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Chapter 1

Introduction to Chemistry
(Tungsten is not illuminating until given
voltage; you are not beautiful until skilled)

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 1 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Definitions

1. Chemistry: - It is the branch of science, which


deals with the properties, composition, and the
structure of matter. It also deals with the
changes in matter and the principles, which
govern these changes. OR
“The scientific study of matter is called
chemistry”

2. Matter: - Anything having mass and volume is


called matter.

3. Mass: - The quantity of matter contained in a


body is called mass.

4. Volume: - Volume is the quantity of three


dimensional space occupied by the matter. OR
Volume (also called capacity) is quantification
of how much space an object occupies.

5. Space: - The free area between two material


objects is called space.

6. Hypothesis: - It is the intelligent guess of the


scientist about any phenomenon.

7. Phenomenon: - Any observable event is called


phenomenon.

8. Theory: -The scientifically acceptable idea or


principle to explain a phenomenon is called
theory.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 2 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


9. Organic compounds:- Those compounds
which contains carbon and hydrogen covalently
bounded with each other are called organic
compounds

10. Physical Chemistry: - The scientific study of


the laws and the principles governing the
combination of atoms and molecules in
chemical reactions is called Physical Chemistry.

11. Organic Chemistry: - The scientific study of


organic compounds is called organic chemistry.

12. Inorganic Chemistry: - The scientific study of


inorganic compounds is called inorganic
chemistry.

13. Analytical Chemistry: - The scientific study of


kind, quantity and quality of various
components in a given substance is called
analytical chemistry.

14. Biochemistry: - The scientific study of the


compounds and their reactions within the living
organisms is called biochemistry.

15. Industrial Chemistry: - The scientific study of


the chemical industries and the synthetic
products like glass, cement, soap etc over there
is called industrial chemistry.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 3 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


16. Nuclear Chemistry: - The scientific study of
the changes occurring in the nuclei of atoms,
accompanied by the emission of invisible
radiations is called nuclear chemistry.

17. Environmental Chemistry: - The scientific


study of interaction of chemical materials and
their effect on the environment is called
environmental chemistry

18. Polymeric Chemistry: - The scientific study of


polymerization and the products obtained
through the process of polymerization such as
plastics, synthetic fibers, papers etc is called
polymeric chemistry.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 4 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Multiple Choice Questions

1. Chemistry is the study of:


a) matter b) energy
c) both a & b d) life
e) N.O.T

2. The Muslim period ranges from:


a) 347 – 428 B.C b) 600 – 1600 A.D
c) 600 – 1000 A.D d) 1600 to today

3. Known as the father of Al-Chemy.


a) Jabir bin Hayan b) Al Razi
c) Ibne Sina d) Al Beruni

4. Known as the father of Modern Chemistry


a) Jabir bin Hayan b) Robert Boyle
c) Mendeleef d) Cavendish

5. First used opium as anaesthesia.


a) Jabir Bin Hayan b) Al Razi
c) Ibne Sina d) Al Beruni

6. ____,____,and____discovered oxygen, chlorine


and hydrogen respectively.
a) J. Black, J.Priesly, Scheele
b) Scheele, J. Priesly, Cavendish
c) Cavendish, Lavoiser, Scheele
d) J.Priesly, Scheele, Cavendish

7. Introduced first the idea of symbols:


a) Gay Lussac b) Mendeleef
c) Faraday d) J.J. Berzilius

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 5 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


8. Cholera, Typhoid, and Desentry are the
dangerous disease transmitted through the
impure water drinking.
a) true b) false

9. Al Razi divided chemical substances on the


basis of living and non-living origin.
a) true b) false

10. Biochemistry is the basis of medical sciences.


a) true b) false

11. PVC stands for poly vinyl carbon


a) true b) false

12. Fluorine is the best disinfectant:


a) true b) false

13. Periodic arrangement is the result of


Mendeleef’s work:
a) true b) false

 Questions 14 – 19
 Select from the terms below:
a) Organic Chemistry b) Inorganic chemistry
c) Biochemistry d) Analytical Chemistry
e) N.O.T

14. Wood is studied in:

15. Blood, urine, proteins are studied in:

16. Iron is studied in:

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 6 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


17. Hydrocarbons and their derivatives are studied
in:

18. It is the study of polymerization

19. It deals with the determination of kind, quality


and quantity of various components in a given
substance.

20. A wise guess of scientists is called hypothesis


a) true b) false

Answer Key

1 A 2 C 3 A
4 B 5 B 6 D
7 B 8 A 9 A
10 A 11 B 12 B
13 A 14 A 15 C
16 B 17 A 18 E
19 D 20 A

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 7 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


Chapter 2
Chemical Combinations

(You can neither stop nor save the time but


can make every moment historical if you
know the value of time)

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 8 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Definitions

1. Atomic mass: - Atomic mass is defined as the


mass of one atom of the element compared with
the mass of one atom of C12 (the stable light
isotope of carbon).

2. Molecular mass: - It is defined as the sum of


atomic masses of the atoms of all the elements
present in a molecule shown by its molecular
formula.

3. Empirical formula mass/ formula mass: - It is


the sum of atomic masses as given in the
simplest (empirical) formula of ionic compound

4. Molecular formula: - The expression, showing


types and actual number of atoms present in a
compound, using symbols for component
elements and numerals for number of atoms of
each element per molecule, like C6H6 for
benzene.

5. Empirical formula: - A chemical formula that


indicates the relative proportions of the elements
in a compound rather than the actual number of
the atoms of the elements.

6. Mole: - One mole is gram atomic mass, gram


molecular mass or gram formula mass of any
substance (atoms, ions, molecules), which
contains 6.02*1023 elementary entities.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 9 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


7. Molar mass: - The mass of one mole is called
molar mass.

8. Avagadro’s number: - The number of basic


quantities as present in 12 grams of C12 i.e
6.02*1023

 Multiple Choice Questions

1. Mass can not be created but can be destroyed.


a) true b) false

2. Landolt experiment is performed to verify:


a) law of conservation of mass
b) law of definite proportions
c) law of multiple proportions
d) law of reciprocal proportions

3. The empirical formula of glucose is:


a) CH b) CH2O
c) C3H6O6 d) C6H12O6

4. The empirical formula mass of benzene is:


a) 12 a.m.u b) 13 a.m.u
c) 78 a.m.u d) N.O.T

5. Molecular mass of sodium is:


a) 11 a.m.u b) 12 a.m.u
c) 23 a.m.u d) N.O.T

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 10 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


6. ______moles are there In 50 g of CaCO3.
a) 0.5 b) 1
c) 1.5 d) 1.5

7. 3 moles of Carbon are equal to:


a) 4g b) 36g
c) 132g d) 18.06*1023

8. Zn + HCl → ZnCl2 + H2. The reaction is an


example of:
a) decomposition reaction
b) addition reaction
c) single displacement reaction
d) double displacement reaction
e) combustion reaction

9. Chemical equation is a short hand method for


describing a compound.
a) true b) false

10. Combustion reaction consumes heat:


a) true b) false

The book MCQs

11. mass is neither created nor destroyed during a


chemical reaction is the statement of:
a) law of conservation of mass
b) law of definite proportions
c) law of multiple proportions
d) law of reciprocal proportions

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 11 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


12. a given compound always contains exactly the
same proportion of elements by mass is the
statement of:
a) law of conservation of mass
b) law of definite proportions
c) law of multiple proportions
d) law of reciprocal proportions

13. the average mass of natural mixture of isotopes,


which is compared to the mass of one atom of
C-12 a.m.u is called:
a) atomic number b) atomic mass
c) mass number d) molecular mass

14. a formula that gives only the relative number of


each type of atoms in a molecule is called:
a) empirical formula b) molecular formula
c) molecular mass d) formula mass

15. a formula that indicates actual number and type


of atoms in a molecule is called:
a) empirical formula b) molecular formula
c) molecular mass d) formula mass

16. the sum of atomic masses of all atoms in a


molecule is called:
a) empirical formula b) molecular formula
c) molecular mass d) formula mass

17. the sum of atomic masses of all atoms in a


formula unit:
a) empirical formula b) molecular formula
c) molecular mass d) formula mass

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 12 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


18. the mass of one mole of a substance expressed
in grams is called:
a) empirical formula b) molecular formula
c) molecular mass d) molar mass

19. 44 a.m.u of CO2 is equal to:


a) formula mass b) atomic mass
c) molecular mass d) molar mass

20. 5 moles of H2O are equal to:


a) 80g b) 90g
c) 100g d) 90a.m.u

Answer Key

1 B 2 A 3 B
4 B 5 D 6 A
7 B 8 C 9 B
10 B 11 A 12 B
13 B 14 A 15 B
16 C 17 D 18 D
19 C 20 D

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 13 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


Chapter 3
Atomic Structure

(Neither take rest nor be the time waste,


Because life is the test and only heaven is
the rest)

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 14 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Definitions

1. Atom: -The building block of the matter that


takes part in the reaction.
OR
The smallest component of an element having
the chemical properties of the element,
consisting of a nucleus and surrounding shells.

2. Nucleus: -the central part of the atom


comprising the mass of the atom conferred by
protons and neutrons, initially discovered by
RUTHERFORD.

3. Shell or energy level: -according to Bohr these


are the circular orbits at certain distance from
the nucleus where electrons exist.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 15 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


4. Atomic number (Z): -The number of protons in
nucleus is called the atomic number of the
element.

5. Atomic mass: - The total number of protons


and neutrons in nucleus constitute its atomic
mass.
6. Element: -The simplest matter whose all atoms
have same atomic number and can not be further
simplified is called element.

7. Crook’s discharge tube experiment: -


indicates the existence of protons and electrons
in the atom

8. Cathode rays: -the rays which consist of


electrons and are produced when the current is
passed through gases at low pressure are called
cathode rays.

9. Properties of cathode rays (electrons):


Discovered by J.J THOSMSON

Carry a negative charge equal to 1.6*10-
19
C=4.803*10-10

Their e/m ratio is 1.76*108 C/g

Their mass is 9.11*10-31 kg = 0.00055a.m.u

They can be deflected by electromagnetic field.

These don’t depend upon the material of which
the electrode is made nor of the gas which is
enclosed inside the tube.

10. The properties of canal rays ( protons):

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 16 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 GOLDSTIEN discovered them.
 These rays carry positive charge
 They travel in straight line
 The value of e/m depends upon the gas enclosed
 The mass is 1.67*10-27kg=1.0073amu
 They are composed of heavy particles than
electrons.

11.
The properties of neutrons:
 Discovered by CHADVICK.
 They are neutral, carrying no charge.
 The mass is same as that of proton but slightly
heavier. i.e. 1.0087 a.m.u.
 It is highly energetic particle.

12. Radioactivity: -the spontaneous emission of


radiations by certain elements is called
radioactivit

13. Isotopes: - Atoms of the same elements, having


the same atomic number but the different atomic
masses are called isotopes.

14. Spectrum: -the band of colors formed through


the dispersion of light is called spectrum.

15. Electronic configuration: - the arrangement or


distribution of electrons in the available orbitals
is called electronic distribution.

16. Atomic radius: -the half of the bond length,


taken between two homonuclear diatomic

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 17 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


molecules. OR the distance from nucleus to the
valence electron is called atomic radius.

17. Ionic radius: -the radius of an ion.

18. ion: -the charged atom is called ion

19. Cation: -the positively charged ion is called


cation.

20. Anion: -the negative charged ion is called


anion.

21. Ionization potential: -the energy required to


make an atom ion is called ionization potential.

22. Electron affinity: -the amount of energy


released when an electron is added to a neutral
gaseous atom to form a negative ion is called
electron affinity.

23. Electronegativity: - the force with witch an


atom attracts the shared pair towards itself is
called electronegativity.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 18 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Multiple Choice Questions

1. The first atomic theory was proposed by:


a) Democritus b) Greek Philosophers
c) both a & b d) John Dalton

2. According to modern theory, all elements are


made up of small, indivisible, indestructible
particles called atoms
a) true b) false

3. Protons and neutrons were discovered by


respectively:
a) J.J Thomson, Chadwick
b) Chadwick, J.J Thomson
c) Goldstein, Chadwick
d) Chadwick, Goldstein

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 19 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


4. Electrons are the constituent of all matter.
a) true b) false

5. The incorrect statement regarding the cathode


rays is:
a) material particles
b) e/m ratio is different
c) possess K.E
d) N.O.T

6. Electrons do not depend upon the the nature of


the cathode and the gas inside the tube.
a) true b) false

7. e/m ratio of electron is:


a) 1.76*108 C/g b)1.76*1011C/g
c) 1.602*10-19 C/g d) 1.672*10-27C/g

8. The Charge on electron is:


a) 1.76*108 C b)1.76*1011C
c) 1.602*10-19 C d) 1.672*10-27C

9. The charge on proton is:


a) 1.76*108 b)1.76*1011C
-19
c) 1.602*10 C d) 1.672*10-27C

10. 1 a.m.u =?
a) 1.76*108 g b)1.76*1011g
c) 1.602*10-19 g d) 1.672*10-27g

11. Atom was proved divisible particle by:


a) cathode rays b) radioactivity

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 20 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


c) discharge tube exp. d) A.O.T

12. Electron is 1836 times heavier than proton.


a) true b) false

13. Radioactivity was discovered by:


a) Henry Bequeral b) Rutherford
c) Bohor d) J.J Thomson

14. Rutherford used particles in his experiment.


a) α – particles b) β – particles
c) γ – particles d) A.O.T

15. The α-particles deflected back by striking the


atom because of the presence of:
a) shells b) nucleus
c) protons d) electrons

16. Energy is …… when an electron jumps from


higher energy level to lower energy level.
a) absorbed b) released
c) neither absorbed nor released
d) both a & b

17. This of the following particles takes part in the


reaction.
a) electron b) proton
c) neutron d) A.O.T

18. The correct equation is:


a) E2 - E1 = hυ b) E2 + E1 = hυ
c) E2 * E1 = hυ d) E2 / E1 = hυ

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 21 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


19. Na has:
a) 11 electrons b) 11 protons
c) 12 neutrons d) A.O.T

20. Mass number =


a) protons + electrons
b) protons + neutrons
c) electrons + neutrons
d) no. of protons.

21. Atomic number =


a) protons + electrons
b) protons + neutrons
c) electrons + neutrons
d) no. of protons.

22. The positively charged particles in radioactivity


are protons.
a) true b) false

23. Isotopes have different number of:


a) electrons b) protons
c) neutrons d) A.O.T

24. Proteum has one proton and no neutron.


a) true b) false

25. Isotopes are used in the treatment of diseases.


a) true b) false

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 22 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


26. The formula to find out max number of
electrons is:
a) n2 b) 2n
c) 2n2 d) N.O.T

27. When n=3 the max electrons in a shell should


be.
a) 3 b) 6
c) 9 d) 18

28. The max. number of electrons in 4th shell is:


a) 4 b) 8
c) 16 d) 32
29. Find the mis match
a) electrons : J.J Thomson
b) protons : nucleus
c) neutrons : atomic mass
d) protons : atomic number

30. The correct statement is:


a) A = Z+A b) A=Z-N
c) A=N-Z d) Z=A-N

31. Which isotope of oxygen forms ozone


a) O16 b) O17
c) O18 d) O19

Answer Key

1 D 2 B 3 C
4 A 5 A 6 B

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 23 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


7 A 8 C 9 C
10 D 11 B 12 B
13 A 14 B 15 A
16 B 17 B 18 A
19 D 20 B 21 D
22 C 23 A 24 A
25 A 26 C 27 D
28 D 29 A 30 D
31 C

Chapter 4
Periodicity of Elements

(People are bad enough to tease you but I


am sure you are good enough to forgive

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 24 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


them)

 Definitions

1. Periodicity: - The repetition of properties of


elements after some interval is called
periodicity.

2. Periods: - The horizontal rows in the periodic


table are called periods.

3. Groups: - The vertical columns in the periodic


table are called groups.

4. Metals: -Those elements which conduct heat


and electricity and become positively charged
by loosing electrons are called metals.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 25 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


5. Non metals: -Those which do not conduct heat
and electricity and become negatively charged
by accepting electrons are called non metals

6. Metalloids: - These have the mixed properties


of metalloids.

7. Atomic radius: -the half of the bond length,


taken between two homonuclear diatomic
molecules. OR the distance from nucleus to the
valence electron is called atomic radius.

8. Ionic radius: -the radius of an ion.

9. ion: -the charged atom is called ion

10. Cation: -the positively charged ion is called


cation.

11. Anion: -the negative charged ion is called


anion.

12. Ionization potential: -the energy required to


make an atom ion is called ionization potential.

13. Electron affinity: -the amount of energy


released when an electron is added to a neutral
gaseous atom to form a negative ion is called
electron affinity.

14. Electronegativity: - the force with witch an


atom attracts the shared pair towards itself is
called electronegativity.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 26 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Multiple Choice Questions

1. Law of triads was proposed by:


a) Doberinier b) Lother Mayer
c) Newland d) Mendeleef

2. Modern classification is based on atomic


number.
a) true b) false

3. law of octaves was proposed by:


a) Doberinier b) Lother Mayer
c) Newland d) Mendeleef

4. Mg being eighth element from Be has the


similar properties with it. The statement comes
from:

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 27 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


a) law of octaves b) law of triads
c) Lother Mayer’s classification
d) Mendeelev’s periodic table

5. atomic volume = ?
a) gram atomic Weight * density
b) gram atomic Weight / density
c) gram atomic weight + density
d) gram atomic weight – density

6. Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of


increasing:
a) atomic volume b) atomic mass
c) atomic number d) periodicity

7. Mendeleev’s periodic table was remarkable in


having:
a) columns b) rows
c) both d) gaps for unknown
elements

8. Mendeleev’s periodic table failed to give the


idea of atomic structure.
a) true b) false

9. regarding the periodic table the incorrect


statement is:
a) rows have similar properties
b) it does not contain isotopes
c) shows the periodicity of elements
d) N.O.T

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 28 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


10. Eka boran was later termed as:
a) boron b) scandium
c) gallium d) germanium

11. …..proved atomic mass not as the fundamental


property of elements:
a) radioactivity b) isotopes
c) electronic configurationd) periodicity

12. atomic number was discovered by:


a) doberinier b) newland
c) baquerel d) mosely

13. the longest period is:


a) first b) second
c) sixth d) seventh
14. the sixth period contains:
a) 6 b) 8
c) 16 d) 32

15. the elements of sub group A are called transition


elements.
a) true b) false

16. group 1A and 2A contain alkali metals:


a) true b) false

17. the most stable of the following elements is:


a) Na b) N2
c) Ni d) Ne

18. the most reactive is:


a) Na b) Mg

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 29 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


c) Na+ d) F

19. The valency of seventh A group is :


a) +1 b)-1
c) +2 d)-2

20. boron is metalloid:


a) true b) false.

21. it exists in tetameric form:


a) K b) P
c) N d) Sb

22. inert or noble gases are placed in the group:


a) 3A b) 4A
c) 7A d) 8A
23. electronegativity of fluorine is:
a) 1 b) 2
c) 3 d) 4

24. the minimum energy required to remove an


electron from an atom in gaseous state is called:
a) electronegativity b) electron affinity
c) ionization potential d) P.E

25. 1Å = ?
a)10-8 b) 10-9
c)10-7 d) 10-10

26. atomic number depends upon the number of


shells but does not depend upon the nuclear
charge.
a) true b) false

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 30 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


27. the energy change that occurs when an electron
is gained by an atom in gaseous state is called:
a) electron affinity b) ionization potential
c) enthalpy d) electronegativity

28. the relative tendency of an atom in a molecule


to attract shared pair of electrons towards itself
is called:
a) electron affinity b) ionization potential
c) enthalpy d) electronegativity

29. electronegativity decreases down the group.


a) true b) false

30. the incomplete period is:


a) first b) fourth
c) sixth d) seventh

31. which period contains only gases


a) first b) fourth
c) sixth d) seventh

32. it is the radioactive element of 1A group.


a) Li b) Rb
c) Cs d) Fr

33. the valency of alkaline earth metals is:


a) +1 b) +2
c) -1 d) -2

34. N and P are non metals.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 31 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


a) true b) false

35. which pair of elements is chemically similar:


a) K, Cr b) Cu, Ca
c) F, Cl d) N, O

Answer Key

1 A 2 A 3 C
4 A 5 B 6 B
7 D 8 A 9 A
10 B 11 A 12 D
13 C 14 D 15 B
16 B 17 D 18 C
19 B 20 A 21 B
22 D 23 D 24 C
25 A 26 B 27 A
28 D 29 A 30 D
31 A 32 D 33 B
34 A 35 C

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 32 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


Chapter 5
Chemical Bonding

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 33 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


(The future will take revenge if you spoil the
present)

 Definitions

1. Chemical bond: - The attractive force that


holds atoms together in a compound is called
chemical bond.

2. Ionic or electrovalent bond: - It is defined as


the electrostatic force of attraction between
positive and negative ions.

3. Covalent bond: - Achemical bond that involves


the sharing of electrons is called covalent bond.

4. Single covalent bond (—): -such a bond is


formed when one electron is contributed from
each atom making one shared pair. E.g. Cl2

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 34 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


5. Double covalent bond: -in such a covalent
bond each of the two atoms contribute two
electrons as in O2

6. Triple covalent bond: -in triple covalent bond


each atom contributes three electrons as in N2

7. Co-ordinate or dative covalent bond: -a


covalent bond in witch one of the bonded atoms
furnishes both of the shared electrons.

8. Hydrogen bond: - it is an electrostatic force of


attraction between a partially positive hydrogen
atom of one molecule and the electronegative
atom of the other molecule

9. Metabolic Bond: - It is defined as the force of


attraction between electrons and the positive
nuclei of atoms.

10. Dispersion Forces: The dispersion forces are


the weak attractive forces between temporarily
polarized atoms (or molecules) caused by the
varying positions of the electrons during their
motion about the nuclei

11. Dipole moment: - the measure of the degree of


the polarity of a polar compound is called dipole
moment.

12. Electronegativity: - It is the power of an atom


to attract shared pair of electrons towards itself.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 35 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


13. Bond pairs electrons: - also called active set of
electrons they take part in bond formation and
are incorporated as shared pair.

14. Lone pair of electrons: - also called non


bonding pairs, are paired electrons but don’t
take part in bonding.

 Multiple Choice Questions:

1. The force which holds atoms together in a


molecule or crystal is called
a) chemical bond b) covalent bond
c) ionic bond d) co-ordinate covalent

2. the energy in a molecule is less than the atoms.


a) true b) false

3. the electrons in the innermost shell are called


valence electrons.
a) true b) false

4. the bond formed by sharing of electrons is


called:

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 36 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


a) chemical bond b) covalent bond
c) ionic bond d) co-ordinate covalent

5. the bond formed by the complete transfer of


electrons:
a) chemical bond b) covalent bond
c) ionic bond d) co-ordinate covalent

6. the gases like oxygen, nitrogen, are the result of:


a) chemical bond b) covalent bond
c) ionic bond d) co-ordinate covalent

7. MgO is an example of:


a) chemical bond b) covalent bond
c) ionic bond d) co-ordinate covalent

8. the idea of chemical bond was introduced in


a) 1808 b) 1910
c) 1816 d) 1916

9. ionic compounds don’t possess molecular


formula.
a) true b) false

10. the atom that donates electrons becomes


negatively charged:
a) true b) false

11. which one is the stable:


a) Na b) Na+
++
c) Na d) Na-

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 37 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


12. ionic compounds are good conductors of
electricity:
a) true b) false

13. covalent compounds are soluble in water:


a) true b) false

14. ionic compounds form the molecules of high


molecular weight.
a) true b) false

15. all are correct about ionic bond except:


a) they conduct electricity in all the states
b) they are soluble in polar solvents
c) ionic compounds do not form molecules
d) N.O.T

 Questions 16 – 18
 Select from the terms below:
A) single covalent bond
B) double covalent bond
C) triple covalent bond
D) ionic bond
E) N.O.T

16. the bond in hydrogen molecule is:

17. the bond in nitrogen molecule is:

18. the bond in CaCl2 is:

19. HCl is an example of:


a) ionic bond b) covalent bond

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 38 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


c) polar covalent bond d) non-polar

20. Cl- contains electrons in it:


a) 1 b) 2
c) 7 d) 8

 Questions 21 – 33
 Select from the terms below

A) covalent bond
B) polar covalent bond
C) non polar covalent bond
D) ionic bond
E) co-ordinate covalent bond
F) N.O.T

21. The bond in oxygen molecule is

22. both the electrons are shared by one electrons:

23. also called electrovalent bond:

24. the bond in the table salt

25. the bond in NH4Cl

26. e.n > 1.7

27. the e.n = 0

28. involves the sharing of electrons:

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 39 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


29. formed by sharing of electrons between
dissimilar atoms

30. formed by sharing of electrons between similar


atoms.

31. lone pair of electrons is the indication of the


bond

32. the attraction between electrons and nuclei.

33. the greatest electronegativity difference is


present in:

34. metals are solids except bromine


a) true b) false

35. metals conduct heat and electricity because of


the presence of:
a) fixed electrons b) free electrons
c) fixed protons d) free protons

36. inter molecular forces hold atoms together in a


molecule:
a) true b) false

37. all of the following are wander wall’s forces


except:
a) dispersion forces b) covalent bond
c) dipole-dipole forces d) H-bonding

38. inter molecular forces are much weaker than


intra molecular forces.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 40 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


a) true b) false

Answer Key

1 A 2 A 3 B
4 B 5 C 6 B
7 C 8 D 9 A
10 B 11 B 12 B
13 B 14 B 15 A
16 A 17 C 18 D
19 C 20 D 21 C
22 E 23 D 24 D
25 E 26 D 27 C
28 A 29 B 30 C
31 E 32 F 33 D

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 41 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


34 B 35 B 36 B
37 B 38 B 39

Chapter 6
States of matter

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 42 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


(Every action has reaction, yes exactly if you
can not please your books how you will be
pleased)

 Definitions

24. Matter: - Any thing having mass and volume is


called matter.

25. Solid: - The state of matter having specific


shape and volume

26. Liquid: - The state of matter having specific


volume but not the shape.

27. Gas: - It is the state of matter having neither


specific volume nor the shape

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 43 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


28. Diffusion: - the distribution or spreading of the
gas molecules throughout the vessel is known as
diffusion. OR the mixing and merging of the
molecules with each other is called diffusion

29. Pressure: -force per unit area.

30. Temperature: - the degree of hotness or


coldness of a body is called temperature.

31. Heat: - it is the form of energy that produces


sense of warmth and flows from hot body to
cold body.
32. Density: - the mass unit volume is called
density. (d=M/V)

33. Vapour pressure: - it is the pressure exerted by


the vapors on the surface of liquid when rate of
condensation exceeds the rate of evaporation.

34. Boiling: - when vapour pressure of liquid equals


the atmospheric pressure, the bubbles of vapour
form easily and rise to the surface. The liquid is
said to boil.

35. Boiling point: -it is the temperature at which


boiling starts.

36. Melting: - conversion of a solid into liquid.

37. Melting point: - it is the temperature at which


melting begins to take place.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 44 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


38. Sublimation: -the process of conversion of
solids directly into gases form without passing
through the liquid state is called sublimation.

39. Phenomenon: -an observable event.

40. The latent heat of fusion: - heat required


during conversion of the state. OR the heat
energy required converting 1g of a solid into
liquid at its melting point.

41. Brownian motion: - A continuous, zigzag


motion of suspended particles through the
medium is called Brownian motion.

 Multiple Choice Question

1. Any thing having mass and volume is not called


called
a) power b) energy
c) both a & b d) matter

2. The quantity of matter in a body is called


a) mass b) energy
c) matter d) volume

3. According to K.M.T all are true except:


a) molecules are always in motion:
b) they possess K.E
c) they possess P.E
d) molecules are very tiny particles

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 45 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


e) N.O.T

4. The space occupied by an object is called


a) mass b) energy
c) volume d) matter

5. Regarding gases all are true except:


a) K.E very low
b) intermolecular space very high
c) neither shape nor volume
d) molecules move in all directions.

6. The liquids have constant shape but not volume.


a) true b) false

7. The spreading of a substance through a medium


is called:
a) diffusion b) Brownian motion
c) effusion d) fusion

8. A continuous, rapid, zigzag motion of


suspended particles through the medium is
called Brownian motion.
a) true b) false

9. Water can exist in all the three states of matter.


a) true b) false

The Book MCQs

10. The number of common states of matter is:


a) 3 b) 4
c) 5 d) N.O.T

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 46 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


11. Neither definite shape nor volume is the
property of:
a) solids b) liquids
c) gases d) N.O.T

12. The temperature at which the vapour pressure of


a liquid becomes equal to its external pressure is
called:
a) melting point b) boiling point
c) triple point d) freezing point

13. The state of matter in which molecules are


tightly packed and possess only vibratory
motion is:
a) solid state b) liquid state
c) gaseous state d) N.O.T

14. The process in which molecules escape from the


surface of liquid is called:
a) sublimation b) evaporation
c) boiling d) melting

15. the process in which solid directly changes to


gas is called
a) sublimation b) evaporation
c) boiling d) melting

Answer Key

1 C 2 A 3 C

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 47 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


4 C 5 A 6 B
7 A 8 B 9 A
10 A 11 C 12 B
13 A 14 B 15 A

Chapter 7
Solution and Suspension

(Solving the problems is the solution of


problems than increasing the problems by

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 48 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


worrying on the problems…!)

 Definitions

1. Solution: -the homogeneous mixture of two or


more things.

2. Solute: - It is the component of solution present


in smaller amount and is dissolved by the
solvent.

3. Solvent: - It is the component of solution


present in greater amount and dissolves the
solute.

4. Unsaturated solution: - It is that one solution


which contains less solute than it has the
capacity to dissolve.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 49 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


5. Saturated solution: - It is that one solution
which contains maximum amount of solute and
can not dissolve more solute at a given
temperature

6. Super saturated solution: - It is that one


solution which contains more solute than the
normal capacity and this is done usually by
increasing temperature.

7. Crystallization: - The process in which


dissolved solute comes out of solution and
forms crystals is called crystallization.

8. Molarity: - The number of moles of solute


dissolved in 1 liter (1dm3) of a solution is called
molarity. It is denoted by (M).

9. Molality : - The number of moles of solute


dissolved in 1 kilogram of solution is called
molality. It is denoted by (m).

10. Mole fraction: - Mole fraction of any


component in a solution is the number of moles
of the component divided by total number of
moles making up solution. It is denoted by X.

11. Suspension: - It is defined as a heterogenous


mixture consists of visible particles which
remain suspended in the liquid.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 50 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Multiple Choice Questions

1. A heterogeneous mixture of two or more


substances is called solution:
a) true b) false

2. there are types of solutions


a) 2 b) 3
c) 5 d) 9

3. The composition of air is as


a) 78% N2, 21% O2, 1% Ar.
b) 78% N2, 15% O2, 5% CO2, 1 other gases
c) 78% N2, 21% O2, 1% other gases
d) all are possible
4. alloys are the mixture of:
a) solid-solid b) solid-liquid
c) liquid-gas d) solid-gas

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 51 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


5. which of the following does not affect the
solubility:
a) temperature b) size of particles
c) pressure d) nature of solute
e) nature of solvent

6. the solubility of gases increases with the


increase in temperature.
a) true b) false

7. Only the solubility of is affected by pressure.


a) solids b) liquid
c) gases d) plasma

8. ionic compounds are not dissolved in:


a) polar solvent b) non-polar
c) water d) A.O.T

9. A solution which has the capacity to dissolve


more solute is called:
a) saturated solution b) unsaturated solution
c) super saturated d) N.O.T

10. the process in which the dissolved solute comes


out of the solution is called:
a) titration b) solubility
c) crystallization d) N.O.T

11. what is the molarity of a solution when 10 g


NaOH are dissolved in 1 liter solution:
a) 0.25M b) 0.5M
c) 1M d) 2M

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 52 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


The Book MCQs

12. the suspended particles in the suspensions are


generally of the size:
a) 10nm b) 100nm
c) 1000nm d) 1200nm

13. the sum of mole fraction of solute and solvent is


equal to:
a) 1 b) 2
c) 3 d) 4

14. solubility is defined as the amount of solute in


gram at a given temperature, dissolved in ……
of the solvent.
a) 10g b) 20g
c) 100g d)1000g

15. the process in which solid directly changes to


vapours is called.
a) sublimation b) evaporation
c) diffusion d) boiling

16. the solubility of gas …….with the rise in


temperature.
a) increase b) decrease

Answer Key

1 B 2 D 3 C

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 53 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


4 A 5 B 6 B
7 C 8 B 9 B
10 C 11 A 12 C
13 A 14 C 15 A
16 B

Chapter 8
Thermochemistry

(To shine your face make nimaz (salah) base


because life is race and in this case to
fasten the pace don’t create mess)

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 54 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Definitions

12. Electrochemistry: - It is the branch of


chemistry which deals with the relationship of
electrical and chemical energies and their
interconversion.

13. Electrolyte: -The substance capable of being


dissociated into ions on the passage of
electricity in the molten state.

14. Non-eclectrolytes: - The chemical compounds


which do not conduct electricity in molten or
aqueous solutions are called non electrolytes.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 55 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


15. Electrolysis: -The breakage of a solution on the
passage of electric current.

16. Anode: -the positively charged electrode where


oxidation occurs.

17. Cathode: -the negatively charged electrode


where reduction takes place is called cathode.

18. Ampere: - It is the S.I unit of current which is


defined as the current when passed through a
circuit for one second.

19. Columb: - It is the S.I unit of electric charge


and is defined as the quantity of charge when
one ampere of current is passed for one second.

20. Electroplating: - It is the process of electrolysis


which is used to coat one metal onto the other.

21. Electrochemical cell: - The cell which is used


to convert electrical energy into chemical
energy and vice versa is called electrochemical
cell.

 Multiple Choice Questions

1. Chemical and electrical energies are inter


convertible:
a) true b) false

2. all acids, bases and salts are electrolytes in


aqueous solutions or fused state.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 56 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


a) true b) false

3. all the conductors are electrolytes.


a) true b) false

4. which of the following does not conduct


electricity.
a) salt b) water
c) sugar d) N.O.T

5. all are true about cathode except:


a) is negatively charged
b) positive ions move towards it
c) oxidation takes place over it
d) Na+ ions become Na
e) N.O.T

6. all are true about anode except:


a) is positively charged
b) oxidation takes place
c) Cl becomes Cl-
d) negative ions moves towards it
e) N.O.T

7. Columb= ?
a) current * time b) current / time
c) current + time d) current – time

8. 1F = ?
a) 500C b) 6500C
c) 96500C d) 1000 C

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 57 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


9. What is the charge when 2 A current passes for
2 seconds:
a) 1 b) 2
c) 3 d) 4

10. electrolysis is used for the extraction of certain


metals from their ores.
a) true b) false

11. coating of metal by non metal is called plating


a) true b) false

12. a cell which converts electrical energy into


chemical energy is called voltaic cell
a) true b) false

13. lead storage battery is a reversible cell.


a) true b) false
Answer Key

1 A 2 A 3 B
4 C 5 C 6 C
7 A 8 C 9 D
10 A 11 B 12 B
13 A

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 58 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


Chapter 9
Acids, Bases and Salts

(I do not own any business but the entire


world is my own where Almighty Allah is to

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 59 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


be felt and Muhammad (s.a.w) to be
followed)

 Definitions

22. Acid: -A compound having usually sour taste


and capable of neutralizing alkalis and
reddening blue litmus paper, containing
hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal or any
other electropositive atom to form salt, or
containing an atom that can accept electrons
from a base.

23. Base: - A base is a substance that can accept


hydrogen ions or more generally, donates
electrons pairs.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 60 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


24. Salt: -the ionic substance that result from the
neutralization of an acid with a base.

25. Ph: - A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a


solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral
solutions, increasing with increasing alkalinity
and decreasing with increasing acidity.
26. Arrhenius Theory: It states that an acid can be
defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions
when dissolved in water. A base can be defined
as a substance which yields hydroxide ions
when dissolved in water.

27. Bronsted Lowery Theory: It states that an acid


is a substance having a tendency to donate one
or more protons and a base is a substance
having a tendency to accept protons.

28. Lewis Theory: It states that an acid is any


species (molecule or ion) which can accept a
pair of electrons and a base is any species
(molecule or ion) which can donate a pair of
electrons.

29. Titration: -titration is the quantitative


measurement of an analyte in solution by
completely reaction with reagent solution.

Indicators: -color showing organic compounds.


OR for acid-base titrations, organic compounds
that exhibit different colors in solution of
different acidities; used to determine the point at

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 61 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


which the reaction between two solutes is
complete.

30. Buffer: -any substance that prevents changes in


pH is known as buffer.

31. Neutralization: -when the two substances (acid


and base) having opposed properties are allowed
to react, salt and water are produced. The
reaction is known as neutralization.

 Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Ascorbic acid is the other name of:


a) Vitamin A b) Vitamin B
c) Vitamin C d) Vitamin D

2. all are the properties of acids except:


a) sour in taste b) smooth in touch
c) proton donor d) electrons acceptor

3. the common acid in stomach is:


a) HCl b) H2SO4
c) HNO3 d) H3PO4

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 62 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


4. The consumption of …… is an index to the state
of civilization and prosperity of a country:
a) HCl b) H2SO4
c) HNO3 d) H3PO4

5. the important acid for making explosive


materials and fertilizers is:
a) HCl b) H2SO4
c) HNO3 d) H3PO4

6. the souring of milk produces.


a) citric acid b) lactic acid
c) acetic acid d) fumaric acid

7. lemon, oranges, grape fruits contain:


a) citric acid b) lactic acid
c) acetic acid d) fumaric acid

8. all are the properties of bases except:


a) bitter in taste
b) aqueous solution conducts electricity
c) undergo neutralization with acids
d) turn litmus paper to red.

Q 9 – 14
Select from the terms below:
a) Arrhenius Theory b) Bronsted –lowery
c) Lewis concept d) N.O.T

9. Bases are proton acceptors.

10. acids are sour in taste

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 63 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


11. acids are H+ ions donor

12. bases turn litmus paper to blue

13. ammonia is base

14. bases are electron donors

15. all are weak acids except:


a) sulphuric acid b ) acetic acid
c) formic acid d) phosphoric acid

16. which one is the normal salt:


a) NaCl b) NaHSO4
c) KHCO3 d) Mg(OH) Cl
17. which one is not double salt:
a) potash alum b) chrome alum
c) Mohor’s salt d) table salt
Q18 -22
Select from the terms below:
a) Sodium carbonate b) backing soda
c) copper sulphate d) Epsom salt
e) potash alum f) N.O.T

18. it is a common double salt

19. used as antiacid and fire extinguishers

20. used as germicide, insecticide and in paint and


varnish industry

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 64 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


21. it is used in softening of water, glass industry
and as cleaning agent

22. used as anticeptic and mouth wash

23. water is not:


a) universal solvent b) liquid
c) present in urine d) amphoteric molecule
e) N.O.T

24. The number of moles of solute dissolved per


liter of solution is:
a) molarity b) molality
c) titration d) pH

25. negative logarithm of hydrogen ion


concentration is:
a) molarity b) molality
c) titration d) pH

26. it is important for an analytical chemist


a) molarity b) molality
c) titration d) pH

Q 27 – 32

Select from the terms below


a) 0 b) 5-7
c) 7 d) 7.4
e) 14

27. it is the neutral pH

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 65 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


28. the pH of water is :

29. it is the highly acidic Ph

30. the pH of urine is:

31. the pH of blood is

32. pH + p OH = ?

33. Methyl orange produce…. Color in acidic


solution
a) red b) green
c) yellow d) pink

34. a solution whose molarity or strength is known


is called standard solution:
a) true b) false

35. low p H of blood causes diabetes, diarrhea,


vomiting.
a) true b) false

36. water and CO2 are produced as a result of


neutralization:
a) true b) false

Answer Key

1 C 2 B 3 A
4 B 5 C 6 B
7 A 8 D 9 B

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 66 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


10 D 11 A 12 D
13 B 14 C 15 A
16 A 17 D 18 E
19 B 20 C 21 A
22 E 23 E 24 C
25 C 26 A 27 B
28 D 29 E 30 A
31 D 32 C 33 A
34 A 35 B 36 B

Chapter 10
Chemical Energetics

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 67 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


(The failure is the result of disobedience of
first parents then teachers and finally of
the Almighty Allah)

 Definitions

1. Thermodynamics: -The study of conversion


and conservation of heat and other forms of
energy is called thermodynamics.

2. Thermochemistry: - it deals with the


measurement or calculation of heat absorbed or
abandoned in chemical reactions.

3. Thermo chemical reactions: - the chemical


reactions which are accompanied by energy

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 68 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


changes along with the material changes are
generally known as thermochemical reactions.

4. Exothermic reactions: -the chemical reactions


which are accompanied by the liberations or
emission of energy are called exothermic
reactions.

5. Endothermic reactions: -the chemical


reactions which are accompanied by the
absorption of energy are called endothermic
reactions.

6. system: -the collection of matter having certain


boundaries is called system

7. Surroundings:- the environment of a system or


the thing that affect on a system are included in
surroundings.

8. Heat of formation: - the change of enthalpy


when one gram mole of a substance is formed
from its elements

9. Standard heat of formation: -the change of


enthalpy when one gram mole of a substance is
formed from its elements at 25oC and 1 atm is
called standard heat of formation.

10. Enthalpy: -the total heat content of a system is


called enthalpy..

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 69 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


11. Heat of neutralization: - The amount of heat
released during the neutralization process when
one mole of water is produced by the reaction of
acid and base.

 Multiple Choice Questions

1. Thermochemical reactions involve:


a) material changes b) energy changes
c) both a & b d) heat changes

2. EXO means:
a) out of or to evolve b) into or to absorb
c) outside d) heat

3. ∆H negative represents which reaction:


a) thermochemical b) exothermic

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 70 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


c) endothermic d) chemical

4. Formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen


produces energy:
a) -286 K.J/mole b) +286 K.J/mole
c) -393 K.J/mole d) +393 K.J/mole

5. ∆H positive represents neutralization:


a) true b) false

6. Acid Base reaction is called neutralization


reaction:
a) true b) false

 Questions 7 – 12
 Select from the terms below:
A) endothermic reaction B)exothermic reaction

7. photosynthesis

8. respiration
9. decomposition reaction

10. bond formation

11. combustion

12. melting of ice

The Book MCQs

13. in an exothermic reaction:


a) heat energy is lost b) heat energy is gained

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 71 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


c) both a & b d) N.O.T

14. In an exothermic reaction:


a) container becomes hot
b) container becomes cold
c) the temperature of container remains same
d) N.O.T

15. During an endothermic reaction:


a) container becomes cold
b) container becomes hot
c) the temperature of container remains same
d) N.O.T
Answer Key

1 C 2 A 3 B
4 A 5 B 6 A
7 A 8 B 9 A
10 B 11 B 12 A
13 A 14 A 15 A
By the same Author:

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 72 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 Ninth Class Biology MCQs

 How to be successful?

 Definitions of chemistry terms

 Definitions of Physics terms

 Definitions and MCQs on


branches of Biology

 Definitions and MCQs of matric


(10th class) Physics

 Scientific Biological Reasons

 Definitions, Scientific Reasons


and MCQs on Chemistry

 Skeletal muscles Physiology


BCQs

 What are goodness and


badness?
Chemistry Def. & MCQs 73 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur
 Biology MCQs test for entry
test

 Chemistry MCQs test for entry


test

 Cardiovascular system anatomy


quiz

 Lower limb anatomy quiz

 Lower limb Anatomy MCQs

 Spiritual successful life


quotations

 Why should one love the Prophet


Muhammad (s.a.w)

 Quotations on the Prophet


Muhammad (s.a.w)

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 74 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur


 The origin and future of human
life

 Endocrinology – Hormones MCQs

 Islam, science, success and


wisdom quotes

Chemistry Def. & MCQs 75 Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur