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# Fundamentals

of
Mathematics
Lecture 3:
Mathematical
Notation

Guan-Shieng Fundamentals of Mathematics
Huang
Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation
References

Guan-Shieng Huang

National Chi Nan University, Taiwan

Spring, 2008

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Greek Letters I

Fundamentals
of
Mathematics 1 A, α, Alpha
Lecture 3:
Mathematical 2 B, β, Beta
Notation

Guan-Shieng 3 Γ, γ, Gamma
Huang
4 ∆, δ, Delta
References
5 E , , Epsilon
6 Z , ζ, Zeta
7 H, η, Eta
8 Θ, θ, Theta
9 I , ι, Iota
10 K , κ, Kappa
11 Λ, λ, Lambda
12 M, µ, Mu
2 / 22

ω. Upsilon 21 Φ. Tau 20 Υ. o. Pi References 17 P. π. ψ. Omega 3 / 22 . Phi 22 X . Rho 18 Σ. ν. Chi 23 Ψ. Sigma 19 T . σ. Psi 24 Ω. Omicron Guan-Shieng Huang 16 Π. Xi Mathematical Notation 15 O. Greek Letters II Fundamentals of 13 N. Nu Mathematics Lecture 3: 14 Ξ. τ . υ. χ. ξ. φ. ρ.

there exists) • Unique existential quantifier: ∃! 4 / 22 . p ⇔ q (p if and only if q) References • Exclusive-or: p ⊕ q. p + q • Universal quantifier: ∀ (for all) • Existential quantifier: ∃ (there is. p ⇒ q. p|q (p or q) Notation • Conditional: p → q. p · q. p ⊃ q (p implies q) Guan-Shieng Huang • Biconditional: p ↔ q. p&q (p and q) Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical • Disjunction: p ∨ q. Logic I Fundamentals of • Conjunction: p ∧ q. p + q.

Logic II Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation Guan-Shieng • p → q ≡ ¬p ∨ q Huang • ¬(p ∨ q) ≡ ¬p ∧ ¬q. ¬(p ∧ q) ≡ ¬p ∨ ¬q References • ¬∀x P(x) ≡ ∃x ¬P(x). ¬∃x P(x) ≡ ∀x ¬P(x) • ∀x ∃y P(x. y ) 6≡ ∃y ∀x P(x. y ) in general • p ⊕ q ≡ (p ∧ ¬q) ∨ (¬p ∧ q) 5 / 22 .

Set Theory I Fundamentals of Mathematics • Empty set: ∅. an } Guan-Shieng defining predicate: S = {x| P(x)} where P is a predicate Huang recursive description References • N: natural numbers Z: integers R: real numbers C: complex numbers • Two sets A and B are equal if x ∈ A ⇔ x ∈ B. . {} Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation • roster: S = {a1 . . A ⊆ B: ∀x [x ∈ A ⇒ x ∈ B] • |A|: the cardinality of A (size of A) (We will discuss infinite sets in a latter lecture) |A ∪ B| = |A| + |B| − |A ∩ B| for finite sets 6 / 22 . a2 . . .

it uses the same notation {. b)| a ∈ A and b ∈ B} (the Cartesian product) • A or Ac : U − A where U is the universe (the complement) • A − B = A\B = {x| x ∈ A but x 6∈ B} (set difference) • P(A) or 2A : the set of all subsets of A (the power set) |A| < |P(A)| for all sets 7 / 22 . Set Theory II Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical • multiset: counts the duplication of each element Notation (Unfortunately. . .}) Guan-Shieng T Huang • i∈I A = {x| x ∈ Ai for all i ∈ I } S References • i∈I A = {x| x ∈ Ai for some i ∈ I } • A × B: {(a.

T2 ⊆ B f (S1 ∪ S2 ) = f (S1 ) ∪ f (S2 ) f (S1 ∩ S2 ) ⊆ f (S1 ) ∩ f (S2 ) f (S1 ) ⊇ f (S1 ) f −1 (T1 ∪ T2 ) = f −1 (T1 ) ∪ f −1 (T2 ) f −1 (T1 ) = f −1 (T1 ) f −1 (f (S1 )) ⊇ S1 f (f −1 (T1 )) ⊆ T1 8 / 22 . surjection (onto). bijection (one-to-one and onto) References • Let S1 . S2 ⊆ A and T1 . Functions I Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: • f : A → B (f maps to B) Mathematical Notation y = f (x) written as f : x 7→ y Guan-Shieng Huang • injection (one-to-one).

ln • lgk n. log. lg∗ n 9 / 22 . We want to count the number of Notation functions from A to B Guan-Shieng Huang 1 all: nm 2 injection: P(n. lg(k) n. Pn m) = n(n  − 1) · · · (n − m + 1) if n ≥ m References 3 bijection: j=0 (−1)j nj (n − j)m if m ≥ n • lg. g : B → C are both bijection ⇒ (g ◦ f )−1 = f −1 ◦ g −1 of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical • Let |A| = m. Functions II Fundamentals • f : A → B. |B| = n.

Functions III Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: • χS : U → {0. indicator function) Notation Guan-Shieng 1 χA∩B = χA χB Huang 2 χA∪B = χA + χB − χA χB 3 χA = 1 − χA References 4 χA4B = χA + χB − 2χA χB 5 χA→B = 1 − χA + χA χB 6 χA↔B = 1 − χA − χB + 2χA χB 7 χA χA = χA Example |A∪B ∪C | = |A|+|B|+|C |−|A∩B|−|A∩C |−|B ∩C |+|A∩B ∩C | 10 / 22 . 1} where χS (x) = 1 iff x ∈ S Mathematical (characteristic function.

E ). Binary Relations I Fundamentals of A subset R of A × B or A × A. b) ∈ E iff aRb • equivalence relation: 1 reflexivity: a ∼ a 2 symmetry: a ∼ b =⇒ b ∼ a 3 transitivity: a ∼ b and b ∼ c =⇒ a ∼ c • equivalence class: [a] := {b| b ∼ a} 11 / 22 . Mathematics Lecture 3: • reflexivity: aRa Mathematical Notation symmetry: aRb =⇒ bRa Guan-Shieng asymmetry: aRb =⇒ b 6Ra Huang antisymmetry: aRb and bRa =⇒ a = b References transitivity: aRb and bRc =⇒ aRc • graph representation: G = (V . V = A and (a.

Binary Relations II Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: • binary operator on equivalence classes: Mathematical Notation 1 compatible: a ◦ b ∼ c ◦ d if a ∼ c and b ∼ d where ◦ is a Guan-Shieng binary operator Huang • closure: the closure of a relation R with respect to a References property P the minimum relation S (if exists) that contains R and has property P Example • reflexive closure • transitive closure 12 / 22 .

i. a mod d) if b 6= 0 13 / 22 .e. d: divisor. Number Theory I Fundamentals of The following variables are all integers. Then References a = dq + r where 0 ≤ r < |d| has unique solution q and r . (a: dividend. 1 and itself. Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical • a|b (divisibility) Notation There exists k such that b = ak. Guan-Shieng Huang • division theorem: Given integers a and d 6= 0. b) = gcd(b. • exactly divide: p k k n iff p k |n but p k+1 6 |n • congruence: a ≡ b (mod n) iff n|a − b • Euclidean Algorithm: gcd(a. r : remainder) r = a mod d • prime: A positive integer that has exact two positive divisors. q: quotient.

Guan-Shieng Huang • p|ab iff p|a or p|b where p is a prime References Proof. Hence 1 = px + ay for some integers x and y . The Mathematics Lecture 3: equation n = ax + by has integral solutions x and y iff Mathematical Notation gcd(a. ( =⇒ ) If p 6 |a. b)|n. then gcd(p. Number Theory II Fundamentals of • Extended Euclidean Algorithm: Given n. a. a) = 1. n) = 1 (multiplicative) • ap−1 ≡ 1 (mod p) (Fermat) aφ(m) ≡ 1 (mod m) if a ⊥ m (Euler) 14 / 22 . m) = 1} φ(mn) = φ(m)φ(n) if gcd(m. • Euler’s totient function: φ(m) = |Φ(m)| where Φ(m) = {a| 1 ≤ a ≤ m and gcd(a. and b. ∴ b = bpx + aby =⇒ p|b.

character. y ∈ Σ∗ . Formal Language I Fundamentals of • alphabet Σ: any set of symbols Mathematics Lecture 3: a ∈ Σ: letter. L ∈ 2Σ A language is finite iff |L| is finite • operations on strings: x.e. i. a ∈ σ 1 concatenation: xy 2 reverse: x R := ay R if x = ya. symbol Mathematical Notation • string over Σ: x ∈ Σ∗ Guan-Shieng Huang : the empty string ∗ References • language: any set of strings over Σ. x 0 :=  15 / 22 . R =  3 repeat: x k := xx k−1 if k ≥ 1..

etc 4 Kleene’s star: A∗ := k≥0 Ak S • membership problem (or recognition problem): to determine if x ∈ L for language L. 16 / 22 . B ⊆ Σ∗ Guan-Shieng Huang 1 product: AB := {xy | x ∈ A and y ∈ B} References 2 repeat: Ak := {x k | x ∈ A}. intersection. A0 := {} 3 union. Formal Language II Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation • operations on languages: A.

1] such that References 1 Pr(Ω) S∞= 1 P∞ 2 Pr( k=1 Ak ) = k=1 Pr(Ak ) where Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ for i 6= j • discrete random variable: a function X : Ω → Z • independent: 1 on events: two events: Pr(A ∩ B) = Pr(A) Pr(B). A2 . . An : Pr(Aj1 ∩ Aj2 ∩ · · · ∩ Ajk ) = Pr(Aj1 ) Pr(Aj2 ) · · · Pr(Ajk ) for any indices 1 ≤ j1 ≤ · · · ≤ jk ≤ n where 2 ≤ k ≤ n 17 / 22 . . Discrete Probability I Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: • sample space: Ω all possible outcomes of experiments Mathematical Notation • event: any subset of Ω Guan-Shieng Huang • probability measure P. . . more than two events A1 . Pr: a function from 2Ω to [0.

’s X and Y .v. B2 . . defined for |t| ≤ 1 2 moment generating function: ψ(t) = E (e tX ) 3 characteristic function (Fourier transform): χ(t) = E (e itX ) 18 / 22 . . y ∈ Z Guan-Shieng more than two r. Bn . Xn ∈ Bn ) = Pr(X1 ∈ B1 ) · · · Pr(Xn ∈ Bn ). .v. X2 . . y ∈ Y ) = Pr(x ∈ X ) Pr(y ∈ Y ) for all x. . . References Pr(X1 ∈ B1 . E (XY ) = E (Y )E (Y ) when X and Y are independent • generating function: 1 probability generating P function: φ(t) = E (t X ) = k Pr(X = k)t k . . Discrete Probability II Fundamentals of 2 on random variables: Mathematics Lecture 3: two r.v. .v. . P • expectation of an r. X : E (X ) = k Pr(X = k) k E (X + Y ) = E (X ) + E (Y ) for any r. .’s X and Y : Mathematical Notation Pr(x ∈ X . .’s X1 . . Xn : for any intervals Huang B1 .

x (Newton) • chain rule: dz dz dy dx = dy dx where y = f (x). z = g (y ) d 2f • dx 2 = ÿ = f 00 (x) dx R R • integration by substitution: ydx = y du du 19 / 22 . ẋ (Isaac Huang Newton) References R • integral: fdx (Leibnitz). Calculus Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation dy Guan-Shieng • derivative: dx = f 0 (x) (Gottfried Leibnitz).

D (500). V (5). . . 20 / 22 . C (100). X (10). M (1000). V̄ (5000). L (50). Numeral Systems I Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation Guan-Shieng Huang Wiki References • Roman numerals: I (1). .

Useful Links Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation • Merriam-Webster Dictionary Link Guan-Shieng Huang • Wikipedia Link References Wikipedia • typesetting of mathematical notation Wiki • mathematical symbols Wiki • ISO 31-11 Wiki 21 / 22 .

Handbook of Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics. References I Fundamentals of Mathematics Lecture 3: Mathematical Notation Guan-Shieng Huang References K. http://wikipedia.org/. Rosen (editor). CRC Press LLC. Wikipedia. 22 / 22 . H. 2000.