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O FFLIN E

TES T SER IES

ESE-2017 : Prelims Exam MECHANICAL
UPSC Engineering Services Examination ENGINEERING
Test 3: Part Syllabus Technical
Answer Key & Solutions
Heat and Mass Transfer

1. (a) 16. (b) 31. (b) 46. (c) 61. (a)

2. (c) 17. (d) 32. (b) 47. (b) 62. (c)

3. (d) 18. (a) 33. (d) 48. (c) 63. (a)

4. (c) 19. (c) 34. (b) 49. (b) 64. (a)

5. (b) 20. (c) 35. (b) 50. (c) 65. (b)

6. (b) 21. (d) 36. (c) 51. (b) 66. (a)

7. (c) 22. (a) 37. (b) 52. (b) 67. (b)

8. (b) 23. (d) 38. (a) 53. (d) 68. (a)

9. (c) 24. (c) 39. (b) 54. (a) 69. (d)

10. (d) 25. (b) 40. (d) 55. (a) 70. (a)

11. (d) 26. (d) 41. (a) 56. (b) 71. (a)

12. (b) 27. (c) 42. (a) 57. (c) 72. (d)

13. (a) 28. (a) 43. (b) 58. (b) 73. (b)

14. (b) 29. (d) 44. (a) 59. (d) 74. (d)

15. (b) 30. (a) 45. (a) 60. (c) 75. (d)
12 ESE 2017 Prelims Exam • Offline Test Series

DETAILED EXPLANATIONS

1. (a)
As the temperature increases, momentum of gas molecules increases due to which collision rate
increases, which ultimately increases the thermal conductivity. While pressure change near atmospheric
condition does not affect thermal conductivity of gas.

2. (c)
Poisson’s equation shows steady state heat conduction with heat generation inside the body.

3. (d)
Consider composite plane wall
T1 T2 T1 T2

k1 Equivalent keq.
k2


δ δ
So rate of heat transfer for should be same
T1 − T2 T − T2
⇒ q = = 1
δ δ 2δ
+
k1A k2 A keq A

δ δ 2δ
⇒ + =
k1A k 2 A keq A
2k1k2
⇒ k eq =
k1 + k 2
where k eq = equivalent thermal conductivity

4. (c)

Q

rc
r
If insulation is provided upto critical radius only it will increase the rate of heat transfer.

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Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 13

5. (b)
For dimension of ‘h ’, as its units W/m2K
Joule/Second
=
meter2 − Kelvin
Dimension of energy ML2T −2
= =
[Time] × [Length]2 × [Temperature] TL2θ
⇒ Dimension of ‘h ’ is [ML 0 θ–1 T –3 ]
or [Mθ–1T –3]

6. (b)
For same heat flux and temperature difference as
ΔT
Q = kA
δ
⇒ As per given condition
Q k1 k2
= constant = =
AΔT δ1 δ 2
⇒ k 1 = 1 W/mK, δ1 = 50 cm, k2 = 2 W/mK
⎛k ⎞
⇒ δ 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ δ1
⎝ k1 ⎠
2
⇒ δ2 = × 50 = 100 cm
1

7. (c)
As for one dimensional heat transfer across a slab
∂2T 1 ∂T
= [without heat generation]
∂x 2 α ∂t
As given T = 50 + 10x + 5x 2 + 2x 3
∂2T
⇒ = 10 + 12x
∂x 2
∂2T
⇒ ∂x 2 = 22
x =1m

So from equation (i)

∂T ⎛ ∂2T ⎞
= α⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2 × 10 –3 × 22
∂t ⎜⎝ ∂x ⎟
x =1 ⎠

∂T
⇒ = 0.044 °C/h
∂t

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14 ESE 2017 Prelims Exam • Offline Test Series

8. (b)
Geometric radius of a hollow sphere is given by
r = r1 × r2 = 4 × 9 = 6 cm
[where r1 = inner radius; r2 = outer radius]

9. (c)
As k ins = 0.2 W/mK
ho = 4 W/m2K
kins 0.2
⇒ Critical radius of insulation rc = = = 0.05 m = 5 cm
ho 4

10. (d)
As for spherical device critical radius of insulation is given by

2kins
rc = ho

here k ins = 0.1 W/mK
and ho = 5 W/m2K
2 × 0.1
⇒ rc = = 0.04 m = 4 cm
5
So, as radius of the device is greater than critical radius of insulation, os no insulation should be
provided. So option (d) is correct i.e. “no insulation”.

12. (b)
As per Fouriers law:
ΔT
Q = kA
δ
k = thermal conductivity
A = area
ΔT = temperature difference
δ = thickness

ΔT
So from Q = kA
δ
For a given heat flow rate, temperature drop across two surfaces.
Δ T ∝ δ(thickness)
1
ΔT ∝
A
1
and ΔT ∝ [inversely proportional to ‘k ’]
k
So temperature drop will be high if thermal conductivity of wall is less.

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Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 15

13. (a)

Material Conductivity (W/mK)

Diamond 2300

Silver 410

Water 0.61

Freon 0.0083

14. (b)
Temperature distribution for the above condition is given by
⎡ To − T ⎤ 2
⎡x⎤
⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥
⎣To − Tw ⎦ ⎣L ⎦
Putting values
2
200 − T ⎛ 0.5 ⎞
⇒ = ⎜
200 − 50 ⎝ 1 ⎟⎠
150
200 – T = , T = 162.5°C
4

15. (b)
Drawing resistance circuit:
R2

A R1 B C

R3

δ /2 δ
R1 = =
kA 2kA
δ /2 δ
R2 = R3 = =
2k × A /2 2kA
⎛ δ ⎞⎛ δ ⎞
⎜⎝ ⎟⎜ ⎟
R2 R 3 2kA ⎠ ⎝ 2kA ⎠ δ
⇒ R23 = = =
R2 + R 3 ⎛ δ ⎞ 4kA
2×⎜
⎝ 2kA ⎟⎠

δ δ 3
So, Req = R1 + R23 = + = δ /kA
2kA 4kA 4

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16 ESE 2017 Prelims Exam • Offline Test Series

16. (b)

Qconv.

Qrad

T > 300°C
T > 300°C
i.e. high temperature ⇒ radiation will be there. And also convection will take place simultaneously.
Qtotal = Qconv. + Qrad.
⇒ Both heat transfers taking place together so resistances will be in parallel.

17. (d)
All the points causes non-linear temperature profile.

18. (a)
For cylindrical surface temperature profile will be logarithmic and for spherical it will be hyperbolic.

19. (c)
For constant heat flux is
q (T − T1 ) = −k (T3 − T2 )
= −k1 2 2
A δ1 δ2
here δ 1 = b, δ2 = 2 b
and k 1 = k ; k2 = 2 k

−k
(T − 327) (27 − T )
⇒ = −2k
b 2b
⇒ 2 T = 354°C
T = 177°C

21. (d)
In region ‘D ’ bubbles cover the hot solid surface and forms a blanket. Now as in bubbles gas are filled
and also it occurs at very high temperature so radiation heat transfer dominates over others.

22. (a)
In this case liquid above the hot surface is stagnant and its motion near the surface is due to free
convection.

23. (d)

Fourier number, f0 =
L2c

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Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 17

25. (b)
δ
hδ kA Conduction resistance
Biot number = ; or = =
k 1 Surface convection resistance
hA

26. (d)
ρvc
As time constant, t =
hA
1
⇒ t ∝
h
i.e. h large = t will be small

27. (c)
ν
Prandtl number =
α
If Prandtl number > 1
Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness will be more and vice-versa.

28. (a)
Reynold analogy shows inter-relationship between fluid friction and Newton’s Law of viscosity. According
hx Cf x
to this = Stanton No. =
ρvcp 2

29. (d)
Critical value of Reynold number at which thermal boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent
depends on all the points as given above.

30. (a)
Grashoff number is related to free convection.

32. (b)
Under constant heat flux condition and for fully developed laminar flow through pipe Nusselt

48 hd
number is given as Nu = =
11 k
here d = diameter = 10 cm
k = conductivity of fluid = 0.11 W/mK
48 h × 0.10
⇒ =
11 0.11
⇒ h = 4.8 W/m2K

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18 ESE 2017 Prelims Exam • Offline Test Series

33. (d)
As surface area of cube = 6a 2
= 6 × 102 × 10–4 m2
= 0.06 m2
⇒ Heat transfer rate, Q = hAΔ t
= 5 × 0.06 × (320 – 20) = 90 W

36. (c)
As thickness of hydrodynamic boundary layer for parabolic velocity
4.64 x 4.64 x
δ = = 0.5
Re x ⎛ ρv x ⎞
⎜⎝ μ ⎟⎠

⇒ δ ∝ x
For constant Prandtl no. δt ∝ δ
δ t /x x
⇒ =
δt / 2 x 2x

⇒ δt /2 x = 2 δt

38. (a)
Schmidt number is the ratio of kinematic viscosity to diffusion coefficient in mass transfer.
ν
Sc = D
c

39. (b)
Pohlhausen relation shows how thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers are related with each other.

40. (d)
In addition to the above, other assumptions are as follows:
• thermal conductivity of fin material is constant.
• heat transfer coefficient over the surface is constant.
• one-dimensional heat transfer.

41. (a)

Pk
As fin effectiveness, ∈ =
hA
1 1
⇒ ∈ ∝ P ∝ k ∝ ∝
h A
So perimeter and thermal conductivity should be high and sectional area and heat transfer coefficient of
ambient medium should be low.

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Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 19

42. (a)
1 1 kAcs
Efficiency of infinitely long fin = = =
mL hP hPL2
×L
kAcs

43. (b)
1
As fin efficiency, η =
mL
1
⇒ η ∝
L
So as length increases, efficiency decreases.
• Whereas increase in length increases heat transfer area so heat transfer rate will increase which
increases effectiveness of fin.

44. (a)
As heat loss from infinity large fin

q∞ = hPkA (t 0 − t ∞ )

Heat loss from finite fin qf = hPkAcs (t − t ∞ ) tanh mL
for both to be equal tan h mL ≥ 0.99
or mL ≥ 2.646
or ≥ 2.646
⇒ L ≥ 1
So L  1m

45. (a)
UA
NTU =
Cmin
As NTU ∝ A
Where A = area of heat transfer
NTU is associated with size of the heat exchanger.

47. (b)
1− e ( )− 1 + C NTU
As parallel flow H.E. ∈ =
1+ C
If capacity ratio i.e. C = 1
1 − e −2NTU
⇒ ∈ =
2

48. (c)
• In space vehicle compact heat exchangers are used to reduce the space requirement.
• In air preheters recuperative i.e. indirect contact type heat exchangers are used.

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20 ESE 2017 Prelims Exam • Offline Test Series

49. (b)
As outlet temperature of cold fluid is more than outlet temperature of hot fluid, so it will be counterflow
heat exchanger.

50. (c)
Let C1 and C2 be capacities of hot and cold gases
450°C
hot gas
170°C 150°C

cold gas 20°C

C1(450 – 150) = C2(170 – 20)
C1 150
⇒ Capacity ratio, = = 0.5
C2 300

51. (b)
Thi = 150°C
oil
The
Tce = 40°C 110°C

cooling fluid Tc i

For oil m 0 = 5 kg/s
c0 = 15 J/kgK
and for coolant
m c = 10 kg/s, cc = 30 J/kgK
⇒ m0c0 (Thi – The ) = mccc(Tce – Tc i )
⇒ Tci = 30°C

52. (b)
As for capacity ratio = 1 in counter flow heat exchanger, effectiveness is given by
NTU 1.5 1.5
∈ = = = = 0.6
1 + NTU 1 + 1.5 2.5

53. (d)

UA
As NTU = C
min

where U = Overall heat transfer coefficient
A = Heat transfer area
Cmin = Heat capacity (minimum of both)
As here U = 120 W/m2K,

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Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 21

A = 25 m2, Cmin = 1000 J/K
25 × 120
⇒ NTU = =3
1000

54. (a)
Radiosity = Energy emitted from surface + Reflected energy
J = ε Eb + ρ G

55. (a)
Wavelength range for thermal radiation lies between 10 –1 to 102 μm.

56. (b)
As if body 1 enclosed by body 2 and if body 2 is large
⇒ A2>>> A1
1 1
⇒ = = ε1
1 A1 1⎛ ⎞ 1
+ − 1
ε1 A2 ⎝⎜ ε2 ⎠⎟ ε1
If size difference between them is small then A1 can not be neglected in comparison to A 2.

57. (c)
Absorptivity and emissivity of a grey body does not depends on wavelength of radiation.

58. (b)
As per Wein’s displacement law
λT = 2898 μmK
here T = 1449 K
λ = 2 μm

59. (d)
For spherical shape as radiation will be emitted in perpendicular direction and emitted radiation will not
collide with its surface so view factor will be zero with respect to itself.

60. (c)
As according to Stefan Boltzmann’s law
Eb ∝ T 4
4
E b1 ⎛T ⎞
⇒ = ⎜ 1⎟
Eb 2 ⎝ T2 ⎠

4 4
⎛ 127 + 273 ⎞ ⎛ 400 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟ =⎜
⎝ 800 ⎟⎠
= 1 : 16
⎝ 527 + 273 ⎠

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22 ESE 2017 Prelims Exam • Offline Test Series

61. (a)
For surface 1 area = π rs = πr (3 r) = 3π r 2 = A1
For surface 2 area ‘A 2’ = πr 2
⇒ A1 F12 = A2 F21
⇒ (3 π r 2) F12 = πr 2(1)
⇒ F12 = 0.33
As F21 = 1
62. (c)

1

2 r
As area of surface 1.
A1 = 2πr 2
for surface 2, πr 2 = A2
From reciprocity relation, A1 F12 = A 2 F21
⇒ As F21 = 1
(2π r 2) F 12 = πr 2(1)
⇒ F12 = 0.5

63. (a)
As Radiosity = Emissive power + Fraction of irradiation that is reflected
J = ε Eb + ρ G
J = εEb + (1 – ε)G [As α + ρ = 1 and α = ε]
⇒ 30 = 0.5 × Eb + (1 – 0.5) × 50
⇒ Eb = 10 W/m2

64. (a)
Emissivity of a body will be equal to its absorptivity only if the body is in thermal equilibrium with its
surrounding.

65. (b)
Total emissive power from a ideal surface in hemispherical direction will be equal to π times of intensity
of radiation.

66. (a)
As if shield and radiating surfaces have same emissivity
1
After placing ‘n’ shields rate of heat exchange = × rate of heat exchange without shields
(n + 1)
67. (b)
For gases H2, O2, N2 transmissivity is practically unity.

68. (a)
In radiation, heat transfer takes place by mechanism of photon emission or electromagnetic wave
emission which does not require any material medium. For example : Energy emitted by sun.

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Mechanical Engineering | Test 3 : Heat and Mass Transfer 23

69. (d)
Assertion is wrong, as in case of steady state heat conduction with constant thermal conductivity in a
plane will if there is heat generation then profile will not be linear. So temperature profile depends not
only on thermal conductivity but also on various other parameters.
k
As thermal diffusivity, α =
ρc
⇒ α ∝ k
i.e. thermal conductivity high = α will be high.

70. (a)
In dropwise condensation when vapour comes in contact of solid surface it get condensed and it does
not wet the surface so no film formation takes place. Liquid drops falls freely and thus plate surface will
be exposed for vapour and free heat transfer takes place.

71. (a)
If thermocouple will have low value of specific heat then it will require low amount of heat to change its
temperature i.e. less time to come in equilibrium with its surroundings and will give quick response.

72. (d)
Prandtl number for mercury is very low and is about 0.025 at 20°C because its thermal conductivity is high.
μc p
Pr =
k
1
or Pr ∝
k
73. (b)
For fully developed laminar flow through pipe
hL
Nu = , in case of fully developed laminar flow
k
h = constant
⇒ Nu = Constant
While in turbulent flow
Nu = c Re0.8 Pr a
So, here Nusselt number is not constant.

74. (d)
Pk
As fin effectiveness, ∈fin =
hA
For infinitely long fin
1
So, ∈ ∝
h
So, fin will be more effective in a medium having small value of ‘h’. Hence (A) is wrong.
75. (d)
Assertion is wrong. Recuperators are also known as direct transfer type or indirect contact type heat
exchangers in which heat transfer between two fluids takes place through a dividing wall. Reason is correct.

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