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On inversion of the second- and third-order

gravitational tensors by Stokes’ integral formula
for a regional gravity recovery
MOHAMMAD A. SHARIFI1, MOHSEN ROMESHKANI1 AND ROBERT TENZER2,3*

1 School of Surveying and Geospatial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of
Tehran, Iran
2 The Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Wuhan University, Wuhan,
China (rtenzer@sgg.whu.edu.cn)
3 New Technologies for the Information Society (NTIS), University of West Bohemia,
306 14 Plzeň, Czech Republic (tenzer@kma.zcu.cz)
* Corresponding author

Received: April 28, 2016; Revised: July 11, 2016; Accepted: August 30, 2016

ABSTRACT

A regional recovery of the Earth’s gravity field from satellite observables has become
particularly important in various geoscience studies in order to better localize stochastic
properties of observed data, while allowing the inversion of a large amount of data,
collected with a high spatial resolution only over the area of interest. One way of doing
this is to use observables, which have a more localized support. As acquired in recent
studies related to a regional inversion of the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean
Circulation Explorer (GOCE) data, the satellite gravity-gradient observables have a more
localized support than the gravity observations. Following this principle, we compare
here the performance of the second- and third-order derivatives of the gravitational
potential in context of a regional gravity modeling, namely estimating the gravity
anomalies. A functional relation between these two types of observables and the gravity
anomalies is formulated by means of the extended Stokes’ integral formula (or more
explicitly its second- and third-order derivatives) while the inverse solution is carried out
by applying a least-squares technique and the ill-posed inverse problem is stabilized by
applying Tikhonov’s regularization. Our results reveal that the third-order radial
derivatives of the gravitational potential are the most suitable among investigated input
data types for a regional gravity recovery, because these observables preserve more
information on a higher-frequency part of the gravitational spectrum compared to the
vertical gravitational gradients. We also demonstrate that the higher-order horizontal
derivatives of the gravitational potential do not necessary improve the results. We explain
this by the fact that most of the gravity signal is comprised in its radial component, while
the horizontal components are considerably less sensitive to spatial variations of the
gravity field.

K e y w o r d s : satellite gradiometry, gravity field modeling, GOCE, inverse problem,
gravitational curvature

Stud. Geophys. Geod., 61 (2017), 453468, DOI: 10.1007/s11200-016-0831-7 453
© 2017 Inst. Geophys. CAS, Prague

Invalidity of this function leads to incorrect results (cf. (2012). 2009). Janák et al. (2014) and Eshagh (2009) used an indirect solution of the second-order derivative of the extended Stokes’ formula to recover gravity anomalies. the main problem of applying the integral approach is a spatial truncation error that affects the results (Eshagh. 1998. the distant-zone contribution could be treated by using. Eshagh (2008). Sharifi et al. A regional gravity-gradient inversion is generally an ill-posed problem. which is about 6080 km at the equator (in terms of a half-wavelength). these integral equations are discretized and parameterized.1990). Geod. otherwise required in global applications. a stochastic model is applied to invert a large number of the GOCE observations onto a relatively low number of values which are used to parameterize the regional gravity field to the extent limited by a real spatial resolution of the GOCE observations. 2009). provided by the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) (European Space Agency. 1995.. Albertella et al. such as the integral transformation or the radial basis function approach. INTRODUCTION Since the gravity-gradient observations have more pronounced regional support than the gravity observations. For the gravity-gradient inversion. Kotsakis (2007).1989. 1. 2002). 1999). which is typically solved by applying a least- squares technique. many of recent studies have focused on a regional gravity recovery from processing the satellite gravity-gradiometry (SGG) data. Geophys. Moritz. (1989). Shen et al. the distant-zone contribution). To stabilize the solution. For this purpose.. instead of using a spherical harmonic representation of the global gravitational field. Tscherning (1988.. the a priori global gravitational model (GGM) in order to suppress truncation errors (i. 1998. Furthermore. Visser (1992). meaning that the noise in GOCE data could propagate as a signal into estimated parameters. Arabelos and Tscherning (1993. Tscherning and Herceg (2015) and Pitoňák et al. regularization schemes are applied. A least-squares collocation technique requires the a priori information about unknown parameters in forming the respective covariance function. On the contrary. Rummel (1976). regional inversions allow a detailed and accurate modeling of the gravity field based on representing more realistically stochastic properties of data within a particular study area. Meanwhile. Yildiz (2012). 1999. (2016). Xu (1992. Among numerous studies addressing methods for the SGG data inversion we could mention works of Krarup (1969). for instance. various discrete and stochastic approaches have been developed and applied based on utilizing a discretized parameterization of the gravity field. (2009). while reducing significantly a spatial coverage of data used for the inversion. Alternatively. 2011). while such information is not required when using the integral approach. Rummel et al. Reed (1973). Among functional models. Eshagh (2011) developed the integral approach and presented combinations 454 Stud.e. M. Zielinski (1975). Xu (1992. A regional recovery of (unknown and sought) gravity anomalies from the (observed) GOCE gravity gradients is then done by solving the system of observation equations.A. 61 (2017) . He demonstrated that the best solution is attained by applying a biased least-squares modification. Krarup and Tscherning (1984). the second-order partial derivatives of the extended Stokes’ integral formula are often used to define a functional relation between the gravity anomalies and the GOCE gravity gradients. Eshagh (2010b) applied a stochastic modification of the integral formula for this purpose. 1980). Janák et al.

and third-order gravitational tensors defined in different reference frames and facilitated these expressions in methods for the gravity field synthesis. (2015). One way to achieve this is to observe higher than the second-order derivatives of the gravitational potential (e. There are also ongoing proposals for developing similar sensors for future geodetic space missions. Ardalan and Grafarend (2001) used the third-order derivatives of the normal gravity field in relation with Bruns' theorem. the potential field). (2015). used these quantities to analyze the second-order derivatives of the Earth’s gravitational field.g. for instance. (2015) developed non-singular relations for some components of the third-order derivatives of the magnetic field. 2014a. Hamáčková et al. Eshagh and Romeshkani (2013) investigated the errors in gravity anomalies estimated from SGG data based on applying the integral approach and the variance component estimation (VCE) technique. The OPTical Interferometry for global Mass change detection from space (OPTIMA) is a newly proposed satellite mission (Brieden et al. Rummel et al. focused on improving the accuracy and resolution of regional gravity modeling. The third-order derivatives of the gravitational field have also some theoretical implications. Balakin et al. while localizing inverse solutions. The radial basis functions were used for a regional gravity modeling from SGG data. Šprlák and Novák (2015) presented the expressions needed for finding the correlation between the mass-density distribution and the third-order derivatives of the Earth’s gravitational field. (2000) presented directional derivatives of the gravitational potential up the third-order terms. 61 (2017) 455 . 2014).and third-order gravitational tensors … of the SGG components for recovering the geoid surface (i...and higher-order gravitational tensors is their independence on the orientation of platform sensors.. Geophys. second. Some authors. theoretical development of numerical schemes related with applying the third-order derivatives of the gravitational potential has been addressed by several authors.. Romeshkani and Eshagh (2015) used deterministic modifications of the integral approach to validate SGG data. Geod. however. One advantage of using the third. Casotto and Fantino (2009) derived and summarized expressions for the first-.and second- order derivatives of the gravity potential. More recently. Later.b) and Naeimi et al.e.g. the observables have been restricted mainly to the first. 2010) for mapping the Earth’s external gravity field with a higher resolution based on using sensors for observing components of the third-order gravitational tensor. (1993) and Albertella et al. for instance. by Eicker et al. 2012. (2002).. Kotsiaros and Olsen. Jacoby and Smilde (2009) demonstrated that the third-order derivatives of the gravitational field are more sensitive at a higher-frequency gravitational spectrum. On inversion of the second. Du et al. It is worth mentioning that the second-order derivatives of the potential could also be facilitated in magnetic field applications (e. (2016) presented non-singular relations for all components of the Earth’s gravitational field based on applying a numerical strategy developed before by Eshagh (2008). 1997). measuring only the gravity and gravity gradients. The gravity field curvature measurements by the atom interferometer have been conducted by Rosi et al. Nagy et al. (2005.. Until recently. Petrovskaya and Vershkov (2010) derived the generalized expressions for an arbitrary order of the gravitational tensors in terms of spherical harmonics. Keller and Sharifi (2005) investigated principles of the Stud. Romeshkani (2011) and Eshagh and Romeshkani (2011) used the extended Stokes’ integral formula for a validation of the horizontal-horizontal and vertical-horizontal components of SGG data based on solving a least-squares modification.

the following estimator is applied (Sjöberg.A. (3) n2 2 n 1 2 R 0 0n    . we compare here the performance of integral approaches formulated for the second. where we use the second-order derivatives (SOD) of the gravitational potential obtained from processing the GOCE data to recover regionally the gravity anomalies. 2013) derived respective expressions for a spherical harmonic synthesis. A theoretical part is followed by numerical experiments. The studies of the third-order gravitational tensors were addressed also by Šprlák et al. Functional relation The SOD and TOD components of the gravitational potential can be used to recover the gravity anomalies at sea level (or another reference surface). 4  (1)  Txz  R  cos     4   K1  r .  is the surface integration 456 Stud. Geophys. (4) n 1 r  r2 where  and  are the polar coordinates. which parameterize the gravitational field at a chosen reference surface. i. Eshagh. 2003. and from the TOD components we selected: Tzzz. Sharifi et al. (2016). In fact.    np Pn  cos  .    sin   g d . 2010a) R Tzz   K0  r . 1 . Geod. For the inversion of the SOD components. Since the radial components comprise most of the gravitational signal. Tyzz. 1n   n  2  n . Tyyz and Txyz. the system of discretized integral equations is solved so that the SOD and TOD data observed at satellite attitudes are converted to unknown values.. We then repeat the same computation for the third-order derivatives (TOD) of the gravitational potential and compare the accuracy of both methods. Txxz. 2009. M..e. between the computation and integration points. Fukushima (2012. 2. Txzz. we investigated the following SOD components: Tzz. 61 (2017) . (2016). Txz and Tyz.   Tyz (2)       2n  1 K p  r. THEORY A regional recovery of the gravity anomalies from the higher-order terms is conveniently defined by means of the extended Stokes’ integral formula. Here we summarize the most fundamental definitions.   g  d . SGG data collected using a pair of satellites and developed the effect of higher-order gravitational tensors in terms of a Taylor series. p = 0. the behavior of integral kernels is studied in context of a regional gravity recovery. 2. Šprlák and Novák (2016) and Ghobadi-Far et al. Following this concept.1. After giving a brief recapitulation of theoretical models and a least-squares estimation principle.and third-order derivatives of the Earth’s gravitational potential. the spherical distance and azimuth respectively.

 . three combinations satisfy the Laplace equation in the mass-free space domain.and third-order gravitational tensors … domain. On inversion of the second. n  0  r  n 1     R n  4  2 n  1 n  2  n  3  K*  r. By analogy with the SOD components. Tyzz. n4  cos  2    R   2 n  1 n  3       Pn . Tzzz. Txzz. 2009). 61 (2017) 457 . g  is the gravity anomaly at the integration point (and the reference surface). and Pn is the Legendre polynomial of degree n.1  cos  sin    for Tyzz . where H and V denote horizontal and vertical components respectively.   g  d .1  cos  cos    for Txzz . 27 components. 0  cos  for Tzzz . Tyyz and Txyz were utilized for the inversion. z  Txx  Tyy  Tzz   0 . specifying four HHH components. Šprlák and Novák (2015) derived the integral formulas for these components in terms of the extended Stokes' integral formula as follows  Tzzz     Txzz   Tyzz  1   K *  r .  4 R 2  (6)  Txxz  T   zzy  T   xzy  The integral kernels K * defined in Eq. Geophys. 2015).        Pn . namely    x  Txx  Tyy  Tzz   0 . Šprlák and Novák. The TOD of gravitational potential comprise. Casotto and Fantino.. (5) The components of the third-order gravitational tensor can then be divided into four groups. . (6) read    R n  4  2 n  1 n  1 n  2  n  3    Pn . two HVV components and one VVV component of the gravitational curvature (cf. R is the Earth’s mean radius. in total. we used only the TOD components that contain at least one radial-derivative element. Geod. but only 10 of them are sufficient for a representation of the third-order gravitational tensor. Moreover. because they are symmetric with respect to each other (cf. 0  cos  n  0  r  2  n  1  for Txxz . y  Txx  Tyy  Tzz   0 . r is the geocentric radius of the computation point. (7) n  0  r  n 1  n4   R  2 n  1 n  1 n  2  n  3    Pn . 2  cos   2 n  0 r  n 1 Stud. Then. d is the surface integration element. Txxz. n  0  r  1 n     R n  4  2 n  1 n  2  n  3    Pn . three HHV components.

(8) x   x u  1   g  R . the gravity anomalies) yields the (discretized) Fredholm’s integral equation of the first kind.  n  0  r  2  n  1 where Pn . l   l n 1   Tij for SOD.e. 2  cos  (7)  2 n  0 r  n 1  n4   R  2 n  1 n  3     Pn . i  cos  is the associated Legendre function of degree n and order i.  (9)  K p  r. u is the number of estimated parameters. If the number of unknown parameters is the same as the number of input data. Estimation principle The integral equations are discretized according to the spatial resolution of SGG data (i.2. Tyz . . l is the vector of observations. k :  x . M. j . the result is found by solving the system of normal 458 Stud. i .     . Tijk for TOD  n 1 . 2. E    is the statistical expectation.  .  1  K *  r . u 1   E   T   02 W 1 .e. . Tzz .A. z . (8).  R  cos    p  1 . A   A n  u   . x is the vector of estimated parameters (i.e.    R n  4  2 n  1 n  1 n  2  n  3     Pn . Sharifi et al.. the inverse solution is found directly by solving the system of observation equations in Eq.. Txz .. (6) with respect to quantities which parameterize the solution (i.        Pn .  cos  2    R  n  4  2 n  1 n  3   K*  r. (7) can be found in Šprlák and Novák (2015). y .sin  2  for Txyz . 0  cos  n  0  r  2  n  1  for Tyyz .e. the gravity anomalies).  is the vector of the observation errors. Geod. and n is the number of observations..  E     0 . discretization based on the input data resolution) and a desirable spatial resolution of the result (i. The closed-form formulae of the kernels in Eq. 2  cos  .  02 is the a priori variance factor (set equal to 1). W is the weight matrix of observations. Geophys. 61 (2017) .   for TOD  2 R 2  where A is the design matrix of discretized integral equations. This linear relation is used to determine the regional gravity filed from satellite data. By this discretized forms. discretization based on a chosen resolution of estimated parameters).   4  sin    p  0 .. Since the number of estimated parameters is typically less than the number of input data. the integral equations can be written in the following vector-matrix notation for the Gauss-Markov’s estimation model l  ε  Ax . The discretization of the expression in Eq.  p   for SOD .

The regularization is then reduced to only find the regularization parameter. 1. and finally approaching zero value after reaching a certain spherical distance. In numerical studies we address a regional recovery of the gravity anomalies by using simulated satellite data at mean satellite altitude (250 km). 3. Stud. As seen in Fig. A determination of the regularization parameter also depends on the purpose of study. Eshagh (2011) Fig. Eshagh (2011) demonstrated that the system of normal equations is ill-conditioned and its solution is very sensitive to existing errors in observed data. further increases (in absolute sense) with the spherical distance. For the most simplistic case. NUMERICAL STUDIES To establish the data-area extension we begin with investigating the spatial behavior of integral kernels used for a regional inversion. the isotropic component of integral kernels TVH. 61 (2017) 459 . Geophys. It is worth mentioning that Wolf (2007) considered also the azimuthal behavior of SOD kernels. The overestimation yields too smooth solution.1. we investigated only the spatial kernel behavior with respect to the spherical distance. 1. THHV and THVV equals zero for  = 0. the regularization matrix is set to be the identity matrix. 3.and third-order gravitational tensors … equations. while the underestimation of the regularization parameter magnifies a higher- frequency contribution. On inversion of the second. Singularities of the SOD kernels for the spherical distance approaching zero were already investigated by Eshagh (2009) and Eshagh and Ghorbannia (2014). The behavior of isotropic part of the SOD and TOD kernels is illustrated in Fig. Integral kernels behavior Since the most significant portion of the distant-zone contribution depends on a behavior of the isotropic component of integral kernels. To stabilize the ill-posed problem.. which is mainly attributed to data noise rather than real signal in input data. we applied Tikhonov’s (1977) regularization. 1. so the regional inversion provides a realistic solution. Isotropic kernel behavior of: a) the second-order derivatives and b) third-order derivatives. while Šprlák and Novák (2015) extended such study also for TOD kernels. This parameter should be estimated optimally. Geod. We solved this over-determined system by applying a least-squares approach.

The non-singular forms presented by Eshagh (2009) were used to simulate the SOD data. As consequence. M. Geod.5 data-sampling intervals. and demonstrated that data distributed around the computation point (where kernel reaches maxima) have more significant contribution than data in the nearest vicinity of the computation point. because beyond this spherical distance. As seen in Fig.A.4 and 0. 2010) coefficients complete to a spherical harmonic degree 359 and the GRS80 (Moritz. a bell-shape kernel. while the TOD data were simulated according to Du et al. 0. We can see that all investigated types of kernels have such behavior. As seen from the behavior of integral kernels in Fig.5 mGal. The regional maps of the simulated SOD and TOD data and the gravity anomalies are shown in Fig. Geophys. These computations were realized on four different spherical grids. 1.. these kernels are more localized.e. (2015). 0. 2 and their statistical summary is given in Table 1. The gravity anomalies generated from the EIGEN-51C coefficients (up to degree 359) were used to validate the results obtained from a regional inversion of the SOD and TOD data. we could conclude that the vertical components of SOD and TOD data are the most suitable for a regional gravity inversion due to two reasons. all integral kernels are very close to zero. The regional inversion was carried out by applying the conjugate-gradient method. Data acquisition The numerical experiment for a regional recovery of the gravity anomalies was selected at the study area in Fennoscandia (limited between latitudes 53 and 73 of the northern latitudes the 0 and 35 of the eastern longitudes). called this type of kernel behavior. meaning that most of the gravitational contribution comes from the closest vicinity around the computation point.3. The EIGEN-51C (Bruinsma et al. we used the data area extension of 10 with respect to the computation area.2. The 460 Stud. A quickly attenuating behavior of integral kernels is the most suitable for a regional inversion.3. Results We used the SOD and TOD data shown in Fig. the radial-component kernels are larger in magnitude than the mixed horizontal-vertical kernels. approximating zero value after reaching a certain spherical distance.. the data area required for a regional inversion could significantly be reduced. these kernels capture most of the gravitational signal. the distant-zone contribution). (2006). the radial-component kernels TVV and TVVV are much more localized than the mixed horizontal-vertical kernels TVH. 3. To minimize the truncation errors (i. 61 (2017) . The predicted gravity anomalies were compared with the EIGEN-51C gravity anomalies. Moreover. this data- area extension is sufficient. The most suitable kernels for a regional inversion obviously approach zero more quickly. 2000) normal gravity field parameters were used to generate the noise-free SOD and TOD data in the local north-oriented reference frame (LNOF) at the mean satellite attitude of 250 km. Eshagh and Ghorbannia (2014) demonstrated that in this case the spatial truncation errors in terms of the gravity disturbances are less than 2. 2 to estimate the gravity anomalies. Sharifi et al. 2007). From this analysis. We used the (zero-order) Tikhonov regularization and estimated the regularization parameter by applying the quasi-optimal technique (Hansen.. 3. Firstly. 1. The systematic bias due to applying the regularization was solved for by using the method of Xu et al.2. THHV and THVV. using 0. Secondly.

and third-order gravitational tensors … statistical summary of differences between the predicted and “true” gravity anomalies is given in Table 2. Fig.. generated from the EIGEN-51C coefficients (up to degree 359). Geod.and third-order derivative data and the gravity anomalies at the study area in Fennoscandia. Geophys. 2. 61 (2017) 461 . On inversion of the second. Stud. Regional maps of the second.

6 80 22.1 Table 2 Statistics of differences (values in mGal) between the predicted and true gravity anomalies (for four different data-sampling intervals).2 27 6.2 32 8.01 0.5 18 9 43 11.8 Txz 61 4.32 0.03 ∆g [mGal] 158.26 0.05 0.0 0.4 Tzz 29 1.3 43 11. M.09 Txz [109 s2] 0.8 462 Stud.8 77 22.9 29 6.8 Tzzz 12 7.9 Txzz 18 9 43 11.6 6.2 82 24..6 80 22.12 0.9 1.5 Txxz 49 0.9 0.and third-order derivative data and the gravity anomalies at the study area in Fennoscandia.8 Tyz 23 8.5 21 7.0 0.8 50 0.3 22 8.2 Tzz 30 1.6 60 21.04 Tyz [109 s2] 0.6 41 9. Tzz [109 s2] 0. Geod.14 Tyzz [1014 m1s2] 0.13 0.12 0.5 Txxz 48 0.09 Txzz [1014 m1s2] 0.4 19 6 35 8. Min Mean Max RMS Min Mean Max RMS Component 0.3 66 1.2 66 1 82 24.14 0.3 0.05 Txxz [1014 m1s2] 0. Statistics of the second.8 72 19.6 41 9. Component Min Mean Max St.8 41 11.0 60 21.01 0. Table 1.5 0. Geophys.6 48 0.5 Txz 62 4.14 0.7 74 19.2 32 8.1 Tzzz 13 7.5 79 22.5 21 8.5 21 7.5 17 8.5 13 7.6 Tyzz 18 6.8 Tyz 25 8.06 Txyz [1014 m1s2] 0.18 0.6 41 9.6 74 19.Dev.8 Txzz 17 9.6 66 0.8 62 5.03 0. 61 (2017) .8 30 1. Sharifi et al.8 32 1.07 Tyyz [1014 m1s2] 0.48 0.19 0.09 0.25 0.4 Txyz 68 0.7 62 21.5 26 8. RMS: root mean square error.44 0.4 72 19.4 22 7.0 0.0 62 4.4 25.7 62 21.A.1 129.22 0.19 Tzzz [1014 m1s2] 0.6 41 9.2 84 24.4 Txyz 67 0.5 20 3.2 84 24.47 0.2 31 8.23 0.4 19 6.01 0.5 Tyzz 17 6.8 29.02 0.3 Tyyz 65 1.5 Tyyz 66 1.7 67 0.8 29 6.14 0.17 0.

5 grid).. i. This RMS fit is about 17% worse than that obtained from the component Tzzz. This component is thus the most suitable for a regional recovery among the SOD and TOD satellite data. we can see that the best result in terms of the root mean square error (RMS) of differences between the predicted and true values of the gravity anomalies was attained from using the component Tzzz. However. better results were generally obtained when using more detailed grid (cf.. thus reduce the systematic bias. the gravitational signal is much more localized. Tyz and Tzz relative to Txzz. Geod. the RMS of differences is 6. Table 2). As seen in Table 2. the result obtained from inverting the component Tzz approximated the gravity anomalies with the RMS of differences 7. As seen in Fig.and third-order gravitational tensors … Eshagh (2010b. Tyzz and Tzzz. the RMS fit of the TOD components is in overall better when using the SOD components. while the long-to-medium wavelength gravity features are not captured closely enough. 2. 2011) demonstrated that the component Tzz provides the best regional gravity solution among the SOD components. 61 (2017) 463 . the TOD components Txxz and Tyyz are less biased than the SOD components Txz and Tyz. Txz.1 mGal better than that obtained from Tyz. In this case. On inversion of the second. especially at higher frequencies. the component Txzz yields the result of which the RMS fit is about 10.8 mGal (for 0.. while worsening the accuracy of a gravity field recovery at higher frequencies.3 mGal better than that obtained for Txz (for a 0. it is important to mention that the improvement of the RMS fit by using more detailed parameterization of the solution is limited by the actual resolution of Stud. Interestingly. This numerical finding revealed that the regional inversion of higher-order radial derivatives of the gravitational potential provide a better result in terms of the RMS fit. On the contrary. This finding emphasizes the fact that the radial components in SOD and TOD data are the most essential for an accurate regional recovery of the gravitational field.e. the lower-order radial derivatives of the gravitational potential preserve more signal at the long-to-medium wavelengths. We took into consideration pairs of the components Txz and Tyz and their respective higher-order radial derivatives Txzz and Tyzz. Our results in Table 2 confirmed this finding. As seen in Table 2. Moreover. To confirm this finding we further compared the results from a regional inversion of the mixed horizontal-vertical components of the SOD and TOD data. Similarly. The conclusions related with a systematic bias hold only for radial components. The comparison of results obtained from the regional inversion of SOD and TOD data also indicates that the solution obtained from the component Tzzz is systematically more biased than that from Tzz.5 mGal. This is evident by comparing the results obtained from a regional inversion of the SOD components Txz and Tyz and their respective higher-order components Txxz and Tyyz. In contrast. such conclusions do not hold for horizontal components. adding higher-order horizontal derivatives does not necessary improve results.5 grid). especially at a higher-frequency part of the investigated gravitational spectrum than the component Tzz. As seen in Table 2. but typically magnify the systematic bias due to the fact that for the higher-order radial derivatives. The component Tzzz preserves more information. Geophys. The higher-order radial derivatives of the gravitational potential thus provide better result in terms of the RMS fit. the RMS fit from a regional inversion of Tyzz is about 1. However.

Both results revealed the same general aspects.. and Sansó F. 61 (2017) . introduced much larger systematic bias than that obtained when inverting the SOD component Tzz. J. In: Study of the Gravity Field Determination Using Gradiometry and GPS. the result does not improve by adding the one-order higher horizontal component to either vertical or horizontal components of the gravitational-gradient tensor. 1990. The Netherlands. 1999. Final Report. ESA Contract 9877/92/F/FL. M. Dyn. Regional recovery of the gravity field from satellite gravity gradiometer and gravity vector data using collocation. CONCLUSIONS We have utilized the second. Geod. while the TOD component reproduces more realistically the higher frequencies of gravitational spectrum.C. European Space Agency. This was explained by the fact that most of the gravitational signal is comprised in its radial component. 464 Stud.. 2002. The higher-order radial derivatives thus generally provide better solution in terms of the root mean square error (RMS) fit. Sharifi et al. Chem. Noordwijk. The regional recovery was performed using the simulated and real SOD data and the near-real TOD data. 100(B11). Such simple procedure was used instead of removing the long-wavelength part of the gravitational field in order to see how the whole investigated gravitational spectrum affects the results. Regional recovery of the gravity field from SGG and SST/GPS data using collocation. 24. References Albertella A. however. and Tscherning C. Simulation of regional gravity field recovery from satellite gravity gradiometer data using collocation and FFT.and third-order derivatives of the extended Stokes’ integral formula to define the functional relations between the second-order derivatives (SOD) and third-order derivatives (TOD) of the gravitational potential with the gravity anomalies. The reason is that the SOD component captures more signal at the long-to-medium wavelengths of the gravitational field. Astron.. In our case..C.A. the spatial resolution of the recovered gravity field should be more or less the same as the resolution of GOCE data (i. Geophys. 1993. 115. 2200922015. Arabelos D. Gravity field recovery from airborne gradiometer data using collaction and taking into account correlated errors. Arabelos D. On the contrary. The distant-zone contribution was reduced by extending the data area by 10 with respect to the study area. A regional inversion of the TOD component Tzzz.C. 83. Geod. Phase 1. 1925.. We then applied these functional relations in the regional gravity recovery and compared their performance by means of resulting accuracy and bias. Arabelos D.. Res. 363382. and Tscherning C.C.. Celest. Arabelos D. input data. Bull. GOCE: The Earth gravity field by space gradiometry.e. Geophys. 64. and Tscherning C... Migliaccio F. Earth A. and Tscherning C. The most important finding of this study is the fact that the Tzzz data provide the best result in terms of the standard deviation fit.. Phys. Mech. 4. about 60 to 80 km). 1995. ESTEC..

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