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Introduction To Biology (Biomolecules)
1. Life component (biochemical important molecule)
Those chemical components required for cellular activities. Those molecules can be
organic or inorganic.
(A) Organic compounds:
A chemical compound containing carbon is called organic compound. Carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are joining in the various combinations to form several
organic compounds. The organic compounds are macromolecules and
Micromolecules: those molecule having low molecular weight and simple in structure
are called micromolecule. For e.g. monosaccharides, fatty acids, lipids etc.
Macromolecules: those molecule having higher molecular weight and complex in
structure is called macromolecules..For e.g. polysaccharides, nucleic acid etc.
a. Carbohydrates
Carbon hydrogen and oxygen is the main constituent of the carbohydrates. Where
hydrogen and oxygen are present in the ratio of 2:1 as in water. Carbohydrate
divides in 3 types.
i) Monosaccharides: it is the simplest form of the carbohydrate. The general
formula is CnH2nOn. For e.g. glucose, fructose etc. they are soluble in water and
usually sweet in taste.
ii) Disaccharides:Disaccharides are formed by two molecules of the
monosaccharides. For e.g. maltose, sucrose, lactose. They are also soluble in
water and sweet in taste.
iii) Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are formed by the large number of monosaccharides and having
several million molecular weights. They are insoluble in water and not sweet in
taste. The common polysaccharides are starch, glycogen and cellulose. Starch is
the reserved food material in plant.

b. Proteins
Proteins are the macromolecules of amino acids. The amino acids are the building
blocks of protein. Several amino acids join together by the peptide bond to form a

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proteins hence the protein is also known as poly peptides. Protein found in every
part of the body. It mainly found in skin, muscles, and in glands. Proteins can be
classified into three types. They are
i) Simple protein: Proteins formed by amino acids only, e.g. albumin
ii) Conjugate protein: Protein which contain amino group as well as some prosthetic
group in addition, e.g. hemoglobin.
iii) Derived proteins: Those proteins formed due to other unbiological activities.
Such as denaturation. E.g. proteoses

c. Amino acids
Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. They are micromolecule having
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen group. Each amino acid is a nitrogenous compound
having an acidic carboxyl (-COOH) and a basic amino (-NH2)group. About 20
amino acids are occurring naturally. According to the body which synthesis amino
acid it can be divided into two types, i.e. essential and non-essential.
Essential protein Non-essential protein

1. These amino acids cannot besynthesized by 1. These amino acids can be synthesized by our
our body. body.
2. These amino acids must be supply through 2. These amino acid are abundant in our body.
3. These include glutamic acid, aspartic acids,
3. These include Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, glycine, tyrosine, arginine, ornithine, taurine,
threonine, valine. histidine, serine, proline, asparagine, alanine

d. Lipids
The lipids are an important constituents of the diet because of their high energy value
and also because of the fat soluble vitamins and the essential fatty acids found with
the fat of the natural foodstuffs.
The lipids are a heterogeneous group of compound related to fatty
acids and include fats, oils, waxes and other related substance. These are oily and
greasy organic substance, relatively insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents
like ether, chloroform and benzene. Thus, they are hydrophobic in nature. They are
classified into three types.
1. Simple lipids: these are ester of fatty acid with various alcohols.

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a. Fats and oils: these are ester of fatty acid with a trihydroxy alcohol, glycerol. A
fat is solid at ordinary room temperature whereas oil is liquid.
b. Waxes: these are esters of fatty acid with high molecular weight monohydroxy
2. Compound lipids: these are ester of fatty acids with alcohol and possess additional
groups also. i.e.
Glycolipids: carbohydrate and lipid
Phospholipid: phosphoric acid and lipid
Lipoprotein: lipid and protein
3. Derived lipids: these are the substance derived from simple and compound lipids
by hydrolysis. These includes fatty acids, alcohols, mono and di-saccharide etc. e.g.
Importance: It is a precursor molecule of many sex hormones like testosterone,
progesterone etc. It is not bad but not useful as well.

Function of Lipids
1. They are found abundantly in seeds as reserve food.
2. They make insulating membrane beneath the skin.
3. The soap can be made by the lipids by hydrolysis.

e. Nucleic Acids
The nucleic acid is the molecular repositories for genetic information and are jointly
referred to as the “molecules of heredity”. The structure of every protein, and ultimately
of every cell constitute, is a product of information programmed into the nucleotide
sequence of a cell’s nucleic acids. The nucleic acids have been the subject of
biochemical investigation since 1869 when F. Miescher, a 25-year old Swiss chemist,
isolated nuclei from pus cells.
Living organisms contain two types of nucleic acids in the form of DNA and RNA.
These are long chain macromolecules of nucleotide with high molecular weight.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): DNA is mainly found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cell,
but also found in mitochondria and chloroplast in little amount. It is formed by the end
to end polymerization of a large number of repeated units called nucleotides. Those

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nucleotides are formed by i) deoxy-ribose sugar ii) Phosphate and iii) nitrogenous
i) Deoxy-ribose sugar: It is a pentose sugar having 5 carbon atoms. Due to the
deoxyribose sugar it is called deoxyribose nucleic acid.
ii) Phosphate: the phosphate in the DNA is present as phosphoric acid (H3PO4).
iii) Nitrogenous Bases: the nitrogenous bases are of two types- Purine and pyrimidine.
Purine bases comprise mainly adenine (A) and guanine (G) while pyrimidine bases
comprise cytosine (C) and thymine (T).
Nucleoside: nitrogenous base + sugar
Nucleotide: nucleoside + phosphate

Watson and crick’s model of DNA
J.D. Watson and F. crick (1953) combined the physical and chemical bata generated
by early work and purposed a double helix model for DNA molecule. This model is
widely accepted. According to this model, the DNA molecule consists of two strands,
which are connected together by hydrogen bonds and helically twisted. Each step on
the one strand consists of a nucleotide of purine base which alternate with that of
pyrimidine base. Thus, a strand of a DNA molecule is a polymer of four nucleotide i.e.
A, G, T, C. the two strand join together to form double helix. Bases of two nucleotide
form hydrogen bond i.e. A combines with T by two H-bond (A=T) and G combines with
C by three hydrogen bond. However, the sequence of bonding is such that for every
A.T.G.C. On one strand there would be T.A.C.G. on the other strand. Therefore, the
two strands are complementary to each other. The two strands of double helix run in
antiparallel direction, i.e. they have opposite polarity.

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Fig: Structure of DNA (Watson and Crick Model)

The hydrogen bonds between the two strands are such that maintain a distance of
20A0. The double helix coils in right hand direction. The turning of double helix results
in the formation of a deep and wide groove called major groove. The major groove is
the site if bonding of specific protein. The distance between two strands forms a minor
groove. The DNA model also suggested a copying mechanism of the genetic material.
DNA replication is the fundamental and unique event underlying growth and
reproduction in all living organism ranging from the smallest viruses to the most
complex of all creatures including man. DNA replicates by semiconservative

Structure of RNA: The RNA is usually single stranded except viruses such as TMV,
yellow mosaic virus, reovirus etc. RNA is found both in the nucleus and in the
cytoplasm. The single strand of the RNA is folded either at certain regions or entirely
to form hairpin shaped structure. The RNA dose not possess equal purine-pyrimidine
ratio, as is found in the DNA.

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Fig: Structure of RNA.
Like DNA, the RNA is also the polymer of four nucleotides each one contains D-
ribose, phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base. The bases are two purines (A,G) and
two pyrimidines (C,U). Thyamine is not found in RNA. Pairing between bases occurs
as A-U and G-C.
If the RNA is involved in genetic mechanism, it is called genetic RNA as found in plant,
animal, and bacterial viruses. The DNA acts as genetic material and RNA follows the
order of DNA, In such cells the RNA dose not have genetic role. Therefore, it is called
non-genetic RNA. The non- genetic RNA is of three types:
1. m-RNA(messenger RNA): it constitutes about 5% - 10% of the total RNA present in
the cell, m-RNA carries the genetic information from DNA for Protein synthesis.
2. r- RNA(Ribosomal RNA): It makes about 80% of the total RNA in the cell. It is the
major component of ribosomal.
3. t RNA (Transfer RNA): it is also known as soluble RNA. It forms about 10% - 15%
of the total RNA. It used to transfer amino acid molecule to the site of protein synthesis.
A nucleotide is made up of three molecules. These are
a) Pentose sugar: the pentose sugar is ribose.
b) Nitrogenous bases: i) Purine = Adenine And Guanine ii) Pyrimidine=Cytosine And

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c) Phosphoric Acid

Minerals are the inorganic substances that are essential for the growth and
development of the living organism. Those minerals which are essential for the growth
and survival of organism are called essential elements. Some minerals are required in
high amount for the growth and are called macronutrient. The macronutrients are
calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, magnesium and sulphur. Some
minerals are required in small amount and they are called as micronutrient. The
micronutrients are iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, fluorine,
iodine and selenium.
Water (H2O):
Water is the mother liquor of all forms of life. It is the vital essence, miracle of nature,
and the great sustainer of life. The essentiality of water for living system is quite evident
a without water, there is no life. In human adult total body water accounts for about
70% of the lean body mass. In plant it makes about 70%-90% of the living matter of
active cells. In many hydrophytes and fruits, water appears in even high percentage.
A greater portion of water is found in free form that means the water which is available
for the metabolic process.
General properties of water:
1.Expansion on freezing: most substance decreases in volume and hence increases
in density as their temperature decrease. But in case of water, there is a temperature
at which its density exceeds that at higher or lower temperature. This temperature is
40C. In fact, water just above the freezing point is heavier than water at the freezing
point. Which make easier to live those organism at the bottom of the lake.
2. Uniquely high surface tension: like a stretched membrane, the surface of a liquid
tends to contract as much as possible. This phenomenon is called surface tension.
Water has the highest surface tension of 72.8 of any known liquid. And it is reason
why water rises to unusually high levels in narrow capillary tubes. This has great
significance in physiology.
3.High solvent power:water is a solvent for a great number of molecule which form
ionized solutions in water. It may, thus, be called a universal solvent which facilitates
chemical reaction both outside of and within biological systems.
4. Uniquely high heat capacity: There occurs a smaller temperature rise in water as
compared to most other substance, when a given amount of heat is applied. Thus,
water acts as a temperature buffer. It maintains its temperature more successfully than
most other substance.

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Function of water
i)Water is a universal solvent.
ii) It is used as a raw material in photosynthesis.
iii) It also helps in transpiration due to turgor pressure.
Iv) It also maintain the turgidity of cells and their organelles.

Cell Biology
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Cell: Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organism. Just as bricks is
unit structure of house.

Each cell is capable of performing a basic function of life. Such as reproduction,
respiration, excretion, growth, and so on.

All the life activates exhibited by living organisms are the combined action of these
cells. In unicellular organisms single cell perform all life activates. Hence cell is
considered as structural and functional unit of life.

Discovery of the cell:

1. In 1665, Robert Hooke identified a cell in a slice of cork. He observed many small,
hollow, Honey-comb like compartments.

2. In 1675, Antony van Leuwenhoek, such scientist observed green coloured body in
a cell of plant. It is name as chloroplast.

3. In 1831, Antony van Leeuwenhoek, such scientist observed green coloured body in
a cell of plant. It is name as chloroplast.

3. In 1831, Robert Brown observed a dense spherical body. It is name as nucleus.

4. In 1838, a German botanist, Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants are
composed of cells.

5. In 1839, the German zoologist Theodor Schwann came to the same conclusion
about animals

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The cell theory:

The combined views of Schleiden and Schwann led to the formulation of the cell

The cell theory is also known as the cell doctrine or cell principle. It state:
1.All living organisms’ are made up of cells and their products.

2. All cells arise from pre- existing cell.

3. Cells are the structural and functional unit of all living organisms.

4. Cell is hereditary cells.

5. All cells are basically alike in chemical composition and metabolic activities.

6. Life passes from one generation to other generation in the form of a living cell.

Exception of cell theory:

It is one of the most fundamental and universally applied theories except in few cases;

1. Virus is the living organism but it lacks the cellular organization.

2. Bacteria, blue green algae are prokaryotic and hence are without true cellular

3. Kollikar (1843)- He observed a jelly like substance named as cytoplasm.

4. Von Mon (1846) - He suggests that cytoplasm and nucleus are called by combine
named protoplasm.

5. Purkinje (1839)- Protoplasm (living content)


1. Unicellular organisms: Organisms which are made from just one cell are known
as unicellular organisms.

In a unicellular organism, the single cell performs all metabolic functions such growth,
respiration, digestion, etc.

2. Multicellular organisms: Organisms which are made from many cells are called
multicellular organisms.

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A different cell performs special function. For e.g.;

1. Neuron produces nerve impulse only.

2. Germ cells produce gametes only.


Cell is a microscopic mass of protoplasm surrounded by the cell membrane. The

1. Cell size: Smallest cell are those of micro-organism. They have the size of 0.1 - 0.5

# a unicellular eukaryotic cell - 1u- 1mm
#a cell of multicellular organism- 5-100um

#Human erythrocytes - 1-8um in diameter

#A striated muscle cell - 1-40mm long and 30-80 u in diameter.

# Bacterial cell- 1u-0.001mm

#Among plants- larger cell occur in algae

# Internodal cell of chara-1 - 10cm in length.

In general eggs are large sized cell.
#Human egg is slightly over 0.1mm or 100 um in diameter.

#Hen egg is 60x45mm

#Egg of Ostrich is 170x150mm in diameter.

2. Cell shape: Depending upon function needs of organism and environmental
condition the shape of cells vary widely. They may be spherical, oval, elongated,

Cylindrical, tubular, rod-like, polygonal, discoidal or irregular in shape.

There are two types of cell on the basis of cell organelles and organization of

1. Prokaryotic cell:

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Fig: Prokaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cell is primitive type of cell and it is found in blue green algae and bacteria.
A cell in which genetic material is not enclosed by a membrane to form and organized
nucleus but lies freely in the cytoplasm. Blue green algae and bacteria are
photoautrophs. Their photosynthesis thylakoid lies freely in cytoplasm but they are not
organized chloroplast.The photosynthetic thylakoid are sides of photosynthetic
lamellae.Certain lamellae structure known as mesosome which are found to carry on
respiration. Ribosome are found lying freely in cytoplasm and it has a sedimentation
coefficient of 70 and are known as 70s type. The cell lacks membrane bound cell
organelles like mitochondria, vacuole, Golgi body, centrosome, lysosome, plastids,
and endoplasmic reticulum.

Nucleus is not true i.e. there is no genetic material which is not enclosed a definite
membrane. The chromatin materials lying freely in center of cytoplasm in the form of
tangled mass.The DNA of prokaryotic cell is non-histone type and circular in nature.

Cell wall is non-cellulosic and it mainly contains carbohydrate and amino acids. It is
mainly made up of murein and peptidoglycan along with mumaric acid. Flagella are
present in some bacteria only and bacterial flagella are single stranded.

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2. Eukaryotic cell:

Fig: Eukaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell is advanced type of cell and found in algae, fungi, seed plants and
animals. They comprises all those cell which have well organized nucleus i.e.
chromatin materials enclosed by a definite nuclear envelop. Genetic material contains
DNA with histone protein to form well organized chromosomes. Membrane bound cell
organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria, chloroplast, lysome,
vacuole, etc. all is present. Lysosome are found lying freely in cytoplasm or associated
with endoplasmic reticulum. Cell wall if present cellulose .Respiration is carries out by
mitochondria and cytoplasm. The respiratory enzyme are present i.e. mitochondria
and cytoplasm and they are 80s type.


1. Cytoplasm:

The semi-fluid mass of the protoplasm excluding nucleus is called cytoplasm. It
contains a number of living and non- living substances inside them. The living

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substances inside the cytoplasm which are membrane bound are known as cell
organelles. The cell organelles are ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum), plastids, Golgi body,
lysosome, ribosome, mitochondria, etc. The non-living substances of cell are known
as cell inclusion which is non-membrane bound. They are formed as a result of
metabolism in the cell. They are also known as ergastic substances.

They are of different types such as reserve food materials, tannins, resins, gums, oils,
latex, alkaloids, minerals, salts, etc.

2. Cell wall and its functions:

Cell wall is thick, rigid outer covering of the cell which gives definite shape and also
provides protection to the protoplasm. It is non-living in nature and permeable in
nature. The chief structural component of cell wall is cellulose which is a chain of many
thousands of sugar units. Beside cellulose, pectin components, lignin, cutin, proteins,
fats, etc. Its thickness varies in different types of cell from 0.1um - 101 um. The cell
wall consists of 3 parts. They are:

1. Middle lamellae: It is thin cementing layer between two adjacent cells or it is found
in between two primary wall and is formed during cell division. It is composed of
calcium and magnesium.

2. Primary wall: In young enlarging cell the primary wall remains thin and elastic
becoming thick and rigid at the approach of maturity. The primary wall contains
cellulose, hemi cellulose and peptic component. It also contains a number of micro
fibrils embedded in the matrices.

3. Secondary wall: The secondary wall is formed by the deposition of cellulose on the
primary wall or it is formed when the cell has stop growing. It is bound in certain mature
and highly specialized cell such as tracheid, vessels, and collenchymatous,
sclerenchymatous cells. It is composed of 3 layers of micro fibrils laid down one after
another. This layer is chemically made up of lignin in addition to cellulose,
hemicellulose and peptin.There are some other chemical substances such as cutin,
and suberin, waxes, mucilage, silica etc. are deposited on the wall.

Functions of cell wall:

1. It gives mechanical support to the cell and plant as a whole.

2. It gives definite shape.

3. It provides inner content of cell from mechanical injuries and checks the entry of

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4. Cell wall of root hairs absorbs water and minerals from the soil.

5. Being permeable in nature, it is capable of absorbing water and help in the
movement of water and solutes towards protoplasm.


The primary cell wall and middle lamella never occur in the form continuous the layer
but have a minute aperture through which cells of the tissue maintain cytoplasmic
relation with each other. Such cytoplasmic junction or bridge is known as
plamodesmata. It permits circulation of fluids various substances can pass from one
cell to another through plasmodesmata.


The term protoplasm is introduced by purkinjii in 1839. It is defined as physical basis
of life because it is fundamental structures of all organisms. it is living in nature and
consists of a mixture of organic and inorganic materials. It is colorless,
semitransparent, viscous and a slimy in nature. The protoplasm is divided into
nucleoplasm (protoplasm of nucleus) and cytoplasm (extra nuclear protoplasm) . It
shows intra cellular movement which is known as cyclosis. Water is the chief
constituent of all physiological active protoplasm. It consists of 75-90% of the total

In the hydrophytes, it exists up to 95-98% and in the dry seeds only 10% water is
found. The remaining part of protoplasm contains two types of constituent, organic
and inorganic materials.

The common organic components are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, lipids, nucleic

Protein= 7-20%



Inorganic material=1%



Major elements constituting of protoplasm are:

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Plasma membrane (Bio membrane):

Plasma membrane is thin, transparent electron microscopic which forms the outermost
boundary of cytoplasm. It is also known as cell membrane or plasma membrane.
Plasma membrane is selectively permeable in nature. It is lipoprotinous i.e. they are
chiefly composed of lipids and proteins. Carbohydrate, are also found in the plasma

Structure of membrane:

Several models have been proposed to explain the organization of plasma membrane.
A few of them are Danielle Davson model, unit membrane hypothesis, fluid mosaic
model etc.

Plasma membrane consists of phospholipids and protein and measures about 75A in
diameter. It is a unit membrane i.e. it consists of two lipids layer bounded on either
side by monomolecular layer of protein or the two molecules of lipids are sandwich
between two molecules of protein. A hydrophilic head of lipid layer project towards the
protein layer side the hydrophobic or non-polar region lies towards the inner side of
the membrane.

Function of plasma membrane:

1. It controls the passage of materials to and fro the cell.

2. It protects the cell from injury.

3. It is selectively permeable. It controls and co-ordinates the rate of substances
transfer and diffusion.

Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)

Extending throughout the cytoplasm there is a network of interconnected channels
which are lined by the membrane. The whole of this memberous structure is known as
endoplasmic recticulum.They are connected with nuclear membrane and frequently
associated with ribosome. When they are associated with ribosome; the ER is called
rough ER. The function of rough ER is in synthesizing protein because ribosome

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functions as protein synthesis. When they are without ribosomes, they are called as
smooth ER. The smooth ER has smooth membrane and may also take part in
synthesis and storage of fats. ER consists of three types of structures;




Fig: Endoplasmic reticulum

1. Cisternae:

They are long flattened, sacs like, narrow two layers and unbranched tubules found
near the nucleus. They lay one upon the other and are interconnected. Each tubular
structure is about 40-50nm in diameter and contains ribosomes on the membrane.
They are found in that cell which have synthetic roles. Such as the cell of pancreas,
brain etc.

2. Vesicles:

They are oval or rounded sac of 25-500nm in the diameter. The vesicles as small
vacuoles and often remain scattered in the cytoplasm.

3. Tubules:
They are tubular and branched structure which may be connected with cisternae and
vesicles to form the reticular system (net likes). They have a diameter of 50-100ñm

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and are present near the cell membrane. They are without ribosomes. They are
present more in lipid forming cells.


1. They act as cell circulatory system and help in the transport of materials.

2. They acts as cytoskeleton and provide the mechanical support and shape to the

3. They help in cell plate formation during the cytokinesis.


They are the smaller discoid organelles of cytoplasm and found only in green part of
plants but absent in fungi, bacteria and BGA.

Plastids are three types they are chloroplast, leucoplast and Chromoplast. All the
plastids arise from the minute protoplasmic bodies known as pro-plastids. They are
found inside the dividing form of the plastid change into another form. Such
as leucoplast into chloroplast and chloroplast into Chromoplast. In young tomato fruit
leucoplast gradually change into chloroplast and finally into Chromoplast.


They are colorless plastid founds into roots and parts where the light generally not
reached such parts are grown below the ground. They are mainly concerned with the
storage of reserve of various kinds of reserve foods materials such as; carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins. Their function is to convert the sugar into starch and insoluble food
material for the proposed of storage.


They are the colored plastids and contain the variety of pigment other than green.
They also contain the color pigments like carotene (orange or brown) and xanthophyll
(yellow or orange). They are not photosynthetic due to lacks of chlorophyll. They are
found in the colors parts plants such as; fruits, flowers. Generally chloroplast found in
the petals of flowers, to make them flowers attractive and invite insects for purpose of


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They are most common plastids founds in the green parts of plants. They are green
pigments so colors beings green. The process of photosynthesis takes place in them.
They are founds in green leaves which absorbed carbon dioxide from the air and
energy from the sunlight. They not found in that part where the light not exposed.

Fig: chloroplast

Each chloroplast is discoid and spherical in nature. It is bounded by two membranes.
Internally it is filled with matrix known as stroma in which grana are invaded. The matrix
contains: DNA, RNA, ribosomes, and starch etc. each granum consists of grana
lamellae placed one above the other like stack of coins. In cross section these lamella
are paired to form the sacs like structure and has been known as thylakoids. Some of
the grana lamellae of thylakoid granum are connected with thylakoid of other grana by
the stroma lamellae or fret membrane. Grana are the site of primary photochemical
reaction (light reaction) which contains the chlorophylls. The dark reaction of
photosynthesis takes place in sroma structure.


1. The most important and fundamental function of chloroplast is photosynthesis and
it is also known as kitchen of cell.

2. Leucoplast: storage and other.

3. Chromoplast: attractive and help in pollination.


The ribosomes are very minute spherical structure. They are found associated with
ER and are freely lying in the cytoplasm. Each ribosomes contain of two unequal

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subunits fitting as cap over sphere which represent the larger subunits, i.e. dome in
shape while the subunits is smaller size and has cap in shape and fit in larger subunits.
Ribosomes are commonly called ribo-nucleo-protein i.e. it is rich inRNA and protein.

In the prokaryotic cell the ribosomal structure results in dissociation of ribosomes with
the sedimentation coefficient of 70s into two subunits of 30s and 50s. But in eukaryotic
cell, the sedimentation coefficient of 80s into 60s and 40s subunits. These subunits
play specific role in protein synthesis. The ribosomes found in mitochondria and
chloroplast however resembles that prokaryotic cell.


1. Ribosomes are considers as protein factories or engine of cell because they are site
of protein synthesis.

2. Protein either controls the cellular structure or act as enzymes or controls the cellular

3. Ribosome stores the protein temporarily and store the rRNA which help in protein


Mitochondria are cylindrical and globular in nature. It is also known as power house of
cell because a huge amount of energy liberated. During the aerobic respiration is
trapped in the mitochondria in the form of energy reach ATP. The mitochondria have
outer and inner membrane. The inner membrane is produced into plate like or finger
like projection known as cristae. The matrix inside the inner membrane is known as
the mitochondrial matrix. The matrixes contain DNA, RNA, and several enzymes.

On the inner layer of cristae are found small stalked particle known as elementary
particle or oxyzome. Each stalked particles contain flat base, elongated stalk and
round and globular head. The head part of it produced ATP. It can catalyze the
formation of ATP to form ADP and vice versa.

Mitochondrion is the centres of respiratory activity and contains the several types of
enzymes. They are the self-replicating and they are passes from one to another cell.


1.Mitochondria is consider as the power house of cell or storage factories of ATP
because they it is the site of ATP formation.
2.It synthesizes the amino acid and manufacture of amino acids.

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=Release energy during aerobic respiration for the vital activities of cell.


Fig: nucleus

Nucleus is the most important and essential part of the cell. It is rounded protoplasmic
body which invaded in the cytoplasm. It controls all the cellular activities, initiated the
cell division and carries the hereditary activities of the cell. It consists of four type of
the structures;

1. Nuclear membrane or envelope

2. Nucleoplasm

3. Chromatin network

4. Nucleolus


It is the outer membrane of the cell. It is the outer perforated (porous) membranous
covering of cell. It is composed of two membranous I.e. outer and inner membranes.
These two membranes are separated by perinuclear space. The outer membrane
consists of no. of ribosomes, and also connected with ER. While the inner membrane
lacks ribosomes. A no of pores occurs in the nuclear envelope, which helps the
transfer of substance between the nucleus and cytoplasm. During the cell division, the
membrane of nuclear envelops break down into fragments.


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Nucleoplasm is also known as nuclear sap. It is transparent, semi-fluid matrix. It
consists of nucleotide (purine, pyrimidine base, pentose sugar) and enzymes required
for the synthesis of nucleic acid and nucleic proteins.


It is very fine fibers. It consists of coil of DNA bounds to basic protein known as histone.
Chromatin fibers are actually elongated chromosomes. This overlaps one another to
form a network. It consists of two parts a smooth lightly staining Euchromatin and
rough dark Heterochromatin. Euchromatin contains large amount of DNA and small
amount of RNA while Heterochromatin contain large amount of RNA and small amount
DNA. The whole of chromatin is not functional, only the parts of Euchromatin which
are associated with the acid protein take part in the formation of RNAS.

It is the naked rounded and slightly irregular structure which found attach to the
chromatin network. It is the place where the ribosomes are formed. Every cell may
possess one or more nucleoli. It consists of large amount of DNA, RNA and get stained
intensely (dark stain). Structurally it has four constituents; namely chromatin, matrix,
fibrils. Nucleolus performs the four functions:

1. Synthesis of rRNA

2. Synthesis of nuclear protein

3. Formation of ribosomes
4. Formation of spindle fibres


In plant, the no. of Golgi bodies varies from few to many. Each Golgi body consists of
a pair of a pair of membrane. Which are slightly curve and arranged in parallel rows
This slightly curve and flattened lamellar plate like structure is called the cisternae,
which are dilated (swollen) at the margins. Near the dilated end of membranes are
found small found the spherical vesicles or vacuoles which are pinched off (separated)
from the dilated end. Golgi bodies are formed from plasma lemma, nuclear envelope
and ER.


1. It takes part in the cell plate during the cytokinesis in the plant cell.

2. It helps in the synthesis of pectin substance in the cell wall.
3. It helps in the formation of primary lysosome.

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The term lysosome was derived from the two Greek words: lysis-digestive, soma-
body. It is electro microscopic, which envelope in intracellular digestive activities. It
consists of digestive or hydrolyzing enzymes capable of lysis or digestion. The
lysosome is mostly found in animal cell. Particularly in the cell of liver, spleen, brain
etc. they are also found in certain plant like fungi, euglena, meristematic cell (root tip
cell of maize) they are very minute spherical structure bounded by a membrane and
containing some digestive enzymes. They contain about 40 different kinds of
enzymes. Out of which some are proteases, nucleases, lipases, glycosylate etc. and
some are lytic bodies functioning as suicidal bag (sac). When the membrane is
ruptured, it is released out in the cytoplasm causing its disintegration (death). So, it
also known as suicidal bag of the cell.

Functions: It acts as intercellular digestion of the substances’, worn out cell organelles.


Fig: Vacuole

The vacuole consists of single membrane known as tonoplast or vacuolar membrane
which is semi permeable nature. The vacuole arises from ER. The tonoplast surrounds
the cell sap. The cell sap is a full of soluble pigments. Small vacuoles fused to form
larger at the maturity of plant cell. They are generally found at the distal end of

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Centrosome: They are non-membranous structure. IT consists of two rod cell and
they form astral rays (star like) during cell division and these are known as spindle
fibres. They are mostly found in animal cell and lower plants and are absent in seed
plants. In plant cell, they occur in the form of microtubules and form spindle fibres at
the time of cell division. Centrioles the time off cell division. Centrioles give rise to
basal bodies of cilia and flagella.

Differences between

Plant cell Animal cell

1. The plant cell is characterized by the
1.The cell wall is absent in animal cell. It
presence of cell outside the cell
is enclosed by the cell membrane.

2.There is no plastid.
2. It consists of plastids.

3.Centriole is present.
3. Centrioles are usually absent.

4.Vacuoles are either smaller or absent.
4. A mature plant cell contains a large
central vacuole.

5.Centriole forms the aster rays.

5. Aster rays are
6.The spindle fiber is astral type.
6. The spindle fiber is astral
7.Cytokinesis occurs by cleavage
7.Cytokinesis occurs by cell plate

8.Mitosis occurs in the throughout the
8.Mitosis occurs only in the meristimatic


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When the cell grows and attain the maximum size, it divided into two and then process
continuous and resulting in the development of the body of plant and animals. The cell
division consists of i.e. nuclear division and cytoplasmic division called cytokinesis.
Nucleus carries the hereditary character of the cell. So the nuclear division is the main
stage of cell division.


Fig: Cell Cycle

All those changes which occur during the cell division cell growth and collectively
known as cell cycle. Each cells are capable to undergoes the cell division and possess
through the cell cycle. A cell cycle consists of three main steps;

1. Interphase

2.M- phase or mitotic phase

3. Cytokinesis


It is the stage between the end of one cell division and the beginning of another cell
division. Metabolically it is very active phase of the cell division, as the cell prepare
itself for the next cell division for the no. of the biosynthetic activities, interphase is
further divided into three sub-phases


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This phase is characterized by the increase in cell size due to high rate of synthesis.
There occurs an active synthesis of RNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.


This sub phase is characterized by:

1. Replication of DNA molecules

2. Synthesis of histones


This sub phase is characterized by;

1. Synthesis of spindle protein.

2. Synthesis and storage of ATP molecules for M-phase.

3. Multiplication of cell organelles (mitochondria, plastids)


It is followed by the interphase and involves in the division of the nuclear materials
(karyokinesis) the division of nucleus occurs in-

1. Prophase

2. Metaphase

3. Anaphase
4. Telophase


After karyokinensis, the cell is ready to divide. The cell division is preferred as
cytoplasmic division. It results in the equal distribution of organelles and cytoplasm in
each daughter cell.


A cell may divide by any of the following methods:

1. Direct method (AMITOSIS)

2. Indirect method (MITOSIS) or indirect cell division.

3. Reduction cell division (MEIOSIS)

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It is simple and primitive type of cell division. It occurs without the formation of spindle
fibers and appears of chromosomes. The nucleus of the cell increases and develops
a constriction around middle. The constriction gradually deeper and finally nucleus
divide into two daughter nuclei. Cytokinesis also occurs two equal parts.


Cell division is the process in which the formation of new cells or increase in the no.
of cell takes place by the division of pre-existing cell.


Mitosis is the type of cell division in which chromosomes divide to form two daughter
nuclei with the same no. of chromosomes as the present in the parent cell. It takes
place in the somatic cell or vegetative body of the plant. It is also known as somatic
cell division. It occurs in the growing region as in the root tip and shoot tip. Mitosis cell
division comprises the following steps;

1. Interphase

2. Karyokinesis

3. Cytokinesis


This phase is also known as resting phase because it was through nucleus inactive
but metabolically, very active.

1. In the interphase, nucleus large with intact nuclear membrane and distingly visible

2. Chromosomes appear in the form of diffused, long, coiled and distingly visible
chromatin fibers.

3. DNA of chromosomes is duplicated.

4. RNA, protein synthesis takes place.


It is the process of the division of the nucleus. The division of the nucleus comprises
4 steps;

1. Prophase

2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase

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4. Telophase


It is the longest phase of the division and comprises three sub-phases:

1. Early prophase
2. Middle prophase
3. Late prophase


In the early prophase, the chromatin threads shortened and thicken to form elongated

The elongated chromosomes may show overlapping and their ends are not visible.


1. In the middle prophase, chromosomes consist of two longitudinal threads called

2. Two chromatids are joined to each other by means of the narrow point called

1. Nucleolus or nuclei are attached to one to more chromosomes.

2. In the middle prophase, chromosomes shortened and thick further to assume
characteristic shape and size.


1. Fine fibres start appearing around the nucleus. They consist of microtubules. This
helps in the formation of spindle fibres.

2. Nuclear membrane breaks up.

3. Nucleolus disappears completely.

4. The fibres converse in the region of the pole.


1. The metaphase is marked by complete dissolution of nuclear membrane and
simultaneous appearance of spindle fibres.

2. All the chromosomes held together in the equatorial region by the means of micro
tubular fibrils called spindle fibres. These fibres arranged at two opposite poles.

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3. The chromosomes are distinctly visible in this phase. Thus they can easily be
counted and their size and shape can be determined.

1. The centromere of each chromosomes divide into two so that each chromatids have
each own centromere.

2. The two chromatid now start repelling each other and separated completely to
become daughter chromosomes.

3. Each chromatid migrates towards the opposite poles by the contraction of spindle
fibres and stretching of interzonal fibres.

4. The arms of the chromosomes are directed towards the equatorial regions and the
centromere towards the pole.
5. The anaphase ends when all the chromosomes reached the opposite pole.
Anaphase divides the nuclear matter in to two equal and similar halves. Thus known
as equational division.


In this phase, the groups of chromosomes formed at the end of anaphase recognized
themselves in to nuclei.

1. Chromosome elongates and overlaps one another to form chromatid reticulum.

2. Spindle fiber disappears.

3. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear completely.

4. Two daughter nuclei are formed at each pole.


After nuclear division, the division of cytoplasm takes place which is known as
cytokinesis. The cytokinesis occurs either by cell plate in between the two daughter
nuclei or by means of;

A. Cell plate

B. Peripheral furrowing

In plant cell cytokinesis occur by cell plate method. Small drops let or granular body
of Golgi complex and micro tubules are gather in the equatorial region to form cell
Furrowing method of cytokinesis occur in bacteria, fungi and in animal cell. In his
method peripheral furrow occurs gradually in between two daughter nuclei. Later it
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dippers and when the age of furrow meet in the centre of the cell, the cytoplasm is
divided in to two equal halves.


1. It keeps the chromosomes number constant. Genetic stability in organism so linear
heredity of an organism is maintains.

2. Somatic cell is usually produced by mitosis. Therefore it is essential for growth and
development of multicellular organism.

3. The daughter cells formed by this division have the same genetic constituent
qualitatively and qualitatively as the mother cell.

4. It is the methods of multiplication in unicellular organisms.
5. It is the mechanism for replacing the old and worn out cell.

6. An injury or wound is healed by the repeating mitotic division of the surrounding
healthy cells.


Meiosis is complicated process of nuclear division in which the chromosome no.
reduced to half to form four daughter nuclei; it is because the chromosomes replicate
only ones, while they undergoes two divisions. The reduced chromosome no. is
expressed as haploid or n. the process of meiosis comprises the two successive
division is known as heterotypic or reduction division in this process chromosome no.
reduced into half. The second division is homotypic or equational division because the
chromosome no. remains same as produced after the end of the first division. It takes
place in the reproductive cell. It can be observed in the floral buds when the pollen
grains are being formed.

The reduction division is the first division of meiosis. In this division, into two daughter
nuclei with reduced or haploid chromosomes no. it can be studied under the four





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The most significant feature of cell meiosis is prophase I of the meiosis I division. It is
a long process distinguished into five successive sub-phases.

1. Leptotene

2. Zygotene

3. Pachytene

4. Diplotene

5. Diakinesis


1. In leptotene, nucleus enlarges in size and it further increases. Nucleolus also

2. The chromosome become distinct; appear as long fine threads by the condensation
of chromatin materials.

3. Each chromosome appears to the longitudinal in shape but each DNA is already
duplicated. So that it is formed of two chromatids. However the chromatids are tightly
bounded together. So the leptotene chromosomes appear single.

4. The paternal and maternal chromatid arrange separately.


1. Homologous chromosomes start pairing

2. The pairing of chromosomes is known as synapsis.

3. The pair chromosomes known as bivalent.


1. Pachytene starts when the pairing is complicated.

2. The chromosomes show shorting and thickening.

3. The two component of bivalent coiled around each other by the relational coiling,
now, the homologues chromosome of all bivalent split longitudinally into the two sister
chromatids. Thus the late Pachytene stage, the bivalent appear four stranded.

4. Each bivalent or chromosome pair is actually made up of four chromatid two of each
5. Nucleolus till remain attach at the nuclear organizing region.

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1. The synapsed chromosome dissolved or two partner of bivalent separated

2. The homologous chromosome separated from one another but the still remain
attach at the certain point along their length. The point is known as chaismata. The no.
of chaismata determine the shape of the chromosomes, when there are two chaismata
the chromosome O shaped and when they are many, they loop like.

3. The sister chromatid of bivalent are broken and rejoined crosswise. The
phenomenon is known as crossing over.

4. Nucleolus becomes disorganized.


1. The chaismata point is formed when the paternal and maternal chromatids are
attached. So the ex-change of nuclear material takes place.

2. It may leads to variation and transfer of hereditary information.

3. In the process of ex-change the gene may be lost or gain due to mutation occurs in


1. Chromosomes become short and thick.

2. Complete exchange of part between two chromatids of bivalent take place.

3. Nuclear membrane disappears completely.

4. Spindle fibre appears around the bivalent.


a) Metaphase of meiosis first is marked by the complete disappearance of the nuclear
membrane and simultaneously appearance of the spindle fibre.

b) Four stranded chromosomes or bivalent arranged themselves in two parallel rows
at the equator.

c) The chromosome or bivalent are attached to the spindle fibre by their centromere.

d) The centromere or bivalent lay equidistance from each other and are directed
toward the poles. While it’sarms are generally lie horizontally on the equator.

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a) The centromere of chromosome doesn’t divide into two and two chromatid of each
chromosome remain joined together by centromere.

b) The centromere of homologous chromosome of bivalent repel to each other.

c) Spindle fibre contract as a result of which by bivalent move towards the opposite

d) At the late anaphase one homologous of each bivalent move towards the one pole
and other to the opposite pole. So to the group of haploid chromosome are formed at
each pole. These involve the reduction of chromosome number.

e) The homologous chromosome which moves towards the opposite pole is the
chromosome of either paternal or maternal origin.

4. Telophase:

a) Nuclear membrane and the nucleolus are formed around the two groups of
chromosomes at each pole.

b) The chromosomes become elongated and become uncoiled and formed the
chromatin threads.

c) Spindle fibres disappear.

d) The two newly formed nuclei with the reduced chromosomes are sometimes
separated by a cross wall. Thus a dyad formed.
e) Cytokinesis is postponed till the end of second division.


Second meiosis division is a mitotic division and is sometime known as meiotic mitosis.
As a result of four haploid nuclei are formed from the four haploid cells.

Meiosis second divided into four stages:

1. Prophase second

a) Very short stage. The chromosome doesn’t undergo the any appreciable change.

b) The nuclear membrane and nucleolus is present but gradually disappear at the late

c) The chromosome is arranged in zigzag ways.
2. Metaphase second:

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a) Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear

b) Formation of spindle fibre is complete.

c) The chromosome in the each daughter cell is arranged in the equatorial plane of
the cell and their centromere lie at the centre of the spindle.

3. Anaphase second:

a) The centromere of each chromosome divided into two. So that there is one
centromere for one chromatid.

b) The two chromatid of a chromosome separate completely and are known as a
daughter or new chromosome.

c) Spindle fibre contract as a result of which the daughter chromosome move toward
the opposite poles.

d) At the end of anaphase second, four group of chromosomes are produced each
group having the haploid no. of chromosome.

4. Telophase second:

a) The four groups of chromosome arranged themselves in to haploid nuclei.

b) Nuclear membrane nucleolus reappears.

c) Chromosome elongated and become thread like.


After the Telophase second, intermediate walls develop between two daughter nuclei
of each cell. Division of cytoplasm is followed is either cell plate or furrowing method.
Finally 4 cells, each with single haploid cell is formed.

Significance of meiosis:

1. It is essential for sexually reproducing organism because it produces haploid
gametes or spore that is essential for sexual reproduction.

2. If mitosis is only method of the cell division after every act of fertilization the
chromosome of the individual sill become a double in the subsequence generation.
The increase in no. of chromosome is harmful and creates imbalance between the
cytoplasm and nucleus, which may ultimately cause several variation and mal
formation in organism. So meiosis helps in keeping the no. of chromosome constant
in the species.
3. During the Diplotene stage of meiosis first crossing over provides an opportunity for
the exchange of gene between the homologous chromosomes. Thus, the
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chromosome with change the genetic constitution is formed which may cause the
mutation in the species. Variation is the cause of evolution.

Share 10

Biodiversity:It is the total verity of the life on the earth. Scientist can only guess how
many millions of species that exist on the planet. Biodiversity is the variability among
living organism in all sources. In other word, it encompasses the total number, variety
and variability of life form, level and combinations existing within the living world. It is
not the sum of all ecosystem, species and genetic material. Rather it includes diversity
within species, between species and of ecosystem. The biodiversity mainly consist of
three categories, they are
1. Ecosystem diversity: An ecosystem comprises a dynamic complex of plant, animal
and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment which interact as a
functional unit. Thus, ecosystem commonly exists within ecosystems. Ecosystem
diversity refers to the variety and frequency of distinct ecosystems including the variety
of habitats, biotic communities and their change in composition and structure over time
and ecological processes in the biosphere.
2.Species diversity: Species is defined as a population of organism whose members
able to interbreed freely under natural conditions. A species represents groups of
organisms which has evolved distinct inheritable features and occupies a unique
geographical area. Species diversity is used to describe the frequency and variety of
species within a geographical area. The total number of species in a globe has been
estimated to range from 5 to 30 million.
3. Genetic Diversity: Genes are the principle units of heredity which are passed from
an organism to its offspring. These are composed of nucleic acid and are located along
an organism’s chromosomes, in the plasmids of bacteria and other extra chromosomal
forms as well. Genes, either individually or in groups contribute many different
attributes to an organism such as its physical appearance, its ability to resist certain
insects, or genes within living organisms, that is, the genetic differences among
population of a single species and among individuals within a population.

Scope of Biodiversity:
1. Biological diversity is the main resource on which human beings depend. The
existence of human is intimately related with the wide variety of plant and animal
species found around us.
2. Biodiversity provides the vast majority of foodstuffs. Many kinds of animals and
plants are lived and grow in different climate and geographical conditions. These
plants and animals supply lots of food products such as fruits, cereals, nuts,
mushroom, honey, meat, mike etc.

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3. It is estimated that 80% of people in the developing world depend directly on
traditional medicines derived from plants and animals.
4. More than 1500 plants of Nepal have medicinal value.
5. Biological diversity exerts direct influences on regional and local weather patterns.
6. Plant purifies the air and regulates the composition of the atmosphere, recycling
oxygen and filtering harmful particles release due to industrial activities.
7. Biodiversity provides various raw materials for textile, leather, tannis, dyes, furniture
8. Biological diversity is the main sources on which human beings depend. The
existence of human is intimately related with the wide variety of plant and animal
species found around us.

Floral diversity of Nepal:
Nepal comprises only 0.1% of land area on a global scale, but is highly rich on
biological diversity. In Nepal , there has been relatively much work done in higher
groups of plants, while research on lower groups of plants, in general has not done
seriously and systematically. The number of species reported are 465 species of
lichens, 1822 species of fungi, 687 species if Algae, 853 species of bryophytes, 380
species of pteridophytes, 28 species of gymnosperm and 5856 species of
angiosperms. Nepal has been ranked as the 10th highest in flowering plant diversity in
Asia and 27th in the world in biodiversity richness (Shrestha 2001).

Taxonomy (Greek, taxis-arrangement or classification; nomas-law or rules) is the
branch of biology that deals with identification, nomenclature and classification of
organism. Literally taxonomy is known as the law of classification of the organisms in
different groups or kingdom according to their resemblances and differences in outer
structure. When limited to plants it is referred as systematic botany.
Identification is determination of unknown organism by comparing with other known
organism or by use of taxonomic keys.
Nomenclature is the process of naming identified organism according to nomenclature
Classificationis the process of placing identified organism in proper group such as
division, class, order, family, genus, and species.
History: The term taxonomy was first given by A.P. de Candle in 1813, which is applied
to the process of classification. As the number of organism in surrounding is large, it
is necessary to divide them into small groups which can make easier to study about it.
The classification is the system of arrangement of organism into groups showing
relationship. Biologist from early time made simple attempt to work out a scientist

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method of classification of organism. Some scientist who contribute in the field of
taxonomy are Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), Charaka (1st century A.D.), John Ray(1627-
1705 A.D.), Carolus Linnaeus(1707-
System of classification
Classificationis the process of placing identified organism in proper group such as
division, class, order, family, genus, and species. Classification may base on habit of
plants, i.e. herbs, shrubs, or tree. The various types of classification put forward from
the time of Aristotle to the present day are based on one of the three fundamental
1. Artificial system of classification: The classification was mainly based on few
characters such as habit, habitat, number of organ etc. e.g. Aristotle system,
Theophrastes system.
2. Natural system of classification: the classification was based on natural
relationship/structure resemblance among species, e.g. Bentham and hooker system.
3. Phylogenetic System of classification: The classification is based on evolution
history and genetic relationship, e.g. Hutchinson System.
Modern trends in taxonomy: This classification is mainly based on disciplines like
cytology, genetics, physiology, biochemistry, palenthology. The impact of these
disciplines on the modern taxonomy has changed the face of it from classic to modern
kind. New classification claims to solve many problems created by classic kind of
Utility of Systematics: It is the scientific study which deals with kinds and diversity of
all organisms and the existing relationship amongst them. The knowledge of
systematics plays various roles in biology which can be summarized as follows:
1. It can provide the information about plant and animal on the earth.
2. It is helpful to identify the organism whether it is harmful or beneficial for human
3. It is helpful in the conservation of beneficial plants and animals.
4. It helps in understanding the chain of evolution.
5. It enables us to identify the newly discovered organism.
Use of keys for identification:
A taxonomy key is a easy way to identify an organism using distinguishing characters.
It helps to identify unknown organism by using such keys. It is done in following three
i) by placing specimens of the species classified in museum.
ii) by publishing descriptions and illustration of the species.
iii) By construction taxonomic keys.

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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature (called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a
formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of
two parts. Such a name is called abinomial name (which may be shortened to just
"binomial"), a binomen or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the
second part identifies the species within the genus.
Rules of Binomial Nomenclature:
Because scientific names are unique species identifiers, they ensure that there is
never any confusion as to which organism a scientist may be referring. Additionally,
there are some important rules that must be followed to keep all binomial names
1. Each organism consists of generic name and specific name.
2. The entire two-part name must be written in italics (or underlined when handwritten).
2. The genus name is always written first and followed by specific name.
3. The genus name must be capitalized.
4. The specific epithet is never capitalized.
5. The mane of the author who first indentifie the specific must be written after specific
name in short or full name.
6. The scitific name can be taken from place, personality, utility, or any other
characterstics, e.g. Mangifera indica, Citrus sinensis etc.

Advantage of scientific name:
a) Scientific name are universal.
b) Each organism consists of only one scientific name but many local names.
c) Scientific name help to provide information about genus, species, family etc.
Taxonomic categories and Hierarchy
The obligate taxonomy categories as kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus,
and species.
The sequence of taxonomic categories in classification is taxonomical hierarchy.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperm
Class: Dicotyledons
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Order: rosales
Family: rosaceae
Genus: Rosa
Species: indica

Species: It is the group of individual which are similar in all aspects and interbreed
freely with each other to produce fertile offsprings, e.g Brassica compestris
Genus: The group of closely related species.e.g. Brassica compestris
Family: The group of closely related genus.
Order: The group of closely related family, e.g. Rosales and Malaes.
Class: The proup of closely related order, e.g. Dicotyledonae.
Division: The group of closely related class, e.g. Angiosperm.
Kingdom: The group of closely related Division, e.g. Plantae.
Arrangement of taxonomic categories in their proper order on the basis of their
taxonomic ranks is called Hierarchy.Biological classification, or scientific classification
in biology, is a method of scientific taxonomy used to group and categorize
organisms hierarchically. Rank-based systems use a fixed number of levels in the
hierarchy, such as kingdom, family, genus or species. Rank less systems use an
arbitrary number of levels. The groups in the classification are known as taxa (singular:
Categories Plants Animals
Kingdom Plantae Animalia
Sub-kingdom Phanerogams -
Division Angiosperms Chordata
Sub-phylum - Vertebrata
Class Dicot/Monocot Reptilia
Sub-class Polypetalae Diapsida
Order Malvales Squamata
Family Malvaceae Elapidae
Genus Malva Naja
Species sylvestris Naja

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Two kingdoms System: the two kingdom system was proposed by Carolos Linnaeus.
The two kingdoms are plantae and animalia. He classified two kingdome on the basis
of following characters.
Presence of cell wall.
Absence of locomotion.
Absence of nervous system.

Absence of cell wall.
Presence of locomotion
Presence of nervous system, .e.g. higher animal, protozoa, bacteria.

Limitation of two kingdom systems.
It kept prokaryotes with eukaryotes in same kingdom.
Unicellular and multicellular were kept in same kingdom.
It kept non-photosynthetic fungi with plant.
It is unable to classify virus.
Bacteria couldn’t be classified in both kingdoms.
Lichen is duel organism which show different character kept in Plantae.
Euglena Which show both autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition, kept in both
Slime mould, a unicellular organism lack cell wall in vegetative stage but present in
reproductive stage but kept in both kingdom.

Five kingdoms System: The five kingdom system was purposed by Robert Whitakar
in 1969. He classified five kingdoms on the basis of following criteria.
a. complexity of cell: Prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

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b. Complexity of organism’s Body: Unicellular or multicellular.
c. Mode of nutrition: autotrophic or heterotrophic.

The five kingdoms are
A) Monera: Unicellular, prokaryotic, e.g. Bacteria, Blue green algae.
B) Protista: Unicellular, eukaryotic, e.g. Protozoan.
C) Mycota: Multicellular, decomposer, e.g. Mushroom, Mucor.
D) Plantae: Multicellular, procedure, e.g. plant, some algae.
E) Animalia: multicellular, consumer, e.g. animal.

Merit of FIVE kingdoms System.
It separate prokaryotics from eukaryotics and kept in monera.
It separate unicellular organism from multicellular organism and kept in monera and
It separate non-photosynthetic fungi from green plant and kept in Mycota.
Multicellular procedure were kept in plantae.
Multicellular consumer were kept in animalia.
The classification was based on phylogeny and nutrition.

Demerit of FIVE kingdoms System.
It still unable to classify the virus.
Unicellular eukaryotic organism Chlamydomnasstill kept in plantae.
Unicellular eukaryotic yeast still in Mycota.
Archaebacteria, mycoplasma which shows difference character from bacteria, kept in

General characteristics:
a)They are cosmopolitan in distribution, i.e. found everywhere.

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b) They have prokaryotic cell, i.e. lack of true nucleus and membrane bound
c) They have circular DNA.
d) They have rigid cell wall.
e) Most of the species are heterotrophic and some are autotrophic.
f) Reproduction by vegetative and asexual method.
g) They are known as decomposer of the environment, and help to increase the fertility
of the soil.
There are two types -

1. Archaebacteria (Ancient bacteria)
2. Eubacteria . (True Bacteria)

b. cyanobacteria
Bacteria: Bacteria were first discovered by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek in 1675. The
present name bacterium was given by Ehrenberg in 1828. Later Louis Pasteur in 1864
and Koch in 1876 reported the disease causing ability of these organism. Robert Koch
was the father of bacteriology.
Distribution: Bacteria is widely distributed in nature and found almost everywhere.
They occur in fresh water, pools, pound, river, in air, soil, foodstuff, fruits. Bacteria can
grow in almost all habitat, they can grow and remain alive in freezing temperature to
hot water. They can remain alive in soil up to the depth of half a meter.
Size: All bacteria are microscopic in size. The average size of common bacteria
ranges from 0.5µ to 1.5µ in diameter. The rod-shaped bacteria measures about 0.2µ
to 2µ in width and 2µ to 10µ in length.
Shape: bacteria exhibit different shape. According to their shape, they are divided into
following types.
A) Coccus Bacteria: they are spherical or rounded in shape. This bacteria lack flagella.
According to their arrangement they are further classified into following type.
a)Monococcus: They exist single, e.g. micrococcus
b) Diplococcus: They exist in pair, e.g. pneumonia
c) Tetracoccus: They exist in a group of four, e.g. tetracoccus cechi.
d) Streptococcus: They exist in chain, e.g. streptococcus

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e) Staphylococcus: They exist in group or look like bunch of groups, e.g.
Staphylococcus sps.
f) Sarcina: They are arranging in a club like manner.
B) Bacillus Bacteria: They are rod like or elongated in shape. According to their
arrangement they are of following types.
a)Monobacillus: They exist singly, e.g. lactobacillus
b) Diplobacillus: they exist in pair, e.g. Morexella
c) Streptobacillus: They exists in chain, e.g. streptobacillus
d) Pollisade: They are arranged in stack like manner, e.g. coryne bacterium

C) Helical bacteria: They are coiled or twisted bacteria.
a) Spiral bacteria: they are spirally coined bacteria, e.g. spirillum volutans.
b) Vibrio: They are curved or comma like in shape, e.g. Vibrio cholera.

D) Filament: Filamentous thread like bacteria, e.g. Streptomyces cholera.
Flagellation in bacteria: Flagella are thin, long hair or wipe like structure which help in
locomotion in aquatic state or liquid state. They arise from protoplasm and made up
of protein called flagellin. According to the arrangement number present or absent.
They are divided into a) Atrichous bacteria, b) monotrichous bacteria c) Amphitrichous
bacteria d) cephalotrichous bacteria, e) lophotrichous bacteria f) peritrichous bacteria.

Structure of bacterial cell

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Fig: Bacterial cell

The cell envelope is composed of the plasma membrane and cell wall. As in other
organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. Inprokaryotes
the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor
pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins and other molecules
inside the cell compared to its external environment. The bacterial cell wall differs from
that of all other organisms by the presence ofpeptidoglycans which is located
immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane.peptidoglycans is responsible for
the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. Since the
cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in eukaryotes,
severalantibiotics notably the (penicillin and cephalosporin) stop bacterial infections
by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which
have no cell wall only a cell membrane. There are two main types of bacterial cell
walls, those of Gram-positive bacteria and those of Gram-negative bacteria.
Chromatophore: It is single membrane vesicular thylakoid found in photosynthetic
bacteria. It consists of photosynthetic pigment like chlorobium, chlorophyll,
carotenoids etc.

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Pilli: It is protoplasmic out growth made up of protein called pillin. It helps in the
attachment of another bacterium during reproduction. They are mostly present in male

Staining technique in bacteria: Staining technique in bacteria was discovered by
Christian gram in 1884. In this method bacteria are stain with crystal violet solution
(gram stain) followed by iodine solution as a result the entire bacteria look blue. Then,
they are washed with alcohol solution. Some bacteria retain blue color but some do
not. Those bacteria which retain blue color of gram stain are called gram positive
bacteria and those which do not retain blue color are gram negative bacteria.

Gram positive bacteria Gram negative bacteria

1. They do not retain blue colour in gram
1. They retain blue colour in gram stain.
2. Cell wall is generally thick.
2. Cell wall is generally thin
3. Peptidoglycan contain is high. (About 80%)
3. Peptidoglycan contain is low. (About 20%)
4. Lipid content is very low. (0-20%)
4. Lipid content is very high. (20-30%)
5.Due to low lipid contain. They can’t resist
5. Due to high lipid contain. They can resist
lysozyme and antibiotic.
lysozyme and antibiotic.
6. Mesosomes are present.
6. Mesosomes are generally absent.
7. Majority of nonpathogenic bacteria, e.g.
7. Majority of pathogenic bacteria, e.g.
Azotobactor, mycobacterium.
Salmonella, E .coli.

Nutrition in bacteria: Bacteria are both autotrophic and heterotrophic, organism.
(A)Autotrophic bacteria: These bacteria can synthesize their own food, .i.e. they
contain chlorophyll. They are divided into following types,
(a)Photosynthetic or photo autotrophic bacteria: these bacteria can synthesize their
own food with the help of light energy, photosynthetic pigment, carbondioxide,
compound of sulphur and organic compounds. They do not use water and no oxygen
in evolved. They are generally anaerobic. They are divided into following types.
Co2 +H2S → H2Co3 + S
-Green sulphur bacteria: they contain chlorobium, chlorophyll as a photosynthetic
pigment. They use sulphide or sulphate for the production of food, .e.g. pelodictyon,
-Purple sulphur bacteria: they contain bacretio chlorophyll and carotenoid. They use
sulphide or thiosulphate, e.g. choromatium

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-Non sulphur bacteria: they contain bacteriochlorophyll as a photosynthetic pigment.
They use organic compound for the production of food, e.g. Rhodospirillum.
(b)Chemosynthetic bacteria: they do not contain any photosynthetic pigments and no
light energy is used. They obtain energy by oxidation of inorganic substance such as
ammonia nitrite, hydrogen, sulphur, iron etc. they are generally aerobic. They can be
divided into following types.
-Sulphur bacteria: They obtain energy by oxidation of hydrogen sulphide. This energy
is utilized in the production of food.
H2S + O2 → H2O + S + energy (ATP)
Co2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2
-Hydrogen bacteria: They obtained energy by oxidation of hydrogen.
H2 + O2 → H2O + energy (ATP)
- Iron bacteria:These bacteria obtain energy by oxidation of ferrous compound.
Fe+2 → Fe+3 + e- + energy
-Nitrifying Bacteria: This bacteria obtain energy by oxidation of ammonia into nitrite
and then into nitrate.
NH3 + O2 → NO2 + H2O + energy.
(B) Heterotrophic bacteria:
These bacteria cannot synthesize their own food and obtained from other sources.
They are divided into following types.
(a)Parasitic bacteria: they grow and obtained food from other livising organism simply
known as host. Parasitic bacteria may be pathogenic and nonpathogenic. Pathogenic
bacteria cause different types of diseases in plants and animals, e.g. microbacterium
tuberculosis, xanthomonas citri. Non pathogenic bacteria are one of the strains of E.
coli found in human intestine of human.
(b)Symbiotic bacteria: these bacteria live mutually with other living organism so that
both get benifited, e.g. rhizobium frankia.
(c)Saprophytic Bacteria: these bacteria grow and feeds on dead and decaying organic
matter. They can decompose complex organic compound into simple form,
e.g. rhodopseudomonas

Respiration in bacteria:
Respiration is the oxidation of food material with release of energy. Based on
respiration they can be classified as,
1. Aerobic Bacteria: these bacteria required oxygen or can survive only in the presence
of the oxygen, e.g. microbacterium.

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2. Anaerobic bacteria: These bacteria can survive in the absence of oxygen, e.g.
photosynthetic bacteria.
3. Facultative bacteria: These bacteria can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic
condition, e.g. E. coli
Economic importance of Bacteria:
1. Role in agriculture: it increases soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into
nitrogenous compound and provides it directly to the plant or release it to the soil, e.g.
Rhizobium, azotobacter, nitrobacter.
2. Role in Industries: In dairy industries some species of bacteria are widely employed
for the production of dairy products such as curd, cheese, butter, e.g. lactobacillus
3. They are also use in production of organic acid, alcohol, vitamins, e.g. Lactobacillus
(lactic acid), clostridium (alcohol and vit. B), E.coli (Vitamins A and 4) they are the
major decomposer of the ecosystem, e.g. saprophytic bacteria.
5. They are also used in extraction of metals from the ores, e.g. saprophytic bacteria.
This method is known as bio-mining.
6. Bacteria cause number of diseases in plant and animal, e.g. mycobacterium
leprae, clostridium tetani.
7. Bacteria cause food poisoning in human. E.g. Staphylococcus aereus
8. Bacteria spoil food, milk and its products. E.g. proteus, streptoccous.
9. Some bacteria reduce soil fertility by converting nitrogenous compound in a soil into
free nitrogen, e.g. micrococcus denitrificans.
10. Some bacteria also use in production of enzymes and vaccines, e.g. bacillus
subtilis, BCG , Tetanus toxoid.

Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae):
1. They are cosmopolitan in distribution.
2. They have prokaryotic cell.
3. Their cell wall is made up of murein with some cellulose, hemicellulose and Pectin.
4. They perform oxygenic photosynthesis.
5. Some member of cyanobactrria consist of special types of cell known as heterocyst.
6. Flagella are completely absent.
7. Absence of sexx organ and motile reproductive bodies.
8. They reproduce by both sexual and vegetative method, only nostoc, oscillatoria,
anabaena etc.

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Nostoc is found in fresh water damp soil,lead symbiotic life with Cycas, Anthoceros
lichen etc.
Nostoc is colomical species. Each colony is surrounded by mucilaginous
sheath and consists of large number of filamentous body, known as trichome.
Trichome look like chain of bead trichome with individual sheath is filament. Each
trichome consist of normal vegetative cell, heterocyst and akinet
Heterocyst thin wall spherical or barrel shaped empty looking cell which help in
nitrogen fixation and vegetative reproduction. Sometimes vegetative cell gather large
amount of food and become thick wall cell. These cell are known as akinete or resting
spores. It also help in vegetative reproduction.

Structure of vegetative cell

Cell is spherical or oval in shape. Its cell wall is made up of peptioglycon or murin. The
protoplast is differentiated into peripheral chromoplasm and central colorless
centroplasm. The chromoplasm consist of photosynthetic pigment, Gas vacuole,
reserve food material etc. the centroplasm consist of circular DNA. The cell bound
organelles are absent.
Reproduction takes place by vegetative only.

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1. Fragmentation: In this method trichome break into several pieces due to mechanical
or physiological injury. Each piece developed into new type of trichome.
2. Hormogonia: It is the piece of trichome with heterocyst. Each hormogonia later
develop into new trichome or form new colony.
3. By heterocyst: At the time of reproduction the protoplast of heterocyst divide and
redivide to form germinating cells. These germinating cells liberate out and develop
into new trichome.
4.By akinete: The protoplast of the heterocyst liberate out and develop into new

Economic Importance of Cyanobacteria:
1. It is used to proteinous food, e.g. spirulina
2. They are also used as a biofertilizer, e.g. Nostoc, Anabaena.
3. Some species of cyanobacteria is use to control the growth of mosquito larva in
pound, e.g. Aulosira.
4. They contaminate in drinking water reservoir, Nostoc, Oscillatoria.
5. Some species are poisonous to animal, e.g. Microcystis.

They are also known as living fossils. Their cell wall is made up of polysaccharide and
protein. They lack peptide glycan. Their cell membrane is made up of complex lipid
due to this they can resist adverse environment condition. They are three types,
Methanogens, Halophiles, and Thermoacidophiles.

Mycota (Fungi)
Share 4

About 1, 00,000 species have been reported.

General character:
- They are cosmopolitan in distribution.
- Their vegetative body is tubular filamentous and branched known as hyphae. The
mass of hyphae is known as mycelium but some species are unicellular, e.g. Mucor,

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- Their cell wall is made up of chitin fungal cellulose.
- Reserve food materials are glycogen, lipid and volutin granules.
- Reproduction takes place by vegetative, asexual and sexual method.
- Due to the lack of chlorophyll they can’t prepared their own food. So, they show
heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Reproduction in Mycota (Fungi)
Reproduction takes place by three method.
1. Vegetative: It reproduce by fragmentation, budding and fission.
2. Asexual: Asexual reproduction takes place by the formation of motile spore known
as zoospore.
3. Sexual: Sexual reproduction takes place by the fusion of male and female gamete
or fusion of two opposite strain like +ve and –ve strain. It takes place by following
a) Plasmogamy: Fusion of protoplasm.
b) Karyogame: fusion of nucleus to form diploip cell or Zygote.
c) Meiosis: The diploid cell or zygote under goes reproduction division to form four
haploid cell.

Classification of fungi: Based on reproduction structure and life cycle patterns fungi
1. Phycomycetes:
- They have comparatively simple thallus, may be unicellular or filamentous.
Filamentous body of fungi is known as hypha. Hypha is aseptate and coenocytic.
- They may be aquatic or terrestrial, parasitic or saprophytic.
- Asexual reproduction takes place by motile spore known as Zoospore and non-motile
- Sexual reproduction takes place by planogametic fusion, gametangial contact and
gametangial conjugation.
They are classified into two further types.
a) Oomycetes:
- They are mostly aquatic and parasitic. Only few are saprophytic.
- Asexual reproduction takes place by zoospore and sexual reproduction takes place
by plamogametic fusion and gametangial contact.

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- The name oomycetes due to the formation of diploid zygote known as oospore, e.g.
b) Zygomycetes (conjugation fungi):
- They are mostly terrestrial and saprophytic and only some are parasitic.
- Asexual reproduction takes place by non-motile spores. Sexual reproduction takes
place by conjugation.
- The name Zygomycetes due to the formation of diploid Zygote called zygospore, e.g.

2. Ascomycetes(sac fungi):
- They are mostly terrestrial, saprophytic and parasitic.
- Hypha is septate and branched but some species are unicellular.
-vegetative reproduction takes place by fragmentation budding and fission.
-Asexual reproduction takes place by conidia, chlymydospore etc.
- Sexual reproduction takes place by gametengial conjugation, somatogamy.
- A sac like structure called ascus is form after fusion of male and female gametes,
e.g. Yeast

3. Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi):
- They are mostly terrestrial, saprophytic, parasitic and symbiotic.
- Hypha is septate and branched. Two types of hypha or mycelium are found, i.e.
primary mycelium, secondary mycelium.
- Asexual reproduction takes place by conidia and chlymydospore etc.
- Sexual reproduction takes place by somatogamy. The two nucleus of dikaryotic
mycelium fused to form club shaped zygote called basidia.

4. Deuteromycetes:
- They are mostly terrestrial and parasitic. Only few are saprophytes.
- Hypha is septate and branched.
- Asexual reproduction takes place by conidia, oidia and chlymydospore.
- Sexual reproduction is absent so they are known as fungi imperfect, e.g. Alternaria.

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Kingdom: Mycota
Division: Eumycota
Class: phycomycetes
Sub class: Zygomycetes
Order: Mucorales
Family: Mucoraceae

About 150 species of Mucor have been reported. They are mostly saprophytic fungi
which mostly grow on stable bread, jam, pickels, leather, clothes, animal dung ect.
They look like colony mass over the surface of substratum. Their vegetative body is
known as hyphae which is a septate and coenocytic. Hyphae is of two types.
a) Prostrate hyphae: These hyphae spread over the surface of substratum which help
in absorption and fixation.
b) Aerial hyphae: These hyphae arise from prostrate hyphae. This bears sporangia at
its tip. They are erect and known as sporangiophore.

Fig: Structure of hyphae.

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Hyphae is eukaryotic aseptate and coenocytic. Its cell wall is made up of chitin. The
protoplast consists of many nuclei, vacuole, reserve food and other cytoplasmic
organelles except plastid.
Reproduction takes place by vegetative, asexual and sexual method. Vegetative
reproduction takes place by fragmentation. Asexual reproduction takes place by
formation of non-motile spore such as oidia, chlamydo spore and aplanospore
i) Oidia
In this type the aseptate hyphae of Mucor undergoes septation in liquid media. Each
segment separated from the parent hyphae develop into spore called oidia. Each
oidium either germinates into mycelium or undergoes budding to produce many oidia.

ii) Chlamydospore: Under unfavorable condition the protoplast of the hyphae collected
in certain point and become swollenstructure. This swollen structure secrete thick wall
around it and become spore known as chlamydospore. Under favourable condition
chlamydospore germinate into new mycelium.

iii) Aplanospore:
Asexual reproduction mainly takes place by the formation of non-motile spore called
aplanospore or sporangia spore under favourable condition. Sporangio spore are oval
or spherical and blackish spore found in sporangia.

Fig: Asexual reproduction of Mucor.

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At the time of reproduction prostrate hyphae give rise to aerial hyphae. The tips of the
aerial hyphae swell to form sporangia. The protoplast from adjacent hyphae
accumulates at sporangia and latter differentiated into two regions. Peripheral
fertilization region with many nucleus and central sterile region with few nucleuses.
The central sterial region develops in to colomella which help in dispersal of spore.
The peripheral fertile region under goes cleavage to form multinucleated mass of
protoplasm. Each mass round off and secrete thin wall around it and become spore
called sporangio spore. At maturity, sporangial wall breaks and spores are liberated
out. Spore fall on suitable substratum germinate into new mycelium.

Sexual reproduction:
Sexual reproduction takes place by gamentangial conjugation. Most of the species of
Mucor are heterothallic and only few are homothallic. In heterothallic species
conjugation takes place between two hyphae of different mycelium

Fig: Sexual Reproduction
In homothallic species conjugation takes place between two hyphae of same
mycelium. At the time of reproduction two hyphae of different strain come in contact
with each other by their small out growths. This out growth swells to form club-shape
progametangia by accumulating protoplast from adjacent hyphae. The distal ends of
progametangia divide transversely terminal gametangia and basal suspension. The
gametangia behave as coenogametes. This gamete fused to form zygote called
zoospore. Zoospore is dark, thick walled. After long resting period zygospore
germinate to produce germ tube for promycellium. Germ tube grows and develops

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germsporangia at its tip. The germsporangia undergoes meiosis followed by mitosis
to form large number of haploid germ spore. These germspore falls from suitable
substratum germinate into new mycelium.

Kingdom: Mycota
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Ascomycetes
Order: Endomycetates
Family: saccharomycetacoae
Genus: Saccharomyces

They are mostly saprophytic fungus which mostly grows on sugar rich solution such
as sugar solution, fruit juice, nectar etc. They are unicellular eukaryotic and non-
mycelia fungi.

Cell structure

Cell is oval or spherical in shape. Its cell wall is made up of chitin. The protoplast
consists of large centrally located vacuole, nucleus, cytoplasmic organells and reserve
food such as oils.

Reproduction takes place by vegetative and sexual methods.

Vegetative reproduction takes place by budding and fission.

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fig: Yeast dividing by fission process

It is common method of reproduction in yeast. It takes place under favorable condition.
During reproduction yeast self-produce one or more tiny outgrowth or protuberances.
These out growth in large in size and formed bud. At the same time the nucleus and
cytoplasmic organelles divide. One of the nucleus with other cytoplasmic contain
migrate towards the bud. A constriction is developed at the base of bud. They are
separate bud from mother yeast. Sometimes the daughter yeast or bud produce
another while it is still attached to mother yeast and form chain like structure known as
ii) Fission: this type of reproduction takes place in some yeast cells, commonly called
fission yeasts. In this type the nucleus of the mother yeast divide amitotically into two
and move at each pole. A transverse wall or septa developed at the middle of cell, that
separate mother yeast into two daughter yeast.

Fig: Yeast reproduces from Fission

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Sexual reproduction:
It takes place by conjugation. It takes place under unfavorable condition (scarcity of
food material). The somatic cell directly actsas gametangia. Three types of life cycle
are observed in yeast.
1. Haplobiontic life cycle: In this type haploid phase is long and diploid phase is short.
The vegetative cell functions as gametangia. During reproduction two haploid
gametangia of opposite strain come in contact with each other by their small out
growth. The wall between these small outgrowths dissolved and form fertilization tube.
The nuclus of each cell fused to form diploid cell or zygote. The diploid cell now
functions as a sac like structure called ascus. The diploid nucleus in a ascus
undergoes meosis followed by mitosis to form 8 haploid ascospores. These
ascospores liberate out of the ascus and live independent life as a new yeast cell.

Fig:Haplobiontic life cycle

2. Diplobiontic life cycle:
This type of ife cycle is observed in saccharomycod ludwiqii. The species is diploid in
nature. The diploid cell function as a sac like structure called ascus. The diploid
nucleus in an ascus undergoes meiosis to form haploid ascospore. These ascospore

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conjugate in pair to form two diploid zygote within ascus. These zygote produce germ
tube, liberate out of the ascus and under goes septation to form sprout mycelium. The
sprout mycelium under goes budding to produce much diploid bud or cell.

Fig: Diplobiontic life cycle

3. Haplo-diplobiontic life cycle:
Here, haploid and diploid phases are equally represented. Both phase reproduce by
budding. During reproduction two haploid cell or gametangia fused to form diploid cell.
The diploid cell undergoes budding to produce many diploid cell or bud. The newly
form diploid cell now function as a sac like structure called ascus. The diplod nucleus
in an ascus undergoes meiosis to form ascospores. This ascospore liberates out of
the ascus and undergoes budding to produce many haploid ascospores or yeast cells.

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Fig: Haplo-diplobiontic life cycle
Economic importance of Fungi:
Fungi are both useful and harmful to man kinds.
1. Useful aspect:
(A)As food: Some species of mushroom are used as a food. Some of the edible
mushrooms are Aqaricus campestris, Aqaricus bisporous etc.
(B)Role in industries:
a) They are used in the production of bakery item, e.g. Saccharomyces cereuisiae.
b) They are used in the production of alcoholic beverage such as wine, beer etc, e.g.
Saccharomyes pireformis.
c) They are also used in the manufacture of enzymes and organic acid.
d) They are used in diary industries to provide flavor to the cheese.
(C) Role in Medicines: They are employed for production of different kind of medicines,
e.g. penicillin, ephedrine.
(D) Bio-Fertilizer: Fungi are also used as bio-fertilizer as they decompose complex
organic matter into simpler form and release to soil.

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Some species have symbiotic relationship with root of higher plant. This association is
known as mycorrhiza. The applications of mycorrhizal fungi in root of other crops help
to increase productivety, e.g. Polyporous.
2. Harmful effect:
a)They spoil food, milk, vegetables, fruits etc. e.g. Mucor, aspergillus.
b)Fungi can cause number of disease in plant and in animal, e.g. Alternaria
solani(blight of potato), Trichophyton (ringworm of skin)
c) They also damage papers, textiles, furniture etc.
d) Some species of mushroom are poisonous to human beings, e.g. boletus satanas.
e) They causes allergy to human, .e.g. Penicillium.

Share 3

The term algae has been derived from the latin word alga means seaweed. The study
of algae is called phycology or algology. They all are multicellular except some
unicellular forms; chlamydomonas. Algae mostly aquatic and main form green
producer of fresh and marine water. Some occurs in moist soil. The unicellular
microscopic form of chlamydomonas is the most primitive one. Colonial form isvolvox
.Filamentous forms unbrached spirogyra and branched cladophora. The siphonales
branched profusely and are coenocytic: vaucheria, charales.

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Algae generally reproduce both by the sexual and asexual reproduction.
Based on the presence of the pigments the alga is classified into 11;

1. Chlorophyceae:
This is green algae; it is largest class of algae, which includes about 425 genera and
7000 species. The chief pigment is chlophyll-a and b and small amount of carotenoids.
They are mostly fresh water, through terrestrial and marine forms are also found.They
are cosmopolitan in nature. Some grow in the peculiar habit, while other cannot
survive. The algae; chlamydomonas yellowstonensis, and haematococcus nivalis
occurered in the snow covered mountain tops.
Range of thallus structure:
Parenchymatous forms:Ulva, non-motile colonial form:Hydrodictyton, colonial motile
form;Eudorina. The cell is eukaryotic type. The inner layer of cell wall is made of
cellulose and the outer layer is made of pectose. The chloroplast shows the various
sizes. Cup shaped in chlaydomonas , spirally coiled in spirogyra.
The store food material is starch. The reproduce by vegetative, asexual, sexual
methods. Sexual reproduction is isogamous (chlamydomonas braunii) and oogamous
in oedogonium.
Asexual reproduction takes place by aplanospore formation.
Phaeophyceae (brown algae): it possess of brown color pigment such as carotenoid,
fucoxanthin in large pigment such as carotenoid, fucoxanthinin large amount
chlorophyll-a and c also present. The brown algae are mostly marine, however a few
are fresh water form like pleurocladia,Bodanella. They are attaching the substratum
by aholdfast.
Charastestic feature:
1. They are multicellular, no unicellular. The gaint kelps are grow to 30 m in height.
2. Theypossess chlorophyll-a and c, carotenoids and fucoxanthin.
3. The outer mucilaginous layer has alginic, fucinic acid. The inner layer is cellulosic.
4. laminarian starch and mannitol is the reserve food.
5. Air bladder helps in floating.
6. They reproduce vegetative, asexul and sexual.
The member of this class includes red algae. They are present in fresh water, as well
as marine water.

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Some red algae grow as epiphytes e.g. Polysiphonia violacea is epiphytic on Fucus
vesiculosus. Parasitic forms have also been reported from red algae eg, Harvevella
pachyderma, Polysiphonia fastigiata.
1. It is unicellular forms eg Porphyridium and Chroothece.
2. heterotrichous filament eg Goniotrichium and Asterocystis.
3. True parenchymatous form:Porphyra, Ulva, Bangia.
4. The outer pectic the inner layer is cellulosic.
5. Typical eukaryotic structure present in cell.
6. The pigment is chlorophyll-a ,bβ-carotene,xanthophyll and r-phycocyanin, r-
7. The reserve food is Floridian starch.
8. Reproduction takes place by vegetative, aseual and sexual.
9. Some species shows the alternation of generation.

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: thallophyta
Class: chlorophyceae
Order: conjugales
Family: zygnemaceae
Species: codensata
Occurrence: the genus comprises more than 400 species. Spirogyra is common fresh
water, free floating green algae. Few species of spirogyra remain attached to the
They are multicellular thread and unbranched. The cell consists of cell wail and
protoplast. The cell wall is made up externally pectin and inner cellulosic. Due to
presence of, mucilage they are slippery. Hence spirogyra often called scum or water
silk. Spirally coiled ribbon shaped chloroplast. A single large nucleus is present in the
centre of cell. The nucleus hangs in the central vacuole. It is heldin the position by
delicating,radiating cytoplasmic strands.

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Vegetative reproduction; fragmentation, is caused is the death of some intercalary cell,
or by the injury. Filaments break into two or several small pieces. Each fragment
consists of one or few living cell.
Asexual reproduction: it takes place by following methods:
1. Akinetes : In s. farlowii akinetes formation occurs during the unfavourable
conditions. It is thick walled resting spores. On return of favourable conditions akinetes
germinate to produce a new filament.
2. Aplnospore: Aplanospore is thin walled non motile spores. They arise singly inside
the cells. The protoplast of cells loses the water and contracts. It rounds off and secrete
the thin wall around it form aplanospore. The parent cell when rupture it released
Sexual reproduction: it is takes place by conjugation. The donor cell is designed
asmale gamete while the recipient cell is designated as female gametes. In spirogyra
any vegetative cell produces the gamete and there are no morphological differences
between male and female gametes. Thus morphologically thegametes are isogamous
and physiologically anisogamy. Conjugation takes place by two methods:
1. Scalariform conjugation: It occurs between the two filaments of cell. At the time of
conjugation two filaments come in contact and lie parallel to each other. The filaments
form tubular outgrowth or papillae from their opposite cells. The end walls of papillae
are dissolved by the enzyme action to form a conjugation tube between the two cells.
Due to the formation of several conjugation tubes the two filaments give a ladder like
appearance hancre it is called scalariform conjugation. The protoplast of cell function
as gametes. The protoplast of one cell squeezes its way through the conjugation tube
and passes into the cell of the filament, to form zygospore.
2. Lateral conjugation:
Occur in between the cell of same filament. It takes place in two ways:
a) Indirect lateral conjugation: in this method the two adjacent cells develop papillae
on the lateral sides of septum. The common wall is ruptured by the action of enzyme.
Both gametes fuse to form zygospore.

b) Direct lateral conjugation:
It is a primitive type of conjugation. The lower surface behave as female and upper
surface behaves as male in the same filament the male gametes produced boring
organ , this conical process produced the pore in the middle of septum. This two
gametes fuse to form the zygospore.
The zygospore is made up of three layers wall around themselvesand represent the
diploid phase, by the decay of this layer of the female gametes and sink to the bottom

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of water. During the germination the zygospore divides mitotically, four haploid nuclei.
Three of these haploid nuclei degenerate.
The zygospore to form single filament. On return of favorable condition the zygospore
absorb water and swells up. The outer two layer burst and inner layer to form the germ
tube, it divides transversily to form two celled structure. The lower cell is colorless and
functions as rhizoid. The upper green cell divide repeatedly to form a new filament.

General character:
1. This the amphibian plants.
2. Small terrestial plant live in the moist and damp place, require more water for
3. 25000, species of plants may be thalloid as in the Hapatiacea or leaf as in moss.
3. Rootis not well developed, rhizoids unicellular or multicellular.
4. Cuticle is absent andpart of plant absorbs the water and mineral.
5. Plant body is gametophytic, reproduce sexually by formation of gametes. Plant body
or vegetative cell consists of haploid no. of chromosomes.
6. Gametes are produce in the reproductive structure; antheridium and archegonium.
7. As a result of sexual reproduction to form a zygote, which is diploid embryo inside
the plant (in site) sporophytic.
8. Diploid in nature reproduce asexually by the formation of spore, as result of meiosis,
haploid spore may be homosporous or heterosporous.
9. Alternation of generation is distinct but gametophytic generation is dominated over
the sporophytic generation.
10. They are non-vascular plants or conducting tissues are absent.
Important character:
1. They are found in the damp and moist places.
2. Plant body is dorsoventrally flattened, dichotomously branched, may formed rosette
like structure.
3. Dark green in color dorsally and ventral surface is pale green.
4. Ventral surface produced the rhizoids; unicellular, smooth walled tuberculated.
5. Absence of columella.

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M. polymorpha
M. himalayansis these two spp. are commonly found in Nepal.
Distribution: Foot hills and the upper hills, cold countries, terai, moist, near the tap etc.,
appear during the rainy season, winter season.
1. Vegetative reproduction:
a) By the death and decay of older part of the thallus.
b) By the production of adventitious buds
c) By the formation of Gammae.
2. Sexual reproduction:
a) Plant body is gametophytic usually reproduce sexually to produce the gametes
having haploid no. chromosome.
b) Plant body is diocieous. Male thalli usually produce antheridiospore and female
thalli produce the archegoniospore.

Systematic position:
Kingdom: plantae
Class: Hepaticopsida
Order: Marchantiales
Family: Marchantiacea
Genus: Marchantia

The plant body of marchantia is of gametophyte which is called a thallus. The mature
thallus may attain the length of 1-10cm. it is a dark green in color and possess the
prominent midrib. The midrib is marked by the shallow groove in the dorsal surface
and shows the rosette type. Along the midrib, special cup like structures called gemma
cups is present.
The ventral surface of the thallus bears two or more rows of violet, multicellular plate
likes scales on the either side of the midrib. Scales are of two types: Ligulate and
The ligulate scales are small and have no appendages. Scales gives the protection to
the growing point.

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The ventral surface of the thallus also bears numerous rhizoids. They are pale brown,
unicellular and branched. The rhizoid are of two types; smooth walled and tuberculated
walled rhizoid. In the smooth walled rhizoid contain the smooth wall in the inner wall
and in tuberculated rhizoids the inner wall possesses the peg like structure. They help
in plant fixation and absorption of water and minerals.
In the reproductive stages thalli bears small upright, stalked structure called
antheridiophores and archegoniophores. This bears male sex organ and female sex
organ respectively.
Internal structure of the thallus:
A v.s. of the thallus shows the two distinct regions, the upper photosynthetic and
storage region. The upper epidermis is single layered of thin walled cells. It is
interrupted by several air pores. Air pores are barrel shaped consisting of 4-5
superimposed cells having both an upper and lower opening. The air pores are helps
to exchange the gaseous during the respiration and photosynthesis the
photosynthesis region consist of large no. of air chambers surrounded by the single
celled thick 4-8 cells high septa.
The storage region consists of compactly arranged thin walled parenchymatous cells.
Some cells may have single oil body or filled by the mucilage.
The lowermost layer of the storage region is lower epidermis. Rhizoids and scales are
borne form certain cells of lower epidermis.
Sexual reproduction:
The sexual reproduction of the marchantia is oogamous type. Marchantia plants are
dioecious , i.e. male and female sex organ develop in separate thalli. The male sex
organ is the antheridia and female sex organ are called archegonia. The sex organ of
marchatia is borne on special erect and stalked branches called the gametophores.
The gametophore bearing the antheridia is called antheriaophore or stalk of Male
receptacle whereas the gametophore bearing archegonia is called archegoniophore
or stalk of female receptacle.
Antheridiophore has an erect stalk which is about 2-3 cm in length. The top of
antheridiophore is a flattened, slightly convex; eight lobed pelate discs each lobe of
the disc has a growing point at its tip and this represent the apex of branch. On each
lobe of the pellate disc, 10-12 antheridia develop in acropetl succession is the oldest
being near the center and the youngest towards the tips of lobe. The ventral surface
of stalk of antherodiosphore bears the scale and the rhizoids along the two grooves.
The internal structure of antheridiospore is similar to that of the thallus. The antheridial
chamber open outside by the pores called ostioles.
Structure of mature antheridium:
The mature antheridium is club shape structure and consists of a short multicellular
and rounded or ovoid antheridium proper. The antheridium proper has a single jacket.

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The jacket layer encloses the single androcytes. The androcytes gets
metamorphosed into motile biflagellated antherozoids or male gametes.
Dehiscence of the antheridium:
The mature antheridium dehiscence in the presence of water. When the water enter
into the antheridial chamberthrough the outside, the antheridium become swell up.
Some of the terminal cells the wall on coming in contact with water disintegrated. Thus
the antheridium raptureand the mass of the antherozoid emerge out. The antherozoids
are sets free from the mass and swim in water. Each antherozoid is long slightly coiled
rod shaped st. with two flagella attach to the anterior end. The antherozoids swims in
water present in the grooves of receptacles with the help of flagella.

The archegoniospore consists of slender stalk and female receptacle. The stalks of
mature archegoniosphore are comparatively longer and stouter then the
antheridiospphore. The stalk is about 5-7cm in long and each surmounted by the lobe
disc called the female receptacle. The disc is eight lobed with nine umbrellaslike rays
dropping down.
All the archegonia are covered by the two-lipped membrane known as perichaetium
or involucre. A cup shaped outgrowth that surround the archegonium called
perigynium, give the protection to the archegonium.
Structure of the mature archegonium:
The mature archegonium is flask shaped structure developed on short stalk. It has
swollen venter and long neck. The neck consists of the six vertical rows of jacket cells.
The apical parts of neck consistof four covered cells or lid cells. A single layer of
jackets surrounds the venter. The venter has one egg and one venter canal cell. The
fully mature, the neck canal cell and venter canal cell disorganize and to form the
mucilage mass. Which absorb the moisture and swells. The swelling exerts
the pressure on lid cells so that they separate apart and the passage down to the
egg is developed.
It takes place in presence of water. The mucilage with the malic acids starts oozing
through the mouth and that attract the antherozoids. The movement of the
antherozoid in response of chemical is called chemotaxis. During the fertilization the
antherozoids moving into water with female receptacle. Then a no. Of antherozoids
enter the archegonium, but only one of them fuses with the egg to form the diploid
zygote. The zygote developed the wall around itself and called the oospore. The
fertilized egg or oospores represent the first stage of sporophytic generation.


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After the fertilization the archegonial cells shrivels. The wall of venter gives the 1-4
layered investment called calyptra which is of the gametophytic origin. In addition,
perigynium also grows rapidly and covers the calyptra. The third covering called the
involucre or perichetium is already present around the archegonia of each lobe. Thus
the mature sporophyte is enveloped by three distinct protective covering; thecalyptra,
the perigynium, the perichaetium. These three covering layer protect young
sporogonium from desiccation. The mature sporogonium of marchantia is completely
parasite on gametophyte because of the lack of chloroplast; ventral position and the
covering layer avoid the light penetration. It is differentiated into foot, seta and capsule:
1. Foot: it is made up of parenchymatous cells, which are situated towards the base
of archegonium .It helps in absortion of food material from the gametophyte for
developing sporophyte.
2. Seta: the seta is short stalked, junction of connecting link between the foot and the
capsule. It helps in the dispersal of spores.
3. Capsule: it is situated towards the neck of archegonium. It has single jacket layer of
Spores and germination of spores:
When the spores fall on the suitable condition they germinated. The swell by the
absorption of water. The exine ruptures and intine produce the small germ tube. The
filament like structure divided and redivided to form a multicellular structure and finally
gets changed into dichotomously branched thallus of marchntia.
Alternation of generation:
The life cycle of marchantia shows the distict alternation of generation. The lifecycle is
completed only when the plant passes through the both the stages. The dominant
phase is haploid gametophytic phase. The gametophyte reproduces sexually by male
and female gametes and the result in the formation of sporophyte. The sporophyte
reproduces asexually by the formation of spores. These spores give rise to the
gametophyte. Themarchantia plant is a gametophyte which develops from haploid
sporo. The plant body consists of dorsoventrally differentiated thallus. The antheridia
produce the female gametes or egg. The antherozoids swim in the water and reach to
the egg of an archegonium. Out of them only one fuses with egg together to form a
diploid zygote. The diploid zygote represent of first stage of sporophyteic generation.
The diploid zygote develops into complicating and elaborated structure the
sporogonium or sporophyte. The sporogenous cell inside the sporophyte divided by
meiosis to form a tetrad of haploid. This method of spore formation involving the
meiosis is an asexual reproduction. The spores gametophytic stage. Each
sporegerminates and forms a haploid gametophytic thallus of marchantia.These two
generation regularly alternate to each other. This is known as alternation of generation.

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Class: Musci
1. Small leafy plant, rhizoid axis leaves are present.
2. Rhizoids are only one type.
3. Presence of colmella (sterile structure).

Moss: Funaria, polytrichum
Distribution: Worldwide in distribution, cold region, moist wall, rainy season and are
valvate like, dry-winter season.
Simple leafy plant 1-more cm in the length. Green in color, root like rhizoids,
unicellular, branched, and only one type and helps in fixation, absorption of water
mineral, stout and cylindrical stem leaves are small, membranous green with single
rib, spiral manner.
Sexual reproduction:
It takes place by the formation of male and female gamete. The male and female
gamete. The male and female female reproductive organ are antheridia and
archegonia which lies in the association with sterile hair like St. called the paraphysis.
The male and female reproductive organ are developed at the different branches of
same plant,i.e . monoecious. The male branch has diversed leaves consisting group

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of antheridia at its apex which are usually arranged to yellow in color. The female
branch has covered leaves usually produce the capsule as sporogonium.
Antheridia of the male branch are club and covered by the jacket like st. they encloses
the androcytes, where the spermatozoids are formed which comes out after the
brusting of antheridia. Each antherozoids are coiled and biflagellated.
Similarly archegonia of female branch are flask shape having narrow elongated neck
with a row of neck canal cell and swollen venter. Inside the enter an oval ovum is
formed. At the time of fertilization , the N.C.C degenerate to formed mucilaginous
mass, which produce the a cane sugar that attract the antherozoid, and fuses with egg
to form diploid zygote. The zygote soon develop a covering wall and called oospore.
Thus the end of gametophytic and beguning of sporophytic phase . The oospore
germinate to give rise to sporophyte or sporogonium. The sporogonium consist of 3
main part :
1. Foot: Itremain buried inside the archegonium nad absorb the food material for
developing sporophyte.
2. Seta: it acts as stalk that helps in transportation of food as well as it helps in
dehiscence of capsule.
3. Capsule:the capsule is pear shaped structure covered by the calyptra. It is the apical
region consist of cap like uperculim with teeth like st. called the peristome, attach to
the annukus. The peristome is hydrophobic in nature.

The main body of capsule supported by a solid base called the apophysis, consisting
of conducting cells. The body of the capsule is covered by a single layer called the
epidermis; they form a small gap called the stroma which helps in ex-change of
gaseous. It consists of solid sterile tissue called columella, surrounded by the spore

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sac wall attach to the air chamber with trabaculee. Each spore sac bears a spore
mother cell, which undergoes the meiosis and result in the formation of spores, these
spore dispersed in dry season and when it gets a favourable condition it germinates.
Each spore germinates to form the free filamentous st. called the protonema, which
produce numerous bud called protonemal buds. These buds give to new gametophyte.
Alternation of generation:
In the life cycle of it is clearly seen that there are two phases. The gametophytic phase
and sporophytic phase, or germination of oospore represents the sporophytic
phaseswhereas gametophytic phase is the formation of gametophyte. These two
phase alter to each other. That is called as alternation of generation.
Gametophytic phase is dominated over the sporophytic phase and gametophytic
phase last for long period of time and is independed.

General character:
1. They are non-floweringplant reproduce by the formation of spores.
2. They are vascular cryptogams, due to the presence of xylem an d phloem.
3. They are terrestrial in habitat some are aquatic and epiphytic.
4. They are generally herbs and few of them are shrub.
5. The plant is sporophytic which consists of roots stems and leavesand vegetative
cells are diploid, they reproduce asexually by the formation of homospore and
6. They are recognized as the oldest group of the showing the origin from the
Silurian period of geological era.
7. Spore produce gametophyte, they are green, independent and are called the
prothallus, prothallus produce the gametes which aredevelop in antheridium and
archegonium, they may produce in same gametophyte or different gametophyte.
8. As the result of sexual reproduction produce the zygote to form the sporophyte.
9. Alternation of generation is distinct
Class: Pteropsida
Eg.Fern (Dryopteris)
1. Perennial in habit, worldwide in distribution, present mainly in the high altitude
and plains, cool, shady and moist places.

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2. Structure: they are sporophytic. Root, stems and leaves are present. Stem is
called the rhizome-horizontally creeping. They are perennial. Roots help in the
absorption food, mineral, water.
3. Morphology: the plant body is sporophytic. This is green and can be
differentiated root, stem and leaves. The stem is also known as rhizome, which is
horizontally creeping. These rhizomes are covered by the small brown scales
called ramenta. The roots arise from the rhizome. The leaf is petiolate and green
feather like. The upper portion of petiole is called rachis, whichhas several leaflets
or pinnae that bears many pinnules. The upper green part is called frond. The
young leaves are coiled from the top and circinate. The phenomenon is called
circinate venation.
In the fern reproduction takes place by vegetative and spore formation.
Vegetative reproduction: the fern multiply by fragmentation of rhizome and
development of adventitious buds.

Reproduction by spores:
1. Sporophyllus: the leaves consisting of sorii are called sporophylls.
2. Trophophylls: The leaves without sorii called trophophylls.
3. Placenta: Internally fach sorus consists of parenchymatous cushion shaped papilla
called placenta.

Sexual reproduction:
The sex organs of ferns are of two types. The sperm-producing organ, the antheridium,
consists of a jacket of sterile cells with sperm-producing cells inside. Antheridia may
be sunken (as in the family Ophioglossaceae and Marattiaceae) or protruding. They
vary in size from those with hundreds of sperm to those with only 12 or so. The egg-
producing organ, the archegonium contains one gamete (sex cell), which is always
located in the lower, more or less dilated portion of,the venter. The upper part of the
archegonium, the neck, consists of four rows of cells containing central neck cells. The
uppermost of the neck cells are the neck canal cells; the lowest cell is the ventral canal
cell, which is situated just above the egg.

Fertilization is attained by the ejection of sperm from antheridia. The sperm swim
through free water toward simple organic acids released at the opening of the
archegonium, the neck of which spreads apart at the apex, permitting the neck cells
to be extruded and the sperm to swim in and penetrate the egg. The sperm are made
up almost entirely of nuclear material, but their surface is provided with spiral bands

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of cilia—hairlike organs that effect locomotion. When the egg is fertilized, the base of
the neck closes, and the embryo develops within the expanding.
Structure of gametophyte\Prothallus

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fig ; Structure of prothallus.
It is a green, heart shaped, thin, flat shaped multicellular struture. It contain the deep
notch at its anterior endbelow which lies the growing apex. Thus the prothallus is
independent and its mode of nutrition is autotrophic. The prothallus of Dyopteris is
monoecius. The sex organ and the rhizoids aresituated on the ventral surface of
prothallus. The ventral side is in contact with the moist soil. The archegonia develop
near the apical notch and the antheridia develop below the archegonia or near the
posterior end while the unicellular brown tubular rhizoid is present. The antheridia
appears earlier than the archegonia. Such condition of prothallus is called

Alternation of generation:
Alternation of generation is distinct seen in fern; the sporophytic generation is
dominant over the gametophytic generation. In ferns, the different generations exist
as distinct individuals. The graceful fronds, or leaves, that we see adorn the
sporophytes. If you look under the fronds of a mature plant, you’ll see structures where
the spores are produced. The spores are cast from these structures onto the ground,
where they develop into gametophytes. The gametophytes are tiny heart-shaped
structures that are nearly invisible to the naked eye. They require a moist environment
to develop and, once mature, produce sperm and egg. Like the mosses, the sperm
require water to swim to the eggs, with each fertilized egg developing into the familiar,
frond-bearing sporophyte.

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Spermatophyte can be divided into two:
1. Gymnspermae(naked seed)
2. Angiospermae(food bearing closed seed)

General character of gymnospermae:
1. They are seed bearing plants-seed naked, not enclosed inside the fruit. Ovules
produce directly in the carpel or megasporophyll, no ovary is found.

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2. Oldest group of plant recorded from 300 million years back reported fossil records,
some member are called as living fossil(Gingo biloba).
3. The plant is sporophyte, root,stem, leaves-2n no of chromosomes in reproductive
cell and reproduce by the formation of spore which is called the microspore or pollen
grain or megaspore or ovule.
4. Pollen grain is directly reached to the ovule, not on the stigma.
5. As a result of fusion of male and female gamete add form the embryo, which is
polyembroyonic state and are one or more cotyledons.
6. Absence of double fertilization and triple fusion, it produce the endosperm which is
a haploid in nature.
7. Most of the members are shrubs and tree, evergreen forest mostly occupies 1|3 of
the world forest. Most of them are coniferous forest, xerophytic.
8. The group includesmostlyvaluableplant, timber, wood, pulp, which are the main
source resin gum, tannins, and medicinal value-Taxus
9. They are advanced type, vascular tissue, vascular bundle-collateral and open type.
10. Presence of secondary growth in thickness.
11, Xylem is lacks of vessels, represented only by Tracheids.
12. Pholem is devoid of companion cells, represented by sieve tissue.

Class: Cycadopsida
Order: cycadales
Family: cycadaceae
Genus: Cycas sp.

Distribution: tropical area, short shrub like or plam like st.
Structure: Sporophyte consists of root, stem, and leaves.
1. Normal tap root- much branched and deeply seated.
2. Coralloid root-positive phototrophic and negative geotrophic, symbiotic with
Stem: strout, cylindrical, trunk liker, scares of leaves.
Leaves: Pinnately compound leaves, spiral manner, large in size (macrophyllous),
leaflets are thick or leathery with the pointed ends with petiole having spiny remains,

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crowded at the apex, scale at the apex and scales are at base of green or foliose
Plants are diocious-male and female cone are present in different branch. Amale cone,
a group of male flower arranged in spiral manner on the common axis.

Fig: cycas plant

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Fig: Microsporophyll

Fig: Megasporophyll
Root: the normal root of cycas consists of primary root or tap root with lateral breaches.
It arises from the lower surface of the stem and is very long, positively geotrophic, its
main function is fixation and absorption.
In addition to normal roots some secondary roots are develop near the surface of the
ground that become negative geotrophic and grow upward and parallel to the surface.
These roots are stumpy, dichotomously branched and the closed mass forming

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coralloid masses, above the ground and look like corals. These roots are known as
coralloid roots. The internal struture of normal root and collaroidal root is same, with
the only difference that only have algal zone present in the cortex of coralloid root. The
algae present in the corolloid root are blue green algae like Anabaena and nostoc.
These coralloid roots take part in aeration through the lenticels and the nitrogen
fixation due to the present of symbiotic, endophytic blue green algae in them.

The stem of the cycas is the tuberous, when young but it becomes columnar, usually
unbranched, woody stout, erect and arborescent i.e. stem bearing at the apex acrown
of the leaves in apparent whorls. The stem is covered with armour or perstient leaf
Leaf: The leaves in the cycas are spirally arranged around the stem. The leaves are
dimorphic i.e., of the two types; foliage leaves and scaly leaves. The foliage leaves
are green in color, thick, leathery, and pinnately compound and consists of three parts.
They are rhomboidal shaped leafy bases, thick and woody rachis and lanceolate
leaflets or pinnae.

Pinus (pine)
Distribution: it is found from 1200-3300m from sea level. It is found in the eastern
region and western region. Its height is about 60-100ft in coniferous forest. Pinus are:
P. roxbourgii

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P. wallichina
P. longifolia
P. excels
Distribution of pinus in Nepal:
It is found in Nepal between 1800 and 3600 m, and very occasionally upto 4400 m. It
is fairly widely distributed in the midland zone, between the foothills,and the main
Himalayan range, where, at its lower altitude limits, it is often mixed with P. roxburghii,
but in general at these altitudes, P. roxburghii will be found on south-facing slopes
and P. wallichiana on north-facing slopes. It tends to be absent from the wettest parts
of the midland zone. It is very characteristicof abandoned fields and grazing land. It is
abundant in the inner dry valleys, such as in the Humla-Jumla, and the edges of the
arid zone round Jomsom, where It is found under rainfall of 750 mm or less; it is also
very common in the Solokhumbu area. Outside Nepal it extends as far as Afghanistan
in the west, and Bhutan in the east, though it is absent from Sikkim.
Sporophytic body:
The body of pinus is sporophytic. They have stem stem consists of two types of
1. Branch of unlimited growth-Long shoot
2. Branch of limited growth- Dwarf shoot
Root: Tap root system but not deeply seated and branched. The mycorrizal roots
differ from the normal roots in the following respect.
1. They are short and thick.
2. Theylack root hair.
3. Theylack root caps.
4. They are more extensively branched.
5. They are covered by the fungal hyphae.

Leaves: leaves are:
1. Primary leaves
2. Scale leaves
3. Folige leaves (needle)

Primary leaves are single, alternate (usually helically arranged), acicular leaves
that are usually produced only for the first year of growth but that may be produced
for many years in some species (such as Pinus quadrifolia) or may be produced
on a mature plant in response to a wound. Cataphyll are alternate (helically

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arranged) non-chlorophyllous primary leaves produced on shoots; they are
typically small, subulate or lanceolate, with erose-hyaline to ciliate margins, leaving
a distinctive pattern when they fall off the shoot; they are often a useful character
in identification.Needle of course, are the most common pine leaves. They are
borne on dwarf shoots axillary to cataphylls in clusters or fascile of one to eight
needles, initially bound together by a basal sheath that may then fall off or may
persist, falling with the needles. The number of leaves per fascicle, the length of
needles, the number of sides of the needles (only Pinus mononophylla has a round
needle), the distribution of stomata (waxy white specks on the leaf surface), and
the color and stiffness of the needles can all be useful characters for identification.
The interior structure of the leaf also may be important for identification, but this
requires a microscope and so leaf anatomical characters are rarely used by field

Parts of pinus:
Needle: It is simply, the leaf of the pine tree. It starts its growth in dense tufts at the
end of pine boughs. It is attached to its bough by a sheath or cap. There are usually
three, sometimes five sections in each needle. Pine needles mature at three to five
years. Many fall at maturity, but others cling to the tree, sometimes for years. The
mature needles are turned brown by the summer sun, and fall from the trees in
early autumn. This is the best time to collect needles for basketry, as the surface
of the needle is hard and glossy and the color is rich brown. If left on the ground
for a season, the needles lose their luster, become dull and brittle, and may develop
dark spots from insects, mold or mildew.Vertical section needle consists of
following parts
1. Cuticle
2. Epidermis
3. Hypodermis
4. Mesophyll layer
5. Endodermis
6. Pericycle

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Fig: v.s. of needle

Stem: the main stem or trunk is woody, erect and covered with scaly bark. It bears
two types of branch; long brach and short or dwarf branches.
Long shoot:
These are the normal branches which continue in the active growth indefinitely by
means of apical buds. They are often called branches of unlimited growth.
These branches arise as buds in the axis of scale leaves at end of each year
extentation of growth.
Dwarf shoot:
In addition of long shot, dwarf shoot arises directly from the trunk. They are also
called branch of limited growth which is numerous and borne on the ordinary
branches in the axis of scale leaves. The dwarf shoot consists of a short axis
terminating in the cluster of green needle. It is covered with cataphylls.

Morphology of Flowering Plants

Angiosperms: All flower bearing plants are called angiosperms.
1. The angiosperms may be annuals, biennials or perennials.

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2. They may be herbs, shrubs or trees.
3. Xylem consists of vessels, tracheid, xylem parenchyma and fibers.
4. They bare flowers for reproduction.
5. Archegonia are absent.
6. Endosperms is formed by triple fusion. Thus, it is a triploid structure.
(a) Hydrophytes: Plants that grow in water or in adequate supply of water are called
hydrophytes. e.g . Hydrilla , Nymphaea.
(b) Mesophytes:Plants that grow on land under average condition of water and
temperature are called mesophytes. E.g.: Mango tree, Mustard plant.
(c) Xerophytes: plants that grow in dry condition or in scarce of water are called
xerophytes. E.g.: Opuntia, Nerium.
The angiosperms are classified into two main groups,
i. Dicotyledons
ii. Monocotyledons

Differences between Dicots and monocots.
(a)Seeds contain two cotyledons.
(b)They are often insect pollinated.
(c)The leaves show reticulate venation.
(d)They usually contain tap root systems.
(e)The leaves are dorsoventrally flattened.

a. Seeds contain one cotyledon.
b. They are Often water pollinated.
c. The leaves show parallel venation.
d. They usually contain adventitious root systems.
e. The leaves are isobilateral.

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Difference between Tap root and adventitious root.

Tap Root Adventitious root.

a. It is usually underground. a. It may be underground or aerial.
b. It is the characteristic features of the dicot plant. b. It is the characteristic features of the m
c. The primary root continues to grow and gives off c. The primary root stops growing and i
lateral branches. many thin roots.
d. It develops directly from the embryo and usually d. It develops from any part of the plant
persists throughout life. that embryo.
e. It consists of a prominent main root that gives off many e. It consists of a cluster of roots which
fine lateral branches. from the same point.

Parts of Roots
The extreme part of a root of a root is called root tip. It consists of large number of cell.
It is called zone of cell division.

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Root hair is a part of a plant which observed water and minerals. The main function of
root cap is to protect zone of cell division.

Shoot system
The system of a plant which of row above the soil surface, grow towards light
phototropism or negative geotropism is called shoot system.

- Provides support to various parts of a plant like stem, leaf, bud, flower, fruit etc.
- Shoot is generally green is colour in young consists of nodes and internodes.
- Stem helps to transfer water and minerals from roots to leaves. It transfers food
prepared in leaves to storage other growing part.
- Branches produce buds, leaves, flowers, fruits.
There are two types of bud.
They are:
i)Terminal bud
ii) Axillary bud
a. Vegetative bud
b. Floral bud

Flower: It is main reproduction part of the plant. It has asexual and sexual reproductive
Asexual Reproduction:
1. Microspore: pollen grains (male gametes)
2. Megaspores: ovule (ovum i.e. female gametes)

Modification of flowering plants
Modification of Roots: The normal tap root is modified to store the good material. It
changes its shape and size due to accumulation of food materials. This is called the
modification of root.
Modification of tap root: it is the normal tap root modified to store tha food materials. It
changes its shape and size due to accumulation of good materials. According to their
shape, they are classified into following types.

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- Fasiform root
-Napiform root
-Conical root

Modification of adventitious root:
The adventitious roots are modified to perform various functions such as the storage
of food, support, assimilation and other important function.
1.For storage of food:
a. Tuberous root
b. Annulate root
c. Nodulated root
d. Fasciculate root
2.For mechanical support
a. Prop root
b. Stilt root
c. Climbing root

The stem
Stem is the aerial part of the vascular plant, developing from the plumule and bears
branches, leaves and flowers. It is differentiated into nodes and internodes which may
not be distinct in some cases.

Habit of the plant:
Nature of the stem is determined by the habitat of plant. The plants are usually
classified into different categories according to their life cycle habitat or according to
their life cycle.
Herbs: a small plant with soft or non-woody stem.e.g grass
Shrubs: a bushy perennial plant with woody or non woody stem. Branches arise from
the base e.g China rose.
Tree: a tall woody plant with woody stem. Branches develop well above the ground
level. E.g mango tree, peepal tree.
Annuals: plants that complete their life cycle in one year. E.g. rice, maize.

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Perennials: plants that continue their growth for many years. Eg. Mango tree, apple
tree etc.

Modification of stem
1. Underground modification: there are always thick and fleshy having a good
deposition of good material in them. They are of following types;
a) Rhizome: it is a thick and fleshy underground stem, which grows horizontally near
the soil surface. It contains dry scaly leaves at distinct nodes. It bears buds in axils of
scaly leaves and a terminal bud. The buds serve for vegetative propagation. E.g.
ginger, fern, mint etc.
(b)Tuber: swollen terminal portion of an underground stem is called stores a
large amount of food matrials in the form of starch. The stem tuber bears a number of
nodes called eyes. Each eye bears a few buds.
(c) Corm: it is a short, vertical, fleshy underground stem with a flattened base. It is
more or less round and bears several dry, thin scaly leaves. It has distinct nodes and
internodes. The corm stores a large amount of food material. It bears an apical bud,
which produces shoot with leaves and flowers. E.g. colocasia
(d) Bulb: it is a short underground shoot with many scaly leaves. The food material Is
stored in the scaly leaves.

2. Sub- Aerial modification: sub- aerial stems are found in plant with weak stems in
which branches lie horizontally on the ground. They are of following types.
a.Runner: it is a long, slender, prostate stem with long or short internodes. e.g. mint,
grasses, oxalis etc.
b. Stolon: it is along, slender, lateral branch that aeises from the base of the
black jasmine etc.
c. Sucker: an obliquely upward growingbranch arises from the underground part of the
stem and root.
d. Offset: A horizontal, short, more or less thickened stem. It originates from the axil
of a leaf, extend for a short distance and then produce a cluster of leaves above and
adventitious roots below. e.g. Pistia, water hyacinth etc.

3.Aerial modification:
a.Phylloclade: it is the characteristic features of some xerophytes plant. It is a short,
green, flattened or cylindrical branch. It carries out photosynthesis and store water for
the plant. It contains several nodes and internodes. The leaves are modified into
spines or scales to reduce evaporation. e.g. euphorbia

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b. Stem tendril:it is a thin, leaf less thread like, spirally curled branch. It helps weak
plat to climb. E.g. passion flower
c. Thorn: stem modified into a hard, often straight, pointed and woody structure. It may
bears leaves, flowers in certain plants . The thorn arise in spring as axillary shoot with
normal leaves and with a special bud. E.g. lemon
d. Twiner: long slender and branched stem climbing by twisting its body around the
support. Eg. Cuseuta
Climbers: A weak climbing on support by means of special structure such as hooks,
leaf tendrils, stems tendrils etc.

The Leaf
They are foliose part of the plant. It is usually green in colour and helps in manufacture
of good, transpiration, exchange of gases. Leaf is a flattened, lateral outgrowth of the
stem or the branch developing from a node. It is a photosynthesis appendage of the
plant, bearing chlorophyll. It manufactures food for the whole plant.

Structure of leaf:

i) Leaf base: it is the basal part of the leaf by means of which leaf remain attached to
the node of the stem. In some cases leaf base bears lateral outgrowths called stipules.

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ii) Petioles: It is a stalk below the lamina. It helps in the attachment of leaf. A leaf with
petiole is called petiolate and without is sessile.
iii) Lamina: lamina is flattened, expanded green portion of the leaf. It possesses a
number of thin veins. It is the most important part of the leaf, which takes part in food
production. It gives off numerous thin lateral veins which branch further to form the
Venation of leaf: The arrangement of veins and veinlets in the leaf is called leaf
venation. It is mainly classified into two types.
i) Reticulate net-like arrangement of veins is called reticulate venation. It is the
characteristic features of dicot leaves. It is further classified into two types.
a) Pinnate: single mid-rib with lateral veins is called pinnate.
b) Palmate: many midribs with lateral veins arising from the petiole. It is also
called multicostate reticulate venation. E.g. hibiscus, cucumber etc.
ii) Parallel venation: the arrangement of veins is more or less parallel to each other is
more or less parallel to each other. It is also classified into pinnate and palmate types.

3. Shape of leaves:the shape of lamina varies greatly in different leaves.
(a) Linear: long, narrow
(b) lanceolate: much longer than broad.
(c) Round: circular leaf lamina.
(d) ovate:broader base with narrow end.
(e) spathulate: spoon shaped

4. Margins of the leaf:
(a) Serrate: sharp toothed margin, like the teeth of a saw. E.g. Rose
(b) Palmate: margin divided in palm like structure.
(c) Lobed: margin divided into many lobes. e.g. ranunculuc.
5. Apex of the leaf:
(a) Acute: sharp ending apex forming on acute angle. e.g. Mango
(b) Obtuse: blunt or rounded apex.
(c)Acuminate: Apex ending in long, tapering pointed end. E.g. peepal
(d) Cuspidate: terminating in appoint.
(e) Euspidate: apex ending in a long, rigid.

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6. Leaf Surface: The leaf surface is of various type and can be different according to
the family. Some of them are glabrous, hairy, spiny, rough etc.
7. Texture of the leaf: The textures of leaves are coriaceous, fleshy, succulent,
membranous and scarious.
8. Phyllotaxy: Arrangement of the leaves on the stem or in the branch is called
phyllotaxy. They are of 3 types,
(A) Alternate: if the leaves are originated form each nodes and alternate from each
other than this kind of arrangement is called alternate arrangement. E.g. Mango
(B) Opposite: if the leaves are originated from each nodes and they are in alternate
position then this condition is called opposite arrangement.
(a) Superposed: if the leaves pairs at upper and lower nods are exactly in same planes.
(b) Decussate: if the pairs of leaves are lies right angle to each other.
(C) Whorled: if more than two leaves are in the same nodes then this condition is
called whorled arrangement. E.g. Nerium

Types of leaves: on the basis of number of leaf blades, they are of two types. i.e.
simple leaf and compound leaf.
a. Simple leaf: Leaves having a single leaf blade. The leaf lamina may be whole or
incised into various lobes but the incisions never touch the mid rib. E.g. Peepal
b. Compound Leaf: The blade is divided into several segments called leaflets, e.g.
Types of Compound Leaf:
1. Pinnately Compound leaf: The leaflets are borne on a central axis in two lateral
rows. They may be opposite or alternate. It is further classified into
(a) Unipinnate: A pinnately compound leaf with unbranched rachis. Leaflets arise
directly on the rachis, e.g. Cassia
i) paripinnate ii) imparipinnate
(b) Bipinnate: A pinnately compound leaf with branched rachis, leaflets arise on the
secondary rachis, e.g. Acacia.
(c) Tripinnate: A pinnately compound leaf with secondary and tertiary branches leaflets
arise on the tertiary rachis, e.g. Moringa.
(d) Decompound: Leaflets arise on the ultimate branches, e.g. Coriandrum.

2. Palmately compound leaf: Like the finger of a palm the leaflets arise from a common

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(a) Unifoliate: A palmately compound leaf having only one leaflet, e.g. Citrus.
(b) Bifoliate:leaf having two leaflets.
(c)Trifoliate: Leaf having three leaflets.
(d) Multifoliate: having more than four

The arrangement of flowers on the floral axis Is called inflorescence. The main
supporting stalk of inflorescence is called peduncle and the supporting stalk of a single
flower is pedicel.
Classification of Inflorescence: it is classified into two types;
-Racemose or indefinite: The main grows continuously and develops on its lateral
sides in acropetal succession, i.e. youngest towards the apical end and oldest towards
the basal end. They are classified into following type
a) Raceme b) spike c) spikelet d) catkin e) Spadix f)umbel g) corymb h)compound
Umbel i) Head

- Cymose or Determinate: The main axis shows limited growth. It is usually branched.
The flower borne in basipetal succession, i.e. oldest towards apical end and youngest
towards the base.

Racemose Cymose

i. Main axis never terminates with floral buds. i. Main axis terminate into floral buds.
ii. Lower flowers are mature than upper flower. ii. Upper flowers are mature than lower f
iii. Flower opening is centripetal. (outer mature and inner iii. Flower opening is centrifugal.
immature) iv. Main axis checked to grow. E.g. Jasm
iv. Main axis continues to grow . e.g. Mustard plant

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Flower is a modified shoot of angiosperm plant, especially for sexual reproduction.
The flower consist of an axis or receptacle, on which four types of floral leaves such
as sepals, petals, stamens and carpels develop one after another. The flowers develop
from a bud known as flower bud in the axil of a small leaf like structure called bract.
The flower has a stalk known as pedicel, by which it is attached to the axis of
a stem.

Fig: Flower showing parts

Some descriptive terms of flower:
Bract: a modified small leaf like structure present at the base of flower.
Bracteole: a flower with a bract.
Ebracteate: having no bract.
Bracteolate: flower with bracteole, e.g. Adhatoda
Peadicellate: folwer with pedicel.
Sessile: having no stalk.
Sub-sessile: flower with a short pedicel.
Involucre: a whorl of bracts.
Complete: havingall four flora whorls, i.e. calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium.
Incomplete: when anyone of the four floral whorls is absent.

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Actinomorphic or regular: a flower which can be divided into tow equal halves by
more than one longitudinal planes passing through the centre.

Zygomorphic: which flower Can be divided longitudinally into two equal halves.
Irregular: when flower cannot be divide into two equal parts by vertical plane.
Bisexual(hermaphrodite): flower with male and female reproductive organ in same
Unisexual: plant with either male or female reproductive organ present.
Dimerous: flower with two or multiples of two floral organs.
Trimorals: flower with three or multiples of three floral organs.
Accessory organs: calyx and corolla are often referred to as accessory or non-
essential organ.
Essential organs: androecium and gynoecium, as they are directly involve in
Perigynous: A cup shaped structure around the gynoecium formed by thalamus,
gynoecium which develop at the center of the cup and rest of the floral parts.
Epigynous: flower with inferior ovary when further while other floral parts are inserted,
i.e. superior e.g. cucrbita

Parts of a flower:
1.Accessory whorl
(a) calyx
(b) Corolla

2. Essential whorl
(a) Androecium
(b) Gynoecium

Calyx: it is the outermost whorl of the flower. It is usually green in color and individual
member of the calyx is called sepal. The sepals may either remain green form each
other or fused together forming a bell shaped structure.
Caduceus: calyx fall down before the flower opens perfectly. E.g.
papaver somniferous.

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Decidious: the sepals fall off along with the petals at maturity after fertilization. E.g.
Brassica campestris.
Persistent: The sepals persist even after the formation of fruit. It is of two types.
Accrecent: a persistent calyx assuming a dried form. E.g. Guava

The second whorl lying just inner to calyx. It is composed of number of leaf like brightly
coloured petals. All the petals may remain either free from each other or fused together
giving different shapes. Thus, the petals help in pollination by attracting insects.
Like calyx the free petals are known as polypetalous and fused petals are known as

Polypetalous corolla
i. Cruciform
iv. Papilionaceous
Gamopetalous corolla
iii.Infundibuliform (funnel shaped)
iv.Rotate (wheel shaped)
v.Ligulate (strap shaped)


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Fig: Androecium
It is the male reproductive organ of the flower. It is made up of one or more stamens.
The stamens consist of
a. Filament: it is the slender stalk of the stamen, which bears the anther at its tip. There
are four pollen sac produces a large number of pollen grains or microspores. The
pollen grains are the male reproductive units.
b. Anther: An anther with two loculus is called dithecous, while in some cases the
anther has only one locule and it is called monothecous.

(B) Gynoecium (pistil):

Fig: Gynoecium

The fourth innermost whorl lying at the center of the thalamus is the female. It is
composed of one or more carpels. Each pistil consists of three parts. i.e. ovary, style,
and stigma.
The swollen basal part of the pistils Is known as ovary. The ovary may have one or
more locules or chambers. Each locule contains on or more ovules on placentae. The
ovary gives rise to the fruit and the ovules to the seeds. The slender stalk supporting

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the stigma is called the style and small rounded or lobed head of the pistil is known as
the stigma.
Placentation: the arrangement of placentae and ovules on the ovary wall commonly
known as placentation. They are marginal, axile, parietal, central and free central,
besal, superficial.

A ripened ovary enclosing seeds is called fruit which is developing after fertilization.
When only the ovary of the flower develops into the fruit, is called true fruit. The
phenomena in which the fruit develops without fertilization is called parthenocarpy. A
fruit mainly consist of two parts, i.e. pericarp and seeds.
Pericarp: it develops from ovary wall.
Seeds: it develops from ovule.

Types of fruit: They are of three types,
1. Simple fruits: a single fruit develops from ovary of a flower with or without accessory
parts. They may be dry or fleshy, e.g. pyxis, poricidal.
2. Aggregate fruits: simple fruits developing from an apocarpous pistil of a flower are
collected together to form an aggregate fruit, e.g strawberry, rubus etc.
3. Multiple or composite fruits: It develops from entire inflorescence, e.g. sorosis.

The seed:
The seed is a ripened ovule developed after fertilization consist of an embryo and
reserve food surrounded by seed coat. The food may be stored in the cotyledons of
embryo in none endospermic or in a special tissue called endosperm.
Structure of dicotyledonous seed
The seed is covered by two distinct layers of seed coats called testa and tegman.
Testa is the outer coat which is smooth thick and may be coloured. Tegment is inner
coat which is thin membranous and hyaline which provide necessary protection.
Inner to the seed coat is embryo. Dicot embryo consist o0f short axis with cotyledons.
The cotyledons are attached laterally to the embryonal axis. The portion of the axis
lying outside cotyledons and directed towards the mycropile.The cotyledon store of
food materials.

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Fig: structure of Dicot seed

Structure of monocotyledonous seed
A maize grain is a single seeded fruit called caryopsis. The seed coat and wall of the
food are fused together to form a thin layer around the whole part. Coat surrounds
endosperm and embryo. The bigger one is endosperm and smaller is embryo.

Fig: structure of monocot seed

Some Dicot and monocot Families:
Family: curciferae (Brassicaceae)

Distribution:the family, includes 38 genera and 98 species, are found in Nepal.They
aredistributedworldwide and mainly grow in temprate and cold parts.Many species are
cultivated for vegetable, oil yielding seeds and cosmetic production.
Habit:Most of the plants are annual, biennial or perennial herbs. A few species are
small shrubs. .
Root:Usually tap and branched, tap root may also became modified like fusiform root

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Napiform roots: These roots become swollen due to the storage of food.
Stem: Commonly herbaceous, erect, cylindrical, hairy, initially reduced but elongates
after vegetative growth and forms floral shoot. Stem is very much condensed.
Leaf: Radical, cauline, simple, alternate, petiolate or sessile, exstipulate, hairy,
Lyrate, unicostate, reticulate venation.
Floral characters:
Inflorescence: Racemose, generally raceme.
Flower: Ebractate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic,
bisexual, tetramerous, cruciform, hypogynous.
Calyx: Sepals-4, polysepalous, arranged in two whole 2+2, imbricate aestrivation,
Corolla: Petals- 4, polypetalous, cruciform, alternate with sepals, aestrivation valvate
Androecium: Stamens-6, polyandrous, arrange in two whorls, tetradynamous arrange
in two whorls, tetradynamous is main characteristic of the family. Aonther
bilobed, basifixed and introres.
Gynoecium: Bicarpellary (2 carpels), syncarpous, ovary is superior, unilocular but
becames bilocular due to the development of a false septum, parietal placentation,
style short, stigma capitates.
Fruit: Siliqua or silicula.

Floral formula: Ebr. ⃝ ○ K2+2 C4 A2+2 G(2)

1. Brassica campestris (tori)
2. Brassica oleracea (Kauli)
3. Brassica rapa (Gantemula)
4. Brassica nigra (Kali tori)
5. Raphanus sativus (mula)

Family: Papilionaceae
Distribution:it includes more than 482 genera and 7200 species. They commonly grow
in the sub tropical and temperate region. These families of many species are cultivated
as important pulses and vegetable.
Habitat: Most of the members of this family are annual, biennial or perennial herbs or
climbing, rarely they are shrub and tree.

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Root: branched tap root. The roots are usually with nodules containing nitrogen-fixing
bacteria like Rhizobium spp. Due to this character the plants are alsocultivated to
maintain soil fertility.
Stem: herbaceous or woody, erect or week climber, cylindrical, branched, solid, green
and glabrous.
Leaf: alternate or whorled, petiolate, stipulate with foliacious stipule, simple or
compound, leaf lets are modified into tendril in some species, reticulatevenation.

Floral characters:
Inflorescence: usually racemose types or solitary.
Flowers: bracteates, pedicellate, zyogomorphic, complete, bisexual, usually
pentamerous, hypogynous or perigynous.
Calyx: sepals-5, gamosepalopus, aestivation valvate or imbricate, sometime bell
Corolla: petals-5, polypetalous, petals unequal, aestivation imbricate, inferior.
Androecium: stamens 10, usually diadelphous (9+1), anther dithecous, basifixed and
introres, inferior.
Gynoecium: carpels 1 (monocarpellary) ovary superior, unilocular with many
ovules, placentation marginal, and style bent at base, flat and hairy, stigma simple.
Fruit: legume or pod.

Floral formula: Br. %O K (5) C1+2+ (2) A (9) +1 G1
1. Dalbergia sissoo (Sisau)
2. Pisum sativum (Pea)
3. Cajanus cajan (Rahar)
4. Glycine max (Bhatmas)
5. Vicia faba (Bakula simi)

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Family: Solanace
Distribution: Most of the species of the family are distributed in tropical and sub-
region but some are found in temperate region. it is the largest genus consisting
16 genera and 51 species are found in Nepal.
Habit: erect or climbing, herbs or shrubs or rarely soft tree.
Root: Tap root.
Stem: erect, rarely climbing or prostrate, herbaceous or woody, solid or fistular, hairy.
Leaf: cauline, alternate or opposite, petiolate or sessile, exstipulate, entire, simple,
pinnately divided, unicostate, reticulate venation.
Floral characters:
Inflorescence: cymose.
Flower: ebracteate, pedicellate or sub-sessile, complete, actinomorphic, hypogynous.
Calyx: sepals-5, gamosepalous, campanulate sometime tubular, inferior, aestivation
valvate or
imbricate, green.
Corolla: petals 5, gamopetalous, campanulate, valvate or twisted aestivation.
Androecium: stamens 5, free, epipetalous, alternate to petals, anther basifixed,
introres and inferior.
Gynoecium: bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, bilocular, many ovules in each

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axile placentation with swollen placenta, style short, stigma bilobed.
Fruit: berry or capsule.
Floral formula: Ebr⃝○K(5) C(5) A5 G(2)

1. Solanum tuberosum Alu
2. Solanum melongela Bhenta
3. Lycopersicum esculentum Golvenda

Compositae ( Asteraceae)

Distribution: It is largest family of angiosperms which includes about 1000 genera and
23000 species, and cosmopolitan in distribution.
Habit: mostly annual or perennial herbs, some are under shrubs.
Root: tap or adventitious.
Stem: erect or prostrate, rarely climbing, herbaceous, woody, solid and fistular.
Leaf: radical or cauline, alternate or opposite or whorled, commonly simple, rarely
serrate or dendate, acute, unicostate reticulate venation.
Floral characters:
Inflorescence: head or capitulum, cyme.
Flowers: Two types of flower found in this family: - a. Disc florets b. ray florets.
A. Disc florets
Flowers: bracteate, sessile, actinomorphic, complete, bisexual, pentamerous and
Calyx: represented by 2-3 scales or by hairy or absent.
Corolla: petals 5, gamopetalous, tubular, valvate aestivation.
Androecium: stamens 5, epipetalous, filaments long, equal, anther basifixed,
dithecous, introrse
and syngenesious.
Gynoecium: carpels 2, syncarpous, inferior, unilocular with single basal ovules,
basal, style 1, stigma bifid.
Fruit: cypsela.
Floral formula: Br. ⃝ ○ K pappus or Scales or absent C (5) A 5 G (2)

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B. Ray florets
Flower: bracteate, sessile, zygomorphic, incomplete, unisexual,
Calyx: represented by 2-3 scales or by hairy pappul or absent.
Corolla: petals with 3-5 teeth, gamopetalous, ligulate valvate.
Androecium: absence.
Gynoecium: carpels 2, syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular with a
basal ovule, placentation basal, style1, stigma bifid.
Fruit: cypsela
Floral formula: Br. %○K pappus or 2-3scales or absent C (3-5) A0 G (2)
1. Helianthus annuus suryamookhi
2. Tagetes patula sayapatri
3. Dahlia tuberose lahure phool
4. Artemisia vulgaris titepati

Family: Gramineae
Newly this family is called Asteraceae.

Most of the species of the family are cosmopolitan in distribution. The plants
are commonly found in temperate regions and are also found in tropical and sub-
tropical regions. In addition to terrestrial form some are hydrophyte xerophyte and
Habit: annual or perennial herbs, rarely woody, mostly wild, some are cultivated.
Root: adventitious, fibrous.
Stem: erect, prostrate or creeping, commonly fistular, often solid, presence of distinct
nodes and
internodes, the stem is called culm.
Leaf: cauline, alternate, exstipulate, sessile, simple and sheathing base covering the
inter node.
Leaf blade linear to lanceolate, parallel venation.

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Floral characters:
Inflorescence: racemose type, spiklet.
Flowers: bracteates, sessile, zygomorphic, bisexual or unisexual, incomplete and
Parianth: absence or mostly represented by two membranous lodicules as in rice,
wheat; threein bamboo and one in Malice spp.
Androecium: stamens 3 or 3+3 , rarely reduced to 2 or 1, distinct, filaments slender
and long,
anther dithecous, versatile and dehisce by longitudinal slits.
Gynoecium: carpels 1, 2 or 3, syncarpous, ovary rounded, superior, unilocular with a
single basal
ovule, style and stigma feathery.
Fruit: caryopsis
Floral formula: Br.% ○ P2 (lodicules) or absent A3 or 3+3 G (3) or (2) or 1

1. Triticum aestivum wheat
2. Oryza sativa Rice
3. Zea mays Maize

Share 7


Lichen is an association of algae and fungi. The algal partner is called phycobiont, the
phycobiont are cyanobacteria and sometimes chlorophyceae. Whereas the fungal
partner is called mycobiont, the mycobiont are mainly ascoycetes, sometimes
basidiomycetes and rarely a deuteromycetes. Fungal partner is mainly concerned the
protection againt dessication, excessive light intensity, and temperature. While the
algal component, due to the presence of chlorophyll it manufacture the food for both.
This type of association is called symbiotic relationship.

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There are about 20000 species of lichens. They are distributed worldwide. They are
mostly confined to the subtropic and tropic with plenty of moisture. They are usually
grown in rock roof and branches of tree. They are usually xerophytic in nature. They
are irregular thallus shape having the color ofbluis-green, greish-green. Usually three
basic form of lichen are recognized.
It is thin, flat and hard layer of thallus without distinct lobes the whole lower surface of
filament is attach to the substratum, thallus bears apothesia (fruiting body). For eg
Lecanora, Graphis, Strigula.
The thallus is many lobed and leaf like. The rhizinae the organ for attach the
substratum also helps in absorption. The surface present several fruiting bodies called
apothesia, it is fungal component. For eg Physcia, Parmelia, Peltigera.

Complex type of thallus, showing much branching. The fruiting body is also apothesia.
The thaallus may be erect or pedant (hanging from tree). Only flattened disc remain
attach to the substratum. Eg. Usnea, Cladonia.

Fig; different lichen

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1. Bioindicater of air pollution;
In general plants are more sensitive than human. So the lichen cannot grow in the
environment where the maximum concentration of so2. When the accumulation reach
a toxic level the lichen dies due to accumulation of unwanted food material.
2. Pioneers in plant succession:
Over a period of time one type of plant community replace by another type referred
the succession. Lichen referred as pioneer of ecological succession on rocks and
barren land.
3. Food and fodder:
Lecanora, parmelia, Umblillicaria are used as food in many part of world. Reindeer
moss, Iceland moss is important source of fodder.
4. in medicine:
Different species of lichen are used in the different types of disease for e.g. Par melia
perlata is used in treatment of snake bites. Usnea and cladonia are used in antibiotic
5. Lichen as dyes:
Orchil, ablue dyes obtained from Cetraria islandica,is dying for wollens, similarly litmus
obtained from Rocella montaignei.
6. In cosmetic and perfumery:
Species of Evernia and Ramalina are used in the manufacture of cosmetic soap
.Evernia prunastri is widely used in manufacture of perfume.

The branch of biology that deals with the viruses is called virology. The words virus is
derived from the Latin words (Latin,venom= poisonous fluid) meaning poison.
In other words virus are known as obligatory parasites as they are fully depends on
the living organism for multiplication. A mature virus particle outside the host is called
History of virus
A German scientist Adolf Meyer discovered virus in 1886 A.D. He described the
infectious nature Tobacco mosaic Virus (TMV). The Russian botanist
Iwanowsky(1892) was first to give clear evidence of virus. Again In (1935)
W.M.Stanley an American microbiologist for the first time was able to crystallize the

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Virus causing Tobacco Mosaic Diseases (TMV). After Isolating from Infected tobacco
leaf juice. He thus showed that viruses are not like typical cell.
Stanley was awarded Noble prize for his work. Barden (1943A.D.) define the virus “as
an obligatory parasitic pathogen having diameter of less than 200µm”.
Characteristics of Viruses
1. All the viruses are minute and simplest organism. The can only be seen with an
electron microscope.
2. The diameter of viruses ranges from about 20-30µm.
3. They show respond to chemicals, heat and temperature.
4. They are highly specific to their host.
5. They undergo mutation like living organism.
6. Virus occurs in mainly 3 main shapes respectively;
Spherical, helical, complex.

Nature of viruses
They exhibit the properties of both living and nonliving things.

Living characteristic of viruses
1. Viruses can grow and reproduce within the host cells.
2. They undergo mutation like other organism.
3. They have their own DNA or RNA or both.
4. They are capable of transmitting disease.
5. They are sensitive to light and temperature.

Nonliving characteristic of Viruses
1. They lack of cytoplasm, cell organelles and may be nucleus.
2. They do not respire.
3. They are heterotrophic, i.e. they depend upon other for their living.
4. In viruses respiration process not occurs.
Classification of viruses
They are classified on the basic of type of host and genetic material.

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On the basic of type of host they are as,
1. Animal viruses: the virus which live inside the animal cell. E.g. influenza virus,
rabies virus, polio virus etc. their genetic material is RNA or DNA.
2. Plant viruses: The viruses which live inside the tobacco mosaic virus
(TMV), potato virus (TV), beet yellow virus (BYT). Their genetic material is RNA.
3. Bacteriophages: the viruses which infect bacterial cells are known as
On the basic of nucleic acids they are as
1. DNA virus: they possess DNA is a genetic material.
2. RNA virus: they possess RNA as a genetic material.
3. DNA RNA viruses: they possess RNA DNA as a genetic material.
Structure of bacteriophages
The shape and size of bacteriophage different from species to species. Some are
spherical and some of them are comma shaped while majority of them have tadpole-
like structure. T2 T 4T 6 Phases are tadpole- shaped with polyhedral head, short neck,
collar and straight tail. The shape of head is bi-pyramidal hexagonal in shape. Head
is enclosed by a capsid which is about 15oA thick. The head encloses the double
stranded greatly folded DNA contain more than 75 genes. Where the tail is hollow in
structure rest on a hexagonal end plate that bears six tails.

Fig: structure of t2 phase.

Economic importance of Virus
1. Positive effects

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- They are use in laboratory for various researches.
- They can also destroy some bacterial cells in plant.
-The virus such as bacteriophages can also use in the treatment of several bacterial
disease like cholera.
- Virus also helps to maintain ecosystem.
2. Negative effects
-Due to virus many plant species can be affected.
-virus also destroys the crop production, e.g. TMV.

Biota and Their Environment
Share 4

Ecology (fromGreek) is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among
organisms and their environment, such as the interactions organisms have with each
other and with their abiotic environment. Ecology is adisciplinary field that includes
biology and earth science.The word "ecology" was coined in 1866 by the German
scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919).
Ecology may be defined as the study of the relationships of plant and animal with each
other and their environment. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, natural
history, orenvironmental science. It is closely related to evolutionary biology,
Ecological Factor:
Environment means each and every thing outside the plant which influences in any
way, directly or indirectly the life of the plant. It includes all external forces i.e. light,
temperature, soil, water and other organism etc. Each part of the environment is called
ecological factor. It consists of Abiotic and biotic factor.
(A) Abiotic Factors
1. Climatic factors
a) Light: The first and foremost requirement of life is energy. On our planet the main
source of energy is the sun. The solar energy that sustains all life on the earth is
received in the form of electromagnetic waves.
Light effects regulate the plant activities in various ways and are responsible for the
photochemical activities of the plants like photosynthesis, transpiration, movement,
germination, reproduction and geological distribution. The quality of light, its quantity
and duration influence the above described activities of plants.

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b) Temperature: Heat, like light is a form of energy. Sunlight falling on the surface
causes heating effect. All organisms are constantly receiving heat energy from outside
and heat is not accumulated in the body. Heat travels in space in the form of radiation.
Earth itself acts as second source of heat energy.
Some sources other the sun also can produce heat which effects atmosphere.
Temperature affects wind velocity, evaporation and rainfall, sea current, soil formation
from rocks and other vital activities. The temperature is highly variable time and space.
For most of the organism, the favorable temperature range lies between 00C to 50C.
Temperature is variable facture and influenced by time, latitude, slope, direction and
industrialization. Temperature affects the morphology, physiology, biochemistry and
distribution of the plants. The transpiration rate is directly proportional to temperature.
Seed germination, bud sprouting, growth, flowering, fruiting and maturation of seeds
required optimum temperature.

c) Wind Velocity: The strong moving current of air or wind is an ecological factor of
great significance. Wind velocity directly influences transpiration of plants. It is also
helpful in dispersal of pollen grains, seeds and fruits. Some plants that grow in areas
subjected to strong wind all the year round develop an overall shape that offers least
resistance to wind.

d) Atmospheric Gases: The atmosphere is essential for all living beings. The air
surrounding earth, within 15kms affects weather and influence organism. All
atmospheric gases are usually available in proper amount to living organisms
because, concentration of gases dose not vary in the environment, hence they are not
considered as part of changing environment.
The atmosphere contains following gases:
1. Oxygen (O2): 20.8%
2.Carbon dioxide (CO2): 0.03%
3. Nitrogen (N2): 79%
4. Water vapors (H2O): 0.1%

e) Rainfall: The hot air masses moving from the sea, lake, and pounds are extremely
moist. This warm and moist air while moving up to elevations or cooler place becomes
cool and condensed. This precipitation of atmospheric moisture is the ultimate source
of water for plants.
Plants are highly sensitive to combined effect of rainfall and temperature. In equatorial
and tropical regions dense vegetation or forest due to heavy rainfall.

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f) Atmospheric Humidity: water vapours are always present in the atmosphere.
Presence of vapours is known as atmospheric humidity. When atmosphere holds the
maximum quantity of moisture at a fixed temperature and pressure then it is known as
absolute humidity. The humidity of a particular area is influenced by temperature,
pressure, air velocity, vegetation and soil water.

2. Edaphic Factor: Plants get their food and water from the soil. The root hairs of
plants adhere to the soil particles and absorb water. The process of braking down of
small rocks into soil is called weathering. The nature and properties of mineral
components of soil greatly depends upon the nature of parent rocks and the process
of weathering.

Soil profile: At any place where parent material is weathering over a period of time,
there develops layers of soil one over the other in progressive state of maturity. Such
a vertical section of soil is known as soil profile. The soil profiles are characteristic of
mature soil and are named as A, B, C horizons from the surface downwards.

Organic Matter: The organic matter in the soil is received from the dead bodies of
plant and animals. Many micro-organism acts on the dead body and convert it into
humus and ultimately back to minerals and increase the fertility of the soil. The fertile
soil contains more organic matter.

Soil Water: Rain is the principle source of water for the soil. Water which flow down
due to the force of gravity is known as gravitational water. This kind of water is not
available to the plants but it is big soil water reservoir and is trapped out through tube

Soil Air: Soil air is essential for the process of absorption of water by plants. Soils
which contain more oxygen show a rapid absorption of water while oxygen deficient
soil shows slow absorption of water. Roots also require oxygen for respiration.

3. Topographic Factors:
Altitude of the place: Temperature decreases with an increase in altitude of the
place. On mountains for every rise of 1000 meters a lowering of 6-70C has been
observed. There is more rain in High Mountain.

Slope of land: Rain water runs away rapidly on the slope due to which the soil cannot
absorb sufficient water and remains dry. The possibility of soil erosion also increases
with the slope. So onlyfew plants grow on slope land.

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Direction of Mountains: If the slopes receive less light and dry winds blows then
these are best suited for xerophytes e.g. north facing slopes of Himalayan range.
Moisture laden winds precipitate if any mountain range comes in the way of wind and
such mountains have dense vegetation.

Biotic Factor: Plants living together or with animals make a community. The members
of a community are related with each other and with the environment of that area in
which they live.

(B) Biotic Factor: Biotic factors mean all the living organism of the ecosystem
including bacteria, algae, fungi, parasites, saprophytes, symbiotic and animals. This
living organism further divided into:
1. Autotrophs (producer): Those organism which can prepare their own food by
utilizing raw material and sunlight or in other word those organism having chlorophyll
and capable of making their own food. They shouldn’t have to depend on other for
food. This includes all green plants, photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. These
also maintain oxygen and carbon dioxide cycle.

2. Heterotrophs (Consumer): In simple word they are those organisms which
consume the production of producer or in other word that organism which do not have
chlorophyll and they have to depend on other for their daily food. On the basis of nature
of the food they are classified into:
a) Primary consumer: these includes herbivorous which directly feed upon the plants
e.g. Rabbit, deer, goat etc.
b) Secondary Consumer: This includes the primary carnivores which feed upon the
herbivorous e.g. Fox, fishes etc.
C) Tertiary Consumer: These includes the secondary carnivores which eat upon
secondary consumer e.g. Tiger, Lion etc.

3. Decomposer: Those organisms which decompose the complex organic compound
present in dead body are known as decomposer. They are saprophytes or reducers.
They includes microorganism like bacteria, fungi etc. They produce digestive enzyme
to breakdown the organic material. So decomposers are responsible for the recycling
of the material in the ecosystem.

Interaction between biotic factors:

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Biological interactions are the effects organisms in a community have on one another.
In the natural world no organism exists in absolute isolation, and thus every organism
must interact with the environment and other organisms. An organism's interactions
with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the
functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. They show positive as well as negative

1. Positive interaction
Interspecific interaction:
a) Mutualism (Symbiosis): when two species live together in close association and
they are benefited from each other, the relationship is called Mutualism.Mutualism is
an interaction between two or more species, where species derive a mutual benefit,
for example an increased carrying capacity. Similar interactions within a species are
known as co-operation. Mutualism may be classified in terms of the closeness of
association, the closest being symbiosis, which is often confused with mutualism. One
or both species involved in the interaction may be obligate, meaning they cannot
survive in the short or long term without the other species, e.g. nitrogen fixing bacteria
in the root nodule of leguminous plant.
b) Commensalism: It is an association of two species where one organism is get
benefited and other is not harmed or get any benefit.. It occurs when one organism
takes benefits by interacting with another organism by which the host organism is not
affected. A good example is a remora living with a shark. Remoras eat leftover food
from the shark. The shark is not affected in the process, as remoras eat only leftover
food of the shark, which does not deplete the shark's resources.
c) Protocooperation:The cooperation between species where both species are
benefited. However it is not obligatory.Protocooperation is where two species interact
with each other beneficially; they have no need to interact with each other - they
interact purely for the gain that they receive from doing this.
d) Neutralism: Neutralism describes the relationship between two species that
interact but do not affect each other. It describes interactions where the health of one
species has absolutely no effect whatsoever on that of the other. Examples of true
neutralism are virtually impossible to prove. However, the term is often used to
describe situations where interactions are negligible or insignificant, e.g. the leaf eating
and sap-sucking insects live together but there is no interaction.

Intraspecific interaction:
a) Colonization: Some species of plants and animals live in colony for protection from
predator or from natural condition or for food, e.g. nostoc and obelia.
b) Social Organization: Social organization refers to those organism which live
in colony and work together in groups to complete theirworks such as food

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gathering to survive in different climatic condition and other various purpose.
For e.g honey bees and ants.
c) Aggregation: The capacity among animal to concentrate in large numbers by their
movement is called aggregation.

2. Negative Interaction:
a) Predation: This is a direct interaction of two species. In ecology, predation is a
biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on
its prey (the organism that is attacked).Predators may or may not kill their prey prior
to feeding on them, but the act of predation often results in the death of its prey and
the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through consumption.[2] Thus predation is
often, though not always, carnivory.
b) Parasitism:A parasite is organisms which live on another organism and depends
completely on it for the survival. Parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship
between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the
other, thehost. Unlike predators, parasites do not kill their host, are generally much
smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period.
Both are special cases of consumer-resource interaction Parasites show a high
degree of specialization, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic
examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms.
c) Competition:In ecosystem, there is always competition between organisms for
their survival and other various purposes like reproduction, shelter etc. Competition
can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. It arises whenever at least two parties
strive for a goal which cannot be shared or which is desired individually but not in
sharing and cooperation.
d) Antibiosis: Antibiosis is a biological interaction between two or more
organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them; it can also be an antagonistic
association between an organism and the metabolic substances produced by another.
Examples of antibiosis include the relationship between antibiotic and bacteria and the
relationship between animals and disease-causing pathogens.

Food chains:
The transfer of food energy from the procedure through a series of organism
(herbivores to carnivores to decomposer) with repeated eating and being eaten is
known as a Food chain. Procedure utilizes the radiant energy of sun which is
transformed to chemical form (ATP) during photosynthesis. The energy stored in food
matter manufactured by green plants is then utilized by the plant eaters- the
herbivores, which constitute the second trophic level-the primary consumer level, and
are called the primary consumer (herbivores). Herbivores in turn are eaten by the
carnivores, which constitute the tropic level and are called secondary consumers
(carnivores). These in turn may still be eaten by other carnivores at tertiary consumers

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level i.e. by the tertiary consumer (carnivores) and finally eaten by top consumer, e.g.
Hawk is top consumer. In nature, food chain generally is of 3 types.
1. Grazing food Chain: this type of food chain starts from the living green plant goes
to grazing herbivores and on to carnivores. Ecosystems with such type of food chain
are directly dependent on an influx of solar radiation. This type of chain thus depends
on autotrophic energy capture and the movement of this captured energy to
herbivores. Most of the ecosystem in nature follows this type of food chain.
The primary carnivores eat herbivores of the ecosystem. And likewise, tertiary
consumers eat primary carnivores. The total energy assimilated by primary carnivores
or gross tertiary production is derived entirely from the tissues of herbivores, and its
disposition into respiration, decay and further consumption by other carnivores is
entirely analogous with that of herbivores. It seems clear that much of the energy flow
through grazing food chain can be described in terms of the categories or trophic levels
outlined as follows.

Autotrophs Herbivores Pri. Carnivore Secondary Carnivore

2. Parasitic food chain: it goes from large organism to smaller ones without outright
killing as in case of predation.

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Fig: Parasitic food chain
3. Detritus Food Chain: the organic wastes, exudates and dead matter derived from
the grazing food chain are generally termed detritus. The energy contained in this
detritus is not lost to the ecosystem as a whole, rather it serves as the source of energy
for a group of organism that is separate from the grazing food chain and generally
termed thedetrius food chain. The detritus food chain represents an exceedingly
important component in the energy flow ecosystem.
In the detritus food chain the energy flow remains as a continues passage rather than
as a stepwise flow between discrete entities. The organism of the detritus food chain
are many and include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, insects, molluscs and some
Food webs: Food chains in natural conditions never operates as isolated sequences
but are interconnected with each other forming some short of interconnecting pattern
which is referred to as a food webs. Under natural conditions, the linear arrangement
of food chains hardly occurs and these remain indeed interconnected with each other
through different types of organism at different trophic level. For e.g. in grazing food
chain of grassland, in the absence of rabbit grass may be also eaten by mouse. The
mouse in turn may be eaten directly by hawk or by snake first which is then eaten by
hawk. Thus, in nature there are found alternatives which all together constitute some
sort of interlocking pattern of food web.

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Fig: food web in a grassland ecosystem.
Ecological Pyramids:Each particulars type of ecosystem has a tropic structure the
interaction of food chain phenomenon and size metabolism relationship. Trophic
structure and functions are shown graphically by means of ecological pyramids. In
ecological pyramids the first or procedure level constitutes the base and successive
levels (primary, secondary consumers etc.) the tires which make the apex. The
ecological pyramids are of three general types:
1. Pyramids of Number: They show relationship between producer, herbivores and
carnivores at successive trophic levels in terms of their number. The pyramid may be
upright or inverted depending upon the size of the producer in the community. Large
procedure are fewer in number than the smaller organism.
In grassland, the procedures which are mainly grasses are always maximum in
number. This number then shows a decrease towards apex as the primary consumers
(herbivores) like rabbits, mice, insects etc. Are lesser in number than the grasses; the
secondary consumer, snakes and lizards are again lesser in number than the rabbits
and mice, finally the tertiary consumers hawks or other birds are least in number. Thus,
the pyramids become upright. Similarly, in a pond ecosystem the pyramid is upright.
Here the procedure which are mainly the phytoplankton’s as algae, bacteria etc. are
maximum in number; the herbivores, which are smaller fish are lesser in number than
the procedure and the secondary consumer such as small fish eating each other,
water beetles etc. are lesser in number than the herbivores. Finally the top consumers,
the bigger fish are less in number.

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Fig: Pyramid of number

2. Pyramids of biomass: The total fresh or dry weight of all living organisms in a
certain unit area is called biomass. They are comparatively more fundamental as they
instead of geometric factor show the quantitative relationships of the standing crops.
In grassland and forest there is generally a gradual decrease in biomass of organism
at successive levels from the procedures to the carnivores. Thus pyramids are upright.
However, in a pond as the procedure are small organisms their biomass is minimum
and value gradually shows an increase towards the apex of the pyramid, thus making
the pyramid inverted in shape.

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Fig: pyramid of biomass

3. Pyramid of energy: Of the three types of ecological pyramids, the energy pyramids
give the best picture of overall nature of the ecosystem. This type of pyramid shows
energy accumulation pattern at different trophic levels. Here, number and weight of
organisms at any levels depends not on the amount of fixed energy present at any
one time in the level just below but rather on the rate at which food is being produced.

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Fig: Pyramid of energy

Ecosystem:An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and
microbes) in conjunction with the non-living components of their environment (things
like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. The term "ecosystem" was
first used in a publication by British ecologist Arthur Tansely.

Pond Ecosystem
A pond as a whole serves a good example of a freshwater ecosystem. A pond indeed
exhibits a self-sufficient, self-regulating system. It has a structure having the abiotic
and biotic components
Abiotic Components: The chief substances are heat, light, ph. value of water and
basic organic and inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide gas, oxygen, calcium,
nitrogen etc. some properties of nutrients are in solution state but most of them are
present as stored in particular matters as well as in living organisms. Amounts of
various organic compounds are also estimated for biomass determination.
Biotic Components: The various organisms that constitute the biotic component are
as follows-
1. Procedure: These are autotrophic green plants and some photosynthetic bacteria.
The procedure fixes energy and with the help of material derived from the water and
mud. They produce complex organic substances as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
etc. The procedures are two types:
a) The rooted or large floating plants which includes partly or completely submerged,
floating and emergent hydrophytes. The common plant species are Trapa, typha,
chara, hydrilla, azolla, salvinia etc.
b) The minute, floating or suspensed lower plants. Majority of them are such
filamentous algae, e.g. zygonema, spirogyra, oedogonium, anabaena etc.
2. Consumer: They are heterotrophs which depend for their nutrition on the organic
food producer, the green plants. Most of the consumers are herbivores, a few as
insects and some large fish are carnivores feeding on herbivores. The consumers in
a pond are as follows.
a) Primary Consumers (herbivores): Also known as primary macro consumers,
these are herbivores feeding directly on living plants (producer). These may be large
or minute. The primary consumer of pond is Euglena, Dileptus, beetles, mites etc.
b) Secondary consumer (carnivores): They are the carnivores which feed on the
primart consumers. These are chiefly insects and fish. Most insects as water beetles
feed on zooplanktons.

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c) Tertiary Consumer: these are some large fish as game fish that feed on the smaller
fish and thus become the tertiary carnivores. It is common to observe the large fish
feeding on smaller fish and thus occupying the tertiary consumers level.
3. Decomposer: They are known as microc onsumers, since they absorb only a
fraction of the decomposed organic matter they bring about the decomposition of
complex dead organic matter of both plants and animals to simple form. Thus they
play an important role in the return of mineral elements again to the medium of the
pound. The decomposers of pond are Aspergillus, alternaria, penicillum,
cladosporium, saprolegina etc. the most common decomposer.

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Fig: Pond Ecosystem

Grassland Ecosystem:
This is a type of terrestrial ecosystem. Grassland occupy a comparatively fewer area
roughly 19% of the earth’s surface. The various components of a grassland ecosystem
are as follows-
Abiotic Component:
These are the nutrient present in soil and the aerial environment. Thus the elements
like C, H, O, P, S etc. are supplied by carbon-dioxide, water nitrates, phosphates and
sulphates etc. present in air and soil of the area.
Biotic Component:
Procedure: They are mainly grasses as species of Dichantium, Cynodon, setaria,
sporoblous etc. Besides them a few forbs and shrubs also contribute to primary
Consumer:There occur in the following sequence-
a) Primary Consumers: The herbivores feeding on grasses are mainly such grazing
animals as cows, deer, sheep, rabbit etc. Besides them there are also present some
insects as Leptocorisa, cicinella, termites etc.
b) Secondary Consumer: These are the carnivores feeding on herbivores. These
include the animals like fox, jackals, snakes, frogs etc. sometime the hawks feed on
the secondary consumers, thus occupying tertiary consumers level in food chain.
Decomposer: The microbes active in the decay of dead organic matter of different
forms of higher life are fungi as species of Mucor, aspergillus, penicillium etc. they
brings about the minerals back to the soil thus, making them available to the

In nature, different kinds of organisms grow in association with each other. A group
of several species living together with mutual tolerance and beneficial interaction in a
natural area is known as a community. In a community, organisms share the same
habitat growing in a uniform environment.Forest, grassland, desert orpond is natural

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Characteristics of a community:
Like a population, a community too has its own characteristics, which are not shown
by its individual component species. These characteristics which have meaning only
with reference to community level of organization are as follows-
1. Species Diversity: Each community is made up of many different organisms-
plants, animals, microbes which differ taxonomically from each other.
2. Growth from and structure: Community is described in terms of major growth
forms as trees, shrubs, herbs, mosses etc. in each growth form as in tree, there may
be different kinds of plants as broad- leaves trees, evergreen trees etc. these different
growth forms determines the structural pattern of a community.
3. Dominance: In each community all the species are not equally important. There
are relatively only a few of these, which determine the nature of the community. These
few species exert a major controlling influence on the community. Such species are
known as dominants.
4. Succession: Each community has its own developmental history. It develops as a
result of a directional change in it with time.
5. Trophic structure: nutritionally each community a group of autotrophic plants as
well as heterotrophic animals exists as a self-sufficient, perfectly balanced
assemblage of organism.

Under natural conditions the vegetative occupying a given habitat is called plant
community. Since the community is not stable it passes through many development
stages in definite sequence and in definite direction generally from simple to complex
and rarely complex to simple. Ecological succession is the observed process of
change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. The time scale
can be decades or even millions of years after amass extinction.
The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops
through increasing complexity until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax
community. The engine of succession, the cause of ecosystem change, is the impact
of established species upon their own environments. Succession that begins in new
habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession,
whereas succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is
called secondary succession.
Types of succession:
Depending upon the nature of bare area on which it develops, the succession may be
two kinds:

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1. Primary Succession: Primary succession is one of two types of biological and
ecological succession of plant life, occurring in an environment in which
newsubstrate devoid of vegetation and usually lacking soil, such as a lava flow or area
left from retreated glacier, is deposited. In other words, it is the gradual growth of an
ecosystem over a longer period.
2.Secondary Succession: This type of succession starts on secondary bare, area
which was once occupied by original vegetation but later became cleared of vegetation
by the process called denudation. Secondary succession occurs on substrate that
previously supported vegetation before an ecological disturbance from smaller things
like floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and volcanic eruptions which destroyed the plant

General process of succession
The whole process of a primary autotrophic succession is actually completed through
a number of sequential steps which follow one another. The steps are:
1. Nudation:
This is the development of a bare area without any form of life. The area may develop
due to several causes such as landside, erosion, deposition or other catastrophic
agency. The cause of Nudation may be,
A) Topographic: due to soil erosion by gravity water or wind the existing vegetation
may disappear.
B) Climatic: Strom, frost, wind, fire may also destroy the vegetation.
C) Biotic: Man is the main important, responsible for destruction of tree, agriculture
etc. which destroy the whole population.
2. Invasion:
This is the successful establishment of a species in a bare area.
A) Migration:the seeds,spore or other propagates of the species reach the bare area.
This is migration process.
B) Establishment (Ecesis):After reaching to new area, the process of successful
establishment of the species as a result of adjustment with the condition prevailing
there is known as ecesis.
C)Aggregation: After ecesis as a result of reproduction, the individuals of the species
increase in number and they come to each other. This process is known as

3. Competition and coaction:

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After aggregation of a large number of individuals of the species at the limited place,
there develops competition mainly for space and nutrition. Individuals of a species
affect each other’s life in various ways and this is called coaction.

4. Reaction:
This is the most important stage in succession. The mechanism of modification of the
environment through the influence of living organisms on it is known as reaction. As a
result of reactions changes take place in soil, water, light conditions, temperature etc.
of the environment. Due to all these the environment is modified becoming unsuitable
for the existing community of communities that replaces one another in the given area
is called a sere and the communities is called seral communities.

5. Stabilization (climax):
Finally there occurs a stage in the process, when the final terminal communities
becomes more or less stabilized for a longer period of time and it can maintain itself
in equilibrium with the climate of the area. This final community is not replaced and is
known as climax community and the stage as climax stage. The developmental stage
is called a seral stage. These stages are in fact continuous with each other and the
whole sequence from beginning till the climax is known as a Sere. The species which
colonies the bare area in the beginning of succession are called Pioneers.

Biogeochemical Cycle
Simply it, cyclic moment of the chemical compound. A biogeochemical
cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical
substance moves through both biotic compartments of earth. A cycle is a series of
change which comes back to the starting point and which can be repeated. Water, for
example, is always recycled through the water cycle, The water undergoes
evaporation, condensation and precipitation, falling back to Earth. Elements, chemical
compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and
from one part of the biosphere to another through biogeochemical cycles.

Carbon Cycle:
Carbon is basic constitute of all organic compound. The ultimate source of carbon in
nature is carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere and in dissolved state in the water
on earth. All living things are made of carbon. Carbon is also a part of the ocean, air,
and even rocks. Because the Earth is a dynamic place, carbon does not stay still. It is
on the move. In the atmosphere, carbon is attached to some oxygen in a gas called
carbon dioxide. Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and
grow. The carbon becomes part of the plant. Plants that die and are buried may turn

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into fossil fuels made of carbon like coal and oil over millions of years. When humans
burn fossil fuels, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere. Without it and
other greenhouse gases, Earth would be a frozen world. But humans have burned so
much fuel that there is about 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than there was
about 150 years ago, and Earth is becoming a warmer place.

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Fig: Carbon Cycle

Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen is important as constitute of proteins and nucleic acids that play the basic
role in metabolism, growth, reproduction and transmission of heritable characters of
living organisms. Most plants get the nitrogen they need from soil. The main
component of the nitrogen cycle starts with the element nitrogen in the air. Two
nitrogen oxides are found in the air as a result of interactions with oxygen. Nitrogen
will only react with oxygen in the presence of high temperatures and pressures found
near lightning bolts and in combustion reactions in power plants or internal combustion
engines. Nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2, are formed under these
conditions. Eventually nitrogen dioxide may react with water in rain to form nitric acid,
HNO3. The nitrates thus formed may be utilized by plants as a nutrient.
Nitrogen in the air becomes a part of biological matter mostly through the actions of
bacteria and algae in a process known as nitrogen fixation. The ammonia is further
converted by other bacteria first into nitrite ions, NO2-, and then into nitrate ions, NO3-
. Plants utilize the nitrate ions as a nutrient or fertilizer for growth.
Ammonia may be directly applied to farm fields as fertilizer. The reaction of ammonia
and nitric acid produces ammonium nitrate which may then be used as a fertilizer.
To complete the cycle other bacteria in the soil carry out a process known as de-
nitrification, which converts nitrates back to nitrogen gas. A side product of this
reaction is the production of a gas known as nitrous oxide, N2O.

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Fig: Nitrogen Cycle

Greenhouse Effect:
The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface. When the
Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space
and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. The absorbed energy
warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth. Greenhouse gases include water
vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals
such as chlorofluorocarbons (cfcs).
If it were not for greenhouse gases trapping heat in the atmosphere, the Earth would
be a very cold place. Greenhouse gases keep the Earth warm through a process called
the greenhouse effect
The Earth cools down by giving off a different form of energy, called infrared radiation.
But before all this radiation can escape to outer space, greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere absorb some of it, which makes the atmosphere warmer. As the
atmosphere gets warmer, it makes the Earth's surface warmer, too.

1. The greenhouse effect results in increase in temperature of earth surface.
2. By greenhouse effect can melt the polar eyes due to which the sea level increase
and that can make difficulty for the country like Maldives.
3. It can alter the monsoon season.
4. It can decrease the crop production due to rise in temperature.

Ozone (O3) Layer:
The accumulation of oxygen in atmosphere due to photosynthesis by green plant
results in the formation of ozone layer.The ozone layer is a belt of naturally occurring
ozone gas that sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to 30 kilometers) above Earth and serves as
a shield from the harmful ultraviolet B radiation emitted by the sun.
Ozone is a highly reactive molecule that contains three oxygen atoms. It is constantly
being formed and broken down in the high atmosphere in the region called the
stratosphere.Chlorofluorocarbons (cfcs), chemicals found mainly in spray aerosols
heavily used by industrialized nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primary
culprits in ozone layer breakdown. When cfcs reach the upper atmosphere, they are
exposed to ultraviolet rays, which cause them to break down into substances that
include chlorine. The chlorine reacts with the oxygen atoms in ozone and rips apart
the ozone molecule.One atom of chlorine can destroy more than a hundred
thousand ozone molecules.

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i) O2 O + O; O2 + O O3

ii) CFCl3 Cl + CFCl2 (UV)
(Chlorine Atom)

iii) Cl + O3 ClO + O2 (UV)
(chlorine Monoxide)

iv) ClO + O Cl + O2
Consequence of Ozone layer depletion:
- UV lights can damage living cells and can cause mutation.
- It can cause blindness.
- It can also cause skin cancers.
- Ozone layer depletion can result in rise in earth’s temperature.

Acid Rain: Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic
meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have
harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by
emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in
the atmosphere to produce acids. Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to
reduce the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. Nitrogen
oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is
produced by volcanic eruptions. The chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel,
corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and erosion of stone statues.
Controlling Measures:
The acid rain can cause many problems so these can be solved by reducing emission
of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
1. By reducing the uses of fossil fuels.
2. By purifying the polluted air.
3. By controlling the uses of old vehicles.

Mountain Ecosystem: Nepal is a country of mountain ranging from 60m to world
highest peak which clearly indicates the larger number of species in it. In mountains
region is formed by sedimentary rock. Soil of this region is not fully mature. In
mountains region the soil layer is very thin, because of steep higher mountains. The

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climate is extremely cold, dry and windy at this area. It varies greatly in different
altitudes of the mountains region.
Abiotic Components: These includes physical factor like temperature, wind velocity,
moisture, pressure and light intensity. The chemical factors include inorganic and
organic substance present in soil.
Biotic Components:
The mountain is a favorable for plants growth which make mountain rich in
ecosystems. However in High Mountain due to snow fall the plant vegetation is
scattered and small. Mountain regions possess sub-alpine and alpine vegetation. The
producer of this ecosystem isjuniperus spp, rhododendron spp, aconitum, meconopis,
primula etc.
Consumer: the primary consumer of this region are red panda, musk deer, blue sheep
and secondary consumer are black dear, snow leopard, leopard cat, snow patridges,
insects, worms etc.
Decomposer: The microbial organisms such as bacteria and fungi acts as
decomposer. They decompose the dead organic body of plants and animals into
simple inorganic forms.
The ecological pyramid of number of this ecosystem is inverted.

Forest Conservation
Share 2

Forest conservation:
About one third of the land surface is covered by the forest. According to the
department of forest and natural resources survey 29% land is covered by forest.
Protection, preservation and utilization of forest product are called forest conservation.
Ecological studies have shown that the forest helps to maintain the level of rainfall.
Forest is necessary to check the floods and soil erosion and are important for wild life,
human recreation etc. the forest helps to maintain the gases.
Important of forest:
1. Forest occupies the central position in the nature which provide the wood, food,
fodder and the raw material for various industry.
2. Habit and habitat for the wild animal.
3. Forest balance the various gaseous cycles in nature.
3. Water cycle maintain in nature.

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4. Forest provides the medicinal plant, which are widely used.
5. Reduced the problem of global warming and green house, soil erosion.
Types of forest in Nepal
Altitude and climate, different types of forest is found in Nepal, they are
1. Tropical forest:
1000m from the sea level occupied by the tropical zone forest, extended from east to
west. It is characterized by the abundant rainfall and high temperature, different kinds
of deciduous trees dominated by the sal forest. The other tree species are Adina
cordifolia(karma), Terminalia bellirica (barro), Acacia catechu (khair) is the most
common. Reverine forest includes Alibizzia procera (siris), Bombax ceiba (simal),
Cassia fistula (amaltus).
2. Sub-tropical forest:
This forest lies in between 1000-2100m. It is characterized by the moderately warm
and humid climate. The trees mainly Schima wallichi, Castonopsis indica in the central
and eastern region and in western region-Alnus nepalensis and Pinus
3. Temperate forest:
This lies in between 2100-3000m.this mainly characterized by the presence of laural,
evergreen oak, mixed broad-leaved deciduous and Rhododendron forest in the
eastern and the central region of Nepal, while in western –evergreen coniferous forest
and deciduous forest.
4. Sub-alpine and alpine forest:
Sub-alpine lies in between 3000-4000m. And the alpine lies in between 4000-5000m,
mountain country of Nepal comes under the Alpine zone. The climate is very cold, dry
and windy. The sub-alpine region mainly consists of Betula utilis-Rhodendron
companulatum at the upper region of sub- alpine near the timber line.
Alpine zone mainly consists of grasses, herbs, and dwarf shrubs. Some of the well-
known ones are Juniperus spp. and Rhodondren spp.on exposed slopes.
Due to the rapid increase in the growth rate of population there is increase in the
demand, to complete their demand they mainly depends on forest product. In Nepal
rate of deforestation has been 2% per year. The major cause of deforestation is:
1. Over grazing:
Due to increase in population, there is also increase the livestock to sustain their life
activity and their increase in problem, due to presence of only limited land area so to
solve the problem they used the forest for grazing.
2. Road construction and industries:

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Another major cause of deforestation is construction of road , building, other
infrastructure. It affect the stability of hill slopes, damage the protective vegetation,
block natural drainage causes the flood and landslide. Increasing the population they
need their basic things and they construct the house and industries due to this over-
exploitation occur.
3. Fuel wood collection and timber wood collection:
Over collection of tree for wood and timber for firing and to build the infrastructure
causes the deforestation.
4. Forest fire:
Serious damage of fire has been observed in dry deciduous forest. Fire only the
destroy the standing tree but also destroy the fallen leaves, organic leaves which
causes the decrease in the content of humus.
5. Pollution;
Air pollution, acid rain causes the serious damage to forest vegetation through the
Hazards of deforestation:
1. It causes the irregular rainfall sometimes heavy rainfall.
2. It leads to soil erosion and landslide.
3. It leads into the imbalance in water cycle, gaseous cycle also increase the
greenhouse effect and global warming
4. Increase in the flood, landslide.
Methods of forest conservation:
1. Conservation from over grazing:
2. Control of fuel wood and timber collection
3. Intensive plantation
4. Production\ capitative plantation:
5. Community forestry
6. Afforestation of wet land
7. National legislation

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