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Computer Aided Manufacturing


Student: Teacher:
Dragos Muntean Dorel Ananiei
641 DA

1. Model 3D of the part – Short presentation , material

The 3D model in discussion would be the Oscar statue.

Short Presentation

The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández.
Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl)
sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies
were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in
favor of britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel
silver, and finally, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars
were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited
recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones. The only addition
to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original
Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia,
Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy
and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015, approximately 50 Oscars were
made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company. It
takes between three and four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes.

In 2016 the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing
manufacturing duties to Rock Tavern, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art
Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the new statuettes
will retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze
from 3d printed ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in 24-karat
gold by Brooklyn, New York-based Epner Technology. The time required to produce
50 such statuettes is roughly 3 months. R.S. Owens is expected to continue
producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars.

Material Characteristics

The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze.
Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of britannia metal, a pewter-
like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold. Due
to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for
three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster
figures for gold-plated metal ones.

Britannia Metal

Britannia metal (also called britannium or Britannia ware) is a specific type of pewter
alloy, favoured for its silvery appearance and smooth surface. The composition is
approximately and typically 92% tin, 6% antimony, and 2% copper.
Britannia metal is typically spun rather than cast., and melts at 255 degrees Celsius.

Physical Properties Metric

Density 7.30 g/cc

Thermal Properties Metric

Melting Point 255 °C

nameplates. Yield 124 . etching. optical parts. Sb 5% Copper. Fabricated by blanking.69 g/cc Mechanical Properties Metric Tensile Strength. Available as flat products and wire. shearing. hollow ware. roll threading and knurling. spinning. stamping and swaging.0 GPa Thermal Properties Metric . etching stock.896 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength. Physical Properties Metric Density 8.Component Elements Properties Metric Antimony. heading and upsetting.524 MPa Elongation at Break 50 % Modulus of Elasticity 120 GPa Poissons Ratio 0. Excellent cold workability. forming and bending. slide fasteners. squeezing. platers' bars. Cu 2% Tin. 338 . Sn 93 % Nickel silver Excellent corrosion resistance.30 Machinability 20 % Shear Modulus 46. drawing. screws. Applications: rivets.

It is usually associated with silver and often with mercury. Gold is also found in tellurides and ore containing quartz where it is either openly visible or enclosed in particles of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite.68.5 .CTE.300 °C Thermal Conductivity 45. Pb <= 0. The same resistance to oxidation and other harsh chemical environments leads to its use in industrial applications such as labware and electrical contacts.10 % Manganese. total <= 0. and arsenopyrite. linear 16.5 % Iron.11 % Other. pyrite. Although it does not typically form oxides.50 % Nickel. leading to its use in jewelry and coinage.0 . Therefore gold does not tarnish. it will form compounds with other metals and is rarely found in its pure form. Cu 63.4 µm/m-°C @Temperature 20.0 °C Melting Point <= 1020 °C Liquidus 1020 °C Component Elements Metric Properties Copper.50 % Zinc.25 % Lead. Mn <= 0. Fe <= 0. Ni 9. a naturally occurring gold-silver alloy. the metal is called electrum.0 . pyrrhotite. When the silver content is a high.0 W/m-K @Temperature 20. Zn 25 % 24-karat gold Gold is a noble metal and does not react with oxygen under ambient conditions. .

90277 Å 1.68 V Electronegativity 2.45 g/A/h Equivalent .1013 bar @Temperature 2383 °C 1.4 Ionic Radius 0.850 Å 1.86378 Å 0.01013 bar @Temperature 2036 °C 0.001013 bar @Temperature 1770 °C 0.9666 Atomic Number 79 Thermal Neutron Cross 99 barns/atom Section X-ray Absorption Edge 0.32 g/cc Vapor Pressure 0.013 bar @Temperature 2857 °C Chemical Properties Metric Atomic Mass 196. Physical Properties Metric Density 19.04028 Å Electrode Potential 1.37 Å Electrochemical 2.15344 Å 0.

133 J/g-°C @Temperature 227 °C . linear 14.00000220 ohm-cm Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7 µm/m-°C @Temperature 950 °C Specific Heat Capacity 0.42e-7 Thermal Properties Metric Heat of Fusion 66.0 .Mechanical Properties Metric Hardness.42 Shear Modulus 27.2 GPa Electrical Properties Metric Electrical Resistivity 0.2 GPa Poissons Ratio 0.6 µm/m-°C @Temperature 250 °C 15.2 µm/m-°C @Temperature 500 °C 16.0 °C 0.2 J/g Heat of Vaporization 1738 J/g CTE. Vickers 25 Tensile Strength. 120 MPa Ultimate Elongation at Break 30 % Modulus of Elasticity 77.4 µm/m-°C @Temperature 20.128 J/g-°C @Temperature 25.100 °C 14.

142 J/g-°C @Temperature 627 °C 0.27 Visible (0-1) 0.163 J/g-°C @Temperature 1027 °C 0. 0.43 °C Boiling Point 2856 °C Optical Properties Metric Emissivity (0-1) 0.170 J/g-°C @Temperature 1063 °C Thermal Conductivity 301 W/m-K Melting Point 1064. 0.166 J/g-°C @Temperature 1127 °C 0.159 J/g-°C @Temperature 1227 °C 0. Au 100 % .040 @Temperature 100 °C Reflection Coefficient.50 0.85 Component Elements Metric Properties Gold.

. while the stand of the statue has lower roughness of 3 micrometers. The full body of the Oscar statue has a roughness of 1 micrometers.2 Technological Analyze form CAM point of view 2.1 Surface identification. Color code for surface roughness The part has 1108 different faces.


3 micrometers roughness 2. .1 micrometers roughness .2 Analyze of the geometrical feature .

Thus it can be divided in 5 different components: . Arms .The face . Stand The statue is also symmetrical if cut vertically in half.The feet Zebra shading analysis .The geometrical shape represent a human body standing on a podium. Head .Where he hold his blazer . The level of details is higher in three different places: . Torso . Legs . All the shapes and components are round the statue not having any straight edges or corners.

Surface angle .3 Surface integrity . Direction analysis 2.Wall thickness .

The consequences of changes to surface integrity are a mechanical engineering design problem. Wall thickness 3. for each part position. The initial stock piece is a bounding box. .The surface integrity of a workpiece or item changes the material's properties. Work piece definition. but the preservation of those properties are a manufacturing consideration.

Y.39 mm Initial stock 4.The dimensions of the bounding box are the following: X: 26. . Establish of part positioning The statue is positioned on X.26 mm Y: 68.10 mm Z: 17. I also defined another UCS that was on the same plane with the first one but in an opposite direction.on the UCS I defined.

there is a total of 6 different parts to be milled. representing the front and the back of the piece. .First of all I created three rectangles in order to divide the statue in three different parts. Taking in account that there are two UCS.

Establish the cutting tools .5.

5. In total I defined 3 cutters each one with it’s different characteristics.1 Geometrical characteristics of the tool. Cutters and holders list The geometrical characteristics of the tools FLAT08-H tool characteristics . tool body. For each different process there is a different cutter defined.

2 Cutting parameters for each tool for each cutting phase (roughing. and others) for the part material (formula. BALL04-H tool characteristics BALL02-H tool characteristics 5. values) .

BALL04-H tool characteristics The BALL04-H is used the re roughing procedures . FLAT08-H tool characteristics The FLAT08-H tool is used for the roughing procedures.

5.3 Holder definition I defined two different holders: . BALL02-H tool characteristics The BALL02-H tool is used for finishing the part.

6. . Machining phase for each part position (detail and justification of parameters) 6. while the smallest cutter used for finishing uses HOLDER1.1 Rough/ rerough The first procedure is a roughing one using the FLAT08-H tool. HOLDER1 HODER2 The FLAT08-H and the BALL04-H cutters use the Holder2.

Volumill Rough . For this procedure I used Volume Milling.First I selected the boundaries of the procedure as it can be seen in the photo below.

.In the geometry. I selected the boundaries and after I chose the tool.

The second procedure is the rerough using the BAL04-H tool. .

.6.2 Finishing The third and last procedure is the finishing using the BALL02-H tool.

For this procedure I changed the main selection to Surface Milling. Finish Mill All .

Considering that all the parts have the same type of surfaces the procedures remain the same for each one of them. Simulations of the procedures .

Postprocesing .7. NC file analysis .

8. Reports .