harris AC. and if you’re train. your body will not be able bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in performance during intense exercise fol. Another placebo-controlled trial showed to discourage you from using creatine. good creatine supplement. terms of power output and endurance power. Parrillo Performance supplementation (1. Sci. creatine simultaneously increasing work output experience dramatic gains in muscle size should be considered a core supplement (2). Munro HN. Harris RC. Exerc. capacity. to nothing left for lean mass gains. Casey A. we got his diet in 1. Interna- of creatine a day for 6 days was given to the food alone. Med. to maximize the potential effectiveness man. supplementation on running performance has been noted in prolonged. his workouts when you’re considering which creatine ians stand to benefit greatly from creatine were great. Next.5 seconds during the last run. tensity exercise. to put it into perspective as 4. Greenhaff PL. Sports. creatine has been shown 6. In another study 30 grams creased his caloric base even more than application as an ergogenic aid. This is just what you would in terms of increasing size. let’s take a brief look at some of the thing he was eating was being used for studies of creatine use in athletes. Creatine supple- of 30 maximal voluntary contractions order. Physiol. low inten. which means greater power and Pro-Carb™. Crim MC. 1994. creatine can be of great benefit during maximal short term exercise in sity exercise. 84: 565-571. lowing as little as 4-6 days of creatine of this supplement. 1994. Creatine increases exercise performance (1-6). Snell PG. 1995. J. So sus placebo on performance of 5 bouts what did we do? First. Creatine supplementation not contribute to fat stores. make sure it creatine a day by itself (creatine is en. Vegetar. And when you look for a human body makes about one gram of for increasing lean mass and strength. These supplements in. and Hultman E. putting into his training. Every. we took ternational Journal of Sport Nutrition 5: group receiving 24 grams of creatine a the money he was spending on creatine 94-101. Dur. The effect of oral creatine intense exercise. But if your nutrition supplementation.Creatine: Why this Supplement has become a Must Among Bodybuilders trying to gain weight or who need more has been shown to reduce the rate of ATP you gain on creatine will be in the lean energy. and Amino Acids.2. But creatine is not some magic potion for is 100% pure.3). with little References test looked at the effect of creatine ver. 26: S39. Finally. both in creatine monohydrate on peak anaerobic up with the rate of energy expenditure. and thus that it increases lean body mass as well. an increase in anaerobic capacity on a But rather. 1993. ing a series of four 1. 467: 74P. with an improve. Modern Nutrition in ment of 5. at 20 grams per day (6). Ernest CP. he was able to gain total time was improved by 13 seconds 30 pounds of lean mass in three months 3. The effects of creatine is good.

malnourished deficiency is even more serious and can tities. it is essential that they be high-protein. there’s (over 100 different prostaglandins have risk for fatty acid deficiency. EFA supplementation. EFAs. Certain fats are similarly required protein. and which provide for vital metabolic func. Wait a second .absorb dietary fat very well). and are therefore Does that sound like your diet? have any skin problems or a poor com- called essential fatty acids (EFAs). low-fat supplementation? ally the problem doesn’t get that far. Lately there has been some specula- hormones called eicosanoids. Did their symptoms such as blood pressure. and blood clotting. and decreased contractile knows that vitamins and minerals Are nu. who follow a low-fat diet for a during catabolic conditions. This condition will not hear more about EFAs? Aren’t they just be relieved by lotions or moisturizers as important? Essential fatty acids are . it would not surprise clinical symptoms of essential fatty acid me at all if it turns out to be’ll simply have red. Other problems include tial fatty acids. why don’t we on the face (1-3). liver. EFAs can be stored in body tion that EFA supplementation may im- category of eicosanoids is further subdi. skin was completely clear. Have I ever just not enough information to know for been identified so far) which are involved actually seen any bodybuilders with the sure yet. The broad Furthermore. About the only people you hear of (including decreased ATP production). After one week of Evening metabolic activity. so moisturizers re- builders . to infections. patients receiving prolonged fat.however. the average American gets about 40% of ally won’t help. which is more than increased loss of water (from the skin). let’s talk about the basics. they can’t strength of the heart ( intravenous feeding. (thus the name “Micronutrients”) children. or decrease muscle loss leukotrienes. The Normally people don’t have to worry plexion you may want to consider trying main function of EFAs in the body is about EFA deficiency in this country be.far more complex than or trauma patients. The eico. Recent evidence suggests by the body in relatively small quantities. fat resolve after fatty acid supplementation? metabolism. However. long before it became so popular. degenerative changes in the kidney. Extremely lean athletes. Usu- fats by itself. acid supplementation for bodybuilders for enough to supply adequate amounts of infertility. scaly skin with very important but they don’t get much lotion on it. dermatitis. and during high. weight training.rapidly and dramatically. tions. to treat kwashiorkor (protein deficiency) that EFAs are also required for normal Since the body cannot manufacture these (1. people with a fat mal. scaly skin. So what are the symptoms of EFA Since everybody makes such a big deficiency? In adults the first symptom is deal about making sure to get enough dermatitis .but some sort of intestinal bypass surgery or result in anemia). attention because EFA deficiencies are the formation of some components of troduce another new supplement for body. and thromboxanes. kidney disease. include decreased growth.a concentrated source of essen. If you obtained from the diet. to provide building blocks for a class of cause the typical diet contains so much fat. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 175 . details. to name Yes . Everybody intestinal resection. In infants EFA trients required by the body in small quan.absorption syndrome (that is. relatively rare in America. dry. Primrose Oil (EPO) supplementation her tant structural components of cell mem. Why? Because normal. liver disease years. especially vitamins and minerals. It was very branes and thus are important for healthy dramatic. The EFAs are required for Parrillo Performance is proud to in. and you can imagine how happy skin. The details of fatty acid metabolism are suffering from EFA deficiency are burn decreased capillary resistance. I remem- a few. healthy skin. inflammation. fat so a dietary deficiency won’t show up prove muscle and strength gains during vided into prostaglandins. Eicosanoids are made by all cells ber one female bodybuilder in particular of the body and their central function is who had a problem with her skin getting to communicate messages to nearby cells dry and breaking out. for a long time. prostacyclins. patients who have had fragility of red blood cells (which can protein or carbohydrate metabolism . But before we get too deep into the she was. In my opinion sanoids are a complex group of hormones prolonged time are definitely at increased the jury is still out on this issue.2).Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 43 Evening Primrose Oil and the Importance of Essential Fatty Acids by John Parrillo in controlling many metabolic processes deficiency? You bet. I have recommended fatty his calories from fat. I person- © 2004. low-fat dietary supplementation and lung (1. increased susceptibility the basic concept is EFAs are also impor. and it got worse at to help coordinate and regulate the body’s contest time. increased quite complicated .2).what was that about development of the nervous system.2).

It’s in the diet. and it . This means around 50% or less. Many vegetable oils contain acid is converted to gamma-linolenic acid acids linked to a glycerol backbone. Just use the oil “garbage” fat. If the fatty acid molecule (oxidize. is a small flowering plant that grows in 14-24 carbons long. How do I take EPO? Take from two There is no requirement for saturated fats omega-3 capsules are available at health to six capsules a day with meals. Evening Primrose Oil contains tion describes how many double bonds the the application of heat. also and omega-3 describe the location of the form eicosanoids from linoleic acid. EFAs are delicate molecules and if you were deficient in linoleic acid or if double bond. among others. fats can its biological activity.this also can oxidize the oil and destroy in total omega-6. The omega-3 problem. To body. The American diet is much higher of other fat (and calories) you don’t neces. These large first double bond from the methyl end of first thing that happens is the linoleic molecules are comprised of three fatty the molecule. This is why I recommend 2-4 carbon atoms in length. This means the oil was extracted without England. the known as triacylglycerols. I think the main nutri. your level of delta-6-desaturase is low. No chains (the fatty part of the molecule) with (linseed) oil. but if you’re going to take them Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) as a better fatty acids (like CapTri) are 6-12 carbon as a source of essential fatty acids you source of EFAs. Short chain fatty acids are find these oils (except fish oil) in the gro. shop for in the appearance of your skin. if a fatty acid molecule EFAs. butter. and sarily want. These fats are not essential are easily damaged during preparation. What do I in the diet and it’s best to limit these as food stores. First. look for? You may notice an improvement much as possible. So EPO is a more hydrogen atoms. However. Have you ever won. One is that EFAs are not the final biologically So what are the EFAs and what are is called linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty active compound (such as eicosanoids) some good food sources for EFAs? Most acid) and the other is linolenic acid (an but are merely the building blocks the dietary fat. in the Mediterranean diet is supplied as vegetable oils are not pure EFAs. The others are tional issues here are calories and protein and both are polyunsaturated. which is 74% linoleic acid. to be specific) the oil. (GLA). flax makes less and less of delta-6-desaturase (the acid part). The best source of monounsatu. plus it bypasses the limit- be either saturated. You can declines markedly. supplementation. The activity of this enzyme according to their length and their degree significant amount of omega-3. olive oil. ers eat fish regularly. ficiency produces a characteristic disease rated fat is olive oil. good health food stores. corn oil. and fish are a great acid. where there is some evidence that taking in saturated fat (from meat. including saf. provides 45 mg GLA and 365 mg linoleic and are the kind most prone to be convert. making this conver- of saturation. As you can tell from the ments don’t shop for bargains. medium chain cery store. reference 3). if you already cause heart disease even though it contains source of EFAs. ed to cholesterol and clog up your arteries. You can find cold pressed oils at GLA directly. sion inefficient. is in the form of triglycerides. if you’re using one of these potent source of EFAs than even safflower contains carbon-carbon double bonds it oils as a source of EFAs don’t cook with oil for two reasons: it’s more concentrated must give up some of the hydrogens. When you buy EFA supple. and vitamin E. especially name. soybean oil. which can damage GLA and therefore bypasses the delta-6- molecule has. source of omega-3’s. The oils desaturase step. disease.Evening Primrose Oil and the Importance of Essential Fatty Acids ally haven’t seen any dramatic changes in doesn’t cause atherosclerosis. they contain multiple double bonds. but it’s not the ultimate have adequate vitamin levels then taking as much fat as the American diet? The fat way to go. If you don’t like fish. it will still information (from Linder. This turns out to be a way contains no double bonds. so it doesn’t upset your per- that the carbon atoms are saturated with extraction efficiency. This conversion is carried out by acids themselves are long hydrocarbon flower oil. these extra doesn’t really make any difference. monounsaturated. Keep in mind that while olive oil tion of various oils is included for your to prevent a deficiency state may actually 176 © 2004. The terms omega-6 body uses to make these hormones. the second problem intake. muscle mass or strength following EFA make you just as fat as eating animal fat. but damages the contest diet strategy. A vitamin de- disease. and long chain fats are should be sure to use “cold pressed” oils.” Anyway. There’s nothing wrong with using the state which is reversed when the deficien- dered why the Mediterranean diet does not cold-pressed oils mentioned above as a cy is corrected. so it’s almost pure EFAs. or you can make salad dressing ing delta-6-desaturase step by supplying polyunsaturated. which means there’s less is no longer “saturated. Saturated fats are found out of it. as well as most fat stored in the omega-3 fatty acid). The degree of satura. but do not contribute to heart There is a difference in quality and purity kind of like taking vitamins. it is said to be you see at the grocery store are extracted to provide EFAs in a minimal amount of “saturated. a table of fatty acid composi.” This term describes the idea by pressing with heat which increases the fat calories. but (The exception may be the anti-oxidants. I’ll explain why. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . the best source of omega 6 is safflower oil. except for the fact that your body a carboxylic acid group attached at one end fatty acids are abundant in fish oils. and flax an enzyme called delta-6-desaturase. Fatty acids are classified is the only vegetable source containing a as you age. or straight. There are two essential fatty acids. beta-carotene. Each 500 mg EPO capsule in animal fat and some vegetable sources. Fatty linoleic acid (omega-6). more than the minimum amount required eggs). Also. between brands. which does not promote heart merely contain EFAs along with a bunch vitamin C. The evening primrose atoms in length. Most bodybuild. monounsaturated fats contain one the best.

which include headaches and inflammation. stores. That’s about all the practical “how it is difficult (if not impossible) to control to” information you need to incorporate EFAs into your diet. Food will always be the boxanes. glandins. Thus it has the effect of exaggerating in most cases. of insulin to glucagon (which is in turn dins which exert a variety of effects. 2 prostaglandins promote inflammation. These include lems. Class 2 prostaglandins sight of the importance of your diet. inflammation. Class 3 prostaglandins (PG3) are from fat or less). The Parrillo EPO supplement was developed specifically Prostaglandins have potent functions in to provide a concentrated source of EFAs regulating blood pressure.) If you are bor. motes release of fatty acids from body fat what can be obtained from a healthy diet Prostaglandins. is a consequence of the degree of desatu. or ting). If you should notice these prob. arise from C20:4 (also an omega-6 fatty follow a low fat diet (10% of calories tion. throm. and increases blood pressure. Class 2 prostaglan- minor skin problems. prostacyclines. The levels of various prostaglandins made from C20:5 (an omega-3 fatty acid) if you have minor skin problems EPO is are deterAined by the balance of essential and contain five double bonds. means they are rapidly made and subse. and are the most abundant class of prosta- ally affect your body composition beyond ecule 20 carbon atoms in length). and leukotrienes form a class fat as energy. It is may be the “missing link” you’re looking prostaglandin levels to essential fatty acid a very potent vasodialator and it increases for to pack on more muscle are probably consumption is a result of substrate level cAMP levels. There are some potential potent effects in regulating blood pressure. If you consistently in regulating blood pressure. by the balance of essential fatty acids in the meaning you need to take even less to get diet and by the balance of insulin to glucagon the same effect. Prostaglandins fall into three the precursor for class 2 prostaglandins. regulation. fects when overproduced. smooth muscle contraction. definitely worth a try. while a va- ing too much EPO? No. and platelet aggregation (blood clot. simply take two aspirin and decrease ration of their parent fatty acids. These are a result of the effects ability. The 6 deficiency while following a very low determined by the ratio of carbohydrate most predominant and best characterized fat diet. By supplying GLA directly we also bypass the rate limiting step in els of various prostaglandins are deterAined the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids. At the very least it fatty acids in the diet and by the balance There are many different prostaglan- will ensure you don’t develop an omega. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 177 . blocked by aspirin. My philoso. It also possesses anti-inflam- cornerstone of sound nutrition . made from arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins have soconstrictor makes blood vessels smaller pletely nontoxic. which dialator increases the size of blood vessels Are there any toxic effects from tak. Prostaglandins have potent functions dins (PG2) contain four double bonds and will probably help. A vaso- are CapTri and Creatine. The lev- oil every day. fatty acids (C20 describes a fatty acid mol. Many class side effects. this family of version of arachidonic acid into prosta.3). a metabolite structure of the substituted cyclopentane Arachidonic acid (AA) serves as of GLA. thus increasing use of stored body of regular foods. Prostaglandins are cyclopentanoic potent effects than classes 1 and 2. double bonds they contain. This means it pro- increase cellular nutrient levels beyond or repressed insulin and glucagon. The people who claim that EFAs to protein in the diet). which stops the con. acid). Class 3 prostaglandins generally have less (pimples). Class 1 an increase in blood pressure and inflam- the number of capsules you take.don’t lose of hormones collectively known as eico. duced from EFAs. derived from unsaturated C20 are derived from arachidonic acid (C20:4) only supplements I know of that can re. carbohydrate to protein in the diet).Evening Primrose Oil and the Importance of Essential Fatty Acids confer additional benefits. if you are very lean. Some PG2’s act as vasodialators what can be obtained from regular foods glandins are made in all tissues of the body while some are vasoconstrictors. © 2004. and so you don’t have to eat a tablespoon of platelet aggregation (blood clotting). Once arachidonic acid is formed. Prosta. EPO is com. matory properties. thus reducing blood pressure. while the enzymes involved in lowering blood pressure and increasing phy is that the role of supplements is to prostaglandin production may be activated free fatty acids (EFA). (paradoxically) your skin breaking out and erythrocyte (red blood cell) deform. bonds and are derived from C20:3 (an derline deficient in EFAs and have some mones whose levels are determined by diet omega-6 fatty acid). and experience very high turnover. quently destroyed. so will of the class 2 prostaglandins which are acids which differ from one another in the not be emphasized in this discussion. The rest of this month’s article will center around a discussion of (which is in turn determined by the ratio of prostaglandins and other hormones pro. general categories based on the number of While necessary for life. These effects are completely ring (1. then taking EPO (3). Prostaglandins are a family of hor. which in turn prostaglandins produces undesirable ef- glandins. inflamma. prostaglandins (PG1) contain three double mation. The sanoids. The sensitivity of of the class 1 prostaglandins is PGE1.

Harris B. optimum levels of this enzyme (delta-6. an bohydrate diet you can control the ratio 7. Since many individuals lack tions nutrients into the lean compartment Lea & Febiger. This is converted growth hormone release. GLA is then sis of “good” class 2 prostaglandins and converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic repress the “bad” ones. Linder MC. prostaglandins. This is how aspirin the diet (ratio omega-3 to omega-6) influ. The balance of essential fatty acids in 6. beneficial delta-5-desaturase. John TM. synthesis. 3. of dibutyrl cyclic AMP. blood clotting. Optimal doses probably range Since it is impractical to direct the synthe. St. omega-3 fatty acid in fish oil). Clinical Nutrition. Among the class 2 prostaglandins. Adv. among arachidonic acid synthesis. fatty acid deficiencies. Hertelendy F and Keay L. Omega-3 fatty acids provide EPA acids and glucose levels in the pigeon. tein in the diet) will thus serve to inhibit I warned you. Todd H. Prostaglandins 6: 217-225. 1974. (4-7). free fatty muscle soreness. DGLA serves as the direct precursor involves simply limiting arachidonic acid secretion IV. acid (DGLA) by an enzyme called elon. balance is clenbuterol mediate their fat-burning ef. desaturase activity decreases with age). on the other hand. diet may be at risk for developing essential strictors which will be produced from it. stimulated by insulin and repressed by glu. These all con. which in turn 2. Role of prostaglandins on balance of insulin to glucagon (controlled production of PGE1 while limiting excess growth hormone secretion. way the hormone adrenaline (epinephrine) maintaining a low fat diet. and . Mosby Company. 1994. 1991. 1. As mentioned. the target of aspirin and other nonsteroi. and class 2 prostaglandins. Philadelphia. the key. glandin and Thromboxane Res. Louis. while secretion by rat pituitary tumor cells in work by acetylating (and inactivating) cy. has the effect PGE1 also activates adenylate cyclase Parrillo EPO is a high-tech EFA sup- of lowering blood pressure and has no and thus acts to mobilize fat stores. gregation (blood clotting). PGE1 decreases blood viscosity by desirable results can be achieved in terms increasing erythrocytes (red blood cells) References of lowering blood pressure and reducing deformability. caffeine. to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) by delta. 8: 1321. or cAMP. This is the same optimize their EFA metabolism while still donic acid (and thus PG2’s) to be formed. These drugs energy and generation of PGE1. PGE1 stimulates fatty acid linoleic acid. The effects of omega-3 fatty remember is that EFAs are required for acids (fish oil) in reducing blood pressure. Parrillo diet (high protein. Effects catalyzed by the enzyme cyclooxygenase. culture. Company. 1974. Studies to PGE1 and arachidonic acid to PG2 is the undesirable effects of excess class 2 on growth hormone secretion VI. plement designed to provide EFAs with- undesirable side effects. and hormones which are involved in con- reducing platelet aggregation are probably trolling blood pressure. Prosta- in response to the ratio of carbs to pro. Many promote inflammation istry and Metabolism with Clinical Ap- with GLA directly (from Evening Prim. other things. Paige DM. nutrition. It provides a the Parrillo diet is to provide the fatty acid cyclic AMP. The ultimate precursor for both class fer a protective effect against coronary ar. PGE1 is a potent vaso. E1 on plasma growth hormone. Prostaglandins 2: 79-91. McKeown BA. dergo conversion to arachidonic Acid by class 1 to class 2 prostaglandins. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . 1 and 2 prostaglandins is the omega-6 tery disease. PGE1 reduces platelet ag- inflammation. People following a low fat 178 © 2004. dialator and thus reduces blood pressure. Alternatively. In addition. and have an immunosuppressive effect. plications. arachidonic acid synthesis. By favoring production of PGE1 fect. the strategy of the 4. The effect of prostaglandin and Motrin work to relieve headaches and ences the balance of prostaglandins pro. clooxygenase. 6-desaturase. which stimulates way for bodybuilders and other athletes to precursors which will allow some arachi. New York. Studies on growth hormone gase. consuming a high protein. your body to make some very important increasing erythrocyte deformability. George. mediated by their suppressive effect on inflammation. Kouznetzova B. C. Ehrhart K.another tool to help you optimize your with all matters of homeostasis. from 30-120 mg GLA/day. moderate carbs) and Blute R.V. Glucagon promotes use of fat for and indomethacin on growth and hormone dal anti-inflammatory drugs. and fat metabolism. Hertelendy F. Conversion of DGLA effects can be achieved while avoiding 5. some are vasodialators and some are vaso. Elsevier Science Publishing rose Oil). By Prostaglandins 8: 303-314.Evening Primrose Oil and the Importance of Essential Fatty Acids the balance of vasodialators and vasocon. JC. Nutritional Biochem- it may be prudent to supplement the diet constrictors. By increasing the balance of din E1. PGE1. I’ve just cov- consumption of EPA also limits AA pro. In vivo effects of prostaglan- of PGE1. Furthermore. formation of class 2 prostaglandins. 1988. EFAs is very complicated. duced. Ad. the metabolism of 1980. Parrillo EPO but to tip the balance in favor of PGE1. The strategy of enylate cyclase makes the intermdediate out excess non-essential fats. The proper of insulin to glucagon so as to favor the and Brazeau P. limiting the production of dins. Olson JA. As and drugs like ephedrine. and Shike M. All you need to duction. moderate car- cagon and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Shils ME. prostaglandin E1. 1972. promotes use of fat for energy and parti. use of fat for energy. DGLA may un. The delta-5-desaturase activity is which also inhibits delta-5-desaturase. ered some of the basics. Dray F. inhibiting synthesis of series 2 prostaglan. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.

GH literally shifts the Dietary endocrinology asserts that food. I believe that during the next century. But you’re probably saying. isn’t In truth. In fact. This know that the hormones of greatest im- is called “Dietary Endocrinology” and it’s portance to bodybuilders and athletes can an area we’ve been working in for years. Researchers in Spain have released a study glycogen stores. than a 900 percent increase in growth hor. Fat is released from storage tissues and these hormones act as the triggers for cine as well. though. when CapTri is added to one’s diet. So let’s find out more about how CapTri® by the cells and burned for energy. Just think: If you’re eating every two or Along parallel lines. here’s what that means to you: By combin. muscle growth and fat loss at the same let’s review them. glucagon and GH. The three most important hormones con- can help increase your body’s ability to Also. meaning that more of the protein lets you have the muscle-building action of could dramatically—and naturally—ele. can cause more into the fat-burning mode. like CapTri. All are responsive with growth hormone. supplements like CapTri to manipulate change the way you think about your diet At the same time. fat burning. you should be able But what about insulin and glucagon? tissues. Thanks to research. CapTri a supplement for adding calories to I see it with the people following the our your diet or replacing a portion of carbohy. The practice of using food and nutritional we’ve got some exciting news that may lar machinery that makes muscle proteins. Translated to real-world nutrition. you eat is turned into metabolically ac. So let’s start lipids did not increase blood glucose lev. you’re right. sulin. So is the rate of right foods and supplements you can actu. this is happening today. glucose for energy. Dr. But now there’s research to prove that this Proper diet and exercise can alter the lev- method of regulating the hormones does sis. you can keep your growth The results on both fronts have been im- hormone levels naturally elevated each pressive. energy to either fat stores or muscle is There is evidence that by combining the controlled by hormones. Frank- So that’s why CapTri®. Growth hormone acts to ing CapTri with slow-release. to muscle tissue for growth and repair of rillo Nutrition Program. is researching the use of foods to substitute rillo Nutrition Program and supplementing for drugs in bodybuilding and other sports. proving that dietary manipulation with body from a carbohydrate-burning mode when properly used. channel the protein portion of your meals carbohydrates as recommended in the Par. You bet you would! So hold onto your hat. athletics. GH switches on the cellu. as replacement for drugs in treatment of hours after ingestion and is maintained for What’s more. and of particular importance is GH In case you’re not familiar with the physi.” was developed by Dr. this At the cellular level. Barry Sears. with CapTri®. because of its unique ability to stimulate ological benefits of increasing GH levels. called “dietary endocrinol- and the kinds of supplements you use. program. cle glycogen. the researchers found that the special trolled muscle growth and fat loss are in- regulate it’s own hormones. els. drugs in controlling the body. In theory. It does this by increasing nitrogen to an increase in insulin with very little Where do they fit into the picture? increase in blood glucose. a powerful me. You’ve just seen how GH works its magic. would you want tive muscle tissue instead of being broken building activity that usually accompanies to take it? down and excreted as waste products in the insulin. This powerful hormone stimulates “lipoly. work and is being used in he field of medi. it shuts down the use of body hormones. Parrillo Performance three hours like you should be on the Par. reaction. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 179 . can be as powerful as special lipids. and cardiovascular disease (2). dium chain triglyceride oil formulated by the science of dietary endocrinology with Parrillo Performance. In effect. so there’s no danger of a hypoglycemic to diet. high-fiber time. but there’s even a bigger today? picture to look at when using CapTri as First. Yes. into the bloodstream and is then taken up muscle growth and fat loss. urine. helping to spare muscle ogy. without suffering the fat- vate your levels of growth. works so well when revolutionize the fields of medicine and used in conjunction with proper nutrition. stores. By sparing mus. insulin binds to the © 2004. Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 44 Gain Muscle & Lose Fat: Breakthrough News For CapTri® Users by John Parrillo If there were a nutritional supplement that retention. How then can you fast-forward drates when dieting?” yourself into the next century of nutrition. ly. particularly the results achieved day. GH promotes fat burning. GH helps yield more energy Sears is conducting research using foods mone levels—a peak that is reached two for muscle-building workouts.” which is the breakdown of body fat els of key hormones in your bloodstream. “Hold on. understand that the flow of dietary part of your nutrition program. be largely controlled by diet or exercise. GH and insulin. life-threatening illnesses such as diabetes over three hours (1). we already ally manipulate the body’s hormones.

is a double-edged sword ular oils and fats. and you’ve It drives amino acids into cells and stimu. 1991. Conventional fats go through a com. 6: 211-224. CapTri. Metabolic response to glucose ingest- cagon through manipulation of the carbo. how to adjust this ratio to meet your indi. Essential fatty acids and of fat your body is programmed dietary endocrinology: A hypothesis to carry (5). calories. The primary action of glucagon plicated metabolic pathway. 11: 675-682. a hormonal response in your body that fat-burning will proceed at a significant turns on the muscle-building and fat-burn. while causing the body to use stored fat pass these steps that limit the burning rate for energy. must be carried into the mitochondria (cel. plus the use of lular furnaces) by a special transport sys. The key is to keep chylomicrons which transport through the nutrition. Add those beneficial actions to the ability cogen. 6. Nuttall Precise dietary control of insulin and glu. CapTri has virtually no tendency to 180 © 2004. yet they’re still losing fat at a rapid available for use as energy. loss when CapTri® is used in place of reg. Nutr. 4. of Clin. of CapTri to elevate GH levels. conventional fat can be burned as fuel. on the body. Textbook of Medical number of calories. CapTri and lates protein synthesis—both powerful and we have found a tremendous increase in fat the Parrillo Performance Nutrition Program anabolic actions (3). this means that not only the 3. be stored as body fat. your into the bloodstream as rapidly as glucose. Guyton AC. 52: 267-272. but the type of Physiology. CapTri is absorbed directly Besides protein and carbohydrate. Even more impressive. Comp. Paulin SK and DeLugas Nutrition Program. has a specially chain triglycerides: an update. You basically tion in rats. Journal of make you fat. 1990. on the other hand. all on the same 1993. will make you lean. As it turns out. other major source of calories is fat. in marked contrast to branes so that glucose can be ferried into which contains detailed instructions on other fats and oils (6). stored as body fat: the carnitine shuttle is GM. It is burned and fat-burning at the same time. Barreiro glucagon is a consequence of the ra. however. Sears. Fortunately. Ped. flipped on. are like a metabolic switch. is no doubt why people have such tem called the carnitine shuttle. and fat loss. Insulin and glucagon as determinants ing more calories on our diet than they diet not activated as long as carbohydrates are of body weight set point and microregula- before. This is the great success on the Parrillo Performance reason why conventional fat is so readily 5. J. Span. before Performance. 36: 950-962. Dr. J. Clin thus channeled toward muscle-building. CapTri simply works dif. and the future is here at Parrillo insulin and glucagon in proper balance to lymphatic system. Valls E. Westphal SA. number of calories (5). In simple terms. P. Furthermore. Herrera F. lets you turn on muscle growth because it acts to increase fat synthesis and ferently than conventional fats. Medium ing metabolic pathways. designed molecular structure that lets it by. hydrate and protein ratios. CapTri can exert such a powerful effect glucagon. Physiol. ed with various amounts of protein. rate.B. more like a carbohydrate than it. will determine whether you get fat or lean. is that got a very potent supplement. 1978. J. numbers we use in our Nutrition Manual. These are essentially the same Finally. W.4). Bach AC and Babayan VK. to glucagon ratio is a major deter- minant of the set point—the amount 2. the ratio of insulin to 1.Gain Muscle & Lose Fat: Breakthrough News For CapTri® Users glucose transporter present on cell mem. de Castro JM. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . without going through the lymphatic sys- Sears. Saunders. CapTri recommends a ratio of 30 percent protein. requiring in. Physcol. and Valls A. Diaz M. that. Am. directly enters the mitochondria and is 40 percent carbohydrate and 30 percent immediately burned as fuel. cells to be burned as fuel or stored as gly. it FQ. then who needs drugs? Di- is to trigger the breakdown of fat and corporation into protein substances called etary endocrinology is the future of sports glycogen for energy. not needing fat (as energy) for optimal muscle growth to ride through on the carnitine shuttle (6). very rapidly. additional by medium chain triglycerides. Furthermore. however. B. research has shown that the insulin Ana. 92: rate. in his work in dietary endocrinology tem (6). 1978. Nutr. Insulin also does two other things: vidual needs. Often I see people eat. Modification in plasmat- tio of carbohydrate to protein in the ic insulin and growth hormone induced diet (2. when Insulin. Our program is structured to cause have to use up all your blood sugar before 571-579. if foods and nutritional supplements like ing activity of insulin is kept in check by a fat. 1982. Let’s face fat storage (3). this fat-stor. get the muscle-building effect of insulin and the fat-burning effect of References glucagon. Gannon MC. An important difference. while more glucagon Advancement in Medicine. Am. Too much insulin will for cardiovascular treatment. Dietary energy is CapTri. of regular fats.

this means caloric intake carbohydrate. Professional protein. and fat. lar physique. but by actually doing program remains exactly the same. individuals. As bodybuilders works equally well for any- does) and that it generates a small insulin you can imagine. no one who has given our program a a good carbohydrate source for athletes. and which foods don’t. But the athetes I work with want THE ing. because that’s exactly what it is. and minerals. this is an experimental fact. and nothing is need to increase calories and put on some candy. muscle before they have built enough If your goal is to build a lean and muscu. we measure his tell you how to do that too. If his weight fat. At this finding what really works. right? To every one’s revisit this issue and try to set certain foods made bodybuilders surprise. His training common mistakes people make when © 2004. We’ve done countless experiments like maybe 4-5% for a this with just about every food imaginable. which foods work to build a lean. So response. then you don’t want to eat Okay. The Parrillo is converted to fat point his skin is Performance Nutrition Manual tells you in the liver. The optimum body weight and percent body fat every number of calories and the optimum ratio Can you eat some fruit now and then and couple of days. eating the wrong his body fat level thing. some specific parame- index is because a large proportion of it .Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 45 Fructose: The Ideal Carbohydrate Source For Gaining Fat by John Parrillo I still get a lot of questions about fructose. You expect why this low glycemic index carb is great For a long time I didn’t understand it . and low in daily energy expenditure. This is why I like far. You competitive bodybuilder is our laboratory. carbohydrate. Everything is a slow metabolic rate. so repeated bouts of yo-yo dieting have lost a fruit is generally a healthy food . as does his percent of calories from they come from. vitamins.e. make any difference what kind of food muscular.they are a very sensitive indicator of ters have to be adjusted to optimize the pro- is released from the liver as fat instead of what works and what doesn’t. Re. His total caloric intake remains the seems like it shouldn’t matter what foods I originally learned that fruit makes you same. any little change at this one seeking to lose fat and gain muscle. The to it.I his body weight and percent body fat to for bodybuilders.they want perfect physiques. been replaced with bananas. back to the fruit story. point to the fact the fruc. but that 300 calories worth of complex carbohy. and fat. ing. Now we led and work hard fat. Amaz- sults ruined by close to a contest. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 181 . go back to the original to have their re. suggesting that this makes it point really shows up. Sugar and fat are natural. We carbohydrate. With the gram for your individual metabolism. can see the striations of The same diet developed to hone champion tose has a low glycemic index (which it his muscles clearly through his skin. That’s paper thin (in the hu. Of course. Some people just under the skin). People who have suffered . bodybuilder gets simple: fructose a female. and break it down into calories from especially ones who have trouble losing BEST RESULTS POSSIBLE. gets very low . metabolic machinery to burn fat. here’s the deal: Let’s say we remove candy. The experiment pull the bananas out of the diet and put the in the gym just goes like this: As a rice back in . They may actually fat. Guess what? He loses the fat. Why does it doesn’t mean they’ll make you lean and drates from his diet in form of brown rice. some people. protein. Rather than being some theory supplying 300 of the calories: rice has ment bar based on fructose. The the sugar that occurs naturally in fruit. We weigh his food and of protein to carbohydrate varies among still have a good physique? Sure you can. exactly balances caloric expenditure. For example. I decided it was time to just knew from our work in the gym that remain the same. Granted. athlete in contest shape. left to chance. explaining out of a book. only change is the type of carbohydrate cently I saw an article advertising a supple. calculate how many calories he is consum. muscu- really all there is man most fat is stored lar physique. But try to think of fruit as nature’s measured and controlled. nutritional experiments with real body. The problem is male and 8-9% for That’s how we came up with our diet . the bodybuilder starts to gain fat. carbohydrate.i. but true.. to use competitive bodybuilders for the sincere effort has said that it did not work The reason fructose has a low glycemic most demanding nutritional experiments for them. This is one of the most fat not by reviewing the biochemical path. I hate get in better shape while other We let this go on for a couple of weeks and to see people be mis. builders. foods made them get the athlete continues to gain fat. ways of metabolism. and replace it with 300 calories worth of you eat? For a given number of calories it fruit. Well.high in we have a direct measurement of his total lot of muscle mass and consequently have fiber. do better with more protein and less bodybuilders don’t want good physiques doesn’t change. the record straight.

They think that if they way. You can loosely think of To get a detailed understanding of fructose eraldehyde (GA) and dihydroxyacetone this as “friction” in the metabolic path. The enzyme including the human body. which is the regulatory the ability to phosphorylate glucose. For any machine to run optimally. This step responsible for making sure glyco. and glucose (“blood sugar”) is the many calories you consume. If cutting stored as glycogen in muscles and in the carbohydrate source used by muscles and calories was the answer. then those low liver. Try putting full.the energy fructose itself is not released from the liver drastically reducing calories. If you consume too many calories the form of carbohydrate which is con- calorie weight loss drinks would work. After that. energy supplied by carbohy- drate is stored as glycogen or The problem with fruit is that virtually all fat is PFK-I. This means that the 182 © 2004. massive bodybuilders may oatmeal. but what So after glycogen stores are type of fuel it is matters a lot. It shuttles carbs of the calories it supplies come in the form into glycogen stores until of simple sugars. (1). and the amount tokinase-I (PFK-I). In other words fructose bypasses 250-400 grams. fructose represents purposes. Complex carbohydrates such as rice. on the other hand. the enzyme PFK-I. from carbohydrate. Glycogen is the of glucose. The by the enzyme hexokinase. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Fructose is absorbed from the small reduce calories they will automatically the generation of body heat. Any carbohydrate source you people fail to realize is that the types of exercise and just tending to the activities ingest is first converted to glucose by the foods you eat is just as important as how of daily life. The most abundant sugar they’re full. phosphate (DHAP). then it switches in fruit is fructose (commonly known as the flow of carbohydrates fruit sugar). gets only 1000-1600 calories . fructoki- about carbohydrate metabolism and ther. The next thing that happens is F1P is in a process we know as diet-induced split by the enzyme aldolase to form glyc- thermogenesis. Now I think you can see for all body tissues. mogenesis. the rate limiting step of glycogen you can store is of glycolysis. On the other hand. are full the rest will be converted to fat act on fructose is fructokinase. after glycogen stores verted into glycogen. Some of into the bloodstream to reach the rest of of the weight lost will be muscle. like the body. and potatoes. forming G6P. therefore have different effects inside your body. is generally believed to be ergy (1). it requires the that regulates whether dietary right kind of fuel. This is true. Of course. The upper limit the conversion of carbohydrate into en. all food is fuel. are preferentially be able to store as much as stored as glycogen until glycogen stores 600 grams. then energy to fuel your body for one day. The problem with fructose is storage form of carbohydrate that it bypasses the enzyme phosphofruc. fructose gets directly converted So while glucose is a general substrate supplied by carbs is used for several to fat by the liver. gets whisked off in the bloodstream to be deal with fructose is that it totally skips All cells have hexokinase.not even enough similarly phosphorylated at the 6 position directly converted to fat in the liver. Instead of being stored as nase is virtually confined to the liver (1). Most of the intestine and transported to the liver by lose weight.) This amounts to are full. the pathway responsible for quite limited. in animals. (Very fat. converted to fat. about 50% cost of keeping your body alive. which adds (triglycerides) in the liver. the dietary energy (calories) glycogen. and transported a phosphate group to the sugar to form The key point is that different foods have by the blood to fat cells (adipose tissue) fructose-1-phosphate (F1P). and this energy loss contributes to ning. excess calories from any kerosene in your car sometime and see how type of carbohydrate can be it runs. and thus have stored in fat cells (1). Some of it is simply lost as why I have a problem with recommending a carbohydrate load targeted for the liver heat during its digestion and metabolism fruit for bodybuilders. means that all cells can metabolize glucose As you know from our previous articles gen stores are full before fat synthesis is for energy.Frutose: The Ideal Carbohydrate Source For Gaining Fat trying to lose fat. metabolism we should start at the begin. any energy left is liver. depending the control point that decides if a dietary on the amount of skeletal sugar is going to be stored as glycogen or muscle mass you have. And if you lose weight by basal metabolic rate (BMR) . What the energy is used to perform work. You have to realize that little while. Glucose is different chemical compositions and for storage. but only for a dietary energy is used to maintain the the portal vein. switched on. Fructose. The first enzyme to but they don’t. although some fruits (oranges from glycogen synthesis to and grapes for example) also contain a lot fat synthesis.

Amazingly. and liver as fat instead of sugar. The liver is able ingredient. Glu. we want to keep insulin glycolytic pathway at the triose phosphate whereas simple sugars are released very levels fairly low. which may proceed directly ing over” into fat stores. alanine. the a low glycemic index and results in a small to glycogen synthesis (1). but the actual dynamics of glycogen restitution turn out to be much When we were designing the Parrillo more complicated. which means and nutrients through the metabolic path- about carbohydrate metabolism. you building results? glycogen stores than simple sugars (3). Since insulin is a potent stimulus Anyway. It’s a short-chain muscle glycogen stores (2). and other three-carbon corn syrup and fruit juice (good sources metabolites (2). detail to instruct bodybuilders on exact You’ve probably heard that fructose is techniques to control the flow of energy As we discussed in an earlier article low on the glycemic index. while the liver is more versatile in find. Scientific studies have like Pro-Carb™ have also been demon. problem is that the REASON fructose has to yield G6P. We found that 25 out of the 26 bars its choice of substrates (building blocks) had fructose in either the first or second for glycogen synthesis. The biochemistry is much more complex found that maltodextrin is 15% more ef- than is appropriate for this article. to simple sugars (glucose and fructose) etal muscle glycogen stores than fructose which are then available for glycogen (2). and metabolism at this level of molecular efficiency protein source. biochemistry behind my controversial dium-chain glucose polymer.) Why? Because glycerol. so its metabolism glucose extracted from the blood by the is essentially limited to the liver. This makes ProCarb™ cogen storage. It doesn’t raise blood sugar through the rate-limiting PFK-I step. be converted to fat. while glucose is more instead of sugar. as three carbon sugars). know that a slow. We pioneered the use of through the liver without being absorbed a new carbohydrate source in the Parrillo and preferentially is used to replenish Bar called rice dextrin. rice and pasta (4). returning blood glucose to normal levels. a MUCH greater tendency to be converted tion. but I ficient at restoring muscle glycogen levels Now I’d like to go into a little more detail have pointed out the salient features of the than conventional carbohydrate foods like about carbohydrate metabolism and gly- pathway to explain why glucose-based car. bar. very much because it is released from the tose metabolites enter below this step. folks. that you probably gives you the quick energy you want from during exercise and to increase exercise won’t hear anywhere else. The cose. is phosphorylated glycogen synthesis pathways and “spill. Fructose therefore is more prone to Carb™ is based on Low DE maltodextrin to fat than other carbohydrate sources. Fruc. proven that starch (glucose polymer) is Dietary starches and sugars are digested much more efficient at replenishing skel. time to exhaustion (4. what happens is this: After © 2004. be converted to fat. Fructose has thus bypass an important point of regula. In fact. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 183 . Who else teaches you how to control carbohydrates (such as starch and malto. potentially overwhelming the seems like fructose would be good. Until recently it was be- cells don’t have the enzyme needed to lieved that glycogen was made just from phosphorylate fructose. Furthermore. on the other hand. To be broken increased insulin release resulting from insulin release is that it is converted to fat down for energy glucose must first pass simple sugars causes more of the sugar to in the liver. liver and muscle. I think I can anticipate a ques. only a small insulin response. lactate. glucose serves Performance Bar. Maltodextrin beverages restoring muscle and liver glycogen and body fat stores.5). so by this reasoning it level (i. of anyone besides Parrillo Performance Each Bar also contains CapTri® (which who researches nutritional biochemistry is legendary by now) and an ultra-high At this point. ideal for glycogen supercompensation dietary carbohydrate is directed toward especially for people trying to minimize (carb loading). Now you understand why — muscle formation (2). Maltodextrin is a me. so why use it? Now you understand the prone to be converted to glycogen. This strated to increase blood glucose levels ting edge stuff. complex it raises blood sugar very slowly and elicits ways. From your the metabolic pathways to optimize body- dextrin) are more effective in replenishing reading of our series on endocrinology. rapidly. like most other carbohy.Frutose: The Ideal Carbohydrate Source For Gaining Fat products of fructose metabolism enter the are released into the bloodstream slowly for fat storage. I don’t know a sports bar. It has been stance on fruit. tion from the biochemists in the crowd. This is cut- glucose polymer made from rice. (If you use somebody else’s to make glycogen from fructose. but without the fructose. drate supplements.. we surveyed every primarily to replenish muscle glycogen available sports supplement bar we could stores. steady insulin response This makes sense because complex carbs is good. This is why Parrillo Performance Pro. most glucose of fructose) are real cheap.e. After exercise is completed bohydrate sources are better than fructose. and they’re absorbed from the gut actually travels also very sweet. go read the label.

Calorie for calorie. Muscle does not have the enzymatic machinery needed to to glucose. it preferentially fills liver glucose pass on through so it can be deliv.2).the form of carbohydrate in liver says. Fructose is the worst carb and is able to recover its glycogen stores readily converted to fat by the liver. So a large portion of the fructose simply glycogen stores so that even good carbs ered to muscle. Exercise induces muscle to be muscles and stored there as glycogen. two things can happen with fructose.the answer The rest of the fructose gets converted nutrient that will make you fatter than is right in front of you. limiting” enzyme that operates as a switch to decide fructose can be absorbed by the liver cells. What does this mean for us of fat.) The story with fructose is fructose can be absorbed by the liver cells. “We’ve got all the glycogen Glucose then has some special metabolic starch. This is ex. First. converted very different. so fructose fructose can be converted to fat. so any more carbs coming properties that you can use to your ad- . including is why ordinary table sugar increases If you wanted to design a supplement to lactate.Frutose: The Ideal Carbohydrate Source For Gaining Fat exercise liver and muscle glycogen as a switch to decide if a sugar gets stored fat without ever filling muscle glycogen (carbohydrate) stores are depleted. liver and is extracted by skeletal muscle. But the damage doesn’t stop there. Also. You remember what represents a dietary carbohydrate load I said earlier about the enzyme PFK-I. your muscle full. said earlier about the enzyme PFK-I. The liver makes due with gets converted directly to fat and released are more prone to spill over into fat. (Studies have shown are filled and we start converting carbs into excellent recovery trick is to eat a Parrillo that overfeeding as much as a 500 gram carbohydrate load leads to practically no fat synthesis. large portion of it is converted directly to store. hard. and other carbon compounds which muscle is into the bloodstream. because the carbs are stored In the liver. since muscles rely when liver glycogen stores are full. We need some ingly.” Fructose vantage. liver glycogen. and fortunately for the bodybuilder. the only bodybuilders? Think about it . The as glycogen or converted to fat. if a sugar gets stored as glycogen or converted to fat. Muscle tissue. the fructose can be converted to fat. to be sure. this glycogenesis (glycogen production). What this means is if you feed your body once liver glycogen stores are full the glucose . because this is high blood glucose and insulin levels do this will give you more energy and strength what keeps blood sugar levels steady. it would be metabolites. most glucose passes on through the anaerobic exercise. fructose is fat itself. But relatively little to stimulate hepatic (liver) during your workouts. indeed. Besides that. In the liver. This is the “rate targeted for the liver (1. Muscle tissue portion of sucrose that is responsible for In summary. Second. stores are full additional glucose will be This means that if you supply your body used to restore liver glycogen. Unfortunately. preferentially repletes liver glycogen more sensitive to the effects of insulin. An be converted to fat. Only after The third problem is that fructose cannot be with carbohydrate in the form of glucose both muscle and liver glycogen stores are used to replenish muscle glycogen. After muscle glycogen into fat stores. and pumped. Fructose stores. sucrose. have a problem with it. has a specialized function (contrac. That sounds okay. so the liver is kind enough to let the fat by the liver. fructose. I don’t until you stop to think about it. the convert fructose into glycogen. Bam. liver to inter-convert so many different metabolism suggests that it is the fructose metabolic intermediates. into liver glycogen. and amino acid blood triglyceride levels and makes you ruin a bodybuilder’s physique. Recent thought on carbohydrate because it’s cheap and tastes sweet. First. Pro-Carb™ . on the other fat. This source for bodybuilders you can imagine. glucose. Interest- cle glycogen stores are full. hand. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . You see. You remember what I ily converted to fat by the liver.the carbohydrate will be directed to your in here we’ll just convert to fat. glycogen. and then stored as Fructose completely bypasses this enzyme and is read- glycogen. converted to glucose. from many different sources. Table sugar is a disaccharide known as a fructose-based energy bar. This scenario is a carbohydrate liver is a very versatile metabolic engine completely bypasses this enzyme and is nightmare. This is the “rate limiting” enzyme that operates 184 © 2004. so on post-exercise that the calories will be pref- fully repleted will further excess glucose a high fructose diet liver glycogen stores erentially stored as muscle glycogen. and the Parrillo Bar™ we can hold. the liver into fat-storing mode. as glycogen. and then stored as glycogen. two things can happen with fructose. In- on their internal glycogen stores as fuel for is when dietary carbs start to “spill over” stead. Second. enzymes the liver does which allow the fructose. fructose does three things: a relies on glucose to recover its glycogen making sweets so fattening. Di. glycogen-depleted muscle (2). and is made from one molecule the vast majority of the bars out there rely tion) and doesn’t have all of the various of glucose connected to one molecule of on fructose as their major carb source. This will make actly what we don’t want. You get a dose it cannot be used by muscle to recover unable to use. so etary carbohydrate in the form of glucose instead of muscle glycogen (2) and shifts blood glucose is shuttled preferentially to will be directed to your muscles until mus.

but by 48 hours you’ll see a difference. content of the diet important. What hydrates through the metabolic pathways up in muscle and not be converted to fat. St. sky I. as many as 60-70% are as high or higher in vitamins. of your calories can come from complex and fiber than fruit. sugars or fructose. Sport on liver glycogen. 1981. ing glucose instead of fructose would be bic exercise that relies on muscle glycogen important. pp. Clin. Finally. Louis. Eds. the calories just stay in your made from glucose polymers as your carb You also know when somebody starts tell- liver and get converted either to liver gly. It won’t help recover muscle found in starchy foods (potatoes. Above this carbohydrate. post-exercise the complex carbs resulted these calories will go straight to muscle in significantly better recover of muscle with virtually no risk of being converted 4. Costill DL. Sugars and Sweeteners. The role of drink right after your workout. Buskirk. when muscles are References content of the diet. if you store more of your dietary be the best. high fructose corn syrup muscle glycogen storage. this means if you rely on simple replenish your fat stores after exercise. Int. Sherman WM. Baur T. rice. J. If you’re looking for a good way to 62% VO2max increases time to exhaustion. 1991. CRC Press. high fructose Nutr. and stronger. Pretty bodybuilder whose career depends on his neat. C. efficacies of simple sugars versus com. 2. else a shaker bottle with a serving or two N and Hollenbeck CB. and Brodowicz G. Nutr. CRC Press. oatmeal. A study by Costill (reviewed If you’re trying to pack on a few more Mosby Company. Hickson JF and Wolin- the other hand if you use starches (com. On they are for a reason. and Baur TS. source. avoid fructose. 1: 52-60. Both were Witten MW. Nutrition in you consume will be converted to fat. and any further carbohydrate Parrillo supplements are made the way beverages: exercise and sport. Another study looked at to fat. glycogen synthesizing pathways is to put a Parrillo Bar in your gym bag or tions. glycogen following exercise. Lamb DR. 1988. 1989. Eat a high glucose based carbs you’re supposed to eat In closing I’d like to talk about the kinet. J. A convenient way to do this its physiological and pathological implica- intake. the carbs will be converted to fat. Snyder AC.V. Sports Exerc. S.) and in the Parrillo remember that all those starchy and fibrous Bar™ and in Pro-Carb™ . of carbohydrate are provided. Paige DM. Both are glucose not only can you achieve higher levels of polymers. Shafrir E. minerals ics (time course) of glycogen storage. carbohydrate diet.Frutose: The Ideal Carbohydrate Source For Gaining Fat Bar™ or a scoop of Pro-Carb™ right as the primary fuel source. in reference 2) compared the relative pounds of muscle it may be as simple as 703-704. Basically. 63-98. Our supple- carbs as muscle glycogen. less will be ments are designed for the professional available for conversion to fat. Nutritional as they can. in the Parrillo Bar™ and low DE malto. Sci. not the cheapest. up until 500-600 grams glycogen depleted and are primed to store 1. In other but we’ve designed our supplements to words. 34: 1831-1836. Beware. You might be surprised that a seemingly small difference like us- You know that weight lifting is an anaero. bar. These are essentially that muscles fully loaded with glycogen know how to control the traffic of carbo- “free” calories which you know will end are bigger. plex carbs made from glucose polymers) dextrin in Pro-Carb™ . fructose is more efficient than glucose at corn syrup. Eds. however. you’d better put on your hip waders and glycogen. We use rice dextrin Exercise and Sport. The question main ingredients. You also know between winning and losing. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 185 . Clinical Nutrition. Connors is. muscles will have stored as much glycogen 6. After a workout. can you do to target dietary carbohydrate of your body and direct carbs to muscle If you eat a fructose-based supplement to muscle? Use complex carbohydrates while minimizing their conversion to fat. eating a scoop of Pro-Carb™ plus a scoop plex carbohydrates in restoring muscle of Hi-Protein Powder™ or 50/50 Plus™ 3. These products 5. Do this equally effective during the first 24 hours dietary carbohydrates in muscle glycogen for a month and I can virtually guarantee resynthesis after strenuous running. Am. Lamb DR. and demonstrated that of them at least) use fructose. etc. Fink WJ. but the time to consume some protein to provide type of dietary carbohydrate consumed amino acids to rebuild your muscles. ER and Puhl. but also less of or fruit juice concentrate would be cheaper. Eat a high carbohydrate meal im- is highly dependent on the carbohydrate mediately after training. but it can make the difference © 2004. 1983. is. of glycogen synthesis. Glycogen recovery following exercise carbs. harder. Most of the Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid the effects of different carbohydrate types supplement bars out there (probably 90% carbohydrate supplement. This is also an ideal 1991. pp. 15: 126. Sure. not only is the absolute carbohydrate of Pro-Carb™ in it. or fruit juice as one of their replenishing liver glycogen. huh? (or her) physique. glycogen stores. Med. within 24 hours your fructose would be an excellent choice. Fructose/sucrose metabolism. is key also. Now you after your workout. This is the type of carbohydrate ing you how wonderful their fructose bar cogen or fat. Snyder AC. and Miller JM. Interestingly. do you want your carbs to be stored in are not effective in recovery of muscle D. beans. Maltodextrin feeding muscle or in your liver? glycogen and instead are targeted to the immediately before prolonged cycling at liver. Kretchmer appear to be saturated (2).

1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 .186 © 2004.

salad greens. athletic looking body. They’ve reversed your food yourself and take body mass. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 187 .2). tabolism. Food it with you in a cooler. You’ll get better results from vegetables. control of body fat is a central issue. which encourages use of body fat restrict calories. These contain capacity. Build your me. This change ing the more food you have to eat. pota- tion of nutrition.metabolism and lose fat. by the liver and muscle to metabolize fat.of starchy carbohydrate is always more important. and fat you operating at peak efficiency. (114 calories). Adjust the This ensures that all of the biochemical of the weight lost is muscle. mass. For for energy. beans. pound of body weight per food you have spoon of CapTri instead lism. Divide your total daily any other single topic because every. Current medical litera.way in the body. dairy products. This supplement in the world tion for being the best way to gain muscle skinless turkey breast. skinless chicken breast. to eat and what not to eat. whites.” Several supplement makers suggest and pasta. use it in place that you should use their product to form simple sugars and refined bolic rate is pro. The number Concept #4. © 2004. so the more muscle you’re carry. CapTri physique goals. of calories from starch. A healthy diet of natural. and one or two fibrous vegetables. Food is the founda.lose fat. oatmeal. but don’t fall training and has a special molecular This month I want to explain some basic into the trap of using “meal concepts about how to structure your diet replacement powders” in nutrition you structure and follows a unique metabolic path- and training program to achieve your place of real food. Build your metabo. Meta.of an equivalent number the core of your nutrition program. for dinner you could have a mula supplies metabolic cofactors used 90% of the time (1.potato (about 120 calo- diet of healthy food. How such as oatmeal. One gram of protein per rying the more ries) and add one table- Concept #2. CapTri petitive bodybuilders around the world. Of and lose fat. and most fish. thereby for energy (burned in preference over regu- low-fat foods is the best approach to body peas. the more mus. The remainder of ic effect than carbs (it mass. Good can steadily in. This lowers serving sizes appropriately to generate pathways involved in fat metabolism are your metabolic rate and sets into play the grams of protein. Each meal must verted to fat than carbs (3). sugar. which need at each meal. thereby increasing your metabolic calories are derived from increases metabolic rate rate and fat burning capacity. Concept #6. sweet potatoes. corn. to get the results you want you have to are used by the vast majority of com. Advanced Lipotropic For- ture reports that this approach fails about example. and fat. toes. simply because it works. Later I’ll requirements roughly evenly over six one wants a lean. actually promotes fat retention. fruit.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 46 Nutrition and Training 101 by John Parrillo I get more questions about fat loss than the body’s starvation response. What plements to build your best. fat. This is because grilled chicken breast. and increasing your lar food) and has virtu- fat control. at each the rest of the calories. rice. a baked potato. CapTri that through proper training and nutri. The be balanced with one protein source. has a higher thermogen- tion you can steadily increase muscle calories. Use The concepts of our nutrition program protein powder as needed cept means that course. during energy restriction as much as half and some steamed broccoli. rice. This key Parrillo concept means day is a good general rule. and carbohydrates that are easi. more than carbs) and is rate is proportional to lean body mass Concept #5. How less prone to be con- (1. so meal eat 30 grams less the roles of foods and supplements. How to use sup- to compete or just to look and feel your Concept #3. and fat burning use CapTri to help you der. Prepare portional to lean For example. Stay away from metabolic rate ally no tendency to be eating the right foods than you could ever salt. meal. egg key Parrillo con. Limit dietary fat to 10% of to eat. To get from some “meal replacement pow. requirement. Whether your goal in bodybuilding is to build your metabolism. bread. then add regular food as needed to supply ly converted to fat. Avoid stored as body fat.for fat loss is CapTri. one also lowers the insulin response of the conventional strategy to lose weight is to or two sources of starchy carbohydrate. to construct your meals. carbs. to meet your daily protein through proper use it correctly.2). or one rule for getting lean is to eat a clean much protein. Metabolic complex carbohydrates. carbs. carbohydrate sources are crease muscle is preferentially burned Concept #1. Over the years the Parrillo Performance Good protein sources are By far the most effective Nutrition Program has earned a reputa. and cle you’re car. explain more about how to eat and train small meals.

much more to body fat stores than do What about training for fat loss? That’s tency. So while losing fat keep training weeks or so of dieting it is often helpful to increase heavy but do more aerobics. This increases trick to stimulating fat loss is to increase muscles will shrink. intake to a maximum of 500 calories them. consider increas. and stick to it. If you hit a weight molecular level. An overwhelm. response to a heavy training stimulus. Using CapTri in reduce calories by more than 500 below stimulus needed for muscle hypertrophy. I believe a one time invest. your your carbohydrate intake. Dedication. in excess of energy need is simply stored are very plastic. 300 per day for a week or two. don’t ever To get your muscles to grow you have supplements. If you eliminate your heavy sets and ing your protein intake and decreasing It sounds paradoxical. After that stress it won’t get damaged. Note these may your metabolism going again. In fact. You’ll hear Put more effort into eating the right foods content is just as important as calorie some people say to train heavy to gain and less thought into worrying about content (if not more important) in caus. muscle but do a lot of reps to lose fat. Limit any reduction in energy to whatever level of stress is placed on getting the results they should. plan. we’re here. depressed because he can’t afford a lot of quirement. from a very clean keep training as heavy as possible even as glucagon axis so as to favor use of stored diet). They wonder why they’re not as adipose. but are presented just to give you an idea 188 © 2004. Muscles and it often turns out they’re not even eat. place of an equivalent amount of starch maintenance and not to lose weight for Furthermore.Nutrition and Training 101 Putting it all together: The first fat to 5-10% of calories. rate and muscle loss. I have worked with a a little bigger and stronger than it was attaining your bodybuilding goals. Muscles hypertrophy (grow) in quently a young bodybuilder will call me. pretty soon to me about genetic limits unless you their metabolic rates are so low they just the muscle will get as big and strong as already look like Dorian Yates. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . To fine tune your nutrition metabolic rate. Not infre.4. This stress. When you take a mendous results from good old fashioned weight. per day less than your maintenance re. Any more energy restriction than heavy set to failure. After ten fat. After reps just isn’t a very effective way to want to eliminate starch entirely from the ten weeks or so of dieting it is often help. that’s wrong. In other words. Here are some very rough guidelines calories for a week to add some muscle mass and get for suggested programs. which means they adapt ing right.5. A lot of bodybuilders call ing obesity (7. This serves as a stimulus ment in a Parrillo Nutrition Manual will loss plateau. some muscle mass and get your metabo- order of business is to faithfully follow a ing amount of scientific evidence shows lism going again. either lot of people who have used repeated before. In this case it actually it needs to be to withstand that level of afraid to make changes in your program works better to increase calories. what you need to maintain constant body their previous limits. That’s why works by increasing lean body mass and Then it is time to increase the weight. fat-hoarding mode to a fat-burning mode. researchers even think that dietary fat mentioning a few key points. burn fat. or to call us with questions.6). so the next time it is subjected to you’re not training right or you’re not bouts of starvation to lose weight. It’s that simple. weight training for high will have a dramatic effect. Don’t be can’t lose any fat. A couple of good rules are never to you diet down for a contest to provide the body fat for energy. Limit conventional ful to increase calories for a week to add by burning carbohydrate from muscle glycogen. Some a big topic in itself. This about to repair the damage. ger. but sometimes the start doing a lot of reps to burn fat. You may want to try clean diet. and hard work are the ingredients carbohydrates or protein (1. Aerobic exercise is much more effective for fat loss because it burns A couple of good rules are never to reduce calories many more calories than you ever could by lifting weights and a higher proportion by more than 500 below maintenance and not to lose of those calories are derived from body weight for more than ten consecutive weeks. require modification for each individual. If you’re a bodybuilder on cut calories by more than 500 below to constantly push them a little beyond a budget. which sets get you better results than all the supple. supplements. You can get tre. don’t worry. increase calories by about for the inflammation response. calories (of course. consis. Don’t talk prolonged periods of energy restriction keep using the same weight. and shifts the body from a to force the muscle to grow even big- program for fat loss. and muscle growth will cease. You may more than ten consecutive weeks. You should strive to thermogenesis and affects the insulin. Each time ments in the world. Excess carbohydrate is Basically. will stimulate your metabolism and get this happens the muscle builds itself up If you’re not making good progress in you going again. Weight lifting is fueled mainly last meal of the day. You need to keep me for advice on high tech supplements stored as glycogen whereas fat consumed training heavy while losing fat. Set a specific goal.8). If you eating right. you actually do some hard training and a solid bodybuilding this tends to result in decreased metabolic damage to the muscle at the cellular and diet. map out a that conventional dietary fat contributes this if you hit a plateau in your fat loss. but it’s worth briefly of a champion bodybuilder’s physique.

Avoid over-training. and you’ll have more stores. An to increase carbs. per week. This will help you program. but you’ll be to consume. At no time should carbo. contest approaches increase it further to determine your maintenance energy 2. Since overall per week to one pound per month. Limit dietary fat to 10% of calories. 10% fat (as energy). If you put on fat appearance. Increase protein intake lose weight. This is the time to add Ad. tissue at the expense of body fat. Drink a lot of water to prevent work up to 60 minutes of aerobics a day. about one pound per week. your the Body Stat Kit to follow your percent caloric intake should be approximately body fat. make a change. muscle you’ve probably reduced calories as your goals change. It’s probably best to save your is probably safer. the energy cost of building new aerobics. If you’re losing ries. Most people do best with three to tein. Try to gain between one pound and decreasing body fat. because this leads to rapid muscle ized. take each set to failure. If you week. preferably on non. The training. Simply adjust calories so that your maximum effort at aerobics until your fat energy to train. ume until you’re just at the edge of over. A representative breakdown be a complicated period. Follow your body com- calories by about 300 from what you were lose weight more quickly. then follow the program will reduce fat accumulation as you gain for gaining lean mass. but your body will adapt to this loss. This can you will have to gradually increase calo- body weight. If you carbohydrates. A lower limit of 150 grams per day muscle tissue will be derived from fat as well. As your lean body mass increases high as two grams of protein per pound of don’t know what to do. This tremely lean. and 10% fat (as energy). You will be building muscle gain more slowly or else use more Cap. The optimal some work in the 3-6 rep range. Adjust caloric requirement. On this program your goal is avoid over-training. Program for fat loss: Continue to train to 45-60 minutes a day. (You could do more words. By keep- loss program. Pay attention to absolute carbo. Generally. As your ing a daily record of your diet. A representative 3. start your diet. body weight per day. In other Tri and less carbs. If you’re losing a significant bics for 30 minutes three to five days per and decrease carbs. follow the fat loss weight training days. it’s easy ceed 10% for men and 15% for women. Continu. 50% carbs. The first thing to try is usually 1. prepare for a contest. After shredded. This will put you to lose muscle. you’re likely position with the Body Stat Kit to make using to gain weight. Consider increasing training vol. Increase calories by to keep overall body weight relatively around 300 per day until you’re gaining constant while increasing muscle mass weight. use CapTri to supply the extra should start out. at the same time: Most novice and inter- 60% carbs. to 30 minutes seven days a week. Train heavy and get plenty of vanced Lipotropic Formula to your sup. A lot of people get con- heavy and get plenty of rest. A good starting place is to although some people can do more. If you already weight (3). If a month somewhere close to your maintenance plan ahead to know when you need to goes by without any improvement. This is a great too much. Program to gain lean mass: Train time to use CapTri in place of starch. Limit aerobics to 30 minutes have enough lean mass and want to three days a week. An increase in lean body mass will © 2004. approach can result in a rapid and dra- these extra calories should come from matic change in body composition and starchy carbohydrates. If your mediate bodybuilders need to both gain goal is to gain body weight. call me. This means you have to sure you’re making progress. cut back on calories and quirement. Use body weight is to remain constant.Nutrition and Training 101 of how to make changes to your program might be around 40% protein. You really have to push it to the mum of one-and-a-half pounds a week. fused about how to balance the amount is key. you’re going muscle and lose fat. Use the Body Stat Kit to a change. If you’re already ex- calories you need to gain weight.) Try not to let body fat ex. If you’re gaining a significant equal to your maintenance energy re- amount of fat. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 189 . Decrease and one pound per week is better. and then adjust calories as needed to lose some work in the 8-10 rep range. rest of your calories come from complex limit to get into contest shape. Limit weight loss to a maxi. Program to gain muscle and lose fat breakdown might be around 30% protein. 30% CapTri. make requirement. follow your body composition as you rest. warm ups. and you’ll have to experiment to Consume one gram of protein per pound find what works best for you. hydrate intake drop below 100 grams per amount of aerobics is highly individual- ally try to increase the load as you’re able. Perform aero- plement program. this to have to increase calories. day. Consume one gram of pro- heavy. Increase aerobic exercise body weight remains the same. and 10% of aerobics to do with how many calories five weight training sessions per week. Recovery extreme cutting diet would be 40% pro. Do ketosis. This is where most people easily. 20% carbs. intake as needed to lose about one pound tein per pound of body weight each day. This diet isn’t very fun. Some people go as amount of muscle. and hydrate intake. Done properly. fat.

Nutr. Philadelphia. This on their diets.B. carbohydrate bal- sue. eat right. Clin. months or a year. Train 3. Use and storage of carbohy- 8-10% body fat for men. help you structure your diet: The Parrillo cally what you’re doing here is staying Nutrition Computer Program. Am. Chapman & Hall. New calories. Nutr. Am. Are you really eating 5. You balance or fat balance? Am. Have you fallen drate and fat. Blackburn GL and lean muscle tissue. 45: 296-306. Dietary fat. your progress will grind to a halt unless your Parrillo Nutrition Manual and re- you increase calories. If your body burns 2400 It’s not really that complicated. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . Energy reach your target body fat percentage. Here’s the idea: Start off by consuming the way you need to to look like a body. The building your metabolism. day. Bach AC and Babayan VK. even generates a shopping list. time to increase calories by about 300 per have to lift more weight now or else your 57: 766S-771S. common problems are getting sloppy on 4. Next time ent or energy balance? Nutrition Reviews not. This approach works well as long as your diet or getting lazy in the gym. Fat your daily maintenance energy require. It get body fat percentage. 1993. Peters JC. J. You tell mass. J. If you’re eating and training right back into your diet that you shouldn’t be different effects on energy storage. Clin. examine your diet. fat. Horton TJ. Drougas H. (Most of it will be fat if you’re gram to be stuck on a plateau. 1994. J. Obesity . Many bodybuilders hit a terminal it what foods you like to eat and then plateau because they fail to recognize it’s it plans out your meals for you. and Treatment. and you eat 2400 calo. You CAN have the Kanders BS. your body will reach a new steady state weight to the bar. Nutr. you’re not making progress you have a Clin. You will should be to get a new personal best in at gain muscle for awhile. 1. If you think about it. Brachey A. you’ll automatically gain muscle and lose eating? Are you attacking the weights in Clin. ries per day.a disease of nutri- faithfully. Reed GW. Obesity. basi.. you walk into the gym. 61: 952s- for women. fuel your exercise. 1987. and then stop. Bjorntorp P. 62: 19-29. If you never increase your particular goals. they put everything except cook your food. If chain triglycerides: an update. Stay the gym? You should be increasing your on this program until you reach about weights in each lift at least every month. until your meta. but as you lose fat next level. many bodybuilders fail. and then hit a plateau These examples illustrate my concept of J. Then it’s time to increase I’ve recently developed a new tool to calories again. Clin. it does when they do increase calories. add some more 45: 33-43. You will gain weight. 1995. I don’t be muscle if you’re following the diet want any people on the Parrillo Pro. Am. Get out 1987. Bray GA. I can show you how. and time to increase calories. or it may take a year depending on how every workout? You HAVE to lift more fat you are when you start out.Nutrition and Training 101 increase your metabolic rate and your on fat. This means they’re not being strict maintenance energy requirement. and carbs. and seem to stay stuck there forever. J. Obesity: Pathophysiology. and Brodoff BN. Every month your goal (constant level) body weight. that doesn’t leave anything problem in one of these areas. I hope I have most common problem is that they fail to given you some insight into how the just have York. So then they cut calories References is where many. Flatt JP. Medium calories per day to maintain itself and heavy. Swinburn B and Ravussin E. No more builders fail to reach their goals because tedious calculations. You’ll never bolic rate rises to equal your new level of do it if you don’t try. 190 © 2004. fat. 1995. You can’t wait for your muscles 7. Nutr. and switching to the program to gain lean grams of protein. Many body. and do your aerobics.) At this new level of energy intake. When you weight. Psychol- increase their caloric intake as they gain program works and what to do to achieve ogy. 6. energy to fuel growth. It includes on the maintenance energy program until a variety of menu-driven features to help your body composition drops to your tar. Most of it will muscles won’t get any stronger. you plan and keep track of your diet. builder? Have you let some foods creep and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: ment. and weight maintenance: effects of you have enough body fat left to supply you’re ready to take your physique to the exercise. and just diet back to the same place they They make good progress for the first six started from. least one of the basic lifts. This may take two months. and Hill JO. energy intake. The most left over to build and maintain new tis. 1992. 1982. your muscles will grow as big physique of a bodybuilder . Basically. Nutr. into a rut and just lift the same poundages 959s. If ance. 8. Flatt JP. Lippincott Co. and 12-15% if not more frequently. Follow your body composition. J. Am. 36: 950-962. it’s to grow and then lift heavier weight. and then you’re helps you figure out your calories. as they can on that level of energy intake to want it bad enough to do what it takes.

I arrived at the Parrillo diet. nutrition becomes one give good results? Does one approach give bogged down in the biochemical details. to promote the and probably do okay. won’t have any problems. bodybuilding shows can be won or advanced which are specifically designed So who’s right? lost by a bowl of rice. To attain a truly choices. It’s one The point of this is not to get into argu- for contests. At this level. incline flyes or not won’t make the differ. protein metabolism. ence in if you win or lose the contest. 40% carbs. high fat. During this the authors of these programs (to borrow technique. camps are right. It is the area while I was charting people’s body weight. we’re not concerned merely proves that both approaches can work. a Parrillo Performance. There is a lot with sustaining life. in general. So back to the basic a fat-burning metabolism. lular physiology. for bodybuilders (and anyone else. If you fat. Why is matter) to gain muscle and lose fat and be for limiting carbs to 30-50 grams per day.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 47 Exploring the High Fat Diet. © 2004. All the bohydrates and very low in fat. to help bodybuilders get extremely lean Nutrition is a fascinating field. such as that of a champion protein only meals. and 30% fat. At this level. find about nutrition. by increasing glucagon) how food affects hormones which in turn carbs. Another common feature is ence can completely disagree about even names or exchange insults. but as the Parrillo Nutrition Manual. You won’t even get close to a time I read every medical book I could a little Internet jargon). you probably cess with the high fat diet and that others up to provide an anabolic growth phase. At this without carbs or fat (that didn’t work). or fat break. you will find that nutrition no acid combinations. food If you’re familiar with my work at all. have had success with the higher carb diet gesting a diet of 30% protein. but with promoting a So the answer to the question is that both of science and theory behind these diets. body composition. have all worked with bodybuilders and Races are won or lost by a fraction of a eral “new” dietary strategies have been have generated champions. I’m always reading and studying or even less. We have to understand diets – everything you can imagine. We complicated. a top physique. you will live I’d switch horses. How can although the high fat recommendation is enhanced muscularity. ami- diet high in protein. and I am receptive to of calories from fat. carbs. At this level. nutrition can get very complex. The point is not to call people of calories. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 191 . for most bodybuilders. at least one gram cause it is the most complicated aspect of tried all sorts of various food combinations to 1½ grams per pound of body weight bodybuilding. nutrition. At another level. This low carb regi. and providing around 70% tion (at least optimum nutrition) is very to learn new things. Whether you do an extra set of perimentation and plain old trial and error. If the high men is carried out over a five day (or so) nutrition seems ridiculously simple. I than sedentary people. will know that I advocate. This disagreement this is to figure out what is the best diet content in favor of increasing dietary fat about fundamentals suggests that nutri. nutrition still in its infancy? Because nutri. healthy. I agree that is the most critical variable. high in complex car. as being ous examples of great success they’ve had whether or not you eat an extra bowl of rice the diet which simply gave the best results with their programs. The point of that they advocate reducing carbohydrate fundamental concepts. at least partially. everyone is to see what would work to help bodybuild- per day. bodybuilder. then course to deliberately induce ketosis and just eat a fairly balanced diet. All competitive bodybuilders know how and fat loss. hard-training athletes need more protein where the most mistakes are made. complex. You don’t even need question: Who’s right? use of stored body fat as energy. sug. You might expect me to flame training hard and heavy and using proper ers lose the last ounces of fat. and so can I. meal structure. two opposite approaches to nutrition both quite controversial. in order to reduce insulin levels. you use to sculpt our bodies. and fat). and so have I. and strength levels. This is to know what a carbohydrate is. These people all are very knowledge. They all can point to numer. Part I by John Parrillo Over the last two or three years sev. be. now published and so have I. Through many years of ex- able about nutrition and have put a lot of to train. around 25-30% trained experts with vast clinical experi. Let me explain. without cycling. and encourage the use of stored body fat level food is not merely fuel thrown into I varied macronutrient ratios (percent of for energy. but rather the raw materials we calories from protein. of the most complex sciences there is better results? Is one approach healthier? the fundamental idea behind these ap. They the day before the show very well could. meal frequency. you name it. for that consumption. thought and research into their programs. Insulin is have to know exactly how every nutrient Back in the early days. I tried all sorts of down. On one hand. new ideas and new approaches. If you The fact that some people have had suc- followed by two or three days of carbing just get some food to eat. to. because it incorporates every biochemical Here’s where the discussion starts to get proaches is to reduce carbohydrate intake and metabolic pathway in the body. Without getting too ness. state of optimal health. is metabolized and how this affects cel. low carb approach worked better. and extreme lean. These diets have in common a of the few areas of science where highly ments with other experts on bodybuilding fairly high protein intake. even a liquid protein fast we can take the brakes off fat metabolism control fat and muscle metabolism. High less importantly. increased energy. By reducing insulin levels (and. (actually the majority of bodybuilders) Another program is more moderate. Some of these plans call tion science is still in its infancy. the furnace. carbs only meals. second. but I’m not going bodybuilding stage if you don’t train hard. however. before there was a potent inhibitor of lipolysis.

even if you’re using CapTri®. which spares protein and glycogen. increases your risk for heart disease. some representative numbers Not only does dietary fat contribute more the show and they’re in contest shape. The to the carbohydrate content of the diet. The higher dietary protein without relying on conventional fat as an your body is in a calorie surplus (gaining intake helps prevent catabolism of muscle energy source. results in less body fat accumulation than lean. (Of course. are important. tion was that different body types respond if the excess dietary energy is supplied as The thing I don’t like about the high fat somewhat differently to different nutri. rice. especially during weight gain. fat (1-13). I have liter- eral body types. and endomorphs are naturally muscle loss. diet this way the percentages take care of as body fat. Next tendency to be stored as body fat. ally dozens of research articles from the pearance. 30-40% protein. that body fat percentage is more highly mesomorphs have the easiest time becom. However. This energy is used to fuel the documented in the medical literature that intake appropriately so that you’re either body. maybe a big effect on the insulin-glucagon axis neered fat with a unique molecular struc- somewhere around 25-30% protein. as rapidly followed a low fat diet. because 192 © 2004. All they have to do is cut levels and a hard time burning fat. but they’ll gain more which I divide into starches (potatoes. and if are naturally fat and have a hard time get. it helps to a fat-burning mode. Ectomorphs are naturally skinny tomorphs need to maintain a high carb diet medical literature demonstrating this and people. they tein per pound of body weight each day is insulin levels. Regular fat is metabolized very slowly and that adding some fat to their diets will help ries come from complex carbohydrates. Part I So how can two very different approaches in an energy surplus (excess calories) and So I have found that reducing carbs does to bodybuilding nutrition (high fat versus the bulk of these excess calories should indeed help to promote fat loss.) Just as supplying so many calories as dietary fat.10). fat) increases your cholesterol level and it will be harder because you’re working 50-60% protein. (The actual percent. can change as you’re working to achieve point is that CapTri® results in much less Again. They were lean and muscular of stored body fat for energy.15).5 grams of protein a good general guideline for hard training CapTri® in place of carbs to decrease in- per pound of body weight per day. 30-40% carbs. excess feeding of carbohydrates results in gaining muscular weight or losing body Since CapTri® is rapidly and completely less body fat gain than excess feeding of fat. nutrient percentages as examples are mere. classified by general ap. There are three very gen. They can eat a lot structure of your diet to achieve different you to utilize the power of the low carb diet and don’t gain much weight. So when you structure your used as fuel. They gain precise. because this in people who have a hard time getting I found during my years of experimenta.Exploring the High Fat Diet. 65% and nutrient partitioning. The times when I cite various defy the laws of thermodynamics. mesomorphs are naturally lean and even while losing weight to help prevent explaining the biochemical reasons why.6. These are the people and high insulin levels block the burning calorie intake (1. is burned (converted to usable metabolic fat along with the muscle than if they had beans. before they ever started training. If for an endomorph might look like this: to fat stores than protein or carbohydrate you’re an ectomorph or an endomorph you For weight gain.4. 5-10% fat. reduce their carbohydrate intake. but dietary fat (especially saturated can still become a good bodybuilder. So my disagreement is not about reducing muscle easily.8. muscular. and athletes. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . but they usually by calculating your daily protein require.) Basically. as desired. It behaves more like a carbohydrate in work out close to those above. and 5-10% fat. (To be more concept I’ve been talking about for years. determined by dietary fat intake than by ing bodybuilders. for weight gain the body must be different goals. this means it won’t be stored dietary fat (1-13). which results in increased insulin carbs – that works. but themselves. the body. 50-60% (1-13). You adjust carbohydrate as glucose. endomorphs just can’t seem Several studies have even demonstrated fat.) and fibrous carbs (vegetables energy) very rapidly – in fact. against your natural genetic tendency to be Again. to lose all their fat without reducing carbs.5-2 grams per to the strategy of the high fat diets except tional fats for weight gain is that when pound per day. during weight loss I diets is that dietary fat is VERY prone tional structures. you eat too many calories too fast you will ting lean.9. fat gain than conventional foods. On the Parrillo Nutrition Program you start metabolic route than regular fats (14.5 grams of complete pro. is very easily stored as body fat. It is extensively and salad greens). My problem is with still look good. especially low fat) both give good results? One thing come from carbohydrates. the junk out of their diet a month before an example. They seem to be very sensitive to insulin. Changing the ratio of without resorting to using regular fat as a these individuals do better on a high carb protein to carbs to fat in your diet can have food source. increase this to as much as 1. CapTri® does not Endomorphs gain muscle more easily. except that it doesn’t increase given just as an example. CapTri® has virtually no weight) virtually all excess fat calories you protein during energy restricted diets. CapTri® them gain weight. This means you can use need to get one to 1.) Obviously. 5-10% fat. This is very similar weight. Ectomorphs will find from fat.3. which is consume from food will simply be stored you allot 5-10% of daily calories to come in marked contrast to regular fats (14. I don’t have a problem with that. This is a we all envy. They can eat like crap and sistance. For weight loss. found that these people do better if they to be stored as body fat. ages aren’t important.15). One to 1. The remainder of your calo. The problem with using conven. they usually have mild insulin re. (You know which you are. I found that metabolic effects. While ec. as body fat (1-13). As sulin levels and shift your metabolism into then keep increasing carbs until they gain you decrease calories to lose fat. They seem to be very sensitive ly to illustrate how the balance of your diet gain fat. etc. These are ment. but carbs.2. it’s not the actual percentages that So how do we do the low carb diet at Par- either skinny or fat. CapTri® is a specially engi- diet with moderate to high protein. I’m just trying to illustrate rillo? I’ve developed a very special energy Ectomorphs get lean easily but have a hard the idea that you can shift around the supplement called CapTri® which allows time putting on muscle. ture which causes it to follow a different carbs.

enough to lose one proach will work best? you’ll lose weight. That equals a deficit maintain your calorie deficit. and Another key concept of the Parrillo diet day (3. it is advised that if you stay on it too long. have to lose. So to lose body fat most people. Therefore bodybuilders know they per week. This strategy is not The VAST majority of medical research diet and a high carb diet will both produce an absolute rule carved in stone. From body composi. As you reduce caloric intake. It’s the low one pound of fat per week you need to simply reduce calories across the board carb diet taken to the next level. famine. but is a indicates that a low fat diet achieves better weight loss so long as an energy (calorie) good general guideline that works well for fat loss results than a high fat diet (1-13). Or alternatively we could and fibrous vegetables and CapTri® with your diet. or by doing 500 calories worth alter the ratios of protein. and 1. further reducing calories. fat. With a little experience not more important. intake. of 500 calories a day. the diet. or by some combina.Exploring the High Fat Diet. So your reduction in metabolism. on a stationary bike). Once you’ve behind the high fat diet and try to clear up tenance and then do enough aerobics to decided on your protein intake the ques- some of the confusing issues. Any of these approaches deficient diets will result in weight loss. nance intake is the number of calories you fat. If you need to carbohydrate load even in their “high fat” will last longer.500 per week). fats like without slowing metabolic rate. In general. Other people do better sim. you slow the rate of release of glucose into tion of both. and fat in your starch at each meal you can greatly of aerobics a day.500 remainder of your dietary energy require- and the low fat diet both work to get body. cut that down by 250 per ment as carbohydrate. provided you a direct consequence of thermodynamics. This in turn decreases approach works best for most people. and that’s roughly how many comparing diets still include a significant ture (metabolic rate) the body’s fat supply weeks your diet will last. You could do this fat will obviously equal a 10% reduction is meal structuring. Since one pound ries. achieve a calorie deficit of 500 calories per – a 10% reduction in protein. Which ap- If you consume less calories than you burn. deficit is maintained. In fact. carbs. By decreasing energy expendi.15). than reducing caloric through a combination of aerobic exercise you’ll find what works best for you. Let’s talk for a minute about the theory reduce energy intake by 10% below main. muscle loss. work too well to maintain a continuous matically. This is the your rate of fat loss. if are many ways to do this. Most of the medical clinical trials starvation.5 grams may be better. We could be stored as body fat (14. energy intake should come from carbs or food combining you can stimulate a pow. I have not seen any formal medical is now well known that severe caloric re. (Your mainte. And by revving up the lose more than 10 pounds of fat (the diet protocol. By combining protein by cutting 500 calories worth of food from in total calories. muscle and boost your metabolism and get carbs to near zero levels (5-10% of calories since this causes muscle loss and slows fat fat loss going again. You will find that by proper 10% below maintenance. In general. So we use a high fat diet also. burning fat. and in fairness to the high and a modest reduction of caloric intake. it doesn’t per day) insulin production decreases dra- burning. down. taking the brakes off fat not to cut your caloric intake by more than muscle catabolism. caloric intake and your metabolism slows CapTri® have been shown to increase aerobic exercise causes metabolic adapta. to lose and things can get complicated. body weight. Several studies even show that reduction we need to achieve an energy deficit. This eliminates its inhibitory ef- © 2004. metabolic rate and much less tendency to of body fat contains 3. Period.500 calories.) Furthermore. If you lose weight faster than some fat and that we’re going to do more because the heat generated by CapTri® this you will be more likely to lose some aerobics and very modestly reduce calo- has a much greater effect of increasing muscle along with the fat. except we weight loss be limited to about one pound All right. As we’re dieting to erful fat burning effect without eliminating consume everyday to maintain constant lose fat we still need at least one gram of carbs from your diet. You’re prob. Try ries as protein to prevent or reduce skeletal insulin levels. once food becomes will last for more than 10 weeks) plan on to the extremely high fat – low carb diets available again fat depots are preferentially taking a couple of weeks off your fat loss which are currently being advanced for repleted to defend against the next bout of diet after every 10 weeks and gain a pound bodybuilders. There ply by increasing aerobic exercise without of dietary fat content is as important. It If your weight loss plateaus it is better in fat diet. if you normally eat 2. carbs. I’ve found the combination should supply relatively more of your calo- the bloodstream. Notably. This reduced level of intake will growth hormone levels. So a high fat pound of fat per week. tion then becomes should you supply the ably wondering how can the high fat diet For example. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 193 . so now we’ve decided to lose use CapTri® instead of conventional fats per week. and induction (turning on) of likely slow your metabolic rate and thus I imagine doctors are reluctant to carry fat-storing metabolic pathways. general to do more aerobics rather than studies using diets comprised of approxi- striction results in decreased metabolic rate. which will also tions that make the body more efficient at eventually become your new maintenance stimulate fat loss and muscle gain (16). but not protein. Now you have some choices to make. calories a day. Part I relatively more of the calories in CapTri® Increasing aerobic exercise activity on the energy deficit for more than 10 weeks be- are immediately converted to energy and other hand has the benefit of burning fat cause your body adjusts to this new level of lost as body heat. meet your 500 calorie deficit for the day. This will help you put on some So what’s going on here? By reducing should avoid drastic reductions in calories. The best way is reducing calories. because that will mately 70% fat and essentially no carbs. so they’re not really comparable fat-storing pathways. out clinical trials using a diet so high in “starvation response” the body generates tion studies (use the Parrillo BodyStat Kit) fat out of concern for it’s attendant health during periods of famine to guard against calculate how many pounds of fat you risks. It’s aerobics a day (that’s about 30 minutes will result in weight loss. or some com- builders lean? Because any and all energy day (10%) and do 250 calories worth of bination of both.) A good rule of thumb is to protein per pound of body weight each day.

J. minished deposition of fat in response protein. amines epinephrine and norepinephrine insulin levels are high you won’t be able (adrenaline and noradrenaline) which are to use body fat for energy. Fat and carbo. into free fatty acids and glycerol. Anal. Brachey A. Dietary fat. Importance of nutrient balance fects of exercise. (The small amount of hydrate diets in humans. Am. for energy is controlled by lipases which or energy balance? Nutrition Reviews 45: are in turn stimulated by catecholamines 33-43. 1991. Ab- in the form of triglycerides in fat cells cagon released by the pancreas is retained umrad NN. in body weight regulation. 1992. Clin. 1982. promotes the use of glu. ter a 500 gram carbohydrate meal in man. Drougas H. Once glucagon which reaches adipose cells is 55: 934-942. Tucker LA and Kano MJ. Am. and Hill JO. Nutrient (adipocytes). 15. and fat. Drougas H. Insulin promotes glucose trans. Acheson KJ. released from fat cells. 45: and storage. Am. obesity. These same lipases that govern fat loss from a cross-sectional study. promotes fat synthesis 2. 54: 10-17. Ped. and Hill JO. Flatt JP. libitum feeding of high-fat and high-carbo- lipases. Obe- ergy helps spare glucose for the brain). Intern. 1978. which also promotes fat burning. Dietary fat. which has essentially the opposite actions 1. J. which acts to limit the rate of Our discussion is far from over. Enhanced thermogenesis and di- moting storage of nutrients as glycogen. J. and glucagon. in turn. and sity treatment: can diet composition play 16. 50: 307-314.) The catechol. 5. 13. Nutr. the fatty acids are too low in concentration to have an effect. 3. 1987. Bray GA. Am. Clin. Diabetes/Me. promotes transport Nutr.a disease of nutrient Span. 622. the key point of metabolic control for turn. Flatt JP. 7. 56: 616- Another lipase is activated by glucagon. Toubro bound to a serum protein called albumin So glucagon is primarily concerned with S. such as after 14. carbohydrate of some amino acids into cells. cose as energy. Hill JO. So lipolysis and the use of stored body fat 6. which means if Nutr. Sun M. want the best results possible should be 11. induced by medium chain triglycerides. Thomas CD. 1994. hydrate overfeeding in humans: different Metabolism 31: 1234-1240. plasmatic insulin and growth hormone converted into glucose by the liver. J. adult females. Miller WC. the overall pathway. Nutr. 1982. Insulin is released from the pancreas when tabolism Reviews 4: 571-581. Med. 296-306. Nutr. Buemann B. Valls E. promotes balance. Clin. slowest step. glucose as glycogen. and Christensen NJ. Am. Assoc. 1982. DG. The most virtually eliminating carbohydrates from tion: a factor favoring the development of important activator of lipolysis is release of the diet in order to minimize insulin levels. sugar. diet. J. Wallace limiting step in a metabolic pathway is the the body into a fat burning mode. Dietary fat amines. and Greene HL. Bar- protein breakdown with release of amino a role? Ann. Baba N. 1994. Glucagon is released when 1995. Lipolysis turns out to be the rate (as glycogen) to last about one day. and Valls A. Bracco EF. 11: 675-682. Sharp high-carb and body fat: a multivariate study of 205 sugar gets too low and during exercise. Am. JP. Astrup A. Nutr. Clin. blood glucose levels are high. port into cells. (The rate eliminating carbs from the diet you force 10. and Lindeman AK. Nutr. as an adaptation to a high-fat diet: evidence muscles where they are used for energy. Release of fatty acids from by the liver. Gluca. mary purpose of increasing blood glucose 4. and Jequier E. to overfeeding with diet containing me- blood sugar levels are low. levels to provide fuel for the brain. J. The lipases are activated by the catechol. Next and fiber predict percent body fat content. Niederpruem MG. Am. Am. 59: 350-355. Obesity . 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 . 35: 678-682. Flatt JP. Clin. Obesity and transported in the blood to the liver and glycogen and fat metabolism in the liver. Nutr. and Hashim a meal. Am. 1995. 119: 694-697. J. 1987. system. Schutz Y. Failure released by the adrenal glands and the diets take this strategy to the extreme by of dietary fat intake to promote fat oxida- sympathetic nervous system. Clin. Reed GW. The high fat 9. Western. Am. Peters JC. and weight maintenance: ef- protein synthesis. 94: 612-615. It also is frequently month I’ll dig deeper into these diets and J. 1992.) 8. and Jequier E. 1988. 36: 950-962. J. show you why I believe bodybuilders who ing the pathway on or off. and Peters JC. Am. which break down the triglyceride ripheral fat depots. are inhibited by insulin. breakdown (lipolysis) and release of fatty J. J. Diet. Clin. dium chain triglyceride. Reed Glycogen synthesis versus lipogenesis af- of insulin. with the pri. Raben A. Clin. reiro P. Hill JO. Horton TJ. Flatt JP. and fat. Bach AC and Babayan VK. Peters JC. um chain triglycerides: an update. Reed GW. Herrera F. promotes storage of excess effects on energy storage. Glucagon References is a hormone produced by the pancreas 12. Peters JC. moderate. so by limiting step in fat catabolism. Flatt JP. are released when blood eating a low-fat. Part I fect on lipolysis. and acts as a storage hormone pro. Modifications in acids into the bloodstream which can be 1993. GW. 61: 952s-959s. Glucagon turns out to be a 194 © 2004.Exploring the High Fat Diet. Medi- release of glucose into the bloodstream. Nutr. and prevents fat breakdown. Human body fat is stored minor player since virtually all of the glu. 62: 19-29. acids into the blood (this use of fat as en. Nutrient gon stimulates breakdown of glycogen and balance in humans: effects of diet composi. and essentially none escapes balance and energy expenditure during ad fat cells is controlled by enzymes called into the general circulation to reach pe. Use and storage of carbohydrate SA. Schlundt Nutr. Clin. fat tion. norepinephrine by the sympathetic nervous The body can only store enough glucose 1989. Clin. Diaz M.

will be burned as need insulin. since we are by definition consum. for protein turn. Second is that during energy excess (that position is more critical Now back to the is- is. Possibly the fat and carbs you eat converted to protein how many calories you carbons derived from fatty acid metabo. There are several big good theoretical basis for working to never had good results from low carb theoretical problems with using the high maximize fat loss while on an energy de. much energy you consume. be in an energy deficit. There weight loss.) Since dietary fat cannot be matter that much if you supply the rest of overall weight loss. it appears as if it doesn’t composition has only a minor effect on high fat diet. cellular components loss is created equal. both ap- © 2004. which seems to have a fact that insulin is the most important sult in fat gain during an energy surplus. The biggest problem comes dur. As a first moving in the right direction. because it’s all going to be of that weight is fat versus muscle. net protein synthesis cannot occur (that is. and many other extremely that you get enough protein. So the high fat form of dietary fat.only two quantitatively effect. essentially all of the dietary fat cannot be most important thing is porated into protein either. The high fat-low carb approach has a cess with low carb diets to lose fat. I’ve ing weight gain. What definition. an energy (calorie) deficit. You will lose lism could be used to build the carbon The protein that you eat or glycogen. Fatty acids cannot be incor. 1992 Parrillo Performance • Fairfield OH 45014 • (513) 874-3305 • ORDERLINE 1-800-344-3404 195 . body fat serve as much muscle during the diet as fates: to be used as energy or be stored will also be used as fuel to supply what. Thus. and on This leads to a general mone and testosterone. Dur. after body for converting fat into carbohydrate. Any extra dietary protein left over per se but in fat loss. While diet tion of ingested fat. and we want to pre- two quantitatively significant metabolic will also be used as fuel. dietary fat really has only over). Part II As I mentioned in Part I of this expend (simple thermodynamics) and if composition is everything. the preeminent consideration is just how are made along the way to keep things but this accounts for only a tiny frac. Really we’re not interested in weight loss from fat. diet restricted diets. carbs work better than fat to spare fuel. As explained series last month.the use of protein as fuel) during energy must consume more calories than you ing weight gain. So when you’re in tool such as The Parrillo BodyStat Kit) of cell membranes. we’re trying to do here is prevent muscle in a calorie surplus. consume.) So during weight loss. Adjustments important biologically active molecules. it diet will work for weight loss. you will energy or be stored Like I said above. excess the energy as carbs or fat or some mixture stantial effect on determining how much dietary fat can only be stored as fat. (Of course. Finally. during weight gain) excess dietary fat during weight gain than significant metabolic sue of diet composi- is preferentially stored as body fat. steroid hormones. and none of it will be retained protein (the technical term for preventing ing an excess of fuel. is extremely prone to be stored as body you eat fewer calories than you burn (it So where have we come so far? fat (1-13). maintain an energy defi- acid pool would have to be donated to zymes and other protein cit. fore. synergistic interaction with growth hor- anabolic hormone in the body. but would be expected to re. To gain weight you by the body (except some protein). meeting your protein so excess dietary fat cannot be stored as Over a 24 hour period as body fat. it has a more sub- converted to protein or glycogen. any energy deficient those excess calories are supplied in the above. if you consume excess energy in diet will result in fat loss. ing nutrition: Diet com. then it seems inescap. it does matter during their diets to make sure they’re eicosanoids. protein tissues and to be stored as fat supplied so long as you a nitrogen from the pre-existing amino replenish worn out en. This means that not but I’ll get to that later. During fates: to be used as tion during weight loss. In my experience with bodybuild- all of the ingested fat can be burned as loss all of the food you eat will be burned ers. Serious bodybuilders carefully as body fat. But not all weight form a new amino acid molecule. By of the two. (Actually. is no biochemical pathway in the human weight loss. but will be used to maintain dietary fat can only how those calories are since fatty acids do not contain nitrogen. There. for fuel. providing able that they must be stored as fat. it does matter. I think fat approach for weight gain. but after that losing fat and not muscle. on the other hand.possible. these cyclic diets we only get the benefit principle in bodybuild. dietary fats are ever amount of expended energy was not follow their body composition (using a also used to form structural components supplied by the diet.Dietary fat really has to get a good anabolic of insulin around two days every week.the form of (conventional) dietary fat.Parrillo Performance Nutrition Bulletin # 48 Exploring the High Fat Diet. Although I’ve had good suc- has to). Since requirement the next glycogen. In other words. during weight gain we must be burned anyway. First is the ficient diet.diets in terms of gaining muscle. especially during a approximation. excess weight re