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ACI 307-98

Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete


Chimneys (AC1 307-98)
Reported by ACI Committee 307

Victor A. Bochicchio David J. Bird


Chairman Secretary

John J. Catty Jagadish R. Joshi Randolph W. Snook


Brian Cooley Erick N. Larson John C. Sowizal
Phillip B. Davidson Robert A. Porthouse Barry J. Vickery
Shu-Jin Fang Ronald E. Purkey Chung-Yee John Wei
Milton Hartstein Scott D. Richart Edward L. Yordy
Thomas Joseph Wadi S. Rumman

Thts standard grves material, constructton, and design requirements for 3 .AForms
cast-in-place and precasireinforced concrete chimneys. It sets forth mini- 3.5-Reinforcement placement
mum loadings for design and contains methods for determining the con-
3.6-Concrete placement
crete and reinforcement required as a result of these loadings. The method
of analysis applies primarily to circular chimney shells; however, a general 3.7-Concrete curing
procedure for analysis of noncircular shapes is included. 3.8-Construction tolerances
This standard IS written in explicit, mandatory language, and as such, is 3.9-Precast erection
intendedfor rejerence in project specifications.
Equations are providedfor determining the temperature gradient through
the concrete resulting from the difference in temperature of the gases inside
Chapter 4-Service loads and general design
the chimney and the surrounding atmosphere. Methods for combining the
criteria, p. 307-3
effects of dead and wind (or earthquake) loads with temperature both verti-
4. l-General
cally and circumferentrally are included in the standard. These methods 4.2-Wind loads
permit the desrgner to establish minimum concrete and reinforcement 4.3-Earthquake loads
mquirements. 4.4-Special design considerations and requirements
This standard refers extenstvely to “Building Code Requirements for
4.5-Deflection criteria
Structural Concrete” (AU 318); constructton requirements are generally
in accordance with ACI 3Ig; and notation is in accordance with ACI 104.
Chapter !+Design of chimney shell:
Strength method, p. 307-9
Keywords: chimneys; compressive strength; concrete construction; 5.1 -General
earthquake-resistant structures; formwork (construction); foundations; high 5.2-Design Loads
temperature; linings; loads (forces); moments; openings; precast concrete; 5.3-Required strength
quality control; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; specifications;
static loads; strength; structural analysis; structural design; temperature:
5.4--Design strength
thermal gradient; wind pressure. 5.5-Nominal moment strength: Circular shells
5.6-Noncircular shapes
I CONTENTS 5.7-Design for circumferential bending
Chapter l-General, p. 307-2
I. 1 -scope Chapter 6-Thermal stresses, p. 307-12
1.2-Drawings 6. l-General
1.3-Regulations 6.2-Vertical temperature stresses
1 &---Reference standards 6.3-Circumferential temperature stresses

Chapter P-Materials, p. 307-2 Appendix A-Notation, p. 307-14


2. I-General
2.2-Cement
2.3-Aggregates
2.AReinforcement
AC1 307-98 becam effective lunc 23,1998, and supersedes AC1 307-95
Chapter 3Construction requirements, p. 307-2 Copyright 0 1998, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by, any
3.1 -General means, including the making of copied by any photo process, or by any elcctronrc or
mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduc-
3.2-Concrete quality tion or for use in any knowledge or rcaieval system or device. unless permission in
3.3-Strength tests writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

307-l
307-2 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

CHAPTER l-GENERAL ASTM A 706-96 Standard Specification for Low-Alloy


7. l-Scope Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete
This standard covers the design and construction of Reinforcement
circular cast-in-place or precast reinforced concrete chimney ASTM C 33-93 Standard Specification for Concrete
shells. If other shapes are used, their design shall be substan- Aggregates
tiated in accordance with the principles used here. The standard Standard Specification for Portland
ASTM C 150-95
does not include the design of linings, but includes the Cement
effects of linings on the concrete shell.
ASTM C 309-95 Standard Specification for Liquid
A~ precast chimney shell is defined as a shell constructed
Membrane-Forming Compounds for
wholly from precast reinforced concrete sections, assembled
Curing Concrete
one atop another, to form a freestanding, self-supporting
ASTM C 595-95 Standard Specification for Blended
cantilever. Vertical reinforcement and grout are placed in
Hydraulic Cement
cores as the precast sections are erected to provide structural
continuity and stability. The use of precast panels as stay-in-
CHAPTER P-MATERIALS
place forms is considered cast-in-place construction.
P.l-General
All materials and material tests shall conform to AC1 3 18,
1.2-Drawings except as otherwise specified here.
Drawings of the chimney shall be prepared showing all
features of the work, including the design strength of the
2.2-Cement
concrete, the thickness of the concrete chimney shell, the
The same brand and type of cement shall be used through-
size and position of reinforcing steel, details and dimen-
out the construction of the chimney. The cement used shall
sions of the chimney lining, and information on chimney
accessories. conform to the requirements for Type I, Type II, Type III,
or Type V of ASTM C 150, or Type IS or Type IP of
1.3--Regulations ASTM C 595.
1.3.1 The design and construction of the chimney shall
meet the requirements of all ordinances and regulations 2.3-Aggregates
of authorities having jurisdiction, except that where such 2.3.1 Concrete aggregates shall conform to ASTM C 33.
requirements are less conservative than the comparable 2.3.2 The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be not
requirements of this standard, this standard shall govern. larger than l/s of the narrowest dimension between forms
1.3.2 Consideration shall be given to the recommendations nor larger than ‘/2 the minimum clear distance between
of the Federal Aviation Administration with respect to chim- reinforcing bars.
ney heights and aviation obstruction lighting and marking,
and the standards of the Underwriters Laboratories regarding 2.4-Reinforcement
lightning protection and grounding. Reinforcement shall conform to ASTM A 615, A 617, or
A 706. Deformed reinforcement with a specified yield stress
1 .EReference standards fY exceeding 60,000 psi shall be permitted provided the ul-
Standards of the American Concrete Institute, the Ameri- timate tensile strain shall equal or exceed 0.07.
can Society of Civil Engineers, and the American Society for
Testing and Materials referred to in this standard are listed in
the following with their serial designations, including the CHAPTER 3-CONSTRUCTION
year of adoption or revision, and are declared to be a part of REQUIREMENTS
3.1-General
this standard as if fully set forth here.
Concrete quality, methods of determining strength of con-
AC1 104-71 Preparation of Notation for Concrete crete, field tests, concrete proportions and consistency, mix-
(Revised 1982) ing and placing, and formwork and details of reinforcement
(Reapproved 1987) shall be in accordance with AC1 318, except as stated
otherwise here.
AC1 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Re-
inforced Concrete
3.2-Concrete quality
AXE 7-95 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings The specified concrete compressive strength shall not be
and Other Structures less than 3000 psi at 28 days.
ASTM A 615-95~ Standard Specification for Deformed
and Plain Billet Steel Bars for Concrete 3.3-Strength tests
Reinforcement The 28-day compressive strength of the concrete shall
ASTM A 617-96 Standard Specification for Axle-Steel be determined from a minimum of two sets of cylinders
Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete (consisting of three specimens each) per 8-hr shift (slipform)
Reinforcement or per lift (jump form). For precast sections, a minimum of
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 3074

two sets shall be taken from each class of concrete cast each layers no greater than 16-in. deep. Particular care shall be ex-
day and from each 100 yd3 of concrete placed each day. ercised when casting concrete in thin wall sections and when
casting cores of precast sections. Grout used to seat precast
3.4-Forms sections shall have a compressive strength at least equal to
3.4.1 Forms for the chimney shell shall be made of metal, the design strength of the shell.
wood, or other suitable materials. If unlined wooden forms
are used, they shall be of selected material with tongue-and- 3.7-Concrete curing
groove joints and shall be kept continuously wet to prevent 3.7.1 Immediately after the forms have been removed all
shrinking and warping due to exposure to the elements. A necessary finishing of concrete shall be done.
nonstaining form oil shall be permitted to be used. Form oil 3.7.2 As soon as finishing has been completed, both faces
shall not be used unless it is a nonstaining type and it has of concrete shall be cured by coating with a membrane cur-
been established that specified protective coatings or paint ing compound or other method approved by the engineer.
can be applied to concrete exposed to form oil. The curing compound shall comply with ASTM C 309 and
3.4.2 Forms shall be sufficiently tight to prevent leakage shall be applied in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s
of mortar. recommendations. If coatings are to be applied to the con-
3.4.3 No construction load shall be supported upon any crete, the curing compound shall be of a type compatible
part of the structure under construction until that portion of with these coatings.
the structure has attained sufficient strength to safely support
its weight and the loads placed thereon. 3.8-Construction tolerances
3.4.4 Forms shall be removed in such manner as to ensure 3.8.1 The chimney shell shall be constructed within the
the safety of the structure. Forms shall be permitted to be tolerance limits set forth here.
removed after concrete has hardened to sufficient strength to 3.8.1.1 Vertical alignment of centerpoint-The center-
maintain its shape without damage and to safely support all point of the shell shall not vary from its vertical axis by more
loads on it, including temporary construction loads. than 0.001 times the height of the shell at the time of mea-
3.4.5 Ties between inner and outer chimney shell forms surement, or 1 in., whichever is greater. Locally, the center-
shall not be permitted. point of the shell shall not be changed by more than 1 in. per
3.4.6 Construction joints shall be properly prepared to 10 ft.
facilitate bonding. As a minimum, all laitance and loose 3.8.1.2 Diameter-The measured outside shell diameter
material shall be removed. at any section shall not vary from the specified diameter by
more than 1 in. plus 0.01 times the specified or theoretical
3.5-Reinforcement placement diameter.
3.5.1 Circumferential reinforcement shall be placed 3.8.1.3 Wall thickness-The measured wall thickness
around the exterior of, and secured to, the vertical bars. All shall not vary from the specified wall thickness by more
reinforcing bars shall be tied at intervals of not more than than -1/4 in., +l/* in. for walls lO-in.-thick or less, or by more
2 ft. Particular attention shall be paid to placing and securing than-‘/Z in., +l in. for walls greater than lo-in.-thick. A single
the circumferential reinforcement so that it cannot bulge or wall thickness measurement is defined as the average of at
be displaced during the placing and working of the concrete least four measurements taken over a 60-deg arc.
so as to result in less than the required concrete cover over 3.8.2 Openings and embedments-Tolerances on the size
this circumferential reinforcement. and location of openings and embedments in the shell cannot
3.5.2 Vertical reinforcement projecting above the forms be uniformly established due to the varying degrees of accuracy
for the chimney shell or cores of precast sections shall be so required depending on the nature of their use. Appropriate
supported as to prevent the breaking of the bond with the tolerances for opening and embedment sizes and locations
freshly placed concrete. shall be established for each chimney.
3.5.3 Not more than 50 percent of bars shall be spliced
along any plane unless specifically permitted and approved 3.9-Precast erection
by the responsible engineer. 3.9.1 The precast sections shall be erected in a manner and
3.5.4 The concrete cover over the circumferential rein- at a rate that ensures that sufficient strength has been attained
forcement shall be a minimum of 2 in. for cast-in-place in grout, core concrete, and all connecting components to
chimneys and 11i2 in. for precast units manufactured under safely support construction and applicable design loads.
plant control conditions. 3.9.2 Precast sections shall be keyed if necessary to transfer
shear and grouted to level and seal joints.
3.6-Concrete placement
No vertical construction joints shall be used for cast-in- CHAPTER 4-SERVICE LOADS
place chimney shells. Horizontal construction joints for AND GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA
jump-form and precast construction shall be maintained at 4.1-General
approximately uniform spacing throughout the height of the 4.1.1 The chimney shell shall be designed for the effects
chimney. Concrete shall be deposited in approximately level of gravity, temperature, wind, and earthquake in accordance
3074 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

with AC1 3 18, except as stated otherwise here. At a height z ft above ground, the mean hourly design
4.1.2 The chimney shell shall be designed for load combi- speed ‘i7< 2) in ft/sec shall be computed from Eq. (4- 1)
nations in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 5,
Design of chimney shell: Strength method.
j7cz) = (1.47)“~(~)““54(0.65)
RI.3
4.1.3.1 The chimney shell shall not be less than 8-in.
thick when cast in place, or less than 7-in. thick when com- The provisions with respect to wind load take account of
posed of precast sections. dynamic action but are simplified and lead to equivalent static
4.1.3.2 The chimney shell thickness, through openings, loads. A properly substantiated dynamic analysis may be
shall not be less than 1/24 the height of the opening. used in place of these provisions.
The thickened shell shall extend at least ‘/a the height of 4.2.2 Along-wind load: Circular shapes-The along-wind
the opening above and below the opening. Properly designed load, w(r) per unit length at any height z ft, shall be the sum
buttresses or other means of lateral restraint may be used in of the mean load F(z) and the fluctuating load w ‘(z).
place of this requirement; however, the buttresses shall be The mean load w(z) in lb/ft shall be computed from
ignored when calculating vertical strength. Eq. (4-2)
4.1.3.3 When the internal diameter of the shell exceeds
28 ft, the minimum thickness shall be increased l/s in. for
each I-ft increase in internal diameter. E(z) = C,,(z). d(z) l B(z) (4-z)
4.1.4 A chimney shell that supports lining loads shall com-
ply with the requirements of this standard with the lining in where
place. The interaction of the liner with the shell shall be
C&Z) = 0.65 for z < h - 1.5d(h) (4-3a)
considered.
4.1.5 Consideration shall be given to loadings during the C&(z) = 1 .O for z > h - 1.5d(h) (4-3b)
construction phase.
4.1.6 If required during construction, temporary access p(z) = 0.0013 l&z>]2 (4-4)
openings may be provided in the concrete shell. For the design
of the shell, these openings shall be designed as permanent d(z) = outside diameter at height z, ft
openings. h = chimney height above ground level, ft
4.1.7 d(h) = top outside diameter, ft
4.1.7.1 The maximum foundation bearing pressure shall
be established using unfactored chimney loads. The fluctuating load w’(z) shall be taken equal to
4.1.7.2 The foundation shall be designed by the strength
method in accordance with the procedures of AC1 318. The 3.02 l G,, . M,(b)

foundation design shall be based on a pseudo-bearing pressure w’(z) = (4-5)


h3
distribution, or pile loads, using the loading combinations
given in Section 53.1 and 5.3.2. where Ml;(b) = base bending moment due to w(z) and
4.1.7.3 The minimum factor of safety against overturning
shall be 1 SO using unfactored loads. ”
4.1.7.4 Consideration shall be given to the effects of G _ o 3. + ll.O[T, l &33)1°.47
)$y- . (4-6)
radiant heat of gases on any part of the foundation, including (h + 16)“.86
the foundation floor area which is exposed within the liner
and also concrete floors supported from the concrete shell.
where v(33) is determined from Eq. (4-l) for z. = 33 ft.
For preliminary design and evaluation of the critical wind
4.2-Wind loads
4.2.1 General-Reinforced concrete chimneys shall be speed V,, , as described in Section 4.2.3.1, the natural period
of an unlined chimney T,, in seconds per cycle, may be
designed to resist the wind forces in both the along-wind and
across-wind directions. In addition, the hollow circular cross approximated using Eq. (4-7). However, for final design, the
section shall be designed to resist the loads caused by the period shall be computed by dynamic analysis
circumferential pressure distribution.
The reference design wind speed in mph, which shall be
(4-7)
T

denoted as V,, shall be the “3-set ust” wind speed at 33 ft 1

over open terrain where V, = (I)‘. 9V. This speed V and im-
portance factor I shall be as specified by AXE 7. All
where
chimneys shall be classified as Category IV structures as
defined in ASCE 7-95. Terrain effects referenced in Sec- h chimney height above base, ft
tion 6.5.5 of ASCE 7-95 are omitted. t(h) z thickness at top, ft
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-5

t(b) = thickness at bottom, ft h


z(b) = mean diameter at bottom, ft F,(B) = - 0.089 + o.33710g,do (4-12)
&k = mass density of concrete, kip-sec2/ft4
Eck = modulus of elasticity of concrete, kip/ft2 but not > 1 .O or < 0.20.
If the lining is supported in any manner by the shell, the Pa = density of air = 0.075 lbs/ft3
effect of the lining on the period shall be investigated. Vcr = critical speed at 5/6h, ft/sec
42.3 Across-wind load: Circular shapes
4.2.3.1 General-Across-wind loads due to vortex v =fd(u) (4-13)
shedding in the first and second modes shall be considered in CT
4
the design of all chimney shells when the critical wind speed
V,, is between 0.50 and 1.30 v(z,,) as defined here. Across-
wind loads need not be considered outside this range. f = first-mode frequency, Hz
St = Strouhal number
4.2.3.2 Analysis-When the outside shell diameter at
‘lgh is less than 1.6 times the top outside diameter, across-
S, = 0.25F,(A) (4- 14)
wind loads shall be calculated using Eq. (4-8) which defines
the peak base moment M,
where

F,(A) = 0.333 +0.2061og h (4-15)


e4u)

but not > 1 .O or < 0.60.


(4-8)
d(u) = mean outside diameter of upper third of chimney,
ft
h = chimney height above ground level, ft
Eq. (4-8) defines the peak base moment MT for values of
i7, where v is evaluated between 0.5 and 1.30 V(z,,). When ij
2 &z,,), M, shall be multiplied by O.lO[V- V((z,,,l
p, = 0.01 + (4-16)
YzCT )

(4-8a) but not < 0.01 or > 0.04.

Pa = aerodynamic damping
where
V(zcr) = the mean design wind speed at zcr, zcr = 5/6h, (4-17)
ftJsec
g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ftlsec*
G = peak factor = 4.0 Ka = Km FdB) (4-18)
ss = mode shape factor = 0.57 for first mode, 0.18 for
second mode where

CL = C,,F,(B) (4-9)
-1.0 (4-19)
K(10 =
where

CL, = - 0.243 + 5.648i- 18.182i2 (4-10)


where
where
P
k =-
(4-l 1) V C,

G(u) = average weight in top third of chimney, lb/ft


zc = exposure length = 0.06 ft sp = spectral parameter
307-6

by reference to model tests or observations or test reports of


similar arrangements.
s* = (4-21) 4.2.3.5 Combinakon of across-wind and along-wind
loads-Across-wind loads shall be combined with the
coexisting along-wind loads. The combined design moment
where M,(z) at any section shall be taken as
B = band-width parameter
0.5
(4-22)

{
= O.l0+2i
1
B
L = correlation length coefficient M,(z) =
[M,(z)12 + [WzN2
L = 1.20
c, = end effect factor = 3
where
After solving for M,, across-wind moments at any height
M,(z) may be calculated based on the corresponding mode M,(z)= moment induced by across-wind loads
shape of the chimney column. Ml(z) = moment induced by the mean
4.2.3.3 Second mode-Across-wind response in the sec- along-wind load wl(z)
ond mode shall be considered if the critical wind speed VCR where
as computed by Eq. (4-23) is between 0.50 and 1.30 v(z,,),
where v(zcr) is the mean hourly wind speed at 5/6h
(4-26)
5d(u)
V cr2= T (4-23)
‘2

except that w,(z) shall not exceed $z).


The period T2 in seconds per cycle for an unlined shell 4.2.4 Circumferential bending-The maximum circum-
may be estimated by Eq. (4-24). For final design, T2 shall be ferential bending moments due to the radial wind pressure
calculated by dynamic analysis distribution shall be computed by EIq. (4-27) and (4-28)

Mi(z) = 0.3lpr(z) [r(z)]‘, ft-lb/ft (tension on inside) (4-27)


T2 = 0.82 h2 p[‘ur[ Er (A-24)
d ( b ) E,, r(b) M,(z) = 0.27pr(z) [r(z)12, ft-lblft (tension on outside) (4-28)

where t(h) and r(b) are the thicknesses at the top and bottom, where
respectively, and z(h) and d(b) are the mean diameters at the r(z) = mean radius at height z, ft
top and bottom, respectively.
The effect of a shell-supported liner on the period of the pr(z) = O.O013[‘i;i(~)]~ l GXz), lb/ft2 (4-29)
second mode shall also be investigated.
G,(z) = 4.0 - 0.810gloz, except G;(z) = 4 for z I 1.0(4-30)
Any method using the modal characteristics of the chim- a.
ney shall be used to estimate the across-wind response in the The pressure pr(z) shall be increased by 50 percent for a
second mode. distance 1.5d(h) from the top.
4.2.3.4 Grouped chimneys-When two identical chim- 4.2.5 Wind loads: Noncircular shapes-The provisions of
neys are in close proximity, the across-wind load shall be in- ASCE 7 shall be followed including force coefficients and
creased to account for the potential increase in vortex- gust response factors. Unusual cross-sectional shapes not
induced motions. In such cases, the lift coefficient CL in covered in ASCE 7 shall require wind tunnel testing or other
Eq. (4-9) shall be modified as follows similar documentation to verify along- or across-wind loads,
4 if sld(zJ > 12.75, CL is unaltered or both. Similarly, horizontal bending due to wind pressure
distributions shall also require wind tunnel testing or other
b). if 3 < sld(z,,) < 12.75, CL shall be multiplied by: documentation from reliable sources.
[0.26 - 0.015 sld(z,,)] + [2 - sll2d(&]
where 4.3-Earthquake loads
4.3.1 General-Reinforced concrete chimneys in earth-
s = center-to-center spacing of chimneys, ft quake areas shall be designed and constructed to resist the
d(z,,.) = outside diameter of chimney at critical height earthquake effects in accordance with the requirements of
zcr, ft this section. Applicable effective peak velocity-related
For chimneys that are not identical and for identical chim- accelerations A, shall be in accordance with the ASCE 7
neys where s/d&,.) < 3, the value of CL shall be established maps for the site.
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS W-7

Chimneys shall be designed for earthquakes by means of 4.4.3 The circumferential reinforcement for a distance of
the dynamic response spectrum analysis method given in 0.2d(h) from the top of the chimney or 7.5 ft, whichever is
Section 4.3.2. In place of the dynamic spectrum analysis greater, shall be at least twice the amount required by
method, time history analysis based on accelograms repre- Section 5.7.
sentative of the locality may be used. 4.4.4 Where a segment between openings is critical as
The effects due to the vertical component of earthquakes related to the height of the openings, this segment shall be
are generally small and can be ignored in the earthquake de- investigated as a beam-column. Where more than two open-
sign of chimneys. ‘Ihe horizontal earthquake force shall be as- ings occur at the same elevation, appropriate design methods
sumed to act alone in any lateral direction.
consistent with the cases shown by Fig. 5.5.1 (a), (b), and (c)
4.3.2 Dynamic response spectrum analysis method-The
shall be used.
shears, moments, and deflections of a chimney due to earth-
quake shall be determined by using a site-specific response 4.4.5 In addition to the reinforcement determined by design,
spectrum and the elastic modal method. The site-specific extra reinforcement shall be provided at the sides, top, bot-
response spectrum shall be based on a 90 percent probability tom, and comers of these openings as hereinafter specified.
of not being exceeded in 50 years with 5 percent damping. If This extra reinforcement shall be placed near the outside
a site-specific response spectrum is unavailable, the design surface of the chimney shell as close to the opening as proper
response spectrum for the site shall be obtained by scaling spacing of bars will permit. Unless otherwise specified, all
down the normalized l.Og peak ground acceleration
spectrum for 5 percent damping shown in Fig. 4.3.2 or Table 4.3.2(a)- Special values for maximum
Table 4.3.2(a) by the scaling ratios given in Table 4.3.2(b) ground acceleration of 1 .Og*
for the A, of the site.
velocity
The normalized design response spectrum given in Displacemetlt Acceleration
Fig. 4.3.2 or Table 4.3.2(a) is suitable for firm soil condi- spectNm,in. “W sptctrum g
tions. The tisponse spectrum shall be modified for soft and
shallow soil conditions by any method that is properly 50.7 318.6f 5.186f2
substantiated and complies with the basic principles herein.
The analytical model of a chimney used in the dynamic 10.39 65.26
response spectrum analysis shall be sufficiently refined to 0.25 Sf 5 2.5 0.1436 1.062f o.8s64
f'.'436 f
represent variations of chimney and liner masses, variations
of stiffness, and the foundation support condition. A mini-
25.32 159.1 2.589
mum of 10 elements shall be included. The total dy- 2.5.Sf.59 2ll58
namic response of the chimneys in terms of shear and f f ‘.“58 f o.‘158
moment shall be computed using the SRSS over a minimum
of five normal modal responses. SRSS means taking the 63.87 6.533
9SfS33 25369
square root of the sum of the squares of modal maxima. The f f o.5369
use of the CQC method (complete quadratic combination)
is also permitted.
f>33 9e
f
61.37
f
1.00
4.4-Special design considerations and
requirements * Damping ratio = 0.05.
4.4.1 Two layers of vertical and circumferential reinforce-
ment are required. The total vertical reinforcement shall be
Taa:.;2(h)-Response spectrum scaling ratio
not less than 0.25 percent of the concrete area. The outside
V
vertical reinforcement shall be not less than 50 percent of the
total reinforcement. Outside-face vertical bars shall not be &efkctivepeak

smaller than No. 4, nor shall they be spaced more than 12 in. velocity-related
acccletations Scaling ratio
on centers. Inside-face vertical bars shall not be smaller than
No. 4, nor shall they be spaced more than 24 in. on centers. 0.05 0.04
4.43 The total circumferential reinforcement shall not be
0.08 0.06
less than 0.20 percent of the concrete area. The circumferen-
tial reinforcement in each face shall be not less than 0.1 per- 0.15 0.11
cent of the concrete area at the section.
0.20 0.15
Spacing of outer face circumferential reinforcement shall
not exceed the wall thickness or 12 in. Spacing of circumfer- 0.30 0.23
ential reinforcement on the inner face shall not exceed 12 in. 0.40 0.30
The minimum size of circumferential reinforcing bars shall
be No. 3. tinem intapohtion may be wed in between 4 coefficients not given.
307-a MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Fig. 4.3.2-Normalized horizontal elastic seismic response spectra.

extra reinforcement shall extend past the opening a minimum t = concrete thickness at opening, in.
of the development length. 1 = width of opening, in.
4.4.6 At each side of the opening, the additional vertical fy = specified yield strength of reinforcing steel, psi
reinforcement shall have an area at least equal to the design
steel ratio times one-half the area of the opening. The extra One-half of this extra reinforcement shall extend com-
reinforcement shall be placed within a distance not exceed- pletely around the circumference of the chimney, and the
other half shall extend beyond the opening a sufficient
ing twice the wall thickness unless otherwise determined by
distance to develop the bars in bond. This steel shall be
a detailed analysis.
placed as close to the opening as practicable, but within a
4.4.7 At both the top and bottom of each opening, addi- height not to exceed three times the thickness t.
tional reinforcement shall be placed having an area at least
4.4.8 For openings larger than 2-ft wide, diagonal rein-
equal to one-half the established design circumferential rein-
forcing bars with a total cross-sectional area in square inches
forcement interrupted by the opening, but the area A, of this
of not less than 1/5 of the shell thickness in inches shall be
additional steel at the top and also at the bottom shall be
placed at each comer of the opening. For openings 2-ft wide
not less than that given by Eq. (4-31), unless otherwise
or smaller, a minimum of two No. 5 reinforcing bars shall be
determined by a detailed analysis
placed diagonally at each comer of the opening.

O.O6f,‘tI 4.5-Deflection criteria


A, = - (4-3 1)
fY The maximum lateral deflection of the top of a chimney
under all service conditions prior to the application of load
factors shall not exceed the limits set forth by EQ. (4-33)
where
f,’ = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi Y-=O.O4h (4-33)
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-9

where 5.3.2 For earthquake loads or forces E, the load combina-


maximum lateral deflection, in. tions of Section 5.3.1 shall apply except that l.lE shall be
Y,, =
substituted for W.
h = chimney height, ft 5.3.3 Required circumferential strength UC to resist wind
load W and-normal temperature load T shall be
CHAPTER 5-DESIGN OF CHIMNEY SHELLS:
STRENGTH METHOD UC = l.O5T+ 1.3W (5-ld)
5.1-General
5.1.1 Except as modified herein, design assumptions shall W-Design strength
he in accordance with AC1 318, Chapter 10. The chimney 5.4.1 Design strength of a section in terms of moment shall
shell shall be designed by the strength method. be taken as the nominal moment strength calculated in accor-
5.1.2 The equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribu- dance with the requirements of this standard multiplied by a
tion described in Section 10.2.7 of AC1 3 18 and as modified strength reduction factor $ equal to 0.70 for vertical strength
herein shall be used. For vertical strength the maximum and 0.90 for circumferential strength.
strain on the concrete isassumed to be 0.003 and the maxi-
mum strain in the steel is assumed to be 0.07. Whichever val- 5.5-Nominal moment strength: Circular shells
ue is reached first shall be taken as the limiting value. 5.5.1 The following equations apply [refer to Fig. 5.5.1(a),
and 5.5.1(b)]
In place of the equivalent rectangular concrete compres-
sive stress distribution used in this chapter, any other rela-
P,/rtf,’ = K, = 1.7Qh + 2~,K,m,Qt + 20,ht (5-2)
tionship between concrete compressive stress and strain may
be assumed that results in prediction of the strength of hol-
low circular sections in substantial agreement with results of where
comprehensive tests. PU = factored vertical load
5.1.3 The design and detailing of precast chimney shells r = average radius of section
shall emulate the design of cast-in-place chimney shells un- t = thickness of section
less specifically stated otherwise herein. Particular attention
should be given to the spacing and reinforcement of cast-in- h = z - n, p (radians) (5-3)
place cores and closures joining precast units to ensure that
the reqirements of this and other applicable standards are
met. Q, = sinv - si;y;iy-- p)cosa
(5-4)
5.1.4 Refer to Section 5.7 for design procedures of noncir-
cular shells.
Al = p + W-K (radians) (5-5)
5.2-Design loads
5.2.1 Dead loads and wind or earthquake forces at service p, 2, w = angles shown in Fig. 5.5.1(a).
conditions prior to the application of load factors,shall be in
accordance with Chapter 4 of this standard. Thermal effects COST = 1 - pt( 1 - cosct) (5-6)
at service conditions shall be in accordance with Chapter 6.

5.3--Required strength cosyi = cosa-(~)(~)~-l.o (5-7)


5.3.1 Required vertical strength U, to resist dead load D,
or wind load W, and normal temperature T, shall be the largest
of the following
cosp= cos,.(~)($)~ 1.0 (5-8)
lJv= 1.40 (5-la)
where
U,= l.lD + 1.4T+ 1.3W* (5-lb)
a = one-half the central angle subtended
and by neutral axis
a = one-half opening angle
U,=O.9D+ 1.4T+ 1.3W* (5-lc) 8, = 0.85 for f,’ S 4000 psi
= 0.85 - O.OSv; - 4000)/1000 2 0.65,
*The load factor 1.3 shall be used for the along-wind loads for f,’ > 4000 psi
of Section 4.2.2. For the across-wind loading combined with
the along-wind loading (Section 4.2.3.5), a load factor of 1.2 K, = WfY
shall be used. 0, = PlJ$fC
307-l 0 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS

compression
T <

- -
vertical reinforcement

Pct=area of vertical
zone- reinforcement
per unit length
-COs a)=fy r(l-cos a)
EmEs
Em= 1-cosa
x0.07 ; :. cosp=cosa +(1-cos a) fy
( l+cosa > 4 I I Em Es
50.003 in./in. I .., I I A--r(cosa-cl os$)=fy r(l-cos a)
7 EmRs
;,cas *=cos a -(1-cos a) fy
Em Es
r(l-cos a) -
cos T=l-81 (I-cos
compression zone
7 STRAIN DIAGRAM

&r(l-cosa)-

r(l-cos y,>_ tension zone


I

Fig. 5.5. I (a)-Stress diagram.

PLAN ’ ” PLAN
TWO OPFNINGS IN COMPRESSION ZONE i
COMPRESSION ‘ZONE
(Dimensions not shown same as Fig 5.5.10) (Dimensions not shown same as Fig. 5.5.10)

Fig. 5.5.1(c)-Two symmetric openings partly in


Fig. 5.5.1(b)-Two openings in compression zone. compression zone.
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-l 1

PI = ratio of total vertical reinforcement Y = */2 angle between center lines of two openings
to total area of concrete and for no openings, n1 = y = p = 0; for one
opening in compression zone, n, = 1, y = 0;
n1 = number of openings entirely in compression zone for two openings in compression zone, n1 = 2
(maximum 2)
5.53 Two symmetric openings partly in compression zone-
E, = 0.07( 1 - cosa)/( 1 + cosa) I 0.003 (5-9) Refer to Fig. 5.5.1(c). This condition exists when y + p > z
and y - p < z. For this case, let 6 = y- p. Then in Elq. (5.2),
M,,IP,,r = K3 = cosa + K21KI, :. M,, = P,,rK3 (5-10) h=ii
And in Eq. (5-l 1)
K2 = 1.7QR + &,,,K,o,Qz + 2qK (5-l 1)
R = sin8 - &osa (5.15b)
ForaI5deg
5.5.3 Openings in tension zone-openings in the ten-
Q = (- 0.523 + 0.181a - 0.0154a2) sion zone are ignored since the tensile strength of the con-
(5.12a)
crete is neglected and the bars cut by the openings are
+ (41.3 - 13.2a + 1.32a2)(t/r)
replaced at the sides of the openings.
5.5.4 Openings in compression zone-In calculations of
For5deg<a<lOdeg the forces in the compression reinforcement only, openings
c. in the compression zone are ignored since the cut bars are re-
Q = (- 0.154 + 0.01773a + 0.00249a2) placed at the sides of the openings.
(5-12b)
5.5.5 Limitation-The one-half opening angle p shall not
+ ( 16.42 - 1.980a + 0.0674a2)(t/r)
exceed 30 deg.
5.5.6 Calculation procedure-Given r, t, f,‘, p, y, P,,, MU,
For lOdegcal17deg and the number of openings (where P,, and M,, are the fac-
tored vertical load and the factored moment, respectively),
Q = (-0.488 + 0.076a) + (9.758 - O.fMla)(t /r) (5-12~)
use the following procedure:
For 17degcaI25deg Step 1. Assume a value for the total vertical steel ratio p,
Step 2. By trial and error, find the value of a that
Q = (- 1.345 + 0.2018a - 0.004434a2) satisfies Eq. (5-2).
(5-12d)
+ (15.83 - 1.676a + 0.03994a2)(t/r) Step 3. Substitute this value of a in Eq. (5-10)
and calculate M,,.
For 25 deg < a < 35 deg
Step 4. If +M,, < MU, increase pt; if +M,, > M,,, decrease p,
Q = (0.993 - 0.00258a) + (-3.27 + O.O862a)(t / r) (5-12e) Step 5. Repeat Step 2 through Step 4 until $M, = MU.

For a > 35 deg 5.5.7 For load combinations with temperature effects,
modifyfY and& using Eq. (5-16a) and (5.17a).
Q = 0.89 (5.12f)
Replacef, with
where
(5.16a)
lu, = nominal moment strength of section

1
(w-l.r)(l + 2cos2a) Replacef,’ with
+ (1/2)(4sin2a + sin2y - sin2l.t)
f/(v) =f,’ - 1.4Of’&/ (5-17a)
[ - 4cosa( sina + sinyr- sinl.t)
Q2 = (1 - cosa)
(5-13)
where yt, fsw, f ‘;Tv , and f’& are as defined in Chapter 6.

K=sinW+sinll+((x-v-p)cosa (5-14) BB-Noncircular shapes


5.6.1 General-All applicable sections of this Standard
R=sinz-(z-nlP)cosa- shall be followed, including horizontal bending and temper-
(n,/2)[sin (r + p) - sin(y - B)] (5-15a) ature effects.
307-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

5.6.2 Design assumptions-Strain in reinforcement and


concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the
distance from the neutral axis.
For vertical strength, the maximum strain in the concrete is
assumed to be 0.003 and the maximum strain in the steel is
assumed to be 0.07. Whichever value is reached first shall be
taken as the limiting value.
Stress in reinforcement below the specified yield strength
& for grade of reinforcement used shall be taken as ES times I 1 I
Strain ’ b EC
steel strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to&, I I
stress in reinforcement shall be assumed equal to<,, . 0.002 0.003
Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected. Strain

L&2-(&,'I
Relationship of concrete compressive stress and concrete
strain shall be assumed in accordance with stress-strain curve a)fc = O.SSfi
as shown in Fig. 5.6. j;= 0.85f,'(1OOO~, - 250$00~,*)
5.6.3 Calculation procedure-For a given geometry and
given P, and M,, (where P, is the factored vertical load and f, = 85O&‘E,(l - 250 E=)
I
MU is the factored moment), use the following procedure:
Step 1. Assume a value for the total vertical steel ratio pt b)fc=0.85f,' [I -0.15(Ec;;~)]
Step 2. By trial and error, find the location of the neutral f,= 0.85&'(1 - 150~~ + 0.30)
axis which makes the total vertical force in the sec-

Step 3.
tion equal and opposite to P,.
With this location of the neutral axis, calculate I$,,
I f,= 0.85&'(1.30 - 150~

the nominal moment strength of the section. Fig. 5.bStress-strain curve for concrete.
Step 4. If $M,, < M,,, increase pt.
to temperature f '& and f ‘& , respectively, shall be com-
If $A4,, > M,,, decrease p,.
puted by Eq. (6-la) and (6-lb)
Step 5. Repeat Step 2 through Step 5 until $A4,, = M,,.

5.6.4 Horizontal bending-Design for horizontal bending


f'& =are.c.T,.E, (6- 1 a)
shall comply with the requirements of Section 5.7.
f & = a,< (c - 1 + y2) T,nE, (6-lb)
5.7-Design for circumferential bending
5.7.1 Any horizontal strip of the concrete column shall be where
designed as a horizontal beam resisting circumferential ate thermal coefficient of expansion of concrete and
bending moments as given in Section 4.2.4 and thermal ef- of reinforcing steel, to be taken as 0.0000065 per
fects described in Section 6.3. F
5.7.2 For loads combined with temperature effects, modify EC modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
fY andf,‘using Eq. (516b) and (5-17b). r
C -PM1 + 1) +

Replace& with&‘(c) =fY - l.O5f,, (5-16b) &pn(Yl + III2 + 2Pn[y2 + Y1(l -r2)1 (6-z)

P ratio of total area of vertical outside face


Replacef,’ with&“(c) =f,‘- l.OSf’&c (5-17b)
reinforcement to total area of concrete chimney
shell at section under consideration
where fsTc and f ‘kc are as defined in Chapter 6.
Yl ratio of inside face vertical reinforcement area
to outside face vertical reinforcement area
CHAPTER 6-THERMAL STRESSES Y2 ratio of distance between inner surface of
6.1-General chimney shell and center line of outer face
6.1.1 The equations for temperature stresses given in this vertical reinforcement to total shell thickness
chapter are based on working stress procedures and shall be n 44
considered in the calculation of the nominal moment strength
in Chapter 5. T,, the temperature gradient across the concrete shell, shall
be computed by Eq. (6-3a), (6-3b), (6-3c), (6-3d), or by a
6.2-Vertical temperature stresses complete heat balance study for all operating conditions.
6.2.1 The maximum vertical stresses in the concrete and
steel, in psi, occurring at the inside of the chimney shell due a) For unlined chimneys
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-l 3

I 1
Ki = coefficient of heat transmission from gas to inner
td,i T,-To surface of chimney lining when chimney is lined,
TX = rd. (6-3a)
CA L+ CI : d.CI or to inner surface of chimney shell when chimney
is unlined, Btu/ft*/hr/F difference in temperature
Ki ‘cd, Kodco
K, = coefficient of heat transmission from outside
surface of chimney shell to surrounding air,
b) For lined chimneys with insulation completely filling Btu/ft*/hr/F difference in temperature
the space between the lining and shell K, = coefficient of heat transfer by radiation
between outside surface of lining and inside
surface of concrete chimney shell, Btu/ft*/hr/F
rdbi T,-To difference in temperature
T, = - (6-3b)
fbdbi + -
‘sdbi + -
‘dbi + d,i KS = coefficient of heat transfer between outside surface
Gdc _I. + - of lining, and inside surface of shell for chimneys
Ki Cbdb C&s C&c K&CO 1
with ventilated air spaces, Btu/ft*/hr/F difference
in temperature
c) For lined chimneys with unventilated air space between dbi = inside diameter of uninsulated lining or insulation
the lining and shell around liner, ft
db = mean diameter of uninsulated lining or insulation
around liner, ft
Ti - To
TX = (6-3~) d, = mean diameter of space between lining and shell, ft
L+-
‘bdbi +-
dbi +-+dbi
‘dbi
d, = inside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft
Ki ‘bdb Krdb cc4 fvco
d, = mean diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft
dco = outside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft
d) For lined chimneys with a ventilated air space between
the lining and shell 6.2.2 Unless complete heat balance studies are made for
the particular chimney, it is permissible to use the approxi-
mate values given below. These constants when entered into
TX = 2 Ti - To
(6-3d) equations for temperature differential through the chimney
c c fbdbi dbi ‘dbi dbi shell T, will give values of accuracy in keeping with the
1. -+-+-+-
KS4 CA 04, I basic design assumptions.
r9Ki r9Cbdb
= 0.5
‘9
where cc = 12
rq = ratio of heat transmission through chimney shell C, = to be obtained from the manufacturer of the
to heat transmission through lining for chimneys materials used
with ventilated air spaces Cb = to be obtained from the manufacturer of the
t = thickness of concrete shell, in. materials used
f, = thickness of air space or insulation filling the space Ki = to be determined from curves in Fig. 6.2.2
between the lining and shell, in. K, = 12
tb = thickness of uninsulated lining or insulation
around steel liner, in. K, = ?I120
T = maximum specified design temperature of gas KS = Till50
inside chimney, F The value of r9 = 0.5 shall apply only where the distance
To = minimum temperature of outside air surrounding between the lining and the chimney shell is not less than 4 in.
chimney, F throughout the entire height of the lining and air inlet and
cc = coefficient of thermal conductivity of the concrete outlet openings are provided at the bottom and top of the
of chimney shell, Btu/ft*/in. of thickness/hr/F chimney shell. The area of the inlet and outlet openings in
difference in temperature (12 for normal weight
square feet shall numerically equal two-thirds the inside
concrete)
diameter in feet of the chimney shell at the top of the lining.
c, t coefficient of thermal conductivity of chimney Local obstructions in the air space between the lining and the
uninsulated lining or insulation around steel liner,
Btu/ft*/in. of thicknessA@ difference in chimney shell shall not restrict the area of the air space at any
temperature horizontal section to less than that specified for air inlet or
c, = coefficient of thermal conductivity of insulation outlet.
filling in space between lining and shell, Btu/ft*/in. 6.2.3 The maximum stress in the vertical steel fsn in psi,
of thickness/hr/F difference in temperature occurring at the outside face of the chimney shell due to
(3 for lightweight concrete) temperature, shall be computed by Eq. (6-4)
867-l 4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

0 200 400 800 MO 1000 1200 1400 1800 moo ZOO0


GAS TEMPERATURE OF

Flw gas film corfficids


Fig. 6.2.2-Curves for determining Ki .

f STV = a,, l (~2 - c) l T, l E, (6-4) Yl’ = ratio of inside face circumferential reinforcing
steel area to outside circumferential reinforcing
steel area
where ratio of distance between inner surface of chimney
Yi =
Es = modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement, psi shell and circumferential outside face reinforcing
steel to total thickness t
6.3-Circumferential temperature stresses All other notations are the same as for vertical temperature
6.3.1 The maximum circumferential stress in psi in the stresses. L
concrete due to temperature f ‘& occurring at the inside of
6.3.2 The maximum stress in psi in the outside circumfer-
the chimney shell shall be computed by Eq. (6-5)
ential reinforcementfflc due to temperature shall be comput-
ed by Eq. (6-7)
f ‘kc = a, l c’ l TX l E, (6-5)

where fSTC = %I? l (~;-c’)*T,*E,~ (6-7)


cJ =
APPENDIX A-NOTATION
A, = area of reinforcing steel at top and bottom of
-p’Wl’ + 1) opening, in.2 (Chapter 4)
(6-6) B = band width parameter (Chapter 4)
+ [p’Wl’+ III2 + 2p’dy2’+Yl’(l -Y2’)1
C = ratio of distance from extreme compression
fiber to neutral axis for vertical stresses to total
and thickness t (Chapter 6)
TX = value determined for vertical temperature stresses c’ = c for circumferential stresses (Chapter 6)
p’ = ratio of cross-sectional area of circumferential c, = coefficient of thermal conductivity of chimney
outside face reinforcing steel per unit of height to uninsulated lining or insulation around steel
cross-sectional area of chimney shell per unit of liner, Btu/ft2/in. of thickness/hr/F difference
height in temperature (Chapter 6)
REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-l 5

cc coefficient of thermal conductivity of concrete


of chimney shell, Btu/ft2/in. of thickness/hr/F
f,' = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
(Chapter 4)
difference in temperature
(12 for normal weight concrete) (Chapter 6) fc"W = f,’ modified for temperature effects,
circumferential, psi (Chapter 5)
drag coefficient for along-wind load
cdr
(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4) fc"W : f,’modified for temperature effects, vertical, psi
(Chapter 5)
end effect factor (Chapter 4)
cE
f'&c = maximum circumferential stress in concrete due
CL rrns lift coefficient (Chapter 4) to temperature at inside of chimney shell, psi
rms lift coefficient modified for local turbulence (Chapters 5 and 6)
CL0
(Chapter 4) f’;nv = maximum vertical stress in concrete at inside of
coefficient of thermal conductivity of insulation chimney shell due to temperature, psi
G
tilling in space between lining and shell, (Chapters 5 and 6)
Btu/ft2/in. of thickness/hr/F difference fSTC = maximum stress in outside circumferential
in temperature (3 for lightweight concrete) reinforcement due to temperature, psi
(Chapter 6) (Chapters 5 and 6)
d diameter of chimney (Commentary Chapter 4) f!vv = maximum stress in outside vertical
reinforcement due to temperature, psi (Chapters
db mean diameter of uninsulated lining or
5 and 6)
insulation around liner, ft (Chapter 6)
f’;TV = maximum stress in inside vertical reinforcement
dbi in&de diameter of uninsulated lining or
insulation around liner, ft (Chapter 6) due to temperature, psi (Chapters 5 and 6)
4J = specified yield strength of reinforcing steel, psi
4 mean diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft
(Chapter 6) (Chapters 4 and 5)
f;(c) = fy modified for temperature effects,
dci inside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft
(Chapter 6) circumferential, psi (Chapter 5)
dco outside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft fyw = fy modified for temperature effects, vertical, psi
(Chapter 6) (Chapter 5)
FIA = strouhal number parameter (Chapter 4)
4 mean diameter of space between lining
and shell, ft (Chapter 6) FIB = lift coefficient parameter (Chapter 4)
0) bottom outside diameter of chimney, ft
g
= acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ftfsec2
(Chapter 4) (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
;i(b) mean diameter at bottom of chimney, ft G = across-wind peaking factor (Chapter 4)
(Chapter 4)
GXZ) = gust factor for radial wind pressure at height z
d(h) top outside diameter of chimney, ft (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
G,,,t = gust factor for along-wind fluctuating load
JW mean diameter at top of chimney, ft (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
0) mean outside diameter of upper third h = chimney height above ground level, ft
of chimney, ft (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
d(z) outside diameter of chimney at height z, ft i = local turbulence parameter (Chapter 4)
(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
I = importance factor for wind design in Chapter 4
dkcr) outside diameter of chimney at critical height and AXE 7
z,,, ft (Chapter 4)
k = ratio of wind speed (n to critical wind speed (V,,)
D dead load (Chapter 5)
k, = aerodynamic damping parameter (Chapter 4)
E earthquake loads or forces (Chapter 5)
k (10 = mass damping parameter of small amplitudes
EC modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi (Chapter (Chapter 4)
6)
k, = equivalent sand-grained surface roughness factor
Ec k modulus of elasticity of concrete, kip/ft2 (Commentary Chapter 4)
(Chapter 4)
K = parameter for nominal moment strength
E, modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi in Chapter 5 or horizontal force factor
(Chapters 5 and 6) for earthquake design in Commentary
EPV effective peak velocity (Commentary Chapter 4) Introduction
f frequency, Hz (Chapter 4) K, = Eslfy (Chapter 5)
307-l 6

Ki = coefficient of heat transmission from gas to inner rq = ratio of heat transmission through chimney shell
surface of chimney lining when chimney is lined, to heat transmission through lining for chimneys
or to inner surface of chimney shell when chimney with ventilated air spaces (Chapter 6)
is unlined, Btu/ft2/hr/F difference mean radius at height z, ft (Chapter 4)
r(z) =
in temperature (Chapter 6)
R = parameter for nominal moment strength
K, = coefficient of heat transmission from outside (Chapter 5)
surface of chimney shell to surrounding air,
Btu/ft2MF difference in temperature (Chapter 6) s = center-to-center spacing of chimneys, ft
(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
K, = coefficient of heat transfer by radiation between
outside surface of lining and inside surface of sp = spectral parameter (Chapter 4)
concrete chimney shell, Btu/ft2/hr/F difference in s, = mode shape factor (Chapter 4)
temperature (Chapter 6)
St = strouhal number (Chapter 4)
KS = coefficient of heat transfer between outside
t = thickness of concrete shell (Chapters 5 and 6)
surface of lining and inside surface of shell for
chimneys with ventilated air spaces, t,, = thickness of uninsulated lining or insulation
Btu/ft’/hr/F difference in temperature (Chapter 6) around steel liner, in. (Chapter 6)
Kl, K2, ts = thickness of air space or insulation tilling the
K3 = parameters for nominal moment strength (Chapter space between lining and shell, in. (Chapter 6)
5) t(b) = thickness of concrete shell at bottom, ft
1 = width of opening in concrete chimney shell, in. (Chapter 4)
(Chapter 4) t(h) = thickness of concrete shell at top, ft (Chapter 4)
L 4 length coefficient (Chapter 4) T = normal temperature effect (Chapter 6)
Ma(z)= moment induced at height z by across-wind loads, q = maximum specified design temperature
ft-lb (Chapter 4) of gas inside chimney, F (Chapter 6)
M,iz)= maximum circumferential bending moment due to To = minimum temperature of outside air
radial wind pressure, at height z, tension on inside, surrounding chimney, F (Chapter 6)
ft-lb/ft (Chapter 4)
TX = temperature drop across concrete shell
Ml(z)= moment induced at height z by mean along-wind (Chapter 6)
load, ft-lb (Chapter 4)
T, = fundamental period of vibration for unlined shell,
M,, = nominal moment strength at section (Chapter 5) set per cycle (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter
M,(z)= maximum circumferential bending moment due to 4)
radial wind pressure, at height z, tension on T2 = second mode period of vibration for unlined shell,
outside, ft-lb/ft (Chapter 4) set per cycle (Chapter 4 and
M,, = factored moment at section (Chapter 5) Commentary Chapter 4)
M;;(b)= bending moment at base due to mean along-wind UC = required circumferential strength (Chapter 5)
load, ft-lb (Chapter 4) U” = required vertical strength (Chapter 5)
M,(z)= combined design moment at height z v = basic wind speed, mph (ASCE 7 $nd Chapter 4)
for across-wind and along-wind loads (Chapter 4)
= VCT = critical wind speed for across-wind loads,
n modular ratio of elasticity Es/EC (Chapter 6) corresponding to fundamental mode ft/sec
nl = number of openings entirely in compression zone (Chapter 4)
(Chapter 5)
VCR = critical wind speed for across-wind loads
F(z) = pressure due to mean hourly design wind speed corresponding to second mode
at height z, lb/ft2 (Chapter 4)
v, = V(1°.5), mph (Chapter 4)
PAZ) = radial wind pressure at height z, lb/ft2 ji =
(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4) mean hourly wind speed at 5/6_h varying
over a range of 0.50 and 1.30 V(z,,), ft/sec
PCT = pressure due to wind at critical speed (Chapter 4)
v(h) = mean hourly wind speed at top of chimney, ft/
P, = factored vertical load (Chapter 5) set (Chapter 4)
Q = stress level correction parameter vz> = mean hourly design wind speed at height z, ft/
(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5) set (Chapter 4)
Q’l Ql, Vz,,) = mean hourly design wind speed at 5/6h, ft/sec
Q2, Q3= parameters for nominal moment strength (Chapter 4)
(Chapter 5) 77(33) = mean hourly wind speed at a height
r = average radius of section (Chapter 5) of 33 ft, ft/sec (Chapter 4)
307-17

w(t) = total along-wind load per unit length at height z,


lb/ft (Chapter 4)
d(h)/@) (Chapter 4)
ratio of inside face vertical reinforcement area
i xz, = mean along-wind load per unit length at height (Chapter 6)
z, lb/ft (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
ratio of distance between inner surface of
w’(h) = fluctuating along-wind load per unit length chimney shell and outside face vertical
at top of chimney, lb/ft (Commentary Chapter reinforcement to total shell thickness (Chapter
4) 6)
w’(z) = fluctuating along-wind load per unit length
ratio of inside face circumferential
at height z, lb/ft (Chapter 4)
reinforcement area to outside face
w,(N = across-wind load per unit length at top circumferential reinforcement area (Chapter 6)
of chimney, lblft (Chapter 4)
ratio of distance between inner surface of
w,(z) across-wind load per unit length at height z, lb/ chimney shell and outside face circumferential
ft (Chapter 4) reinforcement to total shell thickness (Chapter
WG) average weight per unit length for top third of 6)
chimney, lb/ft (Chapter 4)
y - p for two symmetric openings partly
WI(Z) mean along-wind load per unit length as given in compression zone (Chapter 5)
by Eq. (4-27), lb/ft (Chapter 4)
maximum concrete compressive strain
W wind load (Chapter 5)
(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5)
ymax maximum lateral deflection of top of chimney,
in. (Chapter 4) z - ntP (Chapter 5)
Z height above ground, ft p + ~JJ - x (radians) (Chapter 5)
(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)
ZC, height corresponding to V,, (Chapter 4) angles shown on Fig. 5.5.1(a) (Chapter 5)
ZC exposure length factor (Chapter 4)
3.1416 (Chapter 5)
a on chimney cross section, one-half
the central angle subtended by neutral axis ratio of area of vertical outside face
(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5) reinforcement to total area of concrete shell
(Chapter 6)
ale thermal coefficient of expansion of concrete
and of reinforcing steel, O.OOOOO65 per F ratio of area of circumferential outside face
(Chapter 6) reinforcement per unit of height to total area
of concrete shell per unit of height (Chapter 6)
P on the chimney cross section, one-half
central angle subtended by an opening specific weight of air, 0.075 lb/ft3 (Chapter 4)
(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5)
mass density of concrete, kip-sec2/ft4 (Chapter
Pa aerodynamic damping factor (Chapter 4)
4)
Ps fraction of critical damping for across-wind
ratio of total area of vertical reinforcement
load (Chapter 4)
to total area of concrete shell cross section
Pl factor defined in Section 10.2.7.3 of AC1 318 (Chapter 5)
(Chapter 6)
strength reduction factor
Y on chimney cross section, one-half central angle (Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5)
subtended by the center lines of two openings
(Chapter 5) P,& if,’ (Chapter 5)