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mammals Proposition says something about S but does not state

Syllogisms anything about P

Syllogisms are arguments that take several parts, typically with two 7 Syllogism Examples Correct Syllogism:
statements which are assumed to be true (or premises) that lead to a Major Premise: All mammals are warm-blooded animals.Minor Premise:
conclusion. This takes the general form: No lizards are warm-blooded animals.Conclusion: Therefore, no lizards
are mammals.Major Premise: All humans are mortal.Minor Premise: All
Major premise: A general statement. Greeks are human.Conclusion: Therefore, all Greeks are
Minor premise: A specific statement. mortal.Descartes’ Syllogism (correct)Major Premise: Existence has to
Conclusion: based on the two premises. be true if one is thinking.Minor Premise: I am thinking.Conclusion: I
think, therefore, I am.
There are three major types of syllogism:
8 Syllogisms can be Valid or Invalid (reasoning in
 Conditional Syllogism: If A is true then B is true (If A then B).
incorrect order) AND
 Categorical Syllogism: If A is in C then B is in C. True or False (reasoning from a faulty major premise)If a syllogism is
 Disjunctive Syllogism: If A is true, then B is false (A or B). both true and valid then it is said to be sound
Also of note for syllogisms is:
9 Examples of Faulty Syllogisms
 Categorical Propositions: Statements about categories. FALSE Syllogism (not TRUE -- false major premise)Major Premise:
 Enthymeme: a syllogism with an incomplete argument. Blondes have more fun Minor Premise: Mary is blonde; Jane is
brunette Conclusion: Mary has more fun than Jane.INVALID Syllogism
 Modus Ponens: If X is true then Y is true. X is true.
(not VALID – order of reasoning is incorrect):Major Premise: All dogs
Therefore Y is true.
eat meat Minor Premise: Bob (a human) eats meat Conclusion: Bob is
 Modus Tollens: If X is true then Y is true. Y is false. a dog.
Therefore X is false.
 Set Theory: The basics of overlapping groups. 10 Corrections Syllogism One: Syllogism Two:
Syllogisms are particularly interesting in persuasion as they include The first faulty syllogism proceeds from a FALSE major premise and
assumptions that many people accept which allow false statements therefore can be thrown out entirely.Syllogism Two:Major Premise: All
or (often unspoken) conclusions to appear to be true. There is a dogs eat meat Minor Premise: Rover is a dog.Conclusion: Therefore,
difference between truth and validity in syllogisms. A syllogism can be Rover eats meat.
true, but not valid (i.e. make logical sense). It can also be valid but not
11 Valid or invalid? True or False?
Example One:Major Premise: When it snows the streets get wet.Minor
Premise: The streets are getting wet.Conclusion: Therefore, it is
snowing.Example Two:Major Premise: If you buy a Ferrari, you will

1 Fun with Deductive Reasoning
instantly be popular.Minor Premise: Ed just bought a
Ferrari.Conclusion: Ed will achieve instant popularity.Example
Three:Major Premise: When the battery is dead, the car will not
Syllogisms Fun with Deductive Reasoning start.Minor Premise: The car will not start.Conclusion: Therefore, the
battery is dead.
3 What is a syllogism?A syllogism is a deductive argument comprising
three categorical propositions: a major premise, a minor premise and
12 Corrections: Valid and True
the conclusion. Categorical propositions have four standard forms:
Example One:Major Premise: When it snows, the streets get wet.Minor
Premise: It is snowing.Conclusion: Therefore, the streets are getting
A = All S are P wet.Example Two:Example Two proceeds from the beginning from a
FALSE major premise (Ferraris give instant popularity) and therefore
E = No S are P can be thrown out entirely.Example Three:Major Premise: When the
battery is dead, the car will not start.Minor Premise: The battery is
I = Some S are P dead.Conclusion: Therefore, the car will not start.

O = Some S are not P 13 Types of valid syllogisms
Modus Ponens (Affirming the antecedent)Modus Tollens (Denying the
4 In the mood The mood of a syllogism is defined by which of the forms consequent)Hypothetical Syllogism (Chain argument)Disjunctive
appear and where. So, for example:All M are P Some S are M Syllogism
Therefore, All S are P has the mood: AIA.
14 Modus Ponens If A then B A Therefore, B Examples:
5 Syllogism overview A categorical syllogism contains only three
If it’s spring, then the birds are chirping it’s spring.The birds are
categorical terms: a major term, minor term and middle term.The major
chirping.If a world government doesn’t evolve soon, then wars will
term appears as the predicate in the conclusion, and only once in the
continue to occur A world government isn’t going to evolve soon.Wars
major premise (i.e., the first premise).The minor term appears as the
will continue to occur
subject in the conclusion, and only once in the minor premise (i.e,. the
second premise).The middle term appears once in the major premise,
once in the minor premise, and once in the conclusion. 15 Modus Tollens If A then B Not B Not A Example:
If it’s spring then the birds are chirping The birds aren’t chirping
6 Distribution of terms A term is said to be distributed when all Therefore, it isn’t spring.
members of the class denoted by the term are affected by a
proposition.All S are PS is distributed; P is not distributed Example “All 16 Hypothetical Syllogism
cows are mammals” tells us something about cows but nothing about If A then B If B then C If A then C Example:If we successfully develop
nuclear fusion power, then power will become plentiful and cheap.If
power becomes cheap and plentiful, then the economy will flourish.If Minor premise: Johnny does not eat sweats
we successfully develop nuclear fusion power, then the economy will
flourish. everyday

17 Disjunctive Syllogism Conclusion: Therefore Johnny is not placing
A or B Not A B Example:Either Romney won in 2012 or Obama himself at risk for diabetes
did.Romney didn’t win Obama did win.
This conclusion is invalid because it is possible that
19 20 Syllogism no-no’s Syllogisms need to follow 6 rules in order to be Johnny does not eat sweats every day but does eats
valid. If they violate one of these rules then that syllogism commits a cake every day what also puts him at risk for
formal fallacy and is invalid diabetes.

21 Rule 1There needs to be three categorical terms and those terms
cannot vary in how they are used A fallacy of equivocation occurs when
a term is used in a different way within the course of an argument. So,
for example:The priest told me I should have faith.I have faith that my
son will do well in school this year.Therefore, the priest should be Disjunctive syllogisms
happy with me.“faith” is being used in two different ways in this
These syllogism types do not actually state that a certain
22 Rule 2The middle term of a valid syllogism is distributed in at least
one of the premises. The fallacy of the undistributed middle occurs premise (major or minor) is correct, but is does states that one
when this doesn't happen. For instance, the middle term (furry animals)
in this syllogism All dogs are furry animals Some cats are furry of the premises is correct. The basic type for this syllogism is:
animals Therefore,some dogs are cats isn't distributed, and the
argument is clearly fallacious Either A or B is true, but they can’t be true at the same time.

23 Rule 3 If a term is distributed in the conclusion it must be
distributed in at least one of the premises All Protestants are
Christians No Catholics are Protestants Therefore, no Catholics are
Christians doesn't work, because the term "Christians" is distributed in Major premise: Either the meeting is at school
the conclusion, but not in the (major) premise.
or at home.
24 Rule 3The fallacy of illicit major occurs (as above) when the major
Minor premise: The meeting is not at home.
term is distributed in the conclusion, but not in the (major) premise.The
fallacy of illicit minor occurs when the minor term is distributed in the Conclusion: Therefore the meeting is at
conclusion, but not in the (minor) premise
26 Rule 4 A valid syllogism can't have two negative premises
The fallacy of exclusive premises occurs when a syllogism has two
premises that are negative.A negative premise is either an "E"
statement ("No S are P") or an "O" statement ("Some S are not P"), and The conclusion of the syllogism type may be given, however
if you've got two of them in your premises, your syllogism isn't valid.
most of the times the conclusion can be drawn based up on
27 Rule 5The conclusion of a syllogism must be negative, if either own conclusions.
premise is negative The fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion
from a negative premise occurs if this rule is violated. Similarly, if a
conclusion is negative, then one of the premises must be negative Categorical syllogisms
(which rule, if broken, constitutes the fallacy of drawing a negative
conclusion from an affirmative premise).
The third and most commonly used type of syllogisms are the
28 Rule 6No particular conclusion can be drawn from two universal
premises This is arguably the most counterintuitive of the rules for categorical syllogisms. The basic for this syllogism type is: if A
validity. An existential fallacy occurs whenever a particular conclusion
is a part of C, then B is a part of C (A and B are members of C).
appears with two universal premises (for example, All M are P, All S are
M, Therefore, some S are P).
An example of this syllogism type will clarify the above:
Conditional syllogisms

Conditional syllogisms are better known as hypothetical Major premise: All men are mortal.
syllogisms, because the arguments used here are not always
valid. The basic of this syllogism type is: if A is true then B is Minor premise: Socrates is a man.
true as well. An example will follow to elucidate the former.
Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
Major premise: If Johnny is eating sweets every

day, he is placing himself at risk for diabetes.
Both premises are known to be valid, by observation or

historical facts. Because the two premises are valid, the

conclusion must be valid as well. Be aware that this conclusion

is based on logical reasoning and thus it doesn’t have to

represent the “truth” always.

Next, these categorical syllogisms can be divided into 4 kinds

of categorical propositions which will be explained separately:
All kittens are playful

Some pets are kitten

Some pets are playful

No homework is fun

Some reading is homework

Some reading is not fun

No beautiful food is flattering

All cakes are flattering

No cakes are beautiful

No lazy people pass exams

Some students pass exams

Some students are not lazy

All informative things are useful

Some websites are not useful

Some websites are not informative