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Influence of Modal Mass Participation in Damage

Detection of Cable Structures
Wasanthi R. Wickramasinghe, School of Civil Engineering & Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane,
Australia; David P. Thambiratnam, Prof., School of Civil Engineering & Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology,
Brisbane, Australia; Tommy H. T. Chan, Prof., School of Civil Engineering & Built Environment, Queensland University of
Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Contact: d.thambiratnam@qut.edu.au
DOI: 10.2749/101686616X14555429844004

Abstract that can be derived from analytical
models. Among different VBDD tech-
Increasing applications of large diameter and long-span cables as key structural niques, those based on the modal flexi-
components in cable-supported structures are becoming evident. However, bility, which incorporates only a few
these cables accumulate damage over time during their life cycle and such dam- lower order vibration modes and
age needs to be detected to avoid the detrimental influences on the serviceabil- depends on both the natural frequen-
ity and ultimate capacity of the structure. In this context, vibration-based cies and mode shapes, have shown the
damage detection (VBDD) methods have been used in some structures. Cable potential for successful damage detec-
structures however exhibit complex vibration patterns, namely with vertical, tion. However, as mentioned before,
lateral, torsional and coupled modes which complicate the VBDD procedure. due to the complex vibration patterns
To address this matter, this paper proposes a new approach for detecting and of cable structures, direct application
locating damage in cables using component-specific damage indices (DIs) based of this method to detect damage in
on the modal flexibility method considering the modal mass participation. cables is not a successful approach.
Application of this new procedure is illustrated through two case studies: (- This problem can be overcome by
a) a suspended cable and (b) a three dimensional (3D) suspension bridge struc- incorporating another global vibration
ture. Results verify that the DIs based on the lateral and vertical components parameter2 named mass participation
of mode shapes, identified through their modal mass participation factors, are factor (modal mass distribution) to
effective for detecting and locating damage in the suspended cables and main identify effective modes for damage
cables in a suspension bridge respectively, under a range of damage scenarios. detection. It is an important vibration
The research outcomes of this paper confirm that the modal mass participation characteristic of a structure, which
factor is an important signature in the damage detection of a structure using measures the amount of mass moving
VBDD techniques. in each direction for each
vibration mode.
Keywords: cables; hangers; damage detection; modal flexibility; component
specific damage indices; modal mass participation factor. Importance of the measurement of
mass participation factor (MPF) was
identified by previous researchers.
This was included in the Wind and
Introduction simplicity and the moderate cost of Structural Health Monitoring System
dynamic measurements in large civil which was devised and operated by
Use of structural cables in cable-sup- structures. Different VBDD methods the Highways Department to monitor
ported structures such as suspension can be identified in the literature and the structural conditions of the Tsing
and cable-stayed bridges, overhead they basically depend on the vibration Ma (suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shui
transmission lines, cable cars, cable- characteristics of a structure such as Mun (cable-stayed) Bridge and the
supported roofs and guyed towers are Ting Kau (cable-stayed) Bridge in
natural frequencies, modal damping
increasingly evident. Since cables are Hong Kong. The MPFs measured by
and mode shapes. The basic principle
the main structural components in the system are then used to calibrate
of the VBDD approach is that dam- the finite element (FE) models to pre-
these structures, damage in them
needs to be detected at early occur- age in a structure alters its structural dict structural condition of those
rence to prevent expensive retrofitting properties which in turn results in a bridges.2 This parameter was used in
and catastrophic failures. Among a change in its vibration characteristics. the experimental and analytical stud-
variety of damage detection methods, A change in the vibration characteris- ies on dynamic characteristics of a
vibration-based damage detection tics can hence be used to detect dam- large span cable-stayed bridge.3 Fur-
(VBDD) methods have recently age in a structure. ther, it is important in the seismic
received considerable amount of analysis of structures and used in
Cable structures, however, exhibit
attention due to the rapid develop- mechanical4 and civil5 industries.
complex vibration characteristics that
ment of sensor systems, their Direct use of the MPF in damage
pose challenges to the application of
detection studies has not been identi-
VBDD methods. Further, these struc-
Peer-reviewed by international ex- fied recently.
tures are associated with a large num-
perts and accepted for publication
by SEI Editorial Board ber of degrees of freedoms of which In order to overcome the complexities
only a limited number of lower order in damage detection of cable struc-
Paper received: October 13, 2015 modes can be measured practically.1 tures (mentioned earlier), this paper
Paper accepted: May 22, 2016 This number is far less than the modes proposes two component-specific

Structural Engineering International Nr. 4/2016 Scientific Paper 301

½. This paper there- vibration modes. con. ½. 4/2016 . = ½I  ð5Þ DIV = i=1 i=1 ð12Þ nents) of the vibration modes of the X m structure are also presented in order Substituting Eq. These components fore.10 Corrosion of a cable can ity matrix is as follows. (1). [ϕ] is the mass normalized direction. For normalized eigenvectors. 2. The simplest form ½FDT − ½FHT  ity matrix and it can be done using of a cable structure (suspended cable) i=1 i=1 only the experimental data (data from DIT = ð11Þ was selected for case study 1 while the X m experimental modal analysis can be ½FHT  main cable in a suspension bridge was used directly in computing the MF) i=1 considered in case study 2. A allocation of public resources towards ω i=1 ω high value of MPF in a direction speci- their retrofitting and maintenance. are identified through their MPFs and fug = fϕg sin ðωt + αÞ ð2Þ which are derived by decomposing the then used to determine the appropri. 2 ½. (5) in to Eq. − 1 ½K  − 1 ½. {u} dis. ½. [M] is the mass matrix. It is one of the analysis software used in this study as. number considered and subscript T tions corrosion up to 30% reduction venient computation and ease of denotes the total component of the of diameter was observed in bridge application. the damaged and intact states of the ment spectrum in each of the global fore it can be obtained from only few structure respectively. − T = 2 ½I  ð7Þ DIL = i=1 X i=1 ð13Þ MPFs is advantageous for selecting the ω m correct component-specific DI for use   ½FHL  1 ½K  − 1 = ½. It is very dif. T i=1 in the damage detection of cable struc. DI derived from Cartesian directions and rotation about lower frequency modes. = 0 ð3Þ application to two case studies: (. [K] stiffness mass contribution of a mode will predict  matrix. The modal flex- ibility of a structure converges rapidly where the subscripts D and H denote where. Two case studies are used to advantage of this method is that it first mode to mth mode is given by: demonstrate the effective use of DIs to does not require any analytical model detect and locate damage in cables of a structure to estimate the flexibil.− ω2 ½M ½.T ½K ½. . collected from the structure. the research outcomes ω The mass moving in each direction for will enable the timely retrofitting of   X N each mode (MPF) varies for different 1 1 cable structures to ensure the optimal ½F  = ½. ð8Þ tures. (4) ½FHV  i=1 to capture the effectiveness of the two   component-specific DIs. (2) into Eq.T ½M ½. cables.gTi ½MfDg ð14Þ vectors of a structure. 2 ½. MPF (γ i) is defined in the FE bility between intact and damaged monitoring (SHM). proposes two damage indices.T 2 i i ð9Þ vibration modes in cable structures. (12) and (13) in a 3D suspension bridge.7 Derivation of the flexibil. € g + ½K fug = 0 ½M fu ð1Þ particular to measure the rotational fied forms of modal flexibility based coordinates of torsional and coupled on the different components of Assuming modes practically. including all the compo.− ω2 ½I  = 0 ð6Þ X m X m   ½FDL − ½FHL  The results confirm that the use of 1 ½. ½FDV − ½FHV  ment (i. respectively.8 In general. MF of a structure into two parts. The proposed cal components of mode shapes and   the other is based on its lateral compo- procedure is illustrated through its ½K ½. Stiffness of an 302 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International Nr. cable structures exhibit result in a reduction of its cross sec- The governing equation for the free complex vibration modes. damage more accurately. One And substituting Eq.6 Another the change in flexibility considering the each axis. the damage scenarios.T ½M ½. mode shape. Further. where the subscripts V and the vibration data of the two struc. nents of mode shapes.9 states of a structure is given by: VBDD methods which incorporates natural frequencies and mode shape Δ½F  = ½F D  − ½F H  ð10Þ γ i = f.e. ate component-specific DI when com. {D} is an assumed unit displace- with increasing frequency and there. = 0 ð4Þ L denote the vertical and lateral com- tures under both single and multiple ponents of mode shapes.T = . index is based on the structure’s verti- it becomes plex modes occur. Equation (11) is a) suspended cable and (b) main cable Multiplying Eq. (3) by [Φ]T which is hence rewritten as Eqs.damage indices (DIs) which are modi. Results from DI orthogonality condition is given by X m X m calculated using the total displace. 3 …m) is the mode cables is corrosion and in some situa- applications due to its accuracy. fies that the mode will be excited in that In the above equation.− ω2 ½. [F] modal flexibil. Validated the transpose of [Φ] to accommodate the component-spe- numerical models were used to obtain   cific DIs. The DI based on the compo- Damage Detection Method mode shape vector.T ½K ½. It is hence Indices) placement vector. nent in whose direction there is more (Component-Specific Damage ity matrix. tional area which will lead to a reduc- vibration of the structure in the ficult to identify damage sensitive tion in the stiffness at the corroded absence of damping is given by: modes in those structures and in location of the cable. ω12 reciprocal of worthwhile to make effective use of the square of natural frequencies and Modal flexibility is a widely accepted MPFs to select the most appropriate DI N the number of degrees of freedom. X m X m considering MPFs.6 This The most common form of damage in method is hence widely used in SHM where i (i = 1. method to examine the health state of to detect and locate damage in cable The simplest form of change in flexi- a structure in structural health structures.

e. It was considered as mum values at the nodes of the the structure in reality. calcu- the two towers. lated by using total of mode shapes racy of the FE model developed and Table 2 shows the damage cases con- In this case study. Three damage cases were examined obtained from Refs [11. First the non.1050 0. enables the confirmation of the dam- 100 elements each of which was cific DIs are presented and compared age location more accurately. the stiffness change was ured during construction when the mode shapes considered as a change of Young’s cable had just been erected between Modulus for the damage simulation DIL – Damage Index Lateral. The 13. The geometric and mechanical analysis in the vertical and lateral Single Damage Scenarios properties of the cable were directions. the analysis was con.81E + 02 5 (Lateral) 0. a sudden severities. The results ducted in two steps.axially loaded member such as a cable of the static step (prestressed modal using the first four vibration modes.13E − 14 1. b and c respectively. severity of damage considered in this account by simulating it using BEAM Numerical results from the plots of study was 25% in single damage sce- 188 elements. culated by using the vertical and lateral confirm the accuracy of DIL in detect- linear static analysis under self-weight components of the first three vertical ing the damage in a suspended cable.91E − 14 6 (Vertical) 0. lated by using vertical components of this paper. The cable was divided into detection results of the component-spe. mass per unit previously is considered as the Damage Case 1 (DC 1) length m = 5832 kg/m and cross-sec.60 1. as evident from Table 1. measured frequencies of the cable can be represented by either a from a series of ambient vibration DIV – Damage Index Vertical.88E − 09 3 (Lateral) 0. the ends were therefore fixed in all (or sharp) peak can be observed in three directions. axial stiffness = AE/L.95 2. The to study the damage locating capabil- main span length and the cable sag Damage Detection ity of the component-specific DIs are 1397.0530 0. Bridge (1997) is simulated numeri.2100 −1.44 −3. depends on its area of cross-section analysis was conducted).978 m long in the analysis. It is evident that mode shapes the percentage difference between the FE results and the measured values is DIT – Damage Index Total. The maximum cable. All dam- scenarios that cause measurable is supported for large deflection age index curves reach their maxi- changes in the natural frequency of effects in cables.0535 −0. In com.82E − 08 Table 1: Comparison of first six frequencies of the main span cable of the Tsing Ma suspension bridge Structural Engineering International Nr. index and lateral damage index were cal. was performed and the subsequent and lateral vibration modes respectively. Mass participation factor (γi) 12 Mode no.54E − 10 4.1067 −1.57E + 03 5. Young’s modulus E and length L. respectively. Four The first damage case considered in tional area A = 0. comparing with that of DIT calculated Other parameters of the cable are Figure 1 represents the exact locations by using all the components of mode modulus of elasticity E = 200 GPa.09E − 08 −9. Also this element type DIV.10E − 10 2 (Vertical) 0.1490 −4.759 m2. dotted lines in the plots of the DI curves To validate the FE model.8 and 112. Damage location is indicated with red A.1601 −2.98 2. These values pinned at two ends placed at the same damaged location and detect the dam- pertain to moderate to low damage vertical elevation. the middle of the cable.60 −8.2070 0. The FE model validated force Hs = 122.1020 0. Further. In tests. the numer- i. specific DIs namely: vertical damage ment of the DI leading to a peak at ity of cables. horizontal component of the tension in this study.64 MN. and the following abbreviations are used ical results were compared with the puter simulations stiffness change in the presentation of the results. and rotations were In the discussion of results.63E − 09 1. modal analysis was conducted using Similarly. Table 1 presents the purposes.5%. DIL and DIT are shown in narios and 10% in multiple damage includes a stress stiffness term which Fig. Displacements at age successfully. However. Furthermore.65E + 02 −1. calcu- Case Study 1 less than 4.12]. damage cases were introduced in the case study 1 is that in the middle of cable model to synthesize the various As this is a large diameter sagged the cable with a 25% stiffness reduc- damage scenarios. sidered in the cable model in single cable of the Tsing Ma Suspension tion studies. trates the MPFs of the cable in modal cally. Table 1 illus. of the damage in the cases considered shapes. the main span validating it for use in damage-detec.11 These frequencies were meas. DIT was calculated using total the higher MPF in the lateral direction the last solution obtained at the end vibration displacement of the structure contributes to the accuracy of DIL. 4/2016 Scientific Paper 303 . flexural rigidity was taken into tion of the elements 50 and 51.5 m.89E − 12 4 (Vertical) 0. 2a. confirming the accu. and multi-damage scenarios. undamaged baseline model.19 4. damage DIL at the damaged location and released.1560 0. other two graphs show gradual incre- to consider the geometric non-linear.1430 0.1030 −0. The component. In order with those from DIT. Measured Hz FE analysis (Hz) ferror (%) Lateral direction Vertical direction 1 (Lateral) 0. calcu- change in A or a change in E. lated by using lateral components of two sets of results.

4b and c and thereby accurately predict the damage location. (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral 0.797 m) Multiple damage scenario Damage Case 4 (DC 4) DC 4 Elements 25 and 89 10% In this multi-damage case. The curve pertaining to DIV based on the MPF is a successful which correspond to the actual dam- peaks not only at the damage location approach. It can be observed that The plots of the three DIs for damage where early modes show higher mass in addition to the peak at the damage case 3 are shown in Fig.0003 0.0005 Damage index 0.0001 0.0004 0. it can be concluded points (peaks) in the graph. Both Damage Case 2 (DC 2) DIT towards the middle.0010 0. ponents of mode shapes have better ment 25). 4a–c.9–1259. Competency of the DIL in age locations considered in the simu- but also at the mid-span of the cable. Damage participation in the lateral direction in location.0000 0 500 1000 1500 0 –0. two represent the damage locations second damage case with a 25% stiff- eral components of vibration modes for and the other is a false alarm. The DIV shows two peaks indi- 25 cating false prediction at mid-span.41–346. 2: DC 1 – Damage indices (a) DIV.1 cable model with 25% stiffness reduc- 89 tion.0001 0 500 1000 1500 Distance along the cable (m) F ig .710–713.0005 0.0003 0. there is a gradual increase of case 3 is simulated in element 1 of the a suspended cable. 5a–c. as in X Fig.0005 0. 1: Cable structure with damaged elements Severity of damage (% Multiple Damage Scenarios Damage case Location stiffness reduction) One damage case was examined to Single damage scenario study the damage-locating capability DC 1 Elements 50 and 51 25% of component-specific DIs under mul- (X = 684.0006 0. graphs identified that the lateral com- damage location being considered (ele. The responses per- Table 2: Damage cases considered in the cable model taining to DIV. plots of the DIL and DIT demonstrate only a single peak. Further. 4/2016 . elements (X = 332.0020 0. the DIL peaks at the exact cable is further evaluated through Dam. damage detection of the suspended lations.09 m) tiple damage scenarios and to com- DC 2 Element 25 25% pare the outcomes with the prediction (X = 332.36 m) of DIT calculated by using all the components of mode shapes. DC 3 Element 1 25% (X = 0. An analysis of the three However. (b) DIL and (c) DIT 304 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International Nr. The ness reduction in element 25 of the detecting damage in suspended cable graph of the DIL has two sharp peaks cable. DIL and DIT are pre- sented in Fig. of which Figure 3a–c illustrates the DIs for the that the use of DIL by incorporating lat.0002 0.7 m) simulate damage.36 m) 25 and 89 are subjected to 10% stiff- and ness reductions in the cable model to (X = 1245. respectively. Y 50 and 51 However. in Fig.00–13. F ig .0001 0 –0. 3c the DIT damage-detection capability than ver- curve shows a pattern somewhat similar Damage Case 3 (DC 3) tical components of mode shapes to that of DIv.0005 0 500 1000 1500 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total 0.41–346.0004 Damage index Damage index 0. age cases 3 and 4.0015 0. Considering DIV and DIT show three maximum the three graphs.0002 0.

0005 0.0010 Damage index 0. structure is considered in case study blocks on either river banks.00045 0. 7).0004 0.00035 Damage index 0. The use of this dam.00015 0. respec- and locating damage in all the damage MPF to detect and locate the damage.2 m.0001 0. Total ening girder (Fig. 6).15 Damage index 0.00005 0 500 1000 1500 –0. which has trusses vibration modes with lateral. The main cables consist of six cases considered. the higher MPFs. (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral 0.025 0. The cable of a suspended cable as indicated by validated using measured modal prop.045 0. (b) DIL and (c) DIT It is clearly evident that the DIL calcu. anchoring is not symmetric (Fig.00005 0 500 1000 1500 –0.8 mm on each side Case Study 2 The Ölfusá Bridge is a suspension with 4 m intervals.00025 0. 4: DC 3 – Damage indices (a) DIV.0002 0.0131 m2.005 –0. 3: DC 2 – Damage indices (a) DIV. erties.0015 0. in each cable plane 9.0002 –0. The Ölfusá Bridge bridge with a concrete deck supported comprises of a very massive steel stiff- Suspension bridges exhibit complex and stiffened by a steel truss. a 3D FE model of individual 96 wire locked coil strands mass (modal mass) being distributed in the Ölfusá Bridge in Iceland (1945).00000 –0. This stiffening girder includes main cable in a suspension bridge cables which are anchored in concrete three longitudinal trusses consisting of Structural Engineering International Nr.7 m is suspended from the main also enables to reduce the false alarms.20 0.3 m apart with the lateral direction of the mode shapes (as shown in Fig. based on the bridge are 10.14.00005 Distance along the cable (m) Fig. 4/2016 Scientific Paper 305 .00025 Damage index Damage index 0.05 0 0 0 500 1000 1500 0 500 1000 1500 –0. measured vibration data for validation cables by 20 circular solid steel hang- were obtained from the literature.035 Damage index 0. 7) is developed and cross-section 0.00020 0.13 The the 84 m main span is suspended by tions. length of the bridge is 132 m of which in longitudinal and transverse direc- torsional and coupled modes. tively.05 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total 0.00010 0 0. (b) DIL and (c) DIT (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral 0. All the geometric features of The concrete bridge deck of width age index. the bridge for FE modelling and 8.0001 0.0005 0.00015 0. vertical.00030 0.10 0.015 0. selected based on the MPFs. This is due to more Towards this end. The maxi- lated based on the lateral components 2 in order to test the capability of the mum cable sag and the tower height of of mode shapes is capable of detecting component-specific DIs.15 ers of diameter 50.005 0 500 1000 1500 Distance along the cable (m) Fig.00005 0 500 1000 1500 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total 0.5 and 10.0003 0.

00005 0 0 500 1000 1500 –0.5 m in the numerical simulation.0004 0. the main cables are composed of six individual locked two primary longitudinal vertical and are presented in Table 3.00005 Distance along the cable (m) F ig . 4/2016 . Further.0002 –0. 7: The Ölfusá Bridge16 In each cable plane.3 direction of the bridge. All the coil strands which are modelled as sin- trusses and a wind stiffening truss elements of the bridge were simulated gle cable in the FE model. (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral 0.2 m and are made Material Density (kg/m3) E (GPa) ν from I-beams riveted together by steel Steel cables 8000 135 0. (b) DIL and (c) DIT South tower North tower The pylon section was constructed by concrete filled in between two I-girder Sag sections which are connected by steel 10. member offsets are introduced again to the longitudinal I-beams.00010 0.0002 0.3 enables rotation about the transverse Pylon steel 8000 210 0.5 m plates.0003 0.2 The 3D FE model of the Ölfusá Bridge deck concrete 2500 32 0. F ig .3 plates and filled with concrete. 5: DC 4 – Damage indices (a) DIV. with no rotation and no translations girder of the bridge consists of a total lated using SHELL181 elements. This is considered as a compos- ite section and equivalent section properties were calculated and used 25 m 84 m 18.15 Table 3: Material properties 306 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International Nr.0001 0. Pylons of the bridge Young’s modulus have a height of 10. are assigned at the ends of the main of 22 transverse trusses positioned 4 m apart of which 20 are located across the span. As anchor which connects at the bottom of the by BEAM 188 elements with the blocks are not modelled.00005 0.0001 0.00020 0. The section properties of the steel stiffen- 15 F ig . In order to model the cor- rect configuration of the longitudinal I-beams placed on transverse truss. Hinged connection at the base of the pylons Steel hangers 8000 135 0.2 Bridge was simulated and all the mate- Steel used in truss 9000 210 0.15 The structural elements of the stiffen- ing girder are modelled with different cross-sections and member offset has been considered for the deck ele- ments to represent the correct eleva- tion of the deck and longitudinal I-beams.00015 0.00015 Damage index Damage index 0.00020 Damage index 0. fixed supports primary trusses. Concrete fill in pylon 2500 32 0. the stiffening exception of the deck which was simu.3 rial properties primarily used in the simulation are as in the literature14.00005 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total 0.00000 0 500 1000 1500 –0.00025 0. 6: Schematic diagram of the Ölfusá Bridge ing girder and deck used in the numerical simulation are similar to those mentioned in the literature.00010 0.00030 0.14.00000 0 500 1000 1500 –0.

Similar condi. it can be concluded that ducted in order to obtain the stress Damage Case 1 (DC 1) the results from the FE model devel- stiffening matrix caused by the inter- oped in this study demonstrate a good The first damage case studied is that nal forces due to the dead loads acting correlation with the field measured in the middle of the upstream cable on the bridge.54 −416. 1. gondola algorithm from a previous study. while 15 and 30% of the bridge are hinged.071 0. the bridge measurements.65 8.cables.36 0. It is hence evi- accuracy of measurements. 9b and c) curves corresponding Damage Detection validate the FE model.5% except span of the bridge and locations of assigning no translation at the base of the first torsional mode where there is damage considered. The curves corresponding by the Technical University of Den. (DIV.2 Table 4: Comparison of the natural frequencies of the Ölfusá Bridge Structural Engineering International Nr. the higher MPF is in the vertical High precision tri-axial and uni-axial cies and both vertical and lateral com.0%) was observed tions are indicated with vertical red in the first torsional mode of the FE The weights due to the non-structural dotted lines.26 527. lar magnitude (11. The validated FE shown in Fig. to the upstream cable show incorrect ments of the bridge were conducted This section presents the damage predictions. model therefore provides the base accurately predicts the correct damage Natural frequencies obtained from the line model for VBDD applications. Only the DIV curve ural frequencies and mode shapes. and those obtained in- Table 5 below give the details of the pylons are hinged at the base and are form the updated FE model in the locations of the damage cases consid- free to rotate about the transverse current study.4 symmetric First torsion 2. frequencies obtained from the field to cater for multiple damage scenarios.47 0. This is followed by the vibration data of the Ölfusá Bridge.588 1. the other two DI of the Ölfusá Bridge are compared to (Fig. In the field testing. detection in the cables of the Ölfusá to the downstream cable show very mark. a non-linear static cuss the damage detection results.2 symmetric First vertical anti.3 0. These are included in the FE vibration was measured and hence Three damage cases were examined model as a form of applied loading. An error of a simi- along the cable and the damage loca- about the transverse direction. Natural frequen. availability of limited amount of the analysis with large deflection was con- bridge data. 20% stiffness cific DI to detect damage in structural Mass participation factor (γi) Mode Measured Hz FE analysis Hz ferror (%) Lateral direction Vertical direction First vertical 1. initially. DIs are plotted the pylons and releasing rotation only an error of 12. With the analysis. (b) DIL and (c) DIT are ration of the bridge to obtain the nat- modal analysis.090 2. any changes to the downstream cable obtained from field measurements15 (Fig. stiffness reductions in two different about the transverse and longitudinal Table 4 lists the two sets of natural locations in the cable were considered axes have been allowed in the simula.7 Second torsion 2. not used in the validation. Field measure.705 1.831 −1. As mentioned before. In the FE model.15 beams and pipe lines under the bridge Single Damage Scenarios are considered as provided in Ref. The results from the EFLA engineering Organization and flexibility based DIs defined previously modal analysis in Table 4 show that the Icelandic Road Administration. only the deck [15]. with 20% stiffness reduction.078 1. location in the upstream cable without FE model of the bridge and those which is presented in the next section.352 −12.8 −0. From the results.5 687. suspension bridge using the modal small variation. cables are FE model such that the differences reduction at the mid span. 9. model.793 2.5%. DIL and DIT). between the natural frequencies span and near the support of the cable As the transverse trusses at both ends obtained from the field testing and were considered. updated using the automatic elements such as parapets. In prestressed modal study 1 are used to present and dis- were the mode 5 to mode 8. direction of the suspension bridge and accelerometers were used in the field ponents and total components of the hence DIV. Numeri- modal analysis performed on the basis Table 4 illustrates the MPF in lateral cal results of the damage indices of the deformed equilibrium configu- and vertical directions of the bridge in (a) DIV.9 symmetric Horizontal 1. tions. The cable conducted to obtain the vibration Notations similar to those in case dominated modes in the FE model parameters. quarter considered as fixed over pylon saddles. 9a).1 18.6 22.608 −1. it can ered in this study. However. the University of Iceland. some of the modes dominated by in the upstream cable of the bridge to cable modes in the FE model were study the damage locating capability A prestressed modal analysis was first of the three DIs defined previously. Figure 8 illustrates direction of the bridge. the DI in that direction measurements and these ensured the first four mode shapes were extracted gives the correct results.15 rotations from the FE model were minimised. In select the most suitable component-spe- alter the structural parameters of the single damage scenarios.713 −0. be observed that the calculated (ferror) the x direction measured along the tion is simulated in the FE model by error in each mode is <1. Model from the FE analysis in both damaged dent that MPF is a good parameter to updating was conducted manually to and undamaged state of the bridge. 4/2016 Scientific Paper 307 .

0200 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.005 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.005 –0.0025 Damage index Damage index 0.0030 0. and enables successful damage detection (X = 64–68 m) 15% in the suspension cable of this bridge. 9: DC 1 – Damage indices (a) DIV. Single damage scenario DC 1 Upstream cable 20% Damage Case 2 (DC 2) (X = 40–44 m) Figure 10 illustrates the plots of all DC 2 Upstream cable 20% three DIs for the second damage case (X = 64–68 m) with a 20% stiffness reduction at the DC 3 Upstream cable 20% quarter span of the upstream cable. (b) DIL and (c) DIT 308 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International Nr.025 Damage index 0. which have higher MPF. DC 6 Damage at two locations of upstream cable Damage Case 3 (DC 3) (X = 16–20 m) 30% The plots of the three DIs for damage and case 3 are shown in Fig. Based (X = 64–68 m) 15% on these results. The DIV detects the damage South tower North tower with higher accuracy.015 Distance along the cable (m) F ig .0200 0. it can be confirmed that DIV calculated using Y the vertical components of the mode shapes of the suspension bridge struc- X ture. (X = 80–84 m) The curves in Fig. 11a–c. Damage (X = 80–84 m) 15% case 3 is simulated near the support in Table 5: Single damage scenarios the upstream cable with 20% stiffness reduction. This will be further elaborated in Damage case Location stiffness reduction) the next few damage cases studied in this paper.0010 0. Severity of damage (% cables.0035 0. based on their higher MPF. 10a show that DIV Multiple damage scenario peaks at the exact damage location in the upstream cable while no signifi- DC 4 Damage at two locations of cant change in DIV is observed for the upstream cable downstream cable. it is again evident DC 5 Damage at two locations of that DIV calculated by incorporating upstream cable the vertical components of mode (X = 16–20 m) 30% shapes. has the F ig . the DIL (X = 40–44 m) 30% and DIT curves in Fig.0020 0.0005 –0.0005 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 –0. However.0015 0.035 0. 4/2016 . Considering all the single damage cases that were examined. 10b and c show and unreliable and incorrect results. 8: Direction notations ability to detect and locate damage (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral Upstream cable Downstream cable Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.0400 0.0300 0.015 0.0100 0.0100 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.0500 0. The other two DIs however show inconclusive results.

(b) DIL and (c) DIT (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral Upstream cable Downstream cable Upstream cable Downstream cable 0. 10: DC 2 – Damage indices (a) DIV. This confirms that indicate that DIV alone has the ability damage locating capability of DIs in the selection of the correct DI based to detect damage in suspension bridge multiple damage locations. to study the damage locating capabil.0000 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.020 –0.140 0.040 0.040 Damage index Damage index 0. it confirms the effi- a 30 and 15% stiffness reductions in damage detection in that structure.001 –0.003 0.15 0. The DIL and DIT multiple damage case with 30% and mode shapes.05 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.040 0.0200 Distance along the cable (m) Fig.020 0.080 0.004 0. ciency of using the MPF to choose the the upstream cable in the FE model correct DI.000 –0.0100 0.0100 –0. In this on the MPF in the vibration modes of cables under this multiple damage sce- case. DIL and DIT are illus- Damage Case 5 (DC 5) Three damage cases were examined trated in Fig.000 0. These results Damage case 4 is set up to study the inconclusive results.020 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.030 0.002 0.120 0. 12a.001 –0. 4/2016 Scientific Paper 309 .060 0.030 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total Upstream cable Downstream cable 0. (b) DIL and (c) DIT more accurately. Damage Case 4 (DC 4) significant indication of the damage DIL and DIT give either unreliable or locations considered. (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral Upstream cable Downstream cable Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.0300 Damage index 0. to simulate damage.010 0.0200 0. curves of the upstream cable have no 15% stiffness reductions in two Structural Engineering International Nr.080 0. The other two DIs. upstream cable at the damage loca.10 Damage index 0.020 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.040 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.05 Distance along the cable (m) Fig. 11: DC 3 – Damage indices (a) DIDIV.003 0.050 0. b and c respectively.0400 0.002 0.010 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.060 0. The DIV shows two peaks in the Figure 13 illustrates curves corre- ity of the DIs calculated using vertical. Further. two locations are subjected to the cable structure enables successful nario. The behaviour Multiple Damage Scenarios of the DIV. sponding to three DIs for the next lateral and total components of the tions considered.100 Damage index Damage index 0.060 0.020 0.001 0.020 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 –0.

006 0. In a suspension bridge. There are however no indications for all three DIs are shown in Fig.001 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 –0.02 –0.007 0. Through these five damage cases The last damage case studied under related to the DIV peaks at the exact analysed in case study 2.140 0.000 0. 4/2016 .06 Damage index 0. (b) DIL and (c) DIT (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral Upstream cable Downstream cable Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.02 –0.090 Damage index Damage index 0. Based is competent to detect and locate on the examination of the three damage in the main cables of a sus. and material technology have resulted ing vertical components of the mode age scenario.060 0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 –0.10 0. 1 2 : DC 4 – Damage indices (a) DIV.080 Damage index Damage index 0. 13a) DIT. support in the upstream cable. Advances in structural engineering graphs.04 0. Therefore.002 0.120 0.02 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 –0.060 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.08 0.005 0.04 Distance along the cable (m) F ig .004 0. of damage locations in the upstream Once again.006 0. Damage in these a successful approach. 1 3 : DC 5 – Damage indices (a) DIV.04 Distance along the cable (m) F ig .020 0. (b) DIL and (c) DIT locations in the quarter span of the Damage Case 6 (DC 6) capability compared with the DIL and upstream cable. 14.002 –0.004 0. DIV displays better damage detection cables needs to be detected at their 310 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International Nr.08 Damage index 0. The curve (Fig. it is evident the multiple damage scenarios per- damage locations being considered at that effective use of the MPF enables tains to 30 and 15% stiffness reduc- the upstream cable and no significant successful damage detection in the tions in the quarter span and near the changes to the DIV in the downstream cable structure.06 0.100 0.04 0.040 –0. pension bridge structure for this dam.008 0. the supported structures. in increasing applications of cables as shapes for detecting damage in the modal mass is mainly distributed in key structural components in cable- main cable of a suspension bridge is the vertical direction. they verify that only DIV Conclusion cable in the plots of DIL and DIT.008 0.040 0. Results cable.002 –0.02 0. (a) Damage index-vertical (b) Damage index-lateral Upstream cable Downstream cable Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.020 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0.003 0. it is evident that incorporat.000 –0.060 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total Upstream cable Downstream cable 0.010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 –0.040 0.001 –0.

Vibration characteristics of shallow ond case study showed that the itoring of cable-supported bridges. The Free Encyclopedia.050 0. higher MPF in the early modes leads [14] Óskarsson KU. Chan THT. J. Australia. Master Thesis. Chan THT. Iceland. Further. An experimental analysis PhD student supported by Queensland uni- ter. Khazem D. [15] Pálsson GP. 2012. [8] Shih HW. enables identification of the versity of Technology Postgraduate Research of a non-destructive corrosion monitoring sys- appropriate DI for successful damage Award. Simple mea. Lin Y-Q. Version incorporates only a few lower order structural health monitoring of structures at 14. to its enhanced performance in dam. Wasanthi R. [13] Huang MH.org/w/index. MSc damage detection in cables verify the [4] Im H-B. Sound Vib. Hong AL. 2013. tem for main cables of suspension bridges. 14: DC 6 – Damage indices (a) DIV. These two case studies related to Struct. Yu Z. 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Seismic Analysis Thesis. 1997.5. surements of vibration data obtained in structures using changes in flexibility. University. Struct. Queensland Univer- focused on the development and sity of Technology. of the Ölfusá Suspension Bridge. Wikipe- posed method can be used to detect [5] Shrimali M.04 0. Damage detection strophic failures. for damage identification. Wickramasinghe is a [10] Sloane MJD. [11] Xu YL. 275(1): 59–75. The sec. https://en.100 0. Zhou H. rior performance of DIL to detect and Infrastruct.100 Distance along the cable (m) Distance along the cable (m) (c) Damage index-total Upstream cable Downstream cable 0. Perera NJ.050 0. Reykjavík. Structural Health Modeling [3] Ren W-X.200 0.020 0.12 0. Eng. (town)&oldid=715042287. Betti R. Korea. suspension bridges. PA).040 0. 11(2): 91–124. [2] Wong KY. 2005. This is visors is greatly appreciated. Chung J. the supe. The important modal parame. 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