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Spray Polyurethane Foam

Estimating Reference Guide

Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance

Copyright 1994, Revised 6/2004

To order copies of this publication, call 800-523-6154 and request
Stock Number AY-121.

MISSION STATEMENT

The mission of the Technical Committee is to provide a wide range of technical service to the Spray Polyurethane
Foam industry such as, but not limited to:

1. Review existing documents and serve as a clearing house to ensure the “Continuity of Value” of technical
information published by SPFA and others concerning the products and services to our industry;

2. Review, research, develop and issue documents concerning new products, systems and services AND

3. To identify, explore, develop and communicate an understanding of technical issues facing our industry.

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Roger Morrison, Chairman Jack Moore
North Carolina Foam Industries West Roofing Systems

Brad Beauchamp Bruce Schenke
Stepan Co. BASF

Mary Bogdan Larry Smiley
Honeywell Polydyne, Inc.

Jim Calkins Robert Smith
Dow Chemical KoSa

John P. Courier John Stahl
Equipment & Coatings Technology Preferred Solutions

John Ewell Dennis Vandewater
Dallas/Ft. Worth Urethane, Inc. Sadler Construction Inc.

John Hatfield AD HOC MEMBER
Penta Engineering Group, Inc.
Laverne Dalgleish
Tim Leonard CUFCA
ERSystems

This brochure was developed to aid specifiers and contractors in estimating and planning spray-applied
poIyurethane foam projects. The information provided herein, based on current customs and practices of the
trade, is offered in good faith and believed to be accurate, but is made WITHOUT WARRANTY, EITHER
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO FITNESS, MERCHANTABILITY, OR ANY OTHER MATTER.
SPFA DISCLAIMS ALL LIABILITY FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF ITS USE.
Individual manufacturers and contractors should be consulted for specific information. Nominal values that
may be provided herein are believed to be representative, but are not to be used as specifications nor assumed
to be identical to finished products. SPFA does not endorse the products or processes of any individual
manufacturer, or the services of any individual contractor.

SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 3

Spray Polyurethane Foam
Estimating Reference Guide

Table of Contents
Useful Data and Physical Constants .............................................................................4
Abbreviations .................................................................................................................5
Frequently Used Conversion Factors ...........................................................................6
Surface Areas .................................................................................................................7
Surface Areas of Standard Corrugated Materials ........................................................11
Volumes and Areas of Solids........................................................................................12
Circumference, Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders (Metric Units)..............14
Circumference, Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders (Traditional Units) ......19
Surface and Volume of Spheres (Metric Units)...........................................................25
Surface and Volume of Spheres (Traditional Units) ...................................................29
Pipe Insulation Estimates ..............................................................................................34
Spray-Applied Polyurethane Foam Yields...................................................................35
Calculating SPF Yields..................................................................................................36
Estimating Coating Requirements ................................................................................37
Theoretical Coating Requirements ...............................................................................42
Standard Size of Coarse Aggregate ..............................................................................43
Thermodynamic Definitions and Calculations ............................................................44
Example Thermal Insulation Calculation.....................................................................45
Thermal Transmission Properties of Construction Materials .....................................46
Heating Values of Fuels ................................................................................................47
Dew Point Temperatures ...............................................................................................48
Temperature Conversion Tables ...................................................................................49
Volume of Material in Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks..................................................51
Unit Conversions
Length ................................................................................................................52
Area ....................................................................................................................52
Volume/Capacity...............................................................................................53
Weight (Under 1 lb) ..........................................................................................54
Weight (1 lb and Over)......................................................................................54
Viscosity.............................................................................................................55
Density ...............................................................................................................56
Velocity..............................................................................................................56
Flow Rate ...........................................................................................................57
Pressure ..............................................................................................................58
Energy & Work..................................................................................................59
Power..................................................................................................................60
Thickness/Unit Area..........................................................................................61
Thermal Conductivity & Insulance ..................................................................62
Permeance & Permeability ...............................................................................63
Decimal Equivalents......................................................................................................64

0 mPa•s = 1.32 lb Heat of fusion = 79.T.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 4 Useful Data and Physical Constants B = 3.P.0 centipoise Air Density at 0 oC (32 oF) and 1 atm (S.14159 e = base.) = 1.T.2 Btu/lb Viscosity at 20 oC (68 oF) = 1. = Standard Temperature and Pressure = 0 oC (32 oF) and 101 kPa (1 atm or 760 mm Hg) Molar Volumes: 1 gm mole = 22.293 g/liter = 0.14 weeks = 8760 hours Water Weight at 20 oC (68oF): 1 liter = 1 kg 1 gallon = 8.718 1 calendar year = 365 days = 52.0808 lb/ft3 Gases S.4 Btu/lb Heat of vaporization = 539.05 ft3 Factor Prefix Symbol 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h Metric Prefixes 10 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro µ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a .41 liters 1 lb mole = 359.P.67 cal/g= 143. natural logarithms = 2.33 lb 1 cubic foot = 62.6 cal/g= 971.

stress) gcal Gramcalorie. equal to a calorie ppm Parts per million Hg Mercury psf Pounds per square foot hp Horsepower psi Pounds per square inches hr Hour R9 Roofing square in Inch rf sq Roofing square in Hg Inches of mercury (pressure) s Second (time) J Joule W Watt yd Yard .SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 5 Abbreviations o C Degrees centigrade or Celsius kg Kilogram o F Degrees Fahrenheit kgcal Kilogram calorie. equal to 1000 g-cal o K Degrees Kelvin km Kilometer o R Degree Rankine kw Kilowatt abs Absolute lb Pound apoth Apothecary's weight lbf Pound force atm Atmosphere lbm Pound mass av Avoirdupois weight L Liter bd ft Board foot m Meter Btu British thermal unit mil Mil cal Calorie min Minute (time) cm Centimeter mm Millimeter dr Dram mm Hg Millimeters of mercury ft Foot (pressure) ft H2O Feet of water (pressure) mph Miles per hour g Gram N Newton gal Gallon Pa Pascal (pressure.

8 mm 1 lb/ft3 = 16.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 6 Frequently Used Conversion Factors Length Density 1 m = 3.28 ft 1 kg/m3 = 0.79 L 1 gal = 0.0 kg/m3 1 in = 25.264 gal Coating Coverage 1 gal = 3.556 Volume / Capacity EF = (1.0394 in Pressure 1 kPa = 0.145 psi Area 1 psi = 6.4 mm 1 mm = 0.0624 lb/ft3 1 ft = 304.3 ft3 1 gallon covers 1604 ft² at 1 mil thickness (100% solids) Weight 1 kg = 2.454 kg .89 kPa 1 m² = 10.133 ft3 1 liter covers 1 m² at 1 mm thickness (100% 1 ft3 = 7.48 gal solids) 1 m3 = 35.8 x EC) + 32 1 L = 0.76 ft² Temperature 1 ft² = 0.32) x 0.21 lb 1 lb = 0.0929 m² EC = (EF .

b. c = length of each side b Rectangle A = ab a where a. b = length of adjacent sides b Parallelogram (opposite sides parallel) A = bh where b = length of the base a h = height h 2 A = ab sin θ where a. b = length of adjacent sides b θ = angle between the sides .SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 7 Surface Areas Triangle bh A= 2 h where b = length of the base h = height of the triangle b A= [s (s − a )( s − b)(s − c)] c a where s = a + b + c a.

SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 8

Trapezoid (four sides, two parallel) a

 1
A =   h(a + b) h
 2
where a, b = length of the parallel sides
h = height
b

Trapezium (four sides, no sides parallel)

A = Sum of the two adjoining triangles

Regular Polygon of “n” Sides

 1  180 0 
A =   na 2 cot 
 4  n 
 a   180 
0
R =   csc  r
2  n  R

 a   180 
0
"
r =   cot  
2  n  $

360 0 2π
α= =
n n a
 (n − 2)   (n − 2) 
β = 180 0   =π 
 n   n 
α  α 
a = 2r tan   = 2R sin  
2 2
where a = length of one side
R = radius of circumscribed circle
r = radius of inscribed circle
α , β = angles shown on diagram

SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 9

Circle
S

πD 2
A (circle ) = πR 2 =
4 2
C = 2πR = πD R
πRθ
S=
180
where R = radius D
D = diameter
C = circumference
S = length of arc subtended by θ

πR 2θ
A (sec tor) =
360 0 SECTOR
SEGMENT
where θ = sector angle in degrees

R2  πθ 
A ( segment) =  − sin θ 
2  180 

Ellipse

πab
A=
4
where a, b = length of the major and minor axes

Parabola

2bh h
A=
3
where b = base of parabola
h = perpendicular height b

SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 10

Area by Approximation (Trapezoidal Rule)
h

 y + yn 
A = h 0 + y1 + y 2 + L + y n−1 
 2 

y0 y1 y2 yn-1 yn

28 1. Use multiplier from Table below: Depth Depth Multiplier Multiplier Width Width 0.08 0. wall has corrugations 2-1/2" wide and 1/2" deep.25") 6mm (1/4") 1.24 0.29 .26 FOR CORRUGATIONS NOT LISTED: Divide the corrugation depth by the width.17 22mm (7/8") 1.23 110mm (4. ft.26 1. ft.5") 13mm (1/2") 1.22 0.16 1.20 1.13 0.24 1.27 0. x 1. ft.08 14mm (9/16") 1.09 0. Example: 100 sq.09 = 109 sq.67") 13mm (1/2") 1.09 68mm (2. What is the surface area? Multiplier from Table below is 1.30 1. WIDTH DEPTH MULTIPLIER 32mm (1.11 0.09 64mm (2.15 0.17 0.32 1.22 1.34 1.09.19 0.38 1.18 1.14 (1-1/16") 38mm (1-1/2") 1.36 1.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 11 Surface Areas of Standard Corrugated Materials DEPTH WIDTH Multiply the overall area by the appropriate multiplier below.2") 27mm 1.10 19mm (3/4") 1.06 0. Surface Area = 100 sq.

c = length of the sides Prism or Cylinder V = Ab h where Ab = area of the base h = perpendicular height L h AL = PR L PR where AL = lateral area (not including base and top) PR = perimeter of right section L = length of lateral edge Pyramid or Cone Ab h V = 3 where Ab = area of the base hs h = perpendicular height h Pb hs A= 2 where Pb = perimeter of the base hs = slant height . b.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 12 Volumes and Areas of Solids Cube V = a3 A = 6a 2 where a = length of side Regular Parallelopiped (Rectangular Solid) V = abc A = 2(ab + ac + bc ) where a.

SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 13 Sphere 4 V =  πR 3 3 A = 4πR 2 where R = radius H C R Dome (Segment of a Sphere) A = 2πRH π  ( =   4H 2 + C 2 ) 4 .

900 17.3 41.94 5.250 7.500 7.250 16.250 19.200 4.9 15.41 2.440 0.500 17.400 14.5 38.400 33.500 4.23 1.000 3.250 3.8 35.200 6.230 1.440 442 1.620 3.2 33.750 14.0 26.250 22.100 26.79 785 1.000 38.140 2.I.500 23.200 .000 4.250 13.6 19.910 2.500 2.500 20.280 3.000 15.41 2.94 5.2 44.300 7.000 9.7 30.600 5.14 3.250 10.360 0.750 5.500 11.600 12.98 3.000 6.8 23.800 28.710 1. Meters) (Cubic Meters) (Liters) 250 785 0.200 196 750 2.300 6.100 15.980 2.940 3.750 8.600 30.6 9.800 5.8 35.300 23.6 21.23 1.98 3.2 14.30 8.91 4.7 30.770 1.6 9.200 8.300 3.0490 49.1 500 1.3 28.000 18.500 14.9 15.6 21.000 22.070 3.700 19.7 17.750 18.800 7.800 41.6 19.77 1.14 3.8 23.850 4.000 6.0 26.070 3.500 7.0 11.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 14 Circumference.6 12.000 12.2 14.07 7.6 12.3 41.200 35.600 44.500 21.750 11.2 33.800 11.79 0.0490 0.77 1.5 38.410 2.600 5.600 4.30 8.0 11.930 1.570 0.700 6.900 4.3 28.000 9.140 0.200 0.700 5.420 7.640 5.07 7.7 17. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Metric (S.) Units Volume of Cylinder per Meter of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Millimeters) (Millimeters) (Sq.91 4.750 21.2 44.

200 9.250 29.I.250 25.250 35.4 99.000 34.400 11.200 148 148 148.000 50.5 53.800 11.500 10.700 8.100 104.000 11.250 47.8 90.900 183 183 183.0 95.500 26.5 53.300 201 201 201.000 25.000 14.000 14.250 44.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 15 Circumference.9 70.000 31.600 10.5 82.0 95.000 28.300 99.) Units Volume of Cylinder per Meter of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Millimeters) (Millimeters) (Sq.900 53.000 13.000 14.000 40.600 165 165 165.750 30.250 51.500 33.500 42.600 138 138 138.6 63.400 78.100 207 207 207.800 70.200 8.6 86.100 50.500 118 118 118.500 48.100 67.3 50.000 44.5 78.1 60. Meters) (Cubic Meters) (Liters) 7.750 49.750 36.2 47.000 154 154 154.300 47.000 86.000 15.100 177 177 177.7 74.600 74.700 10.750 27.600 95.750 46.500 10.800 90.3 50.0 104.500 195 195 195.000 16.5 82.300 8.000 37.000 12.000 13.000 12.4 99.000 15.700 113 113 113.500 29.300 171 171 171.400 143 143 143.750 43.7 56.600 9.0 104.5 78.2 67.000 12.500 36.500 39.7 56.250 32.000 .000 15.900 108 108 108.800 133 133 133. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Metric (S.000 12.750 40.2 47.9 70.000 15.800 159 159 159.250 38.000 47.900 9.700 56.1 60.500 8.500 60.700 189 189 189.7 74.750 33.000 16.500 45.6 63.300 63.000 11.000 13.000 13.100 128 128 128.250 41.6 86.100 9.300 123 123 123.200 82.000 14.750 24.8 90.2 67.

000 23.) Units Volume of Cylinder per Meter of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Millimeters) (Millimeters) (Sq.750 55.500 70.750 71.000 24.000 17.000 23.200 338 338 338.750 58.500 61.500 55.500 64.800 355 355 355.000 18.250 66.500 67.000 22. Meters) (Cubic Meters) (Liters) 16.000 59.000 21.000 20.I.500 73.000 346 346 346.000 21.300 299 299 299.250 73.500 77.000 78.200 462 462 462.000 17.600 220 220 220.000 21.750 74.250 60.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 16 Circumference.000 69.900 389 389 389.000 22.000 23.000 25. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Metric (S.000 18.800 247 247 247.800 214 214 214.000 56.200 234 234 234.250 57.250 54.000 16.300 415 415 415.000 425 425 425.000 17.000 20.800 434 434 434.750 65.000 471 471 471.000 306 306 306.000 75.500 58.500 406 406 406.800 314 314 314.000 23.400 227 227 227.000 21.600 443 443 443.000 24.750 68.000 19.000 72.000 20.700 398 398 398.600 322 322 322.400 452 452 452.400 330 330 330.100 380 380 380.250 63.500 491 491 491.500 51.000 22.000 19.000 18.000 20.700 284 284 284.000 24.750 62.250 76.000 .000 19.000 66.000 24.000 19.000 17.000 241 241 241.300 372 372 372.000 22.500 291 291 291.800 481 481 481.500 363 363 363.900 276 276 276.750 77.250 69.000 53.300 262 262 262.750 52.000 62.100 269 269 269.500 254 254 254.000 18.

000 895 895 895.000 84.000 104.000 97.500 80.700 627 627 627.000 817 817 817.000 29.300 501 501 501.750 93.400 594 594 594.000 616 616 616.000 25.000 30.250 79.000 26.000 32.750 96.500 86.500 83.000 25.) Units Volume of Cylinder per Meter of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Millimeters) (Millimeters) (Sq. Meters) (Cubic Meters) (Liters) 25.750 80.750 90.000 27.250 98.000 27.250 91.000 779 779 779.250 88.800 573 573 573.000 88.500 95.000 28.250 101.000 29.000 31.000 804 804 804.900 521 521 521.300 552 552 552.000 33.000 81.250 85.500 89.000 32.500 541 541 541.000 94.000 31.250 95.000 32.250 104.000 33.900 672 672 672.750 87.700 531 531 531.000 33.000 27.700 792 792 792.500 99.000 30.800 731 731 731.000 27.000 .700 683 683 683.000 868 868 868.100 511 511 511.000 33.000 29.250 82.200 605 605 605.000 719 719 719.500 695 695 695.000 101.200 707 707 707.750 103.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 17 Circumference.500 638 638 638.000 26.000 30.600 743 743 743.000 855 855 855. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Metric (S.000 91.300 649 649 649.100 661 661 661.600 583 583 583.000 31.750 84.I.200 767 767 767.500 102.000 842 842 842.400 755 755 755.500 92.000 26.000 28.000 30.750 106.000 31.750 99.000 29.500 105.000 26.000 28.000 562 562 562.000 32.000 830 830 830.000 28.000 881 881 881.

000 948 948 948.000 37.500 121.000 39.190 1.100 1.000 1.160 1.250 108.750 115.080 1.150 1.080 1.000 1.000 36.000 126.000 119.000 1.500 108.190.I.210 1.260 1.150 1.000 36.000 1.000 1.030 1.000 1.050 1.750 125.090.240.000 38.190 1.060 1.000 116.120 1.090 1.750 119.130 1.180.000 35.000 38.260 1.240 1.000 1.030.000 1.000 37.180 1.000 1.000 39.000 37.000 35.230 1.250 114.230 1.000 962 962 962.050. Meters) (Cubic Meters) (Liters) 34.150.000 123.000 34.500 112.000 1.750 112.500 115.130.030 1.060.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 18 Circumference. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Metric (S.160 1.000 36.000 .000 1.120.000 34.000 107.000 990 990 990.) Units Volume of Cylinder per Meter of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Millimeters) (Millimeters) (Sq.250 123.240 1.160.000 1.020.000 36.230.020 1.250 120.000 38.000 935 935 935.250 117.000 1.000 1.000 38.080.000 921 921 921.000 1.000 113.000.000 34.000 35.260.000 908 908 908.100.060 1.000 40.210 1.100 1.130 1.500 118.000 39.500 124.000 35.020 1.090 1.750 122.120 1.000 110.750 109.000 1.000 1.210.000 1.000 37.250 111.180 1.050 1.000 39.000 1.000 976 976 976.000 1.

5 254 254 1.840 23 72.8 314 314 2.700 18 56.110 24 75.4 78.9 4 12.6 94.5 588 11 34.07 52.8 133 133 993 14 44.120 20 62.1 177 177 1.3 201 201 1.7 19.79 5.6 476 10 31.7 113 113 846 13 40. Units Volume of Cylinder per Foot of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Feet) (Feet) (Sq.6 63.150 15 47.07 7.590 22 69.6 95 95 711 12 37. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 1 3.14 3.6 19.6 12.5 78.14 23.3 212 7 22.380 25 78.0 154 154 1.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 19 Circumference.3 28. S.5 38.320 16 50.4 452 452 3. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Traditional U.0 5 15.88 2 6.7 284 284 2.0 38.4 227 227 1.350 21 66.500 17 53.900 19 59.79 0.3 376 9 28.8 28.42 7.6 147 6 18.28 3.6 12.670 .3 50.1 50.5 288 8 25.3 415 415 3.3 63.0 346 346 2.5 491 491 3.14 0.1 380 380 2.5 3 9.

610 29 91.730 1.080 1.190 8. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 26 81.400 45 141 1.890 1. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Traditional U.080 8.660 1.320 9.290 2.100 50 157 1.520 1.650 32 101 804 804 6.590 1. S.7 531 531 3.500 49 154 1.810 1.260 9.810 13.380 17.900 46 145 1.480 39 123 1.100 55 173 2.130 1.450 1.390 1.390 10.210 2.290 17.730 13.960 1.200 36 113 1.800 .400 43 135 1.040 15.0 616 616 4.020 33 104 855 855 6.120 15.290 31 97.380 2.610 37 116 1.400 47 148 1.900 53 167 2.4 755 755 5.320 1.260 1.300 52 163 2.520 11.970 27 84.790 35 110 962 962 7.660 12.2 707 707 5.700 51 160 2.040 38 119 1.1 661 661 4.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 20 Circumference.8 573 573 4.020 1.280 28 88.940 40 126 1.890 14.500 54 170 2.400 41 129 1.210 16.880 42 132 1.020 7.450 10. Units Volume of Cylinder per Foot of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Feet) (Feet) (Sq.590 11.960 14.040 2.130 8.120 2.190 1.900 44 138 1.940 30 94.400 34 107 908 908 6.000 48 151 1.

420 3.150 38.190 31.300 64 201 3.410 40.640 2.030 5.920 21.830 21.900 77 242 4.540 5.780 4.000 70 220 3.540 33.600 81 254 5.220 3.460 18.900 36.070 30.190 4.280 39.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 21 Circumference.700 79 248 4.660 34.730 2.400 68 214 3. Units Volume of Cylinder per Foot of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Feet) (Feet) (Sq.800 71 223 3.100 65 204 3.320 24.800 66 207 3.120 3. S.220 24.200 61 192 2.030 37.670 5.200 69 217 3.850 28.640 19.550 2.280 5.200 75 236 4.600 72 226 4.540 41.100 76 239 4.500 84 264 5.740 3.070 4.540 4.320 3.020 3.960 3.020 22.420 4.420 25.300 32.530 3.500 60 188 2.530 26. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Traditional U.630 27.120 23.500 82 258 5.300 74 232 4.600 63 198 3.400 57 179 2.900 4.410 5.460 2.700 80 251 5.960 29.500 73 229 4.500 83 261 5.630 3.420 33.100 58 182 2.150 5.800 78 245 4.900 62 195 3.780 35.500 .850 3.830 2.740 28.670 42.300 4.660 4. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 56 176 2.920 2.550 19.730 20.600 67 210 3.800 59 185 2.500 85 267 5.

080 45.660 8.700 57.400 77.600 105 330 8.790 6.200 76.500 48.800 110 346 9.000 114 358 10. S.000 75.240 7.820 8.700 93 292 6. Units Volume of Cylinder per Foot of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Feet) (Feet) (Sq.600 91 286 6.800 106 333 8.940 44.700 7.400 10.390 55.500 6.500 109 342 9.090 7.100 97 305 7.500 87 273 5.220 6.700 .010 59.170 8.220 46.300 98 308 7.650 49.940 6.330 62.810 5.200 10.330 69.940 51.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 22 Circumference.390 7.000 107 336 8.160 9.810 43.360 47.010 8.240 54.800 101 317 8.330 8.360 6. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Traditional U.540 56.160 68.940 5.540 7.490 8.650 6. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 86 270 5.820 66.500 9.700 92 289 6.900 102 320 8.500 90 283 6.500 89 280 6.900 95 298 7.400 99 311 7.790 50.300 104 327 8.330 9.600 100 314 7.800 94 295 6.700 113 355 10.300 108 339 9.100 103 324 8.000 10.990 8.400 112 352 9.680 9.080 6.090 53.850 9.500 71.490 63.850 73.990 67.100 111 349 9.400 115 361 10.850 58.660 64.000 96 302 7.170 61.850 7.500 88 276 6.680 72.

500 123 386 11.800 80.700 12.900 12.400 118 371 10.900 96.100 14.500 13.900 10.300 91.300 11.000 141 443 15.200 120 377 11.500 93.300 131 412 13. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 116 364 10.200 15.500 124.000 136 427 14.500 109.900 13.900 81.000 144 452 16.800 118.300 13.100 97.300 16.100 16.000 135 424 14.600 10.300 99.500 12.400 15.700 87.400 115.000 143 449 16.000 .000 145 456 16.100 11.600 117.900 104.000 122 383 11.000 133 418 13.100 90.800 15.700 94.500 86.800 119 374 11.600 79.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 23 Circumference.500 16.100 117 368 10.100 120.300 14.100 106.300 12.000 15.800 10.100 83.300 84. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Traditional U.100 13.000 138 434 15.500 11.000 140 440 15.700 102.500 14.800 126 396 12.800 130 408 13.700 14.900 88. S.300 129 405 13.600 15.700 11.500 101.300 125 393 12.700 13.200 114.000 134 421 14.900 11.000 137 430 14.800 128 402 12.100 12.300 127 399 12.000 139 437 15.000 132 415 13.300 107.000 142 446 15.000 112.600 121 380 11.700 110. Units Volume of Cylinder per Foot of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Feet) (Feet) (Sq.300 122.900 124 390 12.

900 134.900 149.900 19. S.400 19.000 154 484 18.600 19.400 17.000 152 478 18.100 150.000 17.700 125.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 24 Circumference.900 18.700 17.400 138.000 151 474 17. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 146 459 16.000 150 471 17.900 141.400 130.000 148 465 17.900 17.100 20.100 136.600 18.600 139. Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Traditional U. Units Volume of Cylinder per Foot of Height Diameter Circumference Area of Circle (Feet) (Feet) (Sq.100 143.000 156 490 19.100 18.000 149 468 17.200 17.000 147 462 17.000 159 500 19.000 160 503 20.700 16.100 19.400 145.000 158 496 19.000 157 493 19.000 155 487 18.000 127.000 .400 18.600 147.700 132.000 153 481 18.200 129.

500 177 221 221.020 1.500 4.750 23.500 38.62 2.600 4.000 28.500 95.18 500 0.250 15.000 .200 0.2 40.) Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Millimeter) (Sq.6 4.I.000 154 180 180.4 65.500 6.790 0.810 2.750 70.000 113 113 113.07 1.96 5.2 27.77 1.700 4.250 33.6 27.250 4.5 33.500 63.100 5.000 7.9 5.1 56.0650 65.400 3.900 3.500 19.100 3.750 104 100 99.960 2.000 7.000 3.500 133 144 144. Meter) (Cubic Meter) (Liters) 250 0.770 1.6 47.0 87.5 65.6 75.190 2.000 50.77 0.100 5.800 5.500 7.4 750 1.7 47.520 524 1.000 6.000 3.220 221 1.02 1.250 123 128 128.3 33.000 7.1 14.8 75.000 78.9 56.81 2.250 165 200 200.200 4.3 14.00820 8.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 25 Surface and Volume of Spheres Metric (S.7 40.750 44.91 1.8 10.19 4.9 10.5 22.000 12.18 8.250 56.2 18.750 9.0 18.180 2.000 6.250 86.14 0.4 22.400 5.000 6.750 143 161 161.6 8.1 87.

000 314 524 524.360 1.500 284 449 449.440 1.000 13.090 1.000 11.000 8.520.520 1.750 189 244 244.000 9.360.600.000 14. Meter) (Cubic Meter) (Liters) 7.750 683 1.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 26 Surface and Volume of Spheres Metric (S.000 9.000 8.250 638 1.000 10.000 12.250 552 1.600 1.000 14.000 12.090.750 594 1.000 14.000 201 268 268.000 11.000 13.000 380 697 697.000 .750 241 351 351.000 616 1.I.500 227 322 322.000 11.500 346 606 606.000 11.000 14.250 330 564 564.000 13.500 415 796 796.000 10.750 363 650 650.250 214 294 294.020 1.000 254 382 382.770 1.750 299 485 485.150.000 8.440.290 1.680.770.250 269 414 414.290.000 9.220.220 1.250 471 963 963.000 10.000 8.500 661 1.500 491 1.000 12.680 1.000 531 1.000 707 1.000 15.750 434 849 849.150 1.500 573 1.000 13.250 398 746 746.000 12.) Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Millimeter) (Sq.000 10.750 511 1.000 9.000 452 905 905.020.

250 830 2.000 17.) Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Millimeter) (Sq.000 16.140.350 4.500 1.450 5.000 20.230 4.500 855 2.000 .050.570.460 2.960 5.000 804 2.250 935 2.460.390.560 5.750 1.750 1.000 19.000 18.450.000 19.500 962 2.960.590 5.320 4.750 881 2.050 3.810 2.080 3.580.320.950 1.740 3.950.490 5.500 1.740.510.500 1.000 21.020 5.750 779 2.I.520 5.500 1.250.250 1.030.750 990 2.770 5.290 4.140 2.250 1.260 4.390 5.860.190.130 3.500 755 1.590 3.030 4.350.050 2.000 18.000 21.000 22.860 1.590.000 16.880 3.020 3.250 2.000 15.350.250 1.000 18.850 4.500 1.050.750 1.680 4.000 1.190 4.000 22.180 3.000 19.570 2.320 3.000 908 2.000 17.690 2.000 16.000 1.000 21.690.350 2. Meter) (Cubic Meter) (Liters) 15.180.510 4.200.390 4.250 1.000 1.000 16.930.770.930 2.350 4.000 19.850.000 17.020.580 5.000 20.000 17.160 3.000 20.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 27 Surface and Volume of Spheres Metric (S.000 18.100 3.000 15.250 1.000 1.000 22.190 3.000 1.050 3.000 20.880.450 3.200 5.750 1.250 731 1.420 5.810.680.000 21.

000 23.180 8.370 6.120 9.700 7.640 12.780 13.430.100.000 1.240 7.580.920 7.690 13.250 2.250 2.500 2.800.000 26.000 23.810 7.000 24.890 7.000 26.170.750 1.000 27.000 24.600.400 13.800.000 24.000 29.800.740 9.000 2.I.830 14.740.660 6.000 .100.100.100 14.800 6.000 23.630 6.500 1.850 7.940 8.180.700.000 1.430 8.210 9.080 8.250 2.900 10.000 2.000 23.300.800.900.000 24.000 26.750 2.040 8.750 1.100 12.380 10.770 7.250 1.750 2.000 30.200.) Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Millimeter) (Sq.000 25.470.730 6.290 10.500.470.500 1.000 25.170 6.000 28.250 2.000 29.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 28 Surface and Volume of Spheres Metric (S.420 11.330 10.200.940.000 29.800 12.960 8.400.550 12.000 29.000.000 28.010 7.000 27.000 28.100 13.240.000 28.250 1.000 2.000 27.200 11.470 9.700 6. Meter) (Cubic Meter) (Liters) 22.000 8.750 2.000 1.160 9.940.580 6.300 10.000 2.400.000 25.800 13.750 2.000 27.000 26.500 2.500 2.940 7.000 25.600 10.510 11.750 2.470 7.000 2.730 13.500 2.200 9.750 1.680.460 11.600 12.250 2.800 11.500 2.250 10.010.500 11.400 12.680 8.370.000 10.

020 3.000 17 908 2. S.770 13 531 1. Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Feet) (Sq.700 24 1.150 8.4 490 6 113 113 846 7 154 180 1.920 11 380 697 5.200 16 804 2.860 10 314 524 3.1 106 4 50.700 23 1.770 13.800 19 1.130 3.580 41.590 26.3 14.19 31.3 33.180 61.370 47.92 2 12.050 22.14 0.300 21 1.570 19.960 8.5 251 5 78.240 54.390 4.900 20 1.200 18 1.340 8 201 268 2.200 .210 12 452 905 6.260 4.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 29 Surface and Volume of Spheres Traditional U. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 1 3.190 31.520 5.5 65.52 3.660 6.440 10.300 22 1.010 9 254 382 2.6 4.140 16.810 7.610 14 616 1.850 36.700 15 707 1.100 25 1.3 3 28.

Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Feet) (Sq.780 31.000 47 6.600 461.540 38.000 381.800 290.000 37 4.300 77.400 407.070 24.900 433.100 106.600 334.700 357.000 48 7.500 198.020 15. S.000 49 7.000 32 3.630 20.500 251.080 44.000 36 4.100 28 2.000 41 5.000 35 3.700 215.300 26.360 47.000 29 2.540 28.800 27 2.650 51.850 22.100 232.800 141.500 86.030 33.000 31 3.400 490.400 183.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 30 Surface and Volume of Spheres Traditional U.290 10.420 18.000 45 6.000 46 6.000 34 3.100 270.280 36.500 30 2.240 57.000 43 5.640 12.600 311.200 68.200 128.000 33 3.850 65.000 40 5.000 42 5.940 54.810 41. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 26 2.000 38 4.000 50 7.120 9.600 117.400 168.600 154.800 95.000 44 6.460 11.220 17.830 14.000 39 4.540 61.000 .

030.520.100 157.290.000 66 13.500 87.000 1.000 688.000 53 8.000 63 12.200 97.000 75 17.000 68 14.000 61 11.000 60 11.000 54 9. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 51 8.000 1.000 1.000 62 12.200 212.000 979.000 57 10.650.000 1.500 131.700 119.460.000 1.000 846.600 102.160 82.500 165.000 65 13.590.820 78.300 113.000 804.900 108.300 195.600 551.300 144.340.900 137.000 1.000 1.000 72 16.000 1.700 151.000 764.000 55 9.000 1.400 617.000 74 17.000 56 9.400 180.180.000 1.000 73 16.700 221. Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Feet) (Sq.000 172.000 583.230.400.000 67 14.000 1.000 64 12.000 52 8.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 31 Surface and Volume of Spheres Traditional U.000 59 10.000 69 15.800 187. S.000 725.700 204.000 1.100 125.170 69.850 92.100 652.130.490 73.000 70 15.500 520.000 58 10.000 889.080.000 934.000 .000 71 15.

000 90 25.000 80 20.570.800.400 382. S.000 89 24.000 99 30.000 81 20.000 2.000 395. Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Feet) (Sq.000 2.200 421.200 493.000 .200 310.000 84 22.000 88 24.470.000 2.860.360.000 97 29.600 478.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 32 Surface and Volume of Spheres Traditional U.000 87 23.000 3.000 2.000 77 18.690.300 357.000 2.600 408.000 1.000 3.760.600 258.790.410.600 299.000 3.000 93 27.800 345.000 1.950.100 230.100 248.250.150.080.000 96 29.000 2.000 3.900 369.860.000 3.000 2.000 91 26.000 3.000 79 19.160.000 85 22.000 78 19.000 2.200 333.000 92 26.800 508.920.000 2.000 100 31.490. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 76 18.720.000 463.000 3.000 1.600 278.000 82 21.670.010.600 239.000 95 28.400 524.000 86 23.000 1.700 322.580.100 268.320.000 94 27.000 3.100 289.400 449.800 435.240.000 3.930.000 83 21.000 2.000 98 30.050.000 2.000 2.

100 755.000 120 45.000 6.000 4.300 624.000 697.000 110 38.000 118 43.000 5.000 .000 4.000 112 39.210.300 572.070.000 108 36.800.960.000 5.000 6.000 109 37.530. Feet) (Cubic Feet) (Gallons) 101 32. S.000 5.600 606.280.400 736.000 6.700 556.000 6.500 882.300 678.000 105 34.000 4.000 111 38.000 4.600 660.270.000 839.800.930.000 103 33.000 6.000 641.000 104 34. Units Surface of Volume of Sphere Diameter Sphere (Feet) (Sq.000 116 42.200 905.700 716.500 796.670.300 817.000 107 36.440.000 5.410.360.000 4.000 5.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 33 Surface and Volume of Spheres Traditional U.160.500.000 102 32.000 539.800 776.000 106 35.700 860.000 114 40.770.650.000 4.000 5.000 4.000 117 43.000 4.600.000 589.000 115 41.000 119 44.000 113 40.000 5.040.110.

5 1 1.46 79.24 268 550 844 1150 1470 1810 2150 2510 24 24 6.75 2.73 93.4 118 196 288 393 511 641 785 3.625 1.05 58.4 172 277 396 528 673 830 1000 6 6.28 321 654 1000 1360 1730 2120 2520 2930 30 30 7.625 2.375 0.62 37.75 3.563 1.4 152 229 319 422 538 668 2.5 0.71 242 497 766 1050 1340 1650 1970 2300 20 20 5.26 119 252 398 556 728 913 1110 1320 10 10.19 216 445 687 942 1210 1490 1790 2090 18 18 4.5 1.4 144 236 340 458 589 733 890 5 5.75 44.5 4 2 2. Units Nominal Outside Area per Board Feet of Foam per 100 lin ft of Pipe Pipe Size Diameter lin ft (in) (in) (sq ft) Thickness of Polyurethane Foam to be Applied (in) 0.6 88.5 3 3.5 2 2.81 147 308 481 668 867 1080 1310 1540 12 12.5 4 1.5 2.67 190 393 609 838 1080 1340 1600 1880 16 16 4.85 399 812 1240 1680 2130 2590 3070 3560 .S.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 34 Pipe Insulation Estimates Traditional U.18 65.2 101 172 255 352 461 584 720 3 3.875 0.92 52.34 173 360 560 772 998 1240 1490 1750 14 14 3.3 200 319 452 597 756 928 1110 8 8.9 131 216 314 425 550 687 838 4 4.

5 15.015 2.013 3. Individual manufacturer’s polyurethane foam chemical systems may vary. Many factors influence foam density and yield.7 2800 48 0.0 10.023 1.026 1.5 3100 43 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 35 Spray-Applied Polyurethane Foam Yields TYPICAL FOAM YIELDS Cubic Meters per Kilogram of Material Board Feet per 1000 lb.016 2..g.0 2500 The above yields are considered “typical” for estimating purposed and are intended as a convenient guide only.0 3900 40 0. of Material 3 Density (kg/m ) Cubic Meters per kg Density (lb/cu ft) Board Feet 8 0. density and compressive strength may yield less than on 25 mm (1”) lift) be reduced.078 0.7 4500 32 0.5 5000 27 0.020 2. Some of these factors are: Factors which reduce yield: Factors which increase yield: • Applying foam in multiple lifts (e. Note: While these factors may increase applying two 12 mm (1/2”) lifts will yield.052 1. • Applying foam to a cold substrate • Applying foam in cold ambient • Applying foam at high altitude conditions • Applying foam to hot surfaces • Applying foam chemicals at • Spraying in high ambient temperatures temperatures lower than the chemical formulation speed • Applying foam in windy conditions • Applying foam to a rough. uneven surface • Feed chemicals not at proper temperature • Feed chemicals not at proper ratio .000 16 0.000 24 0.

) Units Yields = ( ) Area m 2 x Thickness (mm ) 1000 x Total Material (kg ) Example: Let’s say you have spray-applied 3 sets (at 480 kg per set) of foam at 35 mm thickness over a 550 m 2 roof. Units Area (sq ft ) x Thickness (inches) Yields = Total Material (1000 lbs ) Example: Let’s say you have spray-applied 3 sets (at 1000 lbs. Total Material = 1440 kg Area = 550 m 2 Thickness = 75 mm 550 m 2 x 35 mm m3 Yield = = 0. S.5 in 2500 board feet 25 board feet Yield = = = 3 x (1000 lb) 1000 lb of Material lb of Material .SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 36 Calculating Spray-Applied Polyurethane Foam Yields Metric (S.5 in 5000 ft 2 x 1.013 1000 x (1440 kg ) kg of Material Traditional U. Total Material = 3000 lb Area = 5000 sq ft Thickness = 1.I. per set) of foam at 1-1/2 inches thickness over a 5000 square foot roof.

60 L L = 1.8 millimeter dry film thickness (DFT) will be used in the formulas listed to arrive at various theoretical coverages.3 2 m . METRIC (SI) UNITS: The theoretical coverage rate of a coating is the number of square meters covered by one liter of a coating material spread over a flat smooth surface area at a thickness of 1 millimeter. 1 dry millimeter thick (1 mm•m2/L). A. (NOTE: These calculations use solids content by volume.) a. For example a coating with a 60% (0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 37 Estimating Coating Requirements Use this procedure to determine the theoretical quantity of coating required and adjustments to allow for material losses and increased surface area due to texture.60) solids content by volume (SCV) to be applied at 0. NOT solids content by weight. 8 mm = mm • m 2 0. 60 L b.60 x 1 mm • m 2 = 0. This definition is used to calculate theoretical coverage rates for coatings containing less than 100% solids. One liter of a coating material that has 100% solids content by volume will cover 1 square meter. Theoretical Coverage: 1. TO FIND THE THEORETICAL NUMBER OF LITERS REQUIRED AT A SPECIFIED THICKNESS: DFT Theoretical Liters Re quired = Theoretical Thickness per Liter 0. TO FIND THE THEORETICAL DRY FILM THICKNESS FOR ONE (1) LITER OF COATING APPLIED OVER ONE (1) SQUARE METER: mm • m 2 Theoretical Thickness per Liter = % Solids x 1 L = 0.

many factors.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 38 TRADITIONAL U. equipment characteristics. UNITS: The theoretical coverage rate of a coating is the number of roofing squares covered by one gallon of a coating material spread over a flat smooth surface area at a thickness of 1/1000 of an inch (0. overspray loss.60) solid content by volume (SCV) to be applied at 30 mils dry film thickness (DFT) will be used in the formulas listed to arrive at various theoretical coverages. it is very important that additional material be added to the theoretical quantities to ensure that the proper minimum coating thickness is applied. such as the polyurethane surface texture. This definition is used to calculate theoretical coverage rates for coatings containing less than 100% solids. container residue.6 gal ( rf sq = Roofing Square =100 square feet ) b.6 x 16 rf sq • mil = 9. TO FIND THE THEORETICAL NUMBER OF GALLONS REQUIRED AT A SPECIFIED THICKNESS: DFT Number of Gallons per Roofing Square = Theoretical Thickness per Gallon 30 mil = rf sq • mil 9. .S. etc.6 gal gal = 3. Actual Coverage Requirements: When coatings are applied over sprayed polyurethane foam. (NOTE: These calculations use solids content by volume. One gallon of a coating material that has 100% solid content by volume will cover an area 16 roofing squares (R ).001" or 1 mil).) a. TO FIND THE THEORETICAL THICKNESS FOR ONE (1) GALLON OF COATING: rf sq • mil Theoretical Thickness per Gallon = % Solids x 16 gal = 0. For example a coating with a 60% (0. applicator technique. will directly affect the amount of coating material required to meet the designed in-place minimum dry film thickness (DFT).1 rf sq B. Therefore. 1 dry mil thick (16 R •mil/gal). NOT solids content by weight.

SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 39 Consideration must be given to the following factors: 1. Smoother surfaces require less coating material than rougher surfaces. peaks and valleys exist and the film thickness over the peaks can be considerably less than in valleys. Therefore. In order to overcome this potential problem. Minimum dry film thickness (DFT): In order to perform the functions required of the elastomeric coating. Smooth Surface Texture Description: The surface exhibits spray undulation and is ideal for receiving a protective coating. Even though the surface texture is classified as smooth. Polyurethane foam surface textures: The surface texture of sprayed polyurethane foam influences the extra material needed to achieve the minimum in-place dry film thickness (DFT). the minimum dry film thickness (DFT) of any given coating is defined as the in-place dry film thickness (DFT) at its thinnest point on the coated surface. This surface requires at least 10% additional material to the theoretical amount. pinholes. The photographs on the following pages show various polyurethane foam textures that have been established as industry reference standards. The surface of sprayed polyurethane foam is somewhat uneven—never completely smooth like a sheet of glass. An elastomeric coating should not be applied over a surface texture rougher than verge of popcorn. . Orange Peel Surface Texture Description: The surface exhibits a fine texture and is compared to the exterior skin of an orange. 2. the coating material should form a cured film of a prescribed thickness. etc. a. this surface requires at least 5% additional material to the theoretical amount. It is also important to note that excessively rough surface textures must not be coated due to the inability of the coating material to provide complete coverage without voids. b. This surface is considered acceptable for receiving a protective coating.

This surface requires at least 50% additional material to the theoretical amount. f. equipment problems. 4. This surface requires 25% to 50% additional material to the theoretical amount. Verge of Popcorn Texture Description: The verge of popcorn surface is the roughest texture suitable for receiving the protective coating. d. Wind Loss: In spray applications. This surface is acceptable for receiving a protective coating. Coarse Orange Peel Surface Texture Description: The surface exhibits a texture where nodules and valleys are approximately the same size and shape. This surface is unacceptable for coating application.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 40 c. depending on the contractor's experience and efficiency. Consider using wind screens and add wind loss to your coating calculations. 3. Severe oversprayed surfaces are not acceptable for coating applications. Miscellaneous Loss: A miscellaneous factor must be added to the theoretical coverage rate to cover losses due to material left in containers. Popcorn Surface Texture or Treebark Description: The surface exhibits texture where valleys form sharp angles. This surface is typically found downwind from the sprayed polyurethane foam path and can vary from mild to severe. Oversprayed Surface Texture Description: The surface exhibits a coarse textured pattern and/or a pebbled surface. The surface is considered undesirable due to the additional amount of coating required to protect the surface. with the valleys relatively curved. Use a percentage factor of between 3% to 10%. up to 30% of the coating may be lost due to wind. e. etc. This surface requires at least 25% additional material to the theoretical amount. The surface shows a texture where nodules are larger than valleys. because of the roundness of the nodules and valleys. .

7 actual liters/square meter Traditional U.27 = 3. The additional material percentages (AMP) are as follows: Orange Peel Texture 10% Wind Loss 12% Miscellaneous 5% Total (AMP) 27% Metric (SI) Actual Coverage = Theoretical Coverage x AMP = 1.S.1 gal/R x 1. The example coating is 60% solid content by volume (SCV) to be applied at 0. wind loss and miscellaneous loss. a total percentage can be arrived at and added to theoretical coverage formulas found in the previous example.27 = 1.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 41 (C) Summary: Taking into consideration minimum dry film thickness.8 millimeters (30 mils) dry film thickness (DFT). polyurethane foam surface textures. Actual Coverage = Theoretical Coverage x AMP = 3.3 L/m2 x 1.9 actual gallons/roofing square .

45 0.73 1.00 40 0.9 85 1360 13.56 4.33 2.14 1.64 4.24 0.95 2.2 0.44 0.67 90 1440 14.77 3.16 8.4 3.1 31.09 1.86 1.2 6.14 1.2 15 241 2.27 0.35 0.40 0.73 3.39 2.00 5.75 0.62 1.00 0.53 0.71 2.42 1.22 1.00 1.36 3.12 .4 10 0.46 95 1520 15.80 0.00 12.60 0.01 2.08 4.7 21.1 5.12 3.9 4.80 55 0. % Solids mm•m²/L Liters per Square Meter Theoretical Requirements DFT (mm): 0.68 5.00 2.27 2.65 90 0.23 55 882 8.44 0.11 50 0.02 8.20 4.75 85 0.7 20.23 2.22 0.62 0.45 1.25 1.78 1.40 3.73 9.04 2.91 3.35 10.67 4.54 1.4 0.6 18.92 1.56 4.08 2.05 1.41 4.4 35 561 5.01 7.23 7.12 3.15 70 0.2 1.49 4.31 10.73 1.84 1.61 6.6 3.35 10.82 2.80 1.33 65 0.16 80 1280 12.89 1.29 0.9 12.78 2.98 11.2 65 1040 10.00 6.8 0.8 1.5 14.15 1.33 1.16 5.75 1.91 40 642 6.22 2.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 42 Theoretical Coating Requirements NOTE: Increase these quantities for losses and surface texture.67 3.00 2.10 2.25 0.00 4.55 60 0.93 50 802 8.6 0.00 15 0.00 75 0.97 2.2 0.66 1.78 2.97 4.00 9.33 2.46 6.47 100 1.57 2.2 0.00 4.33 0.50 0.67 0.86 3.80 1.08 2.83 3.00 3.60 1.23 7.56 95 0.49 2.42 0.4 0.39 1.23 1.12 6.20 0.18 1.43 1.16 4.31 0.33 1.49 3.40 0.00 2.67 2.66 2.45 75 1200 12 0.00 8.33 1.12 3.4 12.56 3.29 2.74 4.6 25 401 4.64 1.20 1.8 24.8 20 321 3.25 1.55 0.2 12.50 3.33 6.20 1.53 5.16 4.61 1.00 3.81 2.07 1.69 1.70 0.99 5.51 3.57 1.01 4.31 1.67 1.30 0.31 9.3 2.00 25 0.23 12.00 2.18 2.49 2.9 28.82 1.63 2.28 100 1600 16 0.50 1.34 6.6 0.99 6.00 2.67 3.56 1.47 0.48 8.87 2.25 2.83 1.95 0.12 3.83 2.33 4.23 6.46 4.79 9.00 7.21 0.11 1.21 3.20 1.6 18.2 2.73 2.50 0.27 8.96 1.6 6.5 16.79 45 722 7.67 60 962 9.33 1.50 45 0.00 5.85 0.80 1.13 8.5 14 15.68 5.00 10.4 0.34 2.42 2.00 1.18 2.45 5.85 5.00 14.54 6.3 3.47 1.71 0.00 6.33 20 0.32 4.50 1.00 1.23 7.85 2.23 7.78 3.89 1.57 0.62 1.67 8.81 3.95 3.36 0.84 4.56 1.63 0.40 0.67 3.33 3.40 % Solids Mils• ft2 Mils•rf sq Gallons per Square Theoretical Requirements per gal per gal Mils: 10 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 10 160 1.13 2.60 2.12 3.71 2.8 70 1120 11.5 15.90 0.87 80 0.67 35 0.94 1.60 2.12 3.02 1.40 2.88 3.92 2.5 30 481 4.67 1.65 0.00 1.36 4.43 4.89 1.23 7.80 1.80 5.50 2.74 4.77 3.93 3.60 0.0 1.00 4.26 1.41 1.00 4.08 2.60 30 0.25 0.4 2.

5 mm 19.75 mm (3/4 in to 3/8 in) (3/4 in to No.75 mm (No.2 – 1.5 to 4.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 43 Standard Size of Coarse Aggregate Percent Aggregate Which Passes Through Indicated Sieve Size (based on ASTM D 1893-93) Amounts Finer than Sieve Specified. 8 [3/32 in]) 0 to 5 0 to 5 Typical Aggregate Weight and Coverage Aggregate Weight (typical) = 1400 – 1900 kg/m3 = 90 – 120 lb/ft3 = 2430 – 3240 lb/yd3 = 1.0 to 4.0 to 9.5 mm (1/2 in) 20 to 55 N/A 90 to 100 9. 4 [3/16 in]) 0 to 5 0 to 10 0 to 15 2.5 mm (3/8 in) 0 to 15 20 to 55 40 to 70 4.75 mm 12. Mass % Sieve Size No.38 – 0.6 – 7. 4) 25 mm (1 in) 100 100 19 mm (3/4 in) 90 to 100 90 to 100 100 12. 67 Size No.6 ton/yd3 Aggregate Coverage (typical) Thickness 25 mm 20 mm 1 in ¾ in 35 – 50 kg/m3 25 – 35 kg/m3 7.38 ton/rf sq (Note: rf sq = roofing square = 100 ft2) . 6 Size No.36 mm (No. 7 (Specification ASTM E 11) 19.5 lb/ft2 750 – 1000 lb/rf sq 560 – 750 lb/rf sq 0.5 – 10 lb/ft2 5. 4) (1/2 in to No.50 ton/rf sq 0.28 – 0.

) unit for energy. Expressed as m²•K/W (EF•ft²•hr/Btu). R factor: Thermal resistance. E F: Degree Fahrenheit. Expressed as W/m²•K (Btu/hr•ft²•EF).) unit for temperature.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 44 Thermodynamic Definitions and Calculations Btu: British thermal unit.) unit for heat flow. unit for measuring temperature.I. The traditional U. equal to the inverse of the overall R factor.S. The resistance to heat transfer of a material. The metric (S. one degree Fahrenheit.I.055 J = 1. Expressed as W/m•K (Btu•in/hr•ft2•oF).055 kJ.I. 1 Btu = 1.293 W. 1 Btu/hr = 0. W: Watt. Insulators have relatively high R factors. Overall thermal resistance of several materials assembled in a wall or roof is calculated by adding the individual R factors: Ro = R1 + R2 + R3 + @@@ + Rn U factor: Overall thermal conductance. The metric (S. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water. 1 U= Ro . T 5 ( =   T F − 32 0 0 ) 9 C TK = T C + 273 0 T 0 9 = T( ) + 32 0 5 F C k factor: Thermal conductivity for a unit thickness of material. The metric (S. K or E C: Kelvin or Degree Celsius. 1 J/s = 1 W. J: Joule.

0 6.15 Built-up Membrane 0.33 1” Glass Fiber 3. Units Required R value: 1 1 hr • ft 2 • o F Rnew = = = 20 U 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 45 Example Thermal Insulation Calculation Assume a building owner needs to upgrade his roof insulation to a U factor of 0.2 Metal Deck 0 Inside Air Film 0.0 .61 Overall R Value 4. The building now has a built-up roof over 1 inch glass fiber insulation on a metal roof deck.0 hr•ft2•oF/Btu fo the 1 inch R value for SPF): RSPF 16 Thickness = = = 2. What thickness of SPF should be applied to the existing built-up roof to achieve the desired U factor? Traditional U.05 Btu/h•ft2•oF.05 Btu Existing R value: Component R Value Outside Air Film 0.29 hr • ft 2 • o F Rexist = 4.29 Btu Additional insulation from SPF: RSPF = Rnew − Rexist = 20 − 4.S.7 inches 6.29 hr • ft 2 • o F = 16 Btu Polyurethane foam thickness to apply (use 6.

5 mph wind (summer) 0.06 Construction Boards Plywood 1/4" Exterior 0. use thermal resistance provided by the manufacturer for each specific product.32 Insulations Cellular Glass 1" 2. Asphalt Mastic 60 mils Negl.92 Moving Air 15 mph wind (winter) 0. Polyethylene 4-mil Negl. Rubber 15-30 mils Negl. Uncracked Concrete Structural Deck (6") 0.64 Gypsum Wall Board 3/8" 0. Butyl 30 mils Negl. Silicone 20 mils Negl.33 Decks Steel Deck (forgetting seams) Negl. Steel Deck (considering seams) Negl. Kraft Paper Laminate Negl. Air Surfaces (Horizontal) Still Air Heat flow upward 0. Chlorinated Synth.0 Expanded Polystyrene 1" 3. Felts & Foils Aluminum Foil Negl.61 Heat flow downward 0.25 Note: These figures represent approximations from a variety of published sources. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 4-mil Negl.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 46 Thermal Transmission Properties of Construction Material MATERIAL R VALUE (EF•ft²•hr/Btu) Built-up Roof Membrane 0.9 Polyurethane 1" 5.32 ½" Exterior 0. . Asphalt Saturated Felt No. Extruded Polystyrene 1" 5.2 Cork Board 1" 3. Polyurethane 20-35 mils Negl.17 7.6-6. 6-mil Negl.5 Films.9-4.9 Coatings Acrylic 30 mils Negl. 15 0. 43 0.06 Asphalt Saturated and Coated Felt No. Mineral Fiber 1" (unprotected) 3. When determining thermal resistances for a particular system.

000 Btu/lb Electricity 3.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 47 Heating Values of Fuels Coal 13.000 Btu/gal Fuel Oil #5 151.000 Btu/gal Fuel Oil #6 153. Dry 8.000 Btu/lb Wood.600 Btu/lb Note: Actual heating values of fuels will vary.000 Btu/gal LPG 91. . Check with the fuel supplier for more accurate values.000 Btu/ccf (100 ft3) Steam 1.000 Btu/gal Kerosene 135.690 Btu/gal Natural Gas 100.413 Btu/kilowatt-hr Fuel Oil #2 140.

S. Units 100% 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 90 18 28 37 47 57 67 77 87 97 107 Relative Humidity 80 15 25 35 44 54 64 73 83 93 103 70 13 22 31 41 51 60 69 79 89 99 60 9 19 28 37 47 56 65 75 84 94 50 6 15 24 33 42 51 60 70 79 88 40 2 10 19 28 37 45 54 63 73 82 30 -4 5 13 21 30 38 46 56 65 73 20 -11 -3 5 13 21 29 37 45 54 62 10 -23 -15 -8 -1 7 14 21 28 36 44 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Dry Bulb Temperature (oF) .I.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 48 Dew Point Temperatures Metric (S.) Units 100% -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 90 -11 -6 -1 4 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 Relative Humidity 80 -13 -8 -3 2 7 12 17 21 26 31 36 70 -14 -9 -5 0 5 10 14 19 24 28 33 60 -16 -11 -6 -2 3 7 12 17 21 26 30 50 -18 -13 -9 -4 0 5 9 14 18 23 27 40 -20 -16 -11 -7 -2 2 6 11 15 19 23 30 -23 -19 -14 -10 -6 -2 2 6 10 14 18 20 -27 -23 -19 -15 -11 -7 -3 1 5 8 12 10 -33 -30 -26 -22 -18 -15 -11 -8 -4 -1 2 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Dry Bulb Temperature (oC) Traditional U.

22 154 68 20 226 108 42.6 -22 -30 64.8 16 -8.4 -13 -25 -31.44 176 80 26.7 124 51 10.4 13 -10.22 169 76 24.6 -3 -19.4 225 107 41.8 11 -11.3 221 105 40.67 156 69 20.6 37 2.9 223 106 41.2 -52.4 50 10 -12.4 33 0.7 26.7 75.4 -29.9 117 47 8.7 -54.4 -48 -44.6 -9.3 86 30 -1.3 -49 -45 -42.4 18 -7.2 73.1 -7.6 32 0.6 6. in Temp.9 -47.2 -11 -23.6 196 91 32.8 23 -5 -20.2 -16 -26.9 100 38 3.8 -4 -20 96.8 -34.4 3.6 14 -10 -23.2 14 -10 129 54 12.7 -5.6 -25.2 -20. in Temp.4 -12 -24.89 149 65 18.2 -4 -20 -28.22 185 85 29.6 62.6 30.3 -16.7 42.8 219 104 40 5 -15 -26.44 147 64 17.8 -31 -35 48.3 118 48 8.3 -0.2 -39 -39.4 23 -5 145 63 17.4 -17 -27.9 -14.6 -32 -35.4 66.6 22 -5.2 -1 -18.4 -2 -18. in Temp.4 28 -2.8 -2.78 187 86 30 -27.2 -29 -33.8 -46 -43.8 1 -17.8 36 2.9 -31 -35 -37.2 19 -7.44 192 89 31.4 208 98 36.89 174 79 26.4 -45.8 -14 -25.3 21.4 33.11 142 61 16.9 207 97 36.8 26 -3.6 212 100 37.8 -36 -37.2 -44 -42.78 171 77 25 -43.67 167 75 23.6 27 -2.8 31 -0.11 181 83 28.7 10.6 7 -13.2 9 -12.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 49 Temperature Conversion Tables Temp.4 -43 -41.6 -13 -25 80.7 59 15 -9.3 37.9 51.8 120 49 9.6 127 53 11.7 108 42 5.8 55.67 140 60 15.11 158 70 21.33 172 78 25.6 228 109 42.3 69.1 28.9 35.4 82.4 -33 -36.6 46.1 109 43 6.6 78.2 -49 -45 15.2 122 50 10 194 90 32.8 -21 -29.6 12 -11.8 104 40 4.56 144 62 16.1 93.7 216 102 38.7 199 93 33.8 6 -14.2 201 94 34.0 162 72 22.1 126 52 11.2 -6 -21.9 1.6 -27 -32.3 53.8 -41 -40.9 68 20 -6.6 2 -16.2 24 -4.2 -36.6 -37 -38.4 17.1 -56.2 12.2 -19 -28.1 60.4 -7 -21.33 189 87 30.1 8.2 106 41 5 178 81 27.56 163 73 22.4 3 -16.6 -8 -22.22 138 59 15 210 99 37.8 39.9 84.7 -38. in o F or oC o F or oC o F or oC o F or oC to be to be to be to be o o o o o o o o F converted C F converted C F converted C F converted C -58 -50 -45.2 217 103 39.4 98.6 -47 -43.33 135 57 13.1 -23.6 95 35 1.4 8 -13.1 77 25 -3.6 -42 -41.3 102 39 3.8 203 95 35 -11.8 -26 -32.2 -24 -31.3 205 96 35.78 136 58 14.8 71.9 19.8 .6 17 -8.7 -22 -30 -34.2 89.4 115 46 7.2 -34 -36.7 91.2 57.33 151 66 18.78 153 67 19.6 -41.89 190 88 31.1 -40 -40 -40 32 0 -17.2 29 -1.67 183 84 28.4 -38 -38.2 41 5 -15 113 45 7.4 -23 -30.2 34 1.8 87.2 24.89 133 56 13.56 160 71 21.8 -9 -22.44 131 55 12.1 198 92 33.4 -18 -27.8 21 -6.4 -28 -33.2 4 -15.3 -32.56 180 82 27.1 44.8 -50.1 214 101 38.6 111 44 6.11 165 74 23.8 -18.

6 455 235 113 241 116 46.1 441 227 108 298 148 64.9 385 196 91.8 430 221 105 F = (9/5)(oC) + 32 o 288 142 61.4 468 242 117 253 123 50.3 415 213 101 273 134 56.4 338 170 76.3 318 159 70.7 361 183 83.4 354 179 81.8 349 176 80 421 216 102 Temperature 279 137 58.6 423 217 103 Conversions 280 138 58.6 406 208 97.3 399 204 95.2 460 238 114 246 119 48.7 394 201 93.7 291 144 62. in Temp.8 414 212 100 271 133 56. in Temp.9 336 169 76.6 358 181 82.3 432 222 106 K = oC + 273.3 464 240 116 250 121 49.2 363 184 84.2 347 175 79.8 462 239 115 248 120 48.7 345 174 78.9 466 241 116 252 122 50 324 162 72.6 325 163 72.1 343 173 78.6 439 226 108 297 147 63.6 390 199 92.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 50 Temperature Conversion Tables Temp.3 367 186 85.1 327 164 73.8 316 158 70 388 198 92.9 433 223 106 R = oF + 459.1 311 155 68.7 459 237 114 244 118 47.7 313 156 68.3 448 231 111 234 112 44.2 477 247 119 262 128 53.2 428 220 104 C = 5/9 (oF – 32) o 286 141 60.8 333 167 75 405 207 97. in o F or oC o F or oC o F or oC o F or oC to be to be to be to be o o o o o o o o F converted C F converted C F converted C F converted C 230 110 43.6 471 244 118 257 125 51.9 401 205 96.2 379 193 89.3 480 249 121 266 130 54.4 306 152 66.6 374 190 87.3 383 195 90.7 378 192 88.1 376 191 88.9 369 187 86.3 334 168 75.4 270 132 55.2 o 289 143 61.2 396 202 94.9 320 160 71.2 315 157 69.9 482 250 121 268 131 55 340 171 77.1 424 218 103 282 139 59.3 351 177 80.7 329 165 73.1 457 236 113 243 117 47.9 304 151 66.7 410 210 98.4 435 224 107 293 145 62.8 397 203 95 469 243 117 255 124 51.9 417 214 101 275 135 57.6 309 154 67.4 387 197 91.1 360 182 83.4 370 188 86.2 412 211 99.8 478 248 120 264 129 53.1 473 245 118 259 126 52.6 342 172 77.2 331 166 74.7 426 219 104 o 284 140 60 356 180 82.1 392 200 93.4 419 215 102 277 136 57.3 302 150 65. in Temp.4 403 206 96.1 408 209 98.9 450 232 111 235 113 45 307 153 67.8 381 194 90 453 234 112 239 115 46.7 475 246 119 261 127 52.2 444 229 109 .4 451 233 112 237 114 45.8 365 185 85 437 225 107 295 146 63.7 442 228 109 300 149 65 372 189 87.9 352 178 81.4 322 161 71.8 446 230 110 232 111 43.

8 45 43.4 75 80.4 84 89.5 40 37.9 35 31.5 78 83.1 24 18.4 10 5.6 3 0.6 26 20.6 7 3.2 87 92.1 98 99.9 12 6.2 89 94.1 61 63.2 37 33.6 33 28.2 70 74.4 51 51.2 79 84.6 11 6.5 14 8.2 52 52.1 76 81.0 65 68.3 38 34.8 54 55.7 77 82.1 59 61.8 63 66.2 99 99.3 73 78.6 30 25.0 53 53.4 2 0.0 0 0.5 71 75.4 66 70.9 97 99.3 17 11.4 32 27.0 80 85.2 13 7.7 42 39.4 92 96.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 51 Volume of Material in Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks Measured % Actual % Measured % Actual % Measured % Actual % of Tank Volume in of Tank Volume in of Tank Volume in Diameter Tank Diameter Tank Diameter Tank 100 100.9 8 3.0 69 73.9 72 77.3 86 91.8 44 42.6 58 60.6 67 71.6 41 38.5 93 96.7 43 41.7 15 9.9 57 58.3 85 90.4 29 24.9 23 17.8 68 72.6 82 87.1 5 1.9 27 21.8 96 98.8 34 30.5 62 65.6 94 97.1 9 4.3 56 57.7 60 62.7 48 47.2 1 0.2 88 93.8 19 13.7 95 98.8 46 44.4 25 19.3 91 95.4 39 36.5 83 88.1 36 32.0 64 67.5 55 56.9 74 79.4 6 2.7 47 46.5 50 50.9 4 1.5 18 12.1 20 14.8 .0 16 10.3 90 94.6 22 16.1 28 22.2 31 26.4 21 15.8 81 86.6 49 48.

08x105 2.08x107 1.20x10-6 1.6 1 0.29x104 929.94x10 4 39.23x10-7 rf sq 9.86x10-11 m2 1x106 1x104 1 1x10-6 1550 10..08333 1.0254 0.290 9.08x10-7 2.58x10 -5 ft 304. 40 cm x 0.29x10-8 144 1 0.30x10-5 3.001562 mile2 2.09290 9. SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 52 Unit Conversions Length EXAMPLE: To convert a value in cm to a value in ft multiply the value in cm by 0.79x105 640 1 .3861 in2 645.8361 8.33x10 -5 1.00108 1.20x10-4 1.59x1010 2.e.05x10 -4 12000 12 1 1.3048 3.21x10 -7 cm 10 1 0.36x105 8361 0.09 2.098x10 6 2.21x10 -6 m 1000 100 1 0.00328 6.196 0.34x10 7 6.07x10-4 3.37 3.49x10-10 ft2 9.05x107 4047 4.54x10 -5 1000 1 0.03281 = 1.59x10-7 2.21x10 -4 km 1x10 6 1x10 5 1000 1 3.45x10-4 6.27x106 43560 4840 435.59x1012 2.001 3.7 0.89x10 -4 mile 1.45x10-10 1 0.540 0.29x10-6 14400 100 11.59x10-8 yd2 8.00694 7.05x10-3 6.02540 2.i. To mm cm m km mil in ft mile From mm 1 0.05x109 4.590 4.08x10-5 1.47x10-4 3.94x10 4 3281 0.1550 0.54x10 -8 1 0.452 6.6214 mil 0.48 0.0 0.01 1x10 -5 393.29x106 92900 9.8 30.47x10-8 3.55x109 1.54x10 -5 2.47x10-10 3.01 1x10-6 1x10-12 0.34x10 4 5280 1 Area To mm2 cm2 m2 km2 in2 ft2 yd2 rf sq acre mile2 From mm2 1 0.281 6.94x10 7 3.36x10-5 1296 9 1 0.61x10 6 1.59x106 2.11 1 2.4 2.00155 1.3937 0.31 ft.0001 1x10-10 0.00254 2.72x10-4 6.001 8.03937 0.30x10-3 3.37 0.86x10-13 cm2 100 1 0.2 6.79x107 3.001 1x10 -6 39.1076 2.471x10 2 0.01 2.609 6.86x10-7 km2 1x1012 1x1010 1x106 1 1.01x109 2.58x10 -8 in 25.59x10-6 acre 4.1 0.1111 0.94x10-5 1.196x10 6 1.03281 6.61x10 5 1609 1.08x10-5 2.03281.76 1.

220 m3 1x106 1000 1 6.0173 0.765 4.96x10-5 1.0334 0.00379 231 0.83x104 28.64x10-5 1 5.001 1x10-6 0.00236 m³ .65x105 765 0.250 0.9 0.161 0.0346 0.73x10-4 28.473 4.81 0.55 0.00495 128 8.79 0.00360 ft3 2.53x10-5 1.0 1 0.0370 956 59.80 1.0 2.79x10-4 2.625 m³ 1 board-ft = 0.00131 33.0353 0.833 gal (Imp) 4550 4.64x10-4 2.14x10-5 0.104 fl qt 946 0.67x104 27.00455 277 0.1334 0.8 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 53 Unit Conversions Volume / Capacity To cm3 liter m3 in3 ft3 yd3 fl oz fl pt fl qt gal gal (Imp) (ml) From cm3 1 0.00211 0.0 1 2.9 7.0296 2.31x10-6 0.31 3.87x10-5 1 0.00 1 0.06 0.0625 0.208 gal 3790 3.125 0.20x10-4 liter 1000 1 0.500 0.0610 3.59x104 1620 808 202 168 fl oz 29.0164 1.19x10-4 16.8 29.00 4.00433 0.00106 2.946 9.48 6.3 0.3 1.00651 fl pt 473 0.0338 0.8 2.00104 3.4 0.0313 0.38x104 2110 1060 264 220 in3 16.264 0.00595 154 9.0283 1730 1 0.11 1.0167 6.554 0.10x104 35.00 1 0.61 4.00124 32.46x10-4 57.001 61.6 0.0 0.20 1 1 cord = 128 ft³ = 3.00781 0.23 yd3 7.

0625 oz (apoth) 31100 480 31.137 0.0321 2.43x10-4 g 1000 15. S.e. Weight (1 lb and Over) To lb kg ton metric ton From lb 1 0.21x10-3.89 1 0.00100 ton 2000 907 1 0.53x10-5 3.21x10-6 grain 64.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 54 Unit Conversions Weight ( Under 1 lb) EXAMPLE: To convert a value in g to a value in lb multiply the value in g by 2. i.10x10-3 0.6 1 Note: av = avoirdupois weight. 400 g x 2.0648 0.08x10-3 1.0167 2.0353 0.21x10-3 dr (apoth) 3890 60.57x10-3 oz (av) 28400 438 28.21x10-3 = 0.22x10-5 2.4 1 0.0686 lb 4.454 5.00100 2.29 1 0.23x10-3 2.10 1 .8 1 0.125 8.0 14.912 0.57x10-4 3.884 lb To mg grain g dr (apoth) oz (av) oz (apoth) lb From mg 1 0.0154 0. Units.54x105 7000 454 117 16. the weight system of Tradition U.257 0.21 1 1.54x10-4 kg 2.00 1.00x10-4 4.4 7. a system of weights used in phamacy.10 1 0. apoth = apothecary’s weight.0 3..1 8.907 metric ton 2205 1000 1.

4 96 15.3 30 0.0 1000 1.5 550 0.2 92 59 13.8 180 0.6 460 0.22 54 62 25 18 11 2.18 50 54 74 20 16 2.14 46 66 45 58 16 13 1.0 1200 1.015 8 34 17 0.1 Pa•s = 0.4 340 0.32 36 25 16 3.60 71 68 44 30 7.0 400 0.08 37 41 31 34 0.34 39 26 17 3.36 62 41 28 18 3.46 66 52 34 23 4.07 35 36 28 30 0.2 20 0.48 67 54 36 24 5.12 43 58 41 49 14 11 1.4 240 0.0 700 0.0 900 0.20 52 58 82 23 17 10 2.2 220 0.03 19 14 44 20 0.8 480 0.26 58 68 30 21 13 2.06 33 33 25 68 27 0.01 5 30 16 0.8 380 0.8 80 0.0 1500 1.0 500 0.0 85 49 11.0672 lb mass/ft-sec Kinematic Viscosity: 1 stoke = 1x10-4 m2/s Poise Centipoise Pa•s Krebs Ford Cup Zahn Units 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 0.6 160 0.1 10 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 55 Unit Conversions Viscosity Dynamic Viscosity: 1 poise = 0.04 25 18 52 22 0.0 200 0.15 15 0.09 38 45 32 37 10 1.4 140 0.4 40 0.0 1100 1.6 260 0.3 95 64 14.38 43 29 19 4.8 280 0.6 360 0.0 800 0.5 50 0.9 90 0.7 70 0.50 68 57 37 25 5.40 64 46 30 20 4.02 12 10 37 18 0.0 100 0.6 100 .2 320 0.24 56 65 28 19 12 2.0 600 0.025 15 12 41 19 0.0 1300 1.6 60 0.0 1400 1.55 69 63 40 27 6.70 74 51 35 8.10 40 50 34 41 12 10 1.16 48 50 66 18 14 1.44 50 33 22 4.0 300 0.80 77 58 40 9.0 1600 1.28 59 70 32 22 14 3.4 440 0.05 30 29 22 60 24 0.42 48 32 21 4.90 81 64 45 10.30 60 74 34 24 15 3.1 88 55 12.2 420 0.25 25 0.2 120 0.5 98 16.

8 kg/m³ To g/cm3 g/L kg/m3 grain/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/gal From g/cm3 1 1000 1000 4.54 0.0 = 44.8 0.9 0.0914 1 0.682 ft/min 0.00835 grain/ft3 0.0114 mph 44.0183 0.0 7000 1 0.0360 0.00128 1.5 0.91x10-5 lb/ft3 0.00 0.394 0.0254 0.97 0.0 1 .28 1.24 km/hr 27.0833 5.0 16.0.00835 kg/m3 0.60 39.61 17.120 120 120 52400 7.6 1.305 1.00508 0.35 g/L 0.4 3.47 88.001 1 1 0.43x10-4 1.0 1 60.4 8.621 in/s 2.37x105 62. i.7 0.e.200 0.447 1.28 197 2.0328 1.48 1 Velocity To cm/s m/s km/hr in/s ft/s ft/min mph From cm/s 1 0.7 0..278 1 10.001 1 1 0.0167 1 0.8 lb/ft³ x 16.508 0.0624 0.911 54.0568 ft/s 30.0 0.0624 0.10 12.0224 m/s 100 1 3.28 1 1.0160 16.0437 0.134 lb/gal 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 56 Unit Conversions Density EXAMPLE: To convert a value in lb/ft³ to a value in kg/m³ multiply the value in lb/ft³ by 16. 2.01 0.0437 0.

9 0.0631 6.0 ft3/min 0.472 4.31x10-5 1 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 57 Unit Conversions Flow Rate To L/s m3/s gal/min ft3/s ft3/min From L/s 1 0.3 0.12 m3/s 1000 1 1.0283 449 1 60.59x104 35.001 15.3 2120 gal/min 0.72x10-4 7.0167 1 .0353 2.00223 0.134 ft3/s 28.48 0.

145 20.0681 51.31 (psi) lb/ft2 (psf) 47.5 2090 MPa 106 1000 10 1 9.0193 2.0446 0.0339 0.4 1 1.0299 0.00299 0.000 100 1 0.5 334 145 20.00689 0.9 bar 10.4 0.434 62.9 14.0141 0.090 atm 10.90 7500 29.89 = 103 kPa To lb/in2 lb/ft2 Pa kPa bar MPa atm mm Hg in Hg ft H2O From (psi) (psf) Pa 1 0.0479 4.4 lb/in2 1 144 6890 6.01 0.334 0.39 0.101 1 760 29.00990 7.9 0.00132 1 0.00694 1 1 Pa = N/m2 .01 0.45x10-4 0.133 0.295 0.7 2120 mm Hg 133 0.00750 2.00339 0.99 0.0209 kPa 1000 1 0. 15 psi x 6.001 0.100 101 1.1 0.5 33.79x10-4 4.359 0.4 14.0334 25.95x10-4 3.89.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 58 Unit Conversions Pressure EXAMPLE: To convert a value in psi to a value in kPa multiply the value in psi by 6.0394 0.7 ft H2O 2990 2. i.7 2.33x10-4 0.73x10-4 0.0160 0.79x10-5 4.001 10-5 10-6 9.9 33.79 in Hg 3390 3.13 0.883 1 0.34x10-4 1.990 750 29.491 70.e.89 0.04 2.0295 22.90x10-6 0.00133 1..50 0.0689 0.

00396 1 0.66x106 3.93x10-4 2.00116 ft•lb 0.324 3.41x105 642 1.00156 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 59 Unit Conversions Energy & Work To kw•hr Btu g cal kg cal ft•lb J hp•hr From Btu 1 252 0.05x10-7 3.239 2.39x10-4 0.34 1 1 therm = 100.746 kw•hr 3410 8.00100 3.36 5.09 4.00129 0.78x10-7 hp•hr 2550 6.252 778 1050 3.18 1056x10-6 1.93x10-4 g cal 0.98x106 2.738 1 3.69x106 1 0.24x10-4 1 1.000 Btu .97 1000 1 3090 4180 0.16x10-6 kg cal 3.60x105 860 2.60x106 1.77x10-7 J 9.49x10-4 0.73x10-7 2.

00182 0.19 418 kg•m/s 0.00930 9.24x10-4 0.81 hp 0.138 0.00134 0.746 746 kW 0.808 kW .61 4.252 108 1.49x10-4 1x107 0.05 1050 erg/s 9.0 1 0.480 Btu/hr = 9.707 7046x109 550 0. i.48x10-11 1 7.81x107 7.00136 1.7355 = 36.34x10-10 1x10-10 1x10-7 ft•lb/s 0.39x10-11 1.738 2.8 kilowatt To W Btu/s erg/s ft•lb/s kg cal/s kg•m/s hp kW From Btu/s 1 1.23 0.36x107 1 3..41 1. 50 Btu/sec x 0.00129 1.e.39x10-4 0.178 76.38x10-8 2.16x1010 3090 1 427 5.102 0.02x10-8 1.97 4.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 60 Unit Conversions Power EXAMPLE: To convert a vulue in Btu/sec to a value in kilowatt multiply the value in Btu/sec by 0.34 1 1000 W 9.05x1010 778 0.0132 0.7355.00981 9.00234 1 0.949 1x1010 738 0.00100 1 Horse-power (boiler) = 33.36 kg cal/s 3.239 102 1.

61 1600 1 0.833 1 1000 0.0283 28.00100 1 6.00236 2.33x10-5 0.264 0.0254 mm Board foot = 1 square foot @ 1 inch thickness .24x105 264 1 1000 1000 mm•m2 0.36 mil•ft2 8.264 0.00379 3.36x10-6 0.3 424 4.36 2.3 28.00235 0.424 424 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 61 Unit Conversions Thickness / Unit Area To ft3 bd•ft mil•ft2 gal m3 mm•m2 L From ft3 1 12.424 424 0.134 1.0 1.20x104 7.3 bd•ft 0.23x10-4 2.79 3.00235 gal 0.0353 0.00100 1 1 One mil = one thousandth of an inch = 0.00100 1 1 L 0.623 0.0353 0.48 0.79 m3 35.

W .93 1 . Btu•in . K•m2 .176 . K•m2 . W . .144 . . Btu 1 0. oF•hr•ft2 .68 1 W . Btu•in .SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 62 Unit Conversions Thermal Conductivity & Insulance To Thermal Thermal Thermal Thermal Conductivity Conductivity Insulance Insulance k Value k Value R Value R Value . hr•ft2•oF 1 0. m•K 6. . hr•ft2•oF m•K Btu W From . oF•hr•ft2 . 5.

46 ft2•hr•in Hg . grain . . ft2•hr•in Hg s•m2•Pa ft2•hr•in Hg s•m•Pa From . grain . .685 1 s•m•Pa . ng . ng . .0174 1 s•m2•Pa . 1 1. 1 57.4 ft2•hr•in Hg . 0. 0. grain•in . grain•in . ng . ng .SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 63 Unit Conversions Permeance & Permeability To Permeance Permeance Permeability Permeability Perm Perm-in .

89063 10 0.10938 23/64 0.39063 41 0.25000 1/2 0.62500 7/8 0.06250 5/16 0.37500 40 0.92188 3/16 0.52381 49/64 0.34375 19/32 0.90625 11 0.78125 3/64 0.81250 5/64 0.65625 58 0.82813 6 0.59375 27/32 0.96875 15 0.85938 8 0.76563 2 0.50000 48 0.65625 29/32 0.43750 11/16 0. Integers are 64ths 1 0.46875 23/32 0.14063 25/64 0.64063 57/64 0.82813 3/32 0.54688 51 0.67188 59 0.92188 12 0.93750 13/64 0.01563 17/64 0.14063 25 0.60938 55 0.35938 39/64 0.35938 39 0.28125 17/32 0.15625 13/32 0.75000 64 1.18750 7/16 0.32813 37/64 0.48438 47 0.68750 15/16 0.43750 44 0.51563 49 0.31250 36 0.78125 3 0.45313 45/64 0.46875 46 0.54688 51/64 0.87500 9 0.04688 19/64 0.06250 20 0.95313 7/32 0.73438 63/64 0.93750 13 0.20313 29/64 0.70313 61/64 0.00000 Decimal Equivalents.21875 30 0.18750 28 0.17188 27/64 0.40625 42 0.31250 9/16 0.57813 53 0.09375 22 0.84375 7 0.23438 31 0.26563 33/63 0.75000 1 1.25000 32 0.15625 26 0.03125 18 0.26563 33 0.45313 45 0.56250 52 0.07813 21/64 0.SPF Estimating Reference Guide Page 64 Decimal Equivalents Decimal Equivalents.17188 27 0.42188 43 0.87500 9/64 0.29688 35 0.79688 1/16 0.71875 31/32 0.73438 63 0.71875 62 0.40625 21/32 0.53125 25/32 0.29688 35/64 0.76563 1/32 0.04688 19 0.12500 3/8 0.56250 13/16 0.70313 61 0.34375 38 0.32813 37 0.50000 3/4 0.67188 59/64 0.98438 1/4 0. Fractions 1/64 0.79688 4 0.00000 .57813 53/64 0.98438 16 0.23438 31/64 0.85938 1/8 0.68750 60 0.64063 57 0.37500 5/8 0.09375 11/32 0.48438 47/64 0.07813 21 0.84375 7/64 0.20313 29 0.90625 11/64 0.59375 54 0.53125 50 0.21875 15/32 0.10938 23 0.96875 15/64 0.12500 24 0.60938 55/64 0.62500 56 0.03125 9/32 0.95313 14 0.81250 5 0.01563 17 0.28125 34 0.39063 41/64 0.42188 43/64 0.89063 5/32 0.