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KIC

 -­‐  inno  ENERGY    Urban  Planning  and  Energy  Infrastructure  

METROPOLISES  and  MEGACITIES  


30  January  2018  
 

WS  2017/18  
Karlsruhe  Ins4tute  of  Technology  (KIT)  
Ins4tut  Entwerfen  von  Stadt  und  LandschaC  
Fachgebiet  Stadtquar4ersplanung  
Prof.  Markus  Neppl  
Dr.  Kris4n  Barbey,  Dipl.-­‐Ing.  Markus  Peter  
TOKYO:  the  largest  metropolitan  area  of  the  world      

 Tokyo  Source:  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tokyo_aerial_night.jpg  


with  upwards  of  35  million  people    

 Tokyo  Source:  Merian  –  Unsere  Erde,  S.  43  


Metropolis:  1  million  inhabitants  –  Megacity:  10  million  inhabitants    

Today:  27  MegaciQes:  up  to  20  million  people:  such  as  Tokyo,  Mumbai,  Seoul,  New  York  and  Mexico  City      
 Tokyo  Source:  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tokyo_Landsat.jpg  
LARGEST  CITY  GROWTH  

>>  ROME:  over  1  million  people  (end  1st  century  BC)  

>>  BAGDAD:  over  1  million  people                            (762  –  930)  

>>  NEW  YORK  CITY:  10  million  people                                    (1950)  

 New  York:  View  of  the  surrounding  area  of  the  Empire  State  Building  Source:  Die  Geschichte  der  Stadt,  S.697  
AMSTERDAM  and  NEW  AMSTERDAM  (NEW  YORK):  high  density  and  space  efficient  land  use  

 New  York:  General  view,  plan  (1811),  Amsterdam  (1663)  Source  :  Die  Geschichte  der  Stadt,  S.760,  696  
CHICAGO:  model  of  a  planned  city  

 View  of  Chicago  in  1832  Source:  Die  Geschichte  der  Stadt,  S.699  
 View  of  Chicago  Source:  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chicago_Downtown_Aerial_View.jpg  
 Seoul  Source:  Merian  –  Unsere  Erde,  S.40  
 Shanghai  Source:  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shanghai_Skyscape.jpg  
 World Urbanization Prospects : The 2011 Revision: Dynamics of Urabnisation
 Source:  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division in: City Transformations, LSE, 2013, 25
Megastädte I
Städtische Agglomerationen mit mehr als 10 Mio. Einwohnern, 2005 und 2015

2005 2015

Tokio 35,2 1. 35,5 Tokio

Mexiko-Stadt 19,4 2. 21,9 Mumbai / Bombay

New York 18,7 3. 21,6 Mexiko-Stadt

São Paolo 18,3 4. 20,5 São Paulo

Mumbai / Bombay 18,2 5. 19,9 New York

Delhi 15,0 6. 18,6 Delhi

Schanghai 14,5 7. 17,2 Shanghai

Kalkutta 14,3 8. 16,9 Kalkutta

Megastädte II Jakarta 13,2 9. 16,8 Dhaka

Städtische Agglomerationen mit12,5


Buenos Aires mehr als 10 Mio. Einwohnern,
10. 2005 und 2015
16,8 Jakarta

Dhaka 12,4 11. 16,1 Lagos


2005 2015

in Mio. 30 25 20Los Angeles


15 12,3
10 5 0 12. 0 5 10 15,115Karatschi
20 25 30 in Mio.

Quelle: UN, Department of Economic and Karatschi


Social Affairs, 13.
11,6Population Division (2006). World Urbanization13,4 Buenos
Prospects: TheAires
2005 Revision
Lizenz: Creative Commons by-nc-nd/2.0/de
Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2008
Rio de Janeiro 11,5 14. 13,1 Kairo

Osaka-Kobe 11,3 15. 13,1 Los Angeles

Kairo 11,1 16. 12,9 Manila

Lagos 10,9 17. 12,9 Peking

Peking 10,7 18. 12,7 Rio de Janeiro

Manila 10,7 19. 11,3 Osaka-Kobe

Moskau 10,7 20. 11,2 Istanbul

21.
11,0 Moskau
Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision:
Absolute average annual increments for the 28 megacities in 2014
during 1970-1990, 1990-2014 and 2014-2030

 Sao  Paulo  Source:United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population DivisionWorld
Sustainable  Development  Goals  
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source:  hap://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-­‐agenda/  
Sustainable  Development  Goals  
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source:  hap://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-­‐agenda/  
COP  21  
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source:  hap://www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/act/  
The  Concept  of  Sustainable  Urban  Development      
+      Principles  of  Climate  Protec4on  and  Adap4on  
 
GREEN  CITY  +  GARDENCITY  
GREEN  SPACES  -­‐  GREEN  NETWORK,  BIODIVERSITY  
 

SOCIAL  +  PARTICIPATIVE  CITY  


NICE  NEIGHBOURHOODS  +  PARTICIPATIVE  ACTIONS  
SOCIAL  TOGETHER  +  LIVING  QUALITY    
HUMANITY  (HUMAN  SCALE)    
 

COMPACT  EUROPEAN  CITY  


DENSITY  +  MIXITY:  URBAN  DEVELOPMENT  „INTRA  CITY  LIMITS“  
 

CITY  OF  SHORT  DISTANCES  +  SMART  MOBILITY  


INTEGRATED  PUBLIC  TRANSPORT  SYSTEMS  
 

EFFICIENT  +  RESOURCE  +  SPACE  SAVING  CITY  


ECONOMICAL  +  ENERGY  EFFICIENCY    +  WASTE  REDUCTION  
ENERGY+  BUILDINGS  
USING  ECO  MATERIALS  +  RENEWABLE  ENERGIES    
THERMAL  INSULATION  +  RENEWING  THE  EXISTING  BUILDING  STOCK  
BUILDINGS  
REGENERATIVE  CITY  +  BACK  GIVING  +  PRODUCING  CITY    
ENERGY+  CITY  +  RESILIENT  CITY  (THE  LIMIT  OF  DENSITY?)  
CLIMATE  PROTECTION  +  ADAPTION  
CHANGE  OF  LIFESTYLES  

Source:  Kris4n  Barbey  


LARGEST  CITIES  GROWTH    

Jakarta,  1975,  1990,  2000,2010    


Source:  www.sueddeutsche.de/kultur/megaci4es-­‐goaes-­‐daumenkino-­‐1.1024143-­‐5  
Delhi (© NASA) Source:  www.bpb.de/internationales/weltweit/megastaedte/64479/delhi, 07.09.2015
Lagos  Source:  Markus  Matzel  
 Lagos  Source:  www.dokfest-­‐muenchen.de/media/images/DOK.blog/LAGOS_5.jpg  
 Lagos  Source:  www.ny4mes.com/imagepages/2006/09/06/arts/10ouro.1.html  
Lagos   Source:  rela4onalbcn.wordpress.com/2010/06/22/lagos-­‐rem-­‐koolhaas-­‐an-­‐aaempt-­‐to-­‐understand-­‐the-­‐nature-­‐of-­‐rapid-­‐urbanisa4on/;  
                                               www.ipekyolufilmfest.com/webeng/habduy.aspx?id=59&4p=FILM4;    rela4onalbcn.wordpress.com/2010/06/22/lagos-­‐rem-­‐koolhaas-­‐an-­‐
aaempt-­‐to-­‐understand-­‐the-­‐nature-­‐of-­‐rapid-­‐urbanisa4on/;    www.robingaddeandteam.com/index.php?s=projects&p=28_Rem_Koolhaas&lang=en&pic=11  
SÃO  PAULO  

>>  History  and  Today  SituaQon  

>>  Resources  and  Energy  

>>  Sustainable  Development?  

 Sao  Paulo  Source:  hap://smdu.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/historico_demografico/img/mapas/2000.jpg  


 São  Paulo,  Brazil    
Source:  de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?4tle=Datei:S%C3%A3o_Paulo_Landsat_%28fotografia_de_sat%C3%A9lite%29.jpg&file4mestamp=20050116010945,    
www.turkey-­‐visit.com/map/brazil/sao-­‐paulo-­‐map.asp  
 PROSPERITY  BY  COFFEE  PLANTATIONS  and  COFFEE  EXPORTS  
1872    >>>  MIGRANTS  from  Germany,  Italy,  Spain  

1882/1914                                                                                                                                                        1915/1929  

 Sao  Paulo  1872-­‐1929  Source:  geology.com/world-­‐ci4es/sao-­‐paulo-­‐brazil.shtml  


               1930/1949                              1950/1962      1963/1974  

               1975/1985                              1986/1992      1993/2002  

 Sao  Paulo  1930-­‐2002  Source:  geology.com/world-­‐ci4es/sao-­‐paulo-­‐brazil.shtml  


1810   1905  

1924   1993/2002  
 Sao  Paulo  Source:  smdu.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/historico_demografico/1872.php  
1924  

 Avenueplan  mit  `Dreiecksstadt´,  Ulhôa  Cintra;  Theore4sches  Schema,  Prestes  Maia  Source:  Arch+  190,  S.18  
 São  Paulo,  Brazil  Source:  de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?4tle=Datei:Saopaulo6.jpg&file4mestamp=20041221102955  
Sao  Paulo  Source:  www.dw.com/de/megaci4es-­‐die-­‐welt-­‐wird-­‐zur-­‐stadt/g-­‐16807064  
Favela  Paraisopolis,  São  Paulo  Source:  Tuca  Vieira  
Sao  Paulo  Source:  dancingnanter.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/2-­‐bad-­‐traffic-­‐in-­‐sp.jpg  
Sao  Paulo  Source:  www.jcnet.com.br/Nacional/2015/06/espuma-com-mais-de-tres-metros-de-altura-cobre-o-leito-do-rio-tiete.html#
SÃO  PAULO  
CURRENT  CRITICAL  PROBLEMS  
 
>>  poverty  and  homelessness    

>>  development  of  favelas    and  urban  sprawl  

>>  urban  development  without  major  planning  

>>  overcrowded  public  transport    

>>  consistent  traffic  congesQon    

>>  high  air  polluQon  and  highly  polluted  rivers  

>>  social  segregaQon  and  polarisaQon  

>>  criminality  
Kibera,  Nairobi  Source:  FIG;  Sao  Paulo,  Source:  dancingnanter.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/2-­‐bad-­‐traffic-­‐in-­‐sp.jpg  
 Sao  Paulo  Source:  geology.com/world-­‐ci4es/sao-­‐paulo-­‐brazil.shtml  
SÃO  PAULO  
ENVIRONMENTAL  PROBLEMS  and  THE  SENSE  OF  PLANNING  
 
>>  Increasing  land  sealing  

>>  high  air  and  water  polluQon  

>>  problems  of  waste  management  

>>  informal  development:  a  third  of  the  houses  have  been  built  without  official  building  permit  

>>  high  percentage  of  sealed  land  leads  to  strong  floods  amer  heavy  rain  every  year  and  landslides    

>>  illegal  senlement  in  water  protecQon  areas    

>>  illegal  discharge  of  wastewater  and  waste  disposal  

 Sao  Paulo  Source:  geology.com/world-­‐ci4es/sao-­‐paulo-­‐brazil.shtml  


CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
CITY  TRANSFORMATIONS  Source:  haps://files.lseci4es.net/files/2013/10/city-­‐transforma4ons-­‐newspaper_en.pdf  
plaNYC  
A  Greener  Greater  New  York  

!
 New  York  Source:  Merian  –  Unsere  Erde,  S.38  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
TOGETHER  WE  CAN  
 
Reduce  and  track  greenhouse  gas  emissions  
 

Assess  vulnerabili4es  and  risks  from  


climate  change  
 

Increase  the  resilience  of  the  city’s  built  


and  natural  environments  
 

Protect  public  health  from  the  effects  of  


climate  change  
 

Increase  the  city’s  preparedness  for  extreme  


climate  events  
 

Create  resilient  communi4es  though  public  


informa4on  and  outreach  

Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  


Ci4es  are  not  constrained  by  the  poli4cs  of  an   If  you’re  just  speaking  or  lecturing,  it’s  not  going  to   My  peers  and  I  started  an  environmental  
interna4onal  agenda.  Ci4es  are  able  to  act.  A   work.  But  if  it’s  an  inten4onal  discussion  of   group  in  our  school.  We  go  on  educa4onal  
lot  of  the  breakthroughs  happening  in  climate   methods,  you  can  show  young  people  that  it’s  not   trips  learning  about  the  problems  with  our  
change  adapta4on  are  coming  from  ci4es   corny,  but  it’s  cool.  They  start  realizing  that  the   environment  and  how  to  fix  them.  I  feel  that  
around  the  world.   people  who  will  be  most  impacted  by  climate   educa4ng  people  about  what  is  going  on  
  change  are  themselves.   will  make  them  want  to  change.  
Robert  Pollard  //  Manhaaan      
Murad  Awawdeh  //  Brooklyn   Jemima  Osae-­‐Asante  //  Bronx  

Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  


Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Climate  Change  –  NYC  www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/theplan/climate-­‐change.shtml  
Energy–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_energy.pdf  
TOGETHER  WE  CAN  
 
Improve  energy  planning  
 

Increase  our  energy  efficiency  


 

Provide  cleaner,  more  reliable,  


and  affordable  energy  
 

Modernize  our  transmission  


and  distribu4on  systems  

Energy–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_energy.pdf  


Energy–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_energy.pdf  
Energy–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_energy.pdf  
Green  Buildings  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_energy.pdf  
Green  Buildings  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_energy.pdf  
TOGETHER  WE  CAN  
 
Create  capacity  for  new  housing  
 

Finance  and  facilitate  new  housing  


 

Encourage  sustainable  neighborhoods  

Housing  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_housing.pdf  


TOGETHER  WE  CAN  
 
Create  capacity  for  new  housing  
 

Finance  and  facilitate  new  housing  


 

Encourage  sustainable  neighborhoods  

Housing  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_housing.pdf  


Housing  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_housing.pdf  
Housing  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_housing.pdf  
Housing  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_housing.pdf  
Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  
Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  
TOGETHER  WE  CAN  
 
Target  high  impact  projects  in  
neighborhoods  underserved  by  parks  
 

Create  des4na4on-­‐level  spaces  for  


all  types  of  recrea4on  
 

Re-­‐imagine  the  public  realm  


 

Promote  and  protect  nature  


 

Ensure  the  long-­‐term  health  of  parks  


and  public  space  

Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  


Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  
Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  
Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  
Parks  –  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_parks.pdf  
Water  Supply–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_water_supply.pdf  
Water  Supply–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_water_supply.pdf  
TOGETHER  WE  CAN  
 
Ensure  the  quality  of  our  drinking  water  
 

Maintain  and  enhance  the  infrastructure  


that  delivers  water  to  New  York  City  
 

Modernize  in-­‐city  distribu4on  


 

Improve  the  efficiency  of  the  water  supply  


system  

Water  Supply–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_water_supply.pdf  


Water  Supply–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_water_supply.pdf  
Water  Supply–  NYC  hap://nytelecom.vo.llnwd.net/o15/agencies/planyc2030/pdf/planyc_2011_water_supply.pdf  
plaNYC  
A  Stronger  More  Resilient  New  York  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/Introduc4on_Singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/Introduc4on_Singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/  Ch3_Coastal_FINAL_singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/Introduc4on_Singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/  Ch3_Coastal_FINAL_singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/  Ch3_Coastal_FINAL_singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/  Ch3_Coastal_FINAL_singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/  Ch3_Coastal_FINAL_singles.pdf  
A  Stronger,  more  Resilient  NY  www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/downloads/pdf/final_report/  Ch3_Coastal_FINAL_singles.pdf  
New  York  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
New  York  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
Sao  Paulo  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
Sao  Paulo  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
Sao  Paulo  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
Sao  Paulo  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
Sao  Paulo  hap://gehlarchitects.com/cases/new-­‐york-­‐usa/  
This  material  is  intended  only  for  internal  training  purposes.  Any  (also  in  extracts)  
publicaQon,  duplicaQon,  hosQng  or  transfer,     as  well  as  dissimilar  use  is  prohibited.  

WS  2017/18  
Karlsruhe  Ins4tute  of  Technology  (KIT)  
Ins4tut  Entwerfen  von  Stadt  und  LandschaC  
Fachgebiet  Stadtquar4ersplanung  
Prof.  Markus  Neppl