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Chimneys (AC1 307-98)

Reported by ACI Committee 307

Chairman Secretary

Brian Cooley Erick N. Larson John C. Sowizal

Phillip B. Davidson Robert A. Porthouse Barry J. Vickery

Shu-Jin Fang Ronald E. Purkey Chung-Yee John Wei

Milton Hartstein Scott D. Richart Edward L. Yordy

Thomas Joseph Wadi S. Rumman

Thts standard grves material, constructton, and design requirements for 3 .AForms

cast-in-place and precasireinforced concrete chimneys. It sets forth mini- 3.5-Reinforcement placement

mum loadings for design and contains methods for determining the con-

3.6-Concrete placement

crete and reinforcement required as a result of these loadings. The method

of analysis applies primarily to circular chimney shells; however, a general 3.7-Concrete curing

procedure for analysis of noncircular shapes is included. 3.8-Construction tolerances

This standard IS written in explicit, mandatory language, and as such, is 3.9-Precast erection

intendedfor rejerence in project specifications.

Equations are providedfor determining the temperature gradient through

the concrete resulting from the difference in temperature of the gases inside

Chapter 4-Service loads and general design

the chimney and the surrounding atmosphere. Methods for combining the

criteria, p. 307-3

effects of dead and wind (or earthquake) loads with temperature both verti-

4. l-General

cally and circumferentrally are included in the standard. These methods 4.2-Wind loads

permit the desrgner to establish minimum concrete and reinforcement 4.3-Earthquake loads

mquirements. 4.4-Special design considerations and requirements

This standard refers extenstvely to “Building Code Requirements for

4.5-Deflection criteria

Structural Concrete” (AU 318); constructton requirements are generally

in accordance with ACI 3Ig; and notation is in accordance with ACI 104.

Chapter !+Design of chimney shell:

Strength method, p. 307-9

Keywords: chimneys; compressive strength; concrete construction; 5.1 -General

earthquake-resistant structures; formwork (construction); foundations; high 5.2-Design Loads

temperature; linings; loads (forces); moments; openings; precast concrete; 5.3-Required strength

quality control; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; specifications;

static loads; strength; structural analysis; structural design; temperature:

5.4--Design strength

thermal gradient; wind pressure. 5.5-Nominal moment strength: Circular shells

5.6-Noncircular shapes

I CONTENTS 5.7-Design for circumferential bending

Chapter l-General, p. 307-2

I. 1 -scope Chapter 6-Thermal stresses, p. 307-12

1.2-Drawings 6. l-General

1.3-Regulations 6.2-Vertical temperature stresses

1 &---Reference standards 6.3-Circumferential temperature stresses

2. I-General

2.2-Cement

2.3-Aggregates

2.AReinforcement

AC1 307-98 becam effective lunc 23,1998, and supersedes AC1 307-95

Chapter 3Construction requirements, p. 307-2 Copyright 0 1998, American Concrete Institute.

All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by, any

3.1 -General means, including the making of copied by any photo process, or by any elcctronrc or

mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduc-

3.2-Concrete quality tion or for use in any knowledge or rcaieval system or device. unless permission in

3.3-Strength tests writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

307-l

307-2 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

7. l-Scope Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete

This standard covers the design and construction of Reinforcement

circular cast-in-place or precast reinforced concrete chimney ASTM C 33-93 Standard Specification for Concrete

shells. If other shapes are used, their design shall be substan- Aggregates

tiated in accordance with the principles used here. The standard Standard Specification for Portland

ASTM C 150-95

does not include the design of linings, but includes the Cement

effects of linings on the concrete shell.

ASTM C 309-95 Standard Specification for Liquid

A~ precast chimney shell is defined as a shell constructed

Membrane-Forming Compounds for

wholly from precast reinforced concrete sections, assembled

Curing Concrete

one atop another, to form a freestanding, self-supporting

ASTM C 595-95 Standard Specification for Blended

cantilever. Vertical reinforcement and grout are placed in

Hydraulic Cement

cores as the precast sections are erected to provide structural

continuity and stability. The use of precast panels as stay-in-

CHAPTER P-MATERIALS

place forms is considered cast-in-place construction.

P.l-General

All materials and material tests shall conform to AC1 3 18,

1.2-Drawings except as otherwise specified here.

Drawings of the chimney shall be prepared showing all

features of the work, including the design strength of the

2.2-Cement

concrete, the thickness of the concrete chimney shell, the

The same brand and type of cement shall be used through-

size and position of reinforcing steel, details and dimen-

out the construction of the chimney. The cement used shall

sions of the chimney lining, and information on chimney

accessories. conform to the requirements for Type I, Type II, Type III,

or Type V of ASTM C 150, or Type IS or Type IP of

1.3--Regulations ASTM C 595.

1.3.1 The design and construction of the chimney shall

meet the requirements of all ordinances and regulations 2.3-Aggregates

of authorities having jurisdiction, except that where such 2.3.1 Concrete aggregates shall conform to ASTM C 33.

requirements are less conservative than the comparable 2.3.2 The maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be not

requirements of this standard, this standard shall govern. larger than l/s of the narrowest dimension between forms

1.3.2 Consideration shall be given to the recommendations nor larger than ‘/2 the minimum clear distance between

of the Federal Aviation Administration with respect to chim- reinforcing bars.

ney heights and aviation obstruction lighting and marking,

and the standards of the Underwriters Laboratories regarding 2.4-Reinforcement

lightning protection and grounding. Reinforcement shall conform to ASTM A 615, A 617, or

A 706. Deformed reinforcement with a specified yield stress

1 .EReference standards fY exceeding 60,000 psi shall be permitted provided the ul-

Standards of the American Concrete Institute, the Ameri- timate tensile strain shall equal or exceed 0.07.

can Society of Civil Engineers, and the American Society for

Testing and Materials referred to in this standard are listed in

the following with their serial designations, including the CHAPTER 3-CONSTRUCTION

year of adoption or revision, and are declared to be a part of REQUIREMENTS

3.1-General

this standard as if fully set forth here.

Concrete quality, methods of determining strength of con-

AC1 104-71 Preparation of Notation for Concrete crete, field tests, concrete proportions and consistency, mix-

(Revised 1982) ing and placing, and formwork and details of reinforcement

(Reapproved 1987) shall be in accordance with AC1 318, except as stated

otherwise here.

AC1 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Re-

inforced Concrete

3.2-Concrete quality

AXE 7-95 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings The specified concrete compressive strength shall not be

and Other Structures less than 3000 psi at 28 days.

ASTM A 615-95~ Standard Specification for Deformed

and Plain Billet Steel Bars for Concrete 3.3-Strength tests

Reinforcement The 28-day compressive strength of the concrete shall

ASTM A 617-96 Standard Specification for Axle-Steel be determined from a minimum of two sets of cylinders

Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete (consisting of three specimens each) per 8-hr shift (slipform)

Reinforcement or per lift (jump form). For precast sections, a minimum of

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 3074

two sets shall be taken from each class of concrete cast each layers no greater than 16-in. deep. Particular care shall be ex-

day and from each 100 yd3 of concrete placed each day. ercised when casting concrete in thin wall sections and when

casting cores of precast sections. Grout used to seat precast

3.4-Forms sections shall have a compressive strength at least equal to

3.4.1 Forms for the chimney shell shall be made of metal, the design strength of the shell.

wood, or other suitable materials. If unlined wooden forms

are used, they shall be of selected material with tongue-and- 3.7-Concrete curing

groove joints and shall be kept continuously wet to prevent 3.7.1 Immediately after the forms have been removed all

shrinking and warping due to exposure to the elements. A necessary finishing of concrete shall be done.

nonstaining form oil shall be permitted to be used. Form oil 3.7.2 As soon as finishing has been completed, both faces

shall not be used unless it is a nonstaining type and it has of concrete shall be cured by coating with a membrane cur-

been established that specified protective coatings or paint ing compound or other method approved by the engineer.

can be applied to concrete exposed to form oil. The curing compound shall comply with ASTM C 309 and

3.4.2 Forms shall be sufficiently tight to prevent leakage shall be applied in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s

of mortar. recommendations. If coatings are to be applied to the con-

3.4.3 No construction load shall be supported upon any crete, the curing compound shall be of a type compatible

part of the structure under construction until that portion of with these coatings.

the structure has attained sufficient strength to safely support

its weight and the loads placed thereon. 3.8-Construction tolerances

3.4.4 Forms shall be removed in such manner as to ensure 3.8.1 The chimney shell shall be constructed within the

the safety of the structure. Forms shall be permitted to be tolerance limits set forth here.

removed after concrete has hardened to sufficient strength to 3.8.1.1 Vertical alignment of centerpoint-The center-

maintain its shape without damage and to safely support all point of the shell shall not vary from its vertical axis by more

loads on it, including temporary construction loads. than 0.001 times the height of the shell at the time of mea-

3.4.5 Ties between inner and outer chimney shell forms surement, or 1 in., whichever is greater. Locally, the center-

shall not be permitted. point of the shell shall not be changed by more than 1 in. per

3.4.6 Construction joints shall be properly prepared to 10 ft.

facilitate bonding. As a minimum, all laitance and loose 3.8.1.2 Diameter-The measured outside shell diameter

material shall be removed. at any section shall not vary from the specified diameter by

more than 1 in. plus 0.01 times the specified or theoretical

3.5-Reinforcement placement diameter.

3.5.1 Circumferential reinforcement shall be placed 3.8.1.3 Wall thickness-The measured wall thickness

around the exterior of, and secured to, the vertical bars. All shall not vary from the specified wall thickness by more

reinforcing bars shall be tied at intervals of not more than than -1/4 in., +l/* in. for walls lO-in.-thick or less, or by more

2 ft. Particular attention shall be paid to placing and securing than-‘/Z in., +l in. for walls greater than lo-in.-thick. A single

the circumferential reinforcement so that it cannot bulge or wall thickness measurement is defined as the average of at

be displaced during the placing and working of the concrete least four measurements taken over a 60-deg arc.

so as to result in less than the required concrete cover over 3.8.2 Openings and embedments-Tolerances on the size

this circumferential reinforcement. and location of openings and embedments in the shell cannot

3.5.2 Vertical reinforcement projecting above the forms be uniformly established due to the varying degrees of accuracy

for the chimney shell or cores of precast sections shall be so required depending on the nature of their use. Appropriate

supported as to prevent the breaking of the bond with the tolerances for opening and embedment sizes and locations

freshly placed concrete. shall be established for each chimney.

3.5.3 Not more than 50 percent of bars shall be spliced

along any plane unless specifically permitted and approved 3.9-Precast erection

by the responsible engineer. 3.9.1 The precast sections shall be erected in a manner and

3.5.4 The concrete cover over the circumferential rein- at a rate that ensures that sufficient strength has been attained

forcement shall be a minimum of 2 in. for cast-in-place in grout, core concrete, and all connecting components to

chimneys and 11i2 in. for precast units manufactured under safely support construction and applicable design loads.

plant control conditions. 3.9.2 Precast sections shall be keyed if necessary to transfer

shear and grouted to level and seal joints.

3.6-Concrete placement

No vertical construction joints shall be used for cast-in- CHAPTER 4-SERVICE LOADS

place chimney shells. Horizontal construction joints for AND GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA

jump-form and precast construction shall be maintained at 4.1-General

approximately uniform spacing throughout the height of the 4.1.1 The chimney shell shall be designed for the effects

chimney. Concrete shall be deposited in approximately level of gravity, temperature, wind, and earthquake in accordance

3074 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

with AC1 3 18, except as stated otherwise here. At a height z ft above ground, the mean hourly design

4.1.2 The chimney shell shall be designed for load combi- speed ‘i7< 2) in ft/sec shall be computed from Eq. (4- 1)

nations in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 5,

Design of chimney shell: Strength method.

j7cz) = (1.47)“~(~)““54(0.65)

RI.3

4.1.3.1 The chimney shell shall not be less than 8-in.

thick when cast in place, or less than 7-in. thick when com- The provisions with respect to wind load take account of

posed of precast sections. dynamic action but are simplified and lead to equivalent static

4.1.3.2 The chimney shell thickness, through openings, loads. A properly substantiated dynamic analysis may be

shall not be less than 1/24 the height of the opening. used in place of these provisions.

The thickened shell shall extend at least ‘/a the height of 4.2.2 Along-wind load: Circular shapes-The along-wind

the opening above and below the opening. Properly designed load, w(r) per unit length at any height z ft, shall be the sum

buttresses or other means of lateral restraint may be used in of the mean load F(z) and the fluctuating load w ‘(z).

place of this requirement; however, the buttresses shall be The mean load w(z) in lb/ft shall be computed from

ignored when calculating vertical strength. Eq. (4-2)

4.1.3.3 When the internal diameter of the shell exceeds

28 ft, the minimum thickness shall be increased l/s in. for

each I-ft increase in internal diameter. E(z) = C,,(z). d(z) l B(z) (4-z)

4.1.4 A chimney shell that supports lining loads shall com-

ply with the requirements of this standard with the lining in where

place. The interaction of the liner with the shell shall be

C&Z) = 0.65 for z < h - 1.5d(h) (4-3a)

considered.

4.1.5 Consideration shall be given to loadings during the C&(z) = 1 .O for z > h - 1.5d(h) (4-3b)

construction phase.

4.1.6 If required during construction, temporary access p(z) = 0.0013 l&z>]2 (4-4)

openings may be provided in the concrete shell. For the design

of the shell, these openings shall be designed as permanent d(z) = outside diameter at height z, ft

openings. h = chimney height above ground level, ft

4.1.7 d(h) = top outside diameter, ft

4.1.7.1 The maximum foundation bearing pressure shall

be established using unfactored chimney loads. The fluctuating load w’(z) shall be taken equal to

4.1.7.2 The foundation shall be designed by the strength

method in accordance with the procedures of AC1 318. The 3.02 l G,, . M,(b)

h3

distribution, or pile loads, using the loading combinations

given in Section 53.1 and 5.3.2. where Ml;(b) = base bending moment due to w(z) and

4.1.7.3 The minimum factor of safety against overturning

shall be 1 SO using unfactored loads. ”

4.1.7.4 Consideration shall be given to the effects of G _ o 3. + ll.O[T, l &33)1°.47

)$y- . (4-6)

radiant heat of gases on any part of the foundation, including (h + 16)“.86

the foundation floor area which is exposed within the liner

and also concrete floors supported from the concrete shell.

where v(33) is determined from Eq. (4-l) for z. = 33 ft.

For preliminary design and evaluation of the critical wind

4.2-Wind loads

4.2.1 General-Reinforced concrete chimneys shall be speed V,, , as described in Section 4.2.3.1, the natural period

of an unlined chimney T,, in seconds per cycle, may be

designed to resist the wind forces in both the along-wind and

across-wind directions. In addition, the hollow circular cross approximated using Eq. (4-7). However, for final design, the

section shall be designed to resist the loads caused by the period shall be computed by dynamic analysis

circumferential pressure distribution.

The reference design wind speed in mph, which shall be

(4-7)

T

over open terrain where V, = (I)‘. 9V. This speed V and im-

portance factor I shall be as specified by AXE 7. All

where

chimneys shall be classified as Category IV structures as

defined in ASCE 7-95. Terrain effects referenced in Sec- h chimney height above base, ft

tion 6.5.5 of ASCE 7-95 are omitted. t(h) z thickness at top, ft

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-5

z(b) = mean diameter at bottom, ft F,(B) = - 0.089 + o.33710g,do (4-12)

&k = mass density of concrete, kip-sec2/ft4

Eck = modulus of elasticity of concrete, kip/ft2 but not > 1 .O or < 0.20.

If the lining is supported in any manner by the shell, the Pa = density of air = 0.075 lbs/ft3

effect of the lining on the period shall be investigated. Vcr = critical speed at 5/6h, ft/sec

42.3 Across-wind load: Circular shapes

4.2.3.1 General-Across-wind loads due to vortex v =fd(u) (4-13)

shedding in the first and second modes shall be considered in CT

4

the design of all chimney shells when the critical wind speed

V,, is between 0.50 and 1.30 v(z,,) as defined here. Across-

wind loads need not be considered outside this range. f = first-mode frequency, Hz

St = Strouhal number

4.2.3.2 Analysis-When the outside shell diameter at

‘lgh is less than 1.6 times the top outside diameter, across-

S, = 0.25F,(A) (4- 14)

wind loads shall be calculated using Eq. (4-8) which defines

the peak base moment M,

where

e4u)

(4-8)

d(u) = mean outside diameter of upper third of chimney,

ft

h = chimney height above ground level, ft

Eq. (4-8) defines the peak base moment MT for values of

i7, where v is evaluated between 0.5 and 1.30 V(z,,). When ij

2 &z,,), M, shall be multiplied by O.lO[V- V((z,,,l

p, = 0.01 + (4-16)

YzCT )

Pa = aerodynamic damping

where

V(zcr) = the mean design wind speed at zcr, zcr = 5/6h, (4-17)

ftJsec

g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ftlsec*

G = peak factor = 4.0 Ka = Km FdB) (4-18)

ss = mode shape factor = 0.57 for first mode, 0.18 for

second mode where

CL = C,,F,(B) (4-9)

-1.0 (4-19)

K(10 =

where

where

where

P

k =-

(4-l 1) V C,

zc = exposure length = 0.06 ft sp = spectral parameter

307-6

similar arrangements.

s* = (4-21) 4.2.3.5 Combinakon of across-wind and along-wind

loads-Across-wind loads shall be combined with the

coexisting along-wind loads. The combined design moment

where M,(z) at any section shall be taken as

B = band-width parameter

0.5

(4-22)

{

= O.l0+2i

1

B

L = correlation length coefficient M,(z) =

[M,(z)12 + [WzN2

L = 1.20

c, = end effect factor = 3

where

After solving for M,, across-wind moments at any height

M,(z) may be calculated based on the corresponding mode M,(z)= moment induced by across-wind loads

shape of the chimney column. Ml(z) = moment induced by the mean

4.2.3.3 Second mode-Across-wind response in the sec- along-wind load wl(z)

ond mode shall be considered if the critical wind speed VCR where

as computed by Eq. (4-23) is between 0.50 and 1.30 v(z,,),

where v(zcr) is the mean hourly wind speed at 5/6h

(4-26)

5d(u)

V cr2= T (4-23)

‘2

The period T2 in seconds per cycle for an unlined shell 4.2.4 Circumferential bending-The maximum circum-

may be estimated by Eq. (4-24). For final design, T2 shall be ferential bending moments due to the radial wind pressure

calculated by dynamic analysis distribution shall be computed by EIq. (4-27) and (4-28)

T2 = 0.82 h2 p[‘ur[ Er (A-24)

d ( b ) E,, r(b) M,(z) = 0.27pr(z) [r(z)12, ft-lblft (tension on outside) (4-28)

where t(h) and r(b) are the thicknesses at the top and bottom, where

respectively, and z(h) and d(b) are the mean diameters at the r(z) = mean radius at height z, ft

top and bottom, respectively.

The effect of a shell-supported liner on the period of the pr(z) = O.O013[‘i;i(~)]~ l GXz), lb/ft2 (4-29)

second mode shall also be investigated.

G,(z) = 4.0 - 0.810gloz, except G;(z) = 4 for z I 1.0(4-30)

Any method using the modal characteristics of the chim- a.

ney shall be used to estimate the across-wind response in the The pressure pr(z) shall be increased by 50 percent for a

second mode. distance 1.5d(h) from the top.

4.2.3.4 Grouped chimneys-When two identical chim- 4.2.5 Wind loads: Noncircular shapes-The provisions of

neys are in close proximity, the across-wind load shall be in- ASCE 7 shall be followed including force coefficients and

creased to account for the potential increase in vortex- gust response factors. Unusual cross-sectional shapes not

induced motions. In such cases, the lift coefficient CL in covered in ASCE 7 shall require wind tunnel testing or other

Eq. (4-9) shall be modified as follows similar documentation to verify along- or across-wind loads,

4 if sld(zJ > 12.75, CL is unaltered or both. Similarly, horizontal bending due to wind pressure

distributions shall also require wind tunnel testing or other

b). if 3 < sld(z,,) < 12.75, CL shall be multiplied by: documentation from reliable sources.

[0.26 - 0.015 sld(z,,)] + [2 - sll2d(&]

where 4.3-Earthquake loads

4.3.1 General-Reinforced concrete chimneys in earth-

s = center-to-center spacing of chimneys, ft quake areas shall be designed and constructed to resist the

d(z,,.) = outside diameter of chimney at critical height earthquake effects in accordance with the requirements of

zcr, ft this section. Applicable effective peak velocity-related

For chimneys that are not identical and for identical chim- accelerations A, shall be in accordance with the ASCE 7

neys where s/d&,.) < 3, the value of CL shall be established maps for the site.

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS W-7

Chimneys shall be designed for earthquakes by means of 4.4.3 The circumferential reinforcement for a distance of

the dynamic response spectrum analysis method given in 0.2d(h) from the top of the chimney or 7.5 ft, whichever is

Section 4.3.2. In place of the dynamic spectrum analysis greater, shall be at least twice the amount required by

method, time history analysis based on accelograms repre- Section 5.7.

sentative of the locality may be used. 4.4.4 Where a segment between openings is critical as

The effects due to the vertical component of earthquakes related to the height of the openings, this segment shall be

are generally small and can be ignored in the earthquake de- investigated as a beam-column. Where more than two open-

sign of chimneys. ‘Ihe horizontal earthquake force shall be as- ings occur at the same elevation, appropriate design methods

sumed to act alone in any lateral direction.

consistent with the cases shown by Fig. 5.5.1 (a), (b), and (c)

4.3.2 Dynamic response spectrum analysis method-The

shall be used.

shears, moments, and deflections of a chimney due to earth-

quake shall be determined by using a site-specific response 4.4.5 In addition to the reinforcement determined by design,

spectrum and the elastic modal method. The site-specific extra reinforcement shall be provided at the sides, top, bot-

response spectrum shall be based on a 90 percent probability tom, and comers of these openings as hereinafter specified.

of not being exceeded in 50 years with 5 percent damping. If This extra reinforcement shall be placed near the outside

a site-specific response spectrum is unavailable, the design surface of the chimney shell as close to the opening as proper

response spectrum for the site shall be obtained by scaling spacing of bars will permit. Unless otherwise specified, all

down the normalized l.Og peak ground acceleration

spectrum for 5 percent damping shown in Fig. 4.3.2 or Table 4.3.2(a)- Special values for maximum

Table 4.3.2(a) by the scaling ratios given in Table 4.3.2(b) ground acceleration of 1 .Og*

for the A, of the site.

velocity

The normalized design response spectrum given in Displacemetlt Acceleration

Fig. 4.3.2 or Table 4.3.2(a) is suitable for firm soil condi- spectNm,in. “W sptctrum g

tions. The tisponse spectrum shall be modified for soft and

shallow soil conditions by any method that is properly 50.7 318.6f 5.186f2

substantiated and complies with the basic principles herein.

The analytical model of a chimney used in the dynamic 10.39 65.26

response spectrum analysis shall be sufficiently refined to 0.25 Sf 5 2.5 0.1436 1.062f o.8s64

f'.'436 f

represent variations of chimney and liner masses, variations

of stiffness, and the foundation support condition. A mini-

25.32 159.1 2.589

mum of 10 elements shall be included. The total dy- 2.5.Sf.59 2ll58

namic response of the chimneys in terms of shear and f f ‘.“58 f o.‘158

moment shall be computed using the SRSS over a minimum

of five normal modal responses. SRSS means taking the 63.87 6.533

9SfS33 25369

square root of the sum of the squares of modal maxima. The f f o.5369

use of the CQC method (complete quadratic combination)

is also permitted.

f>33 9e

f

61.37

f

1.00

4.4-Special design considerations and

requirements * Damping ratio = 0.05.

4.4.1 Two layers of vertical and circumferential reinforce-

ment are required. The total vertical reinforcement shall be

Taa:.;2(h)-Response spectrum scaling ratio

not less than 0.25 percent of the concrete area. The outside

V

vertical reinforcement shall be not less than 50 percent of the

total reinforcement. Outside-face vertical bars shall not be &efkctivepeak

smaller than No. 4, nor shall they be spaced more than 12 in. velocity-related

acccletations Scaling ratio

on centers. Inside-face vertical bars shall not be smaller than

No. 4, nor shall they be spaced more than 24 in. on centers. 0.05 0.04

4.43 The total circumferential reinforcement shall not be

0.08 0.06

less than 0.20 percent of the concrete area. The circumferen-

tial reinforcement in each face shall be not less than 0.1 per- 0.15 0.11

cent of the concrete area at the section.

0.20 0.15

Spacing of outer face circumferential reinforcement shall

not exceed the wall thickness or 12 in. Spacing of circumfer- 0.30 0.23

ential reinforcement on the inner face shall not exceed 12 in. 0.40 0.30

The minimum size of circumferential reinforcing bars shall

be No. 3. tinem intapohtion may be wed in between 4 coefficients not given.

307-a MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

extra reinforcement shall extend past the opening a minimum t = concrete thickness at opening, in.

of the development length. 1 = width of opening, in.

4.4.6 At each side of the opening, the additional vertical fy = specified yield strength of reinforcing steel, psi

reinforcement shall have an area at least equal to the design

steel ratio times one-half the area of the opening. The extra One-half of this extra reinforcement shall extend com-

reinforcement shall be placed within a distance not exceed- pletely around the circumference of the chimney, and the

other half shall extend beyond the opening a sufficient

ing twice the wall thickness unless otherwise determined by

distance to develop the bars in bond. This steel shall be

a detailed analysis.

placed as close to the opening as practicable, but within a

4.4.7 At both the top and bottom of each opening, addi- height not to exceed three times the thickness t.

tional reinforcement shall be placed having an area at least

4.4.8 For openings larger than 2-ft wide, diagonal rein-

equal to one-half the established design circumferential rein-

forcing bars with a total cross-sectional area in square inches

forcement interrupted by the opening, but the area A, of this

of not less than 1/5 of the shell thickness in inches shall be

additional steel at the top and also at the bottom shall be

placed at each comer of the opening. For openings 2-ft wide

not less than that given by Eq. (4-31), unless otherwise

or smaller, a minimum of two No. 5 reinforcing bars shall be

determined by a detailed analysis

placed diagonally at each comer of the opening.

A, = - (4-3 1)

fY The maximum lateral deflection of the top of a chimney

under all service conditions prior to the application of load

factors shall not exceed the limits set forth by EQ. (4-33)

where

f,’ = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi Y-=O.O4h (4-33)

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-9

maximum lateral deflection, in. tions of Section 5.3.1 shall apply except that l.lE shall be

Y,, =

substituted for W.

h = chimney height, ft 5.3.3 Required circumferential strength UC to resist wind

load W and-normal temperature load T shall be

CHAPTER 5-DESIGN OF CHIMNEY SHELLS:

STRENGTH METHOD UC = l.O5T+ 1.3W (5-ld)

5.1-General

5.1.1 Except as modified herein, design assumptions shall W-Design strength

he in accordance with AC1 318, Chapter 10. The chimney 5.4.1 Design strength of a section in terms of moment shall

shell shall be designed by the strength method. be taken as the nominal moment strength calculated in accor-

5.1.2 The equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribu- dance with the requirements of this standard multiplied by a

tion described in Section 10.2.7 of AC1 3 18 and as modified strength reduction factor $ equal to 0.70 for vertical strength

herein shall be used. For vertical strength the maximum and 0.90 for circumferential strength.

strain on the concrete isassumed to be 0.003 and the maxi-

mum strain in the steel is assumed to be 0.07. Whichever val- 5.5-Nominal moment strength: Circular shells

ue is reached first shall be taken as the limiting value. 5.5.1 The following equations apply [refer to Fig. 5.5.1(a),

and 5.5.1(b)]

In place of the equivalent rectangular concrete compres-

sive stress distribution used in this chapter, any other rela-

P,/rtf,’ = K, = 1.7Qh + 2~,K,m,Qt + 20,ht (5-2)

tionship between concrete compressive stress and strain may

be assumed that results in prediction of the strength of hol-

low circular sections in substantial agreement with results of where

comprehensive tests. PU = factored vertical load

5.1.3 The design and detailing of precast chimney shells r = average radius of section

shall emulate the design of cast-in-place chimney shells un- t = thickness of section

less specifically stated otherwise herein. Particular attention

should be given to the spacing and reinforcement of cast-in- h = z - n, p (radians) (5-3)

place cores and closures joining precast units to ensure that

the reqirements of this and other applicable standards are

met. Q, = sinv - si;y;iy-- p)cosa

(5-4)

5.1.4 Refer to Section 5.7 for design procedures of noncir-

cular shells.

Al = p + W-K (radians) (5-5)

5.2-Design loads

5.2.1 Dead loads and wind or earthquake forces at service p, 2, w = angles shown in Fig. 5.5.1(a).

conditions prior to the application of load factors,shall be in

accordance with Chapter 4 of this standard. Thermal effects COST = 1 - pt( 1 - cosct) (5-6)

at service conditions shall be in accordance with Chapter 6.

5.3.1 Required vertical strength U, to resist dead load D,

or wind load W, and normal temperature T, shall be the largest

of the following

cosp= cos,.(~)($)~ 1.0 (5-8)

lJv= 1.40 (5-la)

where

U,= l.lD + 1.4T+ 1.3W* (5-lb)

a = one-half the central angle subtended

and by neutral axis

a = one-half opening angle

U,=O.9D+ 1.4T+ 1.3W* (5-lc) 8, = 0.85 for f,’ S 4000 psi

= 0.85 - O.OSv; - 4000)/1000 2 0.65,

*The load factor 1.3 shall be used for the along-wind loads for f,’ > 4000 psi

of Section 4.2.2. For the across-wind loading combined with

the along-wind loading (Section 4.2.3.5), a load factor of 1.2 K, = WfY

shall be used. 0, = PlJ$fC

307-l 0 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

compression

T <

- -

vertical reinforcement

Pct=area of vertical

zone- reinforcement

per unit length

-COs a)=fy r(l-cos a)

EmEs

Em= 1-cosa

x0.07 ; :. cosp=cosa +(1-cos a) fy

( l+cosa > 4 I I Em Es

50.003 in./in. I .., I I A--r(cosa-cl os$)=fy r(l-cos a)

7 EmRs

;,cas *=cos a -(1-cos a) fy

Em Es

r(l-cos a) -

cos T=l-81 (I-cos

compression zone

7 STRAIN DIAGRAM

&r(l-cosa)-

I

PLAN ’ ” PLAN

TWO OPFNINGS IN COMPRESSION ZONE i

COMPRESSION ‘ZONE

(Dimensions not shown same as Fig 5.5.10) (Dimensions not shown same as Fig. 5.5.10)

Fig. 5.5.1(b)-Two openings in compression zone. compression zone.

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-l 1

PI = ratio of total vertical reinforcement Y = */2 angle between center lines of two openings

to total area of concrete and for no openings, n1 = y = p = 0; for one

opening in compression zone, n, = 1, y = 0;

n1 = number of openings entirely in compression zone for two openings in compression zone, n1 = 2

(maximum 2)

5.53 Two symmetric openings partly in compression zone-

E, = 0.07( 1 - cosa)/( 1 + cosa) I 0.003 (5-9) Refer to Fig. 5.5.1(c). This condition exists when y + p > z

and y - p < z. For this case, let 6 = y- p. Then in Elq. (5.2),

M,,IP,,r = K3 = cosa + K21KI, :. M,, = P,,rK3 (5-10) h=ii

And in Eq. (5-l 1)

K2 = 1.7QR + &,,,K,o,Qz + 2qK (5-l 1)

R = sin8 - &osa (5.15b)

ForaI5deg

5.5.3 Openings in tension zone-openings in the ten-

Q = (- 0.523 + 0.181a - 0.0154a2) sion zone are ignored since the tensile strength of the con-

(5.12a)

crete is neglected and the bars cut by the openings are

+ (41.3 - 13.2a + 1.32a2)(t/r)

replaced at the sides of the openings.

5.5.4 Openings in compression zone-In calculations of

For5deg<a<lOdeg the forces in the compression reinforcement only, openings

c. in the compression zone are ignored since the cut bars are re-

Q = (- 0.154 + 0.01773a + 0.00249a2) placed at the sides of the openings.

(5-12b)

5.5.5 Limitation-The one-half opening angle p shall not

+ ( 16.42 - 1.980a + 0.0674a2)(t/r)

exceed 30 deg.

5.5.6 Calculation procedure-Given r, t, f,‘, p, y, P,,, MU,

For lOdegcal17deg and the number of openings (where P,, and M,, are the fac-

tored vertical load and the factored moment, respectively),

Q = (-0.488 + 0.076a) + (9.758 - O.fMla)(t /r) (5-12~)

use the following procedure:

For 17degcaI25deg Step 1. Assume a value for the total vertical steel ratio p,

Step 2. By trial and error, find the value of a that

Q = (- 1.345 + 0.2018a - 0.004434a2) satisfies Eq. (5-2).

(5-12d)

+ (15.83 - 1.676a + 0.03994a2)(t/r) Step 3. Substitute this value of a in Eq. (5-10)

and calculate M,,.

For 25 deg < a < 35 deg

Step 4. If +M,, < MU, increase pt; if +M,, > M,,, decrease p,

Q = (0.993 - 0.00258a) + (-3.27 + O.O862a)(t / r) (5-12e) Step 5. Repeat Step 2 through Step 4 until $M, = MU.

For a > 35 deg 5.5.7 For load combinations with temperature effects,

modifyfY and& using Eq. (5-16a) and (5.17a).

Q = 0.89 (5.12f)

Replacef, with

where

(5.16a)

lu, = nominal moment strength of section

1

(w-l.r)(l + 2cos2a) Replacef,’ with

+ (1/2)(4sin2a + sin2y - sin2l.t)

f/(v) =f,’ - 1.4Of’&/ (5-17a)

[ - 4cosa( sina + sinyr- sinl.t)

Q2 = (1 - cosa)

(5-13)

where yt, fsw, f ‘;Tv , and f’& are as defined in Chapter 6.

5.6.1 General-All applicable sections of this Standard

R=sinz-(z-nlP)cosa- shall be followed, including horizontal bending and temper-

(n,/2)[sin (r + p) - sin(y - B)] (5-15a) ature effects.

307-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the

distance from the neutral axis.

For vertical strength, the maximum strain in the concrete is

assumed to be 0.003 and the maximum strain in the steel is

assumed to be 0.07. Whichever value is reached first shall be

taken as the limiting value.

Stress in reinforcement below the specified yield strength

& for grade of reinforcement used shall be taken as ES times I 1 I

Strain ’ b EC

steel strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to&, I I

stress in reinforcement shall be assumed equal to<,, . 0.002 0.003

Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected. Strain

L&2-(&,'I

Relationship of concrete compressive stress and concrete

strain shall be assumed in accordance with stress-strain curve a)fc = O.SSfi

as shown in Fig. 5.6. j;= 0.85f,'(1OOO~, - 250$00~,*)

5.6.3 Calculation procedure-For a given geometry and

given P, and M,, (where P, is the factored vertical load and f, = 85O&‘E,(l - 250 E=)

I

MU is the factored moment), use the following procedure:

Step 1. Assume a value for the total vertical steel ratio pt b)fc=0.85f,' [I -0.15(Ec;;~)]

Step 2. By trial and error, find the location of the neutral f,= 0.85&'(1 - 150~~ + 0.30)

axis which makes the total vertical force in the sec-

Step 3.

tion equal and opposite to P,.

With this location of the neutral axis, calculate I$,,

I f,= 0.85&'(1.30 - 150~

the nominal moment strength of the section. Fig. 5.bStress-strain curve for concrete.

Step 4. If $M,, < M,,, increase pt.

to temperature f '& and f ‘& , respectively, shall be com-

If $A4,, > M,,, decrease p,.

puted by Eq. (6-la) and (6-lb)

Step 5. Repeat Step 2 through Step 5 until $A4,, = M,,.

f'& =are.c.T,.E, (6- 1 a)

shall comply with the requirements of Section 5.7.

f & = a,< (c - 1 + y2) T,nE, (6-lb)

5.7-Design for circumferential bending

5.7.1 Any horizontal strip of the concrete column shall be where

designed as a horizontal beam resisting circumferential ate thermal coefficient of expansion of concrete and

bending moments as given in Section 4.2.4 and thermal ef- of reinforcing steel, to be taken as 0.0000065 per

fects described in Section 6.3. F

5.7.2 For loads combined with temperature effects, modify EC modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi

fY andf,‘using Eq. (516b) and (5-17b). r

C -PM1 + 1) +

Replace& with&‘(c) =fY - l.O5f,, (5-16b) &pn(Yl + III2 + 2Pn[y2 + Y1(l -r2)1 (6-z)

Replacef,’ with&“(c) =f,‘- l.OSf’&c (5-17b)

reinforcement to total area of concrete chimney

shell at section under consideration

where fsTc and f ‘kc are as defined in Chapter 6.

Yl ratio of inside face vertical reinforcement area

to outside face vertical reinforcement area

CHAPTER 6-THERMAL STRESSES Y2 ratio of distance between inner surface of

6.1-General chimney shell and center line of outer face

6.1.1 The equations for temperature stresses given in this vertical reinforcement to total shell thickness

chapter are based on working stress procedures and shall be n 44

considered in the calculation of the nominal moment strength

in Chapter 5. T,, the temperature gradient across the concrete shell, shall

be computed by Eq. (6-3a), (6-3b), (6-3c), (6-3d), or by a

6.2-Vertical temperature stresses complete heat balance study for all operating conditions.

6.2.1 The maximum vertical stresses in the concrete and

steel, in psi, occurring at the inside of the chimney shell due a) For unlined chimneys

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-l 3

I 1

Ki = coefficient of heat transmission from gas to inner

td,i T,-To surface of chimney lining when chimney is lined,

TX = rd. (6-3a)

CA L+ CI : d.CI or to inner surface of chimney shell when chimney

is unlined, Btu/ft*/hr/F difference in temperature

Ki ‘cd, Kodco

K, = coefficient of heat transmission from outside

surface of chimney shell to surrounding air,

b) For lined chimneys with insulation completely filling Btu/ft*/hr/F difference in temperature

the space between the lining and shell K, = coefficient of heat transfer by radiation

between outside surface of lining and inside

surface of concrete chimney shell, Btu/ft*/hr/F

rdbi T,-To difference in temperature

T, = - (6-3b)

fbdbi + -

‘sdbi + -

‘dbi + d,i KS = coefficient of heat transfer between outside surface

Gdc _I. + - of lining, and inside surface of shell for chimneys

Ki Cbdb C&s C&c K&CO 1

with ventilated air spaces, Btu/ft*/hr/F difference

in temperature

c) For lined chimneys with unventilated air space between dbi = inside diameter of uninsulated lining or insulation

the lining and shell around liner, ft

db = mean diameter of uninsulated lining or insulation

around liner, ft

Ti - To

TX = (6-3~) d, = mean diameter of space between lining and shell, ft

L+-

‘bdbi +-

dbi +-+dbi

‘dbi

d, = inside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft

Ki ‘bdb Krdb cc4 fvco

d, = mean diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft

dco = outside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft

d) For lined chimneys with a ventilated air space between

the lining and shell 6.2.2 Unless complete heat balance studies are made for

the particular chimney, it is permissible to use the approxi-

mate values given below. These constants when entered into

TX = 2 Ti - To

(6-3d) equations for temperature differential through the chimney

c c fbdbi dbi ‘dbi dbi shell T, will give values of accuracy in keeping with the

1. -+-+-+-

KS4 CA 04, I basic design assumptions.

r9Ki r9Cbdb

= 0.5

‘9

where cc = 12

rq = ratio of heat transmission through chimney shell C, = to be obtained from the manufacturer of the

to heat transmission through lining for chimneys materials used

with ventilated air spaces Cb = to be obtained from the manufacturer of the

t = thickness of concrete shell, in. materials used

f, = thickness of air space or insulation filling the space Ki = to be determined from curves in Fig. 6.2.2

between the lining and shell, in. K, = 12

tb = thickness of uninsulated lining or insulation

around steel liner, in. K, = ?I120

T = maximum specified design temperature of gas KS = Till50

inside chimney, F The value of r9 = 0.5 shall apply only where the distance

To = minimum temperature of outside air surrounding between the lining and the chimney shell is not less than 4 in.

chimney, F throughout the entire height of the lining and air inlet and

cc = coefficient of thermal conductivity of the concrete outlet openings are provided at the bottom and top of the

of chimney shell, Btu/ft*/in. of thickness/hr/F chimney shell. The area of the inlet and outlet openings in

difference in temperature (12 for normal weight

square feet shall numerically equal two-thirds the inside

concrete)

diameter in feet of the chimney shell at the top of the lining.

c, t coefficient of thermal conductivity of chimney Local obstructions in the air space between the lining and the

uninsulated lining or insulation around steel liner,

Btu/ft*/in. of thicknessA@ difference in chimney shell shall not restrict the area of the air space at any

temperature horizontal section to less than that specified for air inlet or

c, = coefficient of thermal conductivity of insulation outlet.

filling in space between lining and shell, Btu/ft*/in. 6.2.3 The maximum stress in the vertical steel fsn in psi,

of thickness/hr/F difference in temperature occurring at the outside face of the chimney shell due to

(3 for lightweight concrete) temperature, shall be computed by Eq. (6-4)

867-l 4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

GAS TEMPERATURE OF

Fig. 6.2.2-Curves for determining Ki .

f STV = a,, l (~2 - c) l T, l E, (6-4) Yl’ = ratio of inside face circumferential reinforcing

steel area to outside circumferential reinforcing

steel area

where ratio of distance between inner surface of chimney

Yi =

Es = modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement, psi shell and circumferential outside face reinforcing

steel to total thickness t

6.3-Circumferential temperature stresses All other notations are the same as for vertical temperature

6.3.1 The maximum circumferential stress in psi in the stresses. L

concrete due to temperature f ‘& occurring at the inside of

6.3.2 The maximum stress in psi in the outside circumfer-

the chimney shell shall be computed by Eq. (6-5)

ential reinforcementfflc due to temperature shall be comput-

ed by Eq. (6-7)

f ‘kc = a, l c’ l TX l E, (6-5)

cJ =

APPENDIX A-NOTATION

A, = area of reinforcing steel at top and bottom of

-p’Wl’ + 1) opening, in.2 (Chapter 4)

(6-6) B = band width parameter (Chapter 4)

+ [p’Wl’+ III2 + 2p’dy2’+Yl’(l -Y2’)1

C = ratio of distance from extreme compression

fiber to neutral axis for vertical stresses to total

and thickness t (Chapter 6)

TX = value determined for vertical temperature stresses c’ = c for circumferential stresses (Chapter 6)

p’ = ratio of cross-sectional area of circumferential c, = coefficient of thermal conductivity of chimney

outside face reinforcing steel per unit of height to uninsulated lining or insulation around steel

cross-sectional area of chimney shell per unit of liner, Btu/ft2/in. of thickness/hr/F difference

height in temperature (Chapter 6)

REINFORCED CONCRETE CHIMNEYS 307-l 5

of chimney shell, Btu/ft2/in. of thickness/hr/F

f,' = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

(Chapter 4)

difference in temperature

(12 for normal weight concrete) (Chapter 6) fc"W = f,’ modified for temperature effects,

circumferential, psi (Chapter 5)

drag coefficient for along-wind load

cdr

(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4) fc"W : f,’modified for temperature effects, vertical, psi

(Chapter 5)

end effect factor (Chapter 4)

cE

f'&c = maximum circumferential stress in concrete due

CL rrns lift coefficient (Chapter 4) to temperature at inside of chimney shell, psi

rms lift coefficient modified for local turbulence (Chapters 5 and 6)

CL0

(Chapter 4) f’;nv = maximum vertical stress in concrete at inside of

coefficient of thermal conductivity of insulation chimney shell due to temperature, psi

G

tilling in space between lining and shell, (Chapters 5 and 6)

Btu/ft2/in. of thickness/hr/F difference fSTC = maximum stress in outside circumferential

in temperature (3 for lightweight concrete) reinforcement due to temperature, psi

(Chapter 6) (Chapters 5 and 6)

d diameter of chimney (Commentary Chapter 4) f!vv = maximum stress in outside vertical

reinforcement due to temperature, psi (Chapters

db mean diameter of uninsulated lining or

5 and 6)

insulation around liner, ft (Chapter 6)

f’;TV = maximum stress in inside vertical reinforcement

dbi in&de diameter of uninsulated lining or

insulation around liner, ft (Chapter 6) due to temperature, psi (Chapters 5 and 6)

4J = specified yield strength of reinforcing steel, psi

4 mean diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft

(Chapter 6) (Chapters 4 and 5)

f;(c) = fy modified for temperature effects,

dci inside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft

(Chapter 6) circumferential, psi (Chapter 5)

dco outside diameter of concrete chimney shell, ft fyw = fy modified for temperature effects, vertical, psi

(Chapter 6) (Chapter 5)

FIA = strouhal number parameter (Chapter 4)

4 mean diameter of space between lining

and shell, ft (Chapter 6) FIB = lift coefficient parameter (Chapter 4)

0) bottom outside diameter of chimney, ft

g

= acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ftfsec2

(Chapter 4) (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

;i(b) mean diameter at bottom of chimney, ft G = across-wind peaking factor (Chapter 4)

(Chapter 4)

GXZ) = gust factor for radial wind pressure at height z

d(h) top outside diameter of chimney, ft (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

G,,,t = gust factor for along-wind fluctuating load

JW mean diameter at top of chimney, ft (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

0) mean outside diameter of upper third h = chimney height above ground level, ft

of chimney, ft (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

d(z) outside diameter of chimney at height z, ft i = local turbulence parameter (Chapter 4)

(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

I = importance factor for wind design in Chapter 4

dkcr) outside diameter of chimney at critical height and AXE 7

z,,, ft (Chapter 4)

k = ratio of wind speed (n to critical wind speed (V,,)

D dead load (Chapter 5)

k, = aerodynamic damping parameter (Chapter 4)

E earthquake loads or forces (Chapter 5)

k (10 = mass damping parameter of small amplitudes

EC modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi (Chapter (Chapter 4)

6)

k, = equivalent sand-grained surface roughness factor

Ec k modulus of elasticity of concrete, kip/ft2 (Commentary Chapter 4)

(Chapter 4)

K = parameter for nominal moment strength

E, modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi in Chapter 5 or horizontal force factor

(Chapters 5 and 6) for earthquake design in Commentary

EPV effective peak velocity (Commentary Chapter 4) Introduction

f frequency, Hz (Chapter 4) K, = Eslfy (Chapter 5)

307-l 6

Ki = coefficient of heat transmission from gas to inner rq = ratio of heat transmission through chimney shell

surface of chimney lining when chimney is lined, to heat transmission through lining for chimneys

or to inner surface of chimney shell when chimney with ventilated air spaces (Chapter 6)

is unlined, Btu/ft2/hr/F difference mean radius at height z, ft (Chapter 4)

r(z) =

in temperature (Chapter 6)

R = parameter for nominal moment strength

K, = coefficient of heat transmission from outside (Chapter 5)

surface of chimney shell to surrounding air,

Btu/ft2MF difference in temperature (Chapter 6) s = center-to-center spacing of chimneys, ft

(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

K, = coefficient of heat transfer by radiation between

outside surface of lining and inside surface of sp = spectral parameter (Chapter 4)

concrete chimney shell, Btu/ft2/hr/F difference in s, = mode shape factor (Chapter 4)

temperature (Chapter 6)

St = strouhal number (Chapter 4)

KS = coefficient of heat transfer between outside

t = thickness of concrete shell (Chapters 5 and 6)

surface of lining and inside surface of shell for

chimneys with ventilated air spaces, t,, = thickness of uninsulated lining or insulation

Btu/ft’/hr/F difference in temperature (Chapter 6) around steel liner, in. (Chapter 6)

Kl, K2, ts = thickness of air space or insulation tilling the

K3 = parameters for nominal moment strength (Chapter space between lining and shell, in. (Chapter 6)

5) t(b) = thickness of concrete shell at bottom, ft

1 = width of opening in concrete chimney shell, in. (Chapter 4)

(Chapter 4) t(h) = thickness of concrete shell at top, ft (Chapter 4)

L 4 length coefficient (Chapter 4) T = normal temperature effect (Chapter 6)

Ma(z)= moment induced at height z by across-wind loads, q = maximum specified design temperature

ft-lb (Chapter 4) of gas inside chimney, F (Chapter 6)

M,iz)= maximum circumferential bending moment due to To = minimum temperature of outside air

radial wind pressure, at height z, tension on inside, surrounding chimney, F (Chapter 6)

ft-lb/ft (Chapter 4)

TX = temperature drop across concrete shell

Ml(z)= moment induced at height z by mean along-wind (Chapter 6)

load, ft-lb (Chapter 4)

T, = fundamental period of vibration for unlined shell,

M,, = nominal moment strength at section (Chapter 5) set per cycle (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter

M,(z)= maximum circumferential bending moment due to 4)

radial wind pressure, at height z, tension on T2 = second mode period of vibration for unlined shell,

outside, ft-lb/ft (Chapter 4) set per cycle (Chapter 4 and

M,, = factored moment at section (Chapter 5) Commentary Chapter 4)

M;;(b)= bending moment at base due to mean along-wind UC = required circumferential strength (Chapter 5)

load, ft-lb (Chapter 4) U” = required vertical strength (Chapter 5)

M,(z)= combined design moment at height z v = basic wind speed, mph (ASCE 7 $nd Chapter 4)

for across-wind and along-wind loads (Chapter 4)

= VCT = critical wind speed for across-wind loads,

n modular ratio of elasticity Es/EC (Chapter 6) corresponding to fundamental mode ft/sec

nl = number of openings entirely in compression zone (Chapter 4)

(Chapter 5)

VCR = critical wind speed for across-wind loads

F(z) = pressure due to mean hourly design wind speed corresponding to second mode

at height z, lb/ft2 (Chapter 4)

v, = V(1°.5), mph (Chapter 4)

PAZ) = radial wind pressure at height z, lb/ft2 ji =

(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4) mean hourly wind speed at 5/6_h varying

over a range of 0.50 and 1.30 V(z,,), ft/sec

PCT = pressure due to wind at critical speed (Chapter 4)

v(h) = mean hourly wind speed at top of chimney, ft/

P, = factored vertical load (Chapter 5) set (Chapter 4)

Q = stress level correction parameter vz> = mean hourly design wind speed at height z, ft/

(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5) set (Chapter 4)

Q’l Ql, Vz,,) = mean hourly design wind speed at 5/6h, ft/sec

Q2, Q3= parameters for nominal moment strength (Chapter 4)

(Chapter 5) 77(33) = mean hourly wind speed at a height

r = average radius of section (Chapter 5) of 33 ft, ft/sec (Chapter 4)

307-17

lb/ft (Chapter 4)

d(h)/@) (Chapter 4)

ratio of inside face vertical reinforcement area

i xz, = mean along-wind load per unit length at height (Chapter 6)

z, lb/ft (Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

ratio of distance between inner surface of

w’(h) = fluctuating along-wind load per unit length chimney shell and outside face vertical

at top of chimney, lb/ft (Commentary Chapter reinforcement to total shell thickness (Chapter

4) 6)

w’(z) = fluctuating along-wind load per unit length

ratio of inside face circumferential

at height z, lb/ft (Chapter 4)

reinforcement area to outside face

w,(N = across-wind load per unit length at top circumferential reinforcement area (Chapter 6)

of chimney, lblft (Chapter 4)

ratio of distance between inner surface of

w,(z) across-wind load per unit length at height z, lb/ chimney shell and outside face circumferential

ft (Chapter 4) reinforcement to total shell thickness (Chapter

WG) average weight per unit length for top third of 6)

chimney, lb/ft (Chapter 4)

y - p for two symmetric openings partly

WI(Z) mean along-wind load per unit length as given in compression zone (Chapter 5)

by Eq. (4-27), lb/ft (Chapter 4)

maximum concrete compressive strain

W wind load (Chapter 5)

(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5)

ymax maximum lateral deflection of top of chimney,

in. (Chapter 4) z - ntP (Chapter 5)

Z height above ground, ft p + ~JJ - x (radians) (Chapter 5)

(Chapter 4 and Commentary Chapter 4)

ZC, height corresponding to V,, (Chapter 4) angles shown on Fig. 5.5.1(a) (Chapter 5)

ZC exposure length factor (Chapter 4)

3.1416 (Chapter 5)

a on chimney cross section, one-half

the central angle subtended by neutral axis ratio of area of vertical outside face

(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5) reinforcement to total area of concrete shell

(Chapter 6)

ale thermal coefficient of expansion of concrete

and of reinforcing steel, O.OOOOO65 per F ratio of area of circumferential outside face

(Chapter 6) reinforcement per unit of height to total area

of concrete shell per unit of height (Chapter 6)

P on the chimney cross section, one-half

central angle subtended by an opening specific weight of air, 0.075 lb/ft3 (Chapter 4)

(Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5)

mass density of concrete, kip-sec2/ft4 (Chapter

Pa aerodynamic damping factor (Chapter 4)

4)

Ps fraction of critical damping for across-wind

ratio of total area of vertical reinforcement

load (Chapter 4)

to total area of concrete shell cross section

Pl factor defined in Section 10.2.7.3 of AC1 318 (Chapter 5)

(Chapter 6)

strength reduction factor

Y on chimney cross section, one-half central angle (Chapter 5 and Commentary Chapter 5)

subtended by the center lines of two openings

(Chapter 5) P,& if,’ (Chapter 5)

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