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Probability sampling

Advantages
 Cost Effective
As the task of assignment ogf random number to different items of population is over,
the process is half done. This process saves cost and time to a great extent. We can take
any number of samples from this process.
 Involves lesser degree of judgment
While assigning the number to an item of the population, the person assigns it in a
random trend that makes the process of probability sampling more effective and more
accurate.
 Comparatively easier way of sampling
Probability sampling does not involve any complex and long process. Thus this is an
easier way for sampling.
 Less time consuming
This process is a simple and short process. This takes lesser time to complete. The saved
time can be used for analysis and interpretation.
 Can be done even by non- technical persons
Assignment of Random number can be done by any kind of person after a short briefing
as this does not involve any lengthy, complex and crucial process
 Sample representative of population
Probability Sampling uses random numbers which ensures that the samples vary as
much as the population itself.

Disadvantages
 Chances of selecting specific class of samples only
If a surveyor is appointed to survey about any data relating to family members, there is
likely chances that s/he will develop a trend of starting to number from the eldest
member to the youngest and numbers will be only increasing or decreasing only. In this
case, only oldest or the latest generations will be taken as samples.
 Redundant and monotonous work
As the surveyor is asked to do a repetitive job to assign the numbers and to take the
information, there is likely chances that the surveyor suffers from monotony and the
effectiveness of the system will be reduced.
Simple random sampling

Advantages
 Better chances that the sample represents the whole population
Simple Random Sampling uses random numbers which ensures that the samples vary as
much as the population itself.
 Can be concluded in shorter time duration
This process is simple and short. It takes lesser time to complete. The saved time can be
used for analysis and interpretation.
 Costs less money
Once the task of assignment of random number to different items of population is done
the process is half done. This process saves cost and time to a great extent and its
simplicity ensures that we do not have to spend too many resources on the sampling
process itself. We can take any number of samples from this process.
 Involves lesser degree of judgment
While assigning the random number to an item of the population, the person assigns the
number in a random sequence that means the process is unbiased as it doesn't involve
the judgement of the person performing the sampling.
 Comparatively easier way of sampling
Probability sampling does not involve any complex and long process. Thus this is an
easier way for sampling.
 Can be done even by non- technical persons too
Assignment of Random number can be done by any kind of person after a short briefing
as this does not involve any lengthy, complex and crucial process

Disadvantages
 Risks of selecting samples from a few variations only
The surveyor or more correctly, the sampler might be distributing the random numbers
based on rules of thumb which will render the sampling ineffective e.g. If a surveyor is
appointed to survey about any data relating to family members, there is likely chances
that s/he might develop a trend of starting to number from the eldest member to the
youngest and numbers will be only increasing or decreasing only. In this case, only
oldest or the latest generations will be taken as samples.
 Redundant and monotony
As the surveyor is asked to do a repetitive job to assign the numbers and to take the
information, there is likely chances that the surveyor suffers from monotony and the
effectiveness of the system will be blurred.

Simple random sampling is an effective, low resource consuming method of sampling that
can be used in a variety of situations as a reliable sampling method. With the advent of
computers, the problems associated with this method can be even reduced because a
computer can be used to generate the samples based on an algorithm that generates the
random numbers.

Systematic random sampling

Advantages:
 easier than Stratified Random Sampling and more effective than Simple Random
Sampling
You do not need to classify data in Systematic Random Sampling as in
Stratified Random Sampling. And it is more effective than Simple Random Sampling as
it avoids judgment.
 Cost Effective
Stratification would cost lots of resources. Thus Systematic Random Sampling is more
effective than others.
 Avoids Judgments
It involves probability to a greater extent. So, judgments are avoided. Once the first
sample is chosen, the role of the judgment finishes.
 Less Time Consuming
It does not cost the time for stratification nor it leaves any doubt on reliability.
 Higher degree of Control
We can control the sample size, first sample and other means of control to complete the
process. Thus the level of control is always higher.

Disadvantages:
 Size of the population may not be known before the sampling starts
Suppose that we want to survey on the brand of cigarette that the smokers want. We
may not know how many of the population smoke or all the brands of the cigarettes
available in the market.
 Assumption that the population is uniform may not always prove to be true
We can not say that the population is enough uniform. Sometimes it can also be true
that the exceptional items appear on the portion of population that are taken as samples.
This makes the system defunct.
Stratified random sampling

Advantages:
 Stratified Random Sampling provides better precision as it takes the samples
proportional to the random population.
 Stratified Random Sampling helps minimizing the biasness in selecting the samples.
 Stratified Random Sampling ensures that no any section of the population are
underrepresented or overrepresented.
 As this method provides greater precision, greater level of accuracy can be achieved
even by using small size of samples. This saves resources.

Disadvantages:
 Stratified Random Sampling requires more administrative works as compared with
Simple Random Sampling.
 It is sometimes hard to classify each kind of population into clearly distinguished
classes.
 Stratified Random Sampling can be tedious and time consuming job to those who are
not keen towards handling such data.

Non probabilistic

Advantages of Convenience Sampling


 Easy Method
As Convenience Sampling allows the pollster to draw samples from the zone where s/he
gets comfortable, the sampling method becomes easier for the pollster as compared
toStratified Random Sampling, Systematic Random Sampling and others.

 Represents class of data pollster is familiar with


As the Pollster chooses those items which are familiar with the environment of
himself/herself, it becomes fruitful for understanding his/her environment.

 Less time consuming


The method can be conducted by taking only those items which are easier to choose
and analyze. This makes the whole process less time consuming.

 Economic way of sampling


As this method puts its focus on the ease of the person who conducts it, and chooses the
items which are easiest for examination, it is an economic way of sampling.

Disadvantages of Convenience Sampling


 Fails to represent the whole population
Since all the samples are concentrated around the person carrying out the survey, it can
not represent the whole sample as a whole.

 Whole system may become useless


When the end users are in need of the information about the whole population, or when
the end users' need of information do not match with the perception of the pollster, the
whole system goes defunct.

 May not represent the whole population


Uneven distribution requires the system to choose samples more dispersedly. It is
because more dispersed samples represents the population better. As the Convenience
Sampling does not focus on choosing samples in more dispersed way, it can not be used
for uneven population to draw conclusion on the whole population.

Advantages of Snowball Sampling


 Referral system helps find samples quickly
Since you may not have exhaustive list of the population for your study, the referral
system helps to a great extent to get appropriate samples quickly at conveniently low
cost. For instance, It can be too difficult to trace out those persons who go to brothels
regularly or those who use narcotic drugs or those who are prostitutes, but the referral
system helps minimizing the problem.
 Low cost solution
This sampling technique can be implemented with little workforce and without a lot of
planning, making it cost and time efficient compared to other methods.

 Works for hesitant subjects


Some persons do not want to come forward in public researches due to their need for
confidentiality. Drug users, prostitutes, brothel goers, spies may not be willing to reveal
their identity if you ask them in public if they are so. Snowball Sampling helps for this
situation as this system asks to those who are familiar with the potential samples.
 Secretive groups can be identified easily
Some social groups are secret by nature. The classification, stratification and other
analysis on them by a new person is quite difficult. As this method takes information
from those persons who are already familiar with other potential samples, the process
becomes quite easier. As an example, the classification of drug users according to their
frequency (Casual or Addict) will only be revealed if you ask someone who is already
quite familiar with the drug users in that locality. And this helps to explores other
insights of such groups as well.

Disadvantages of Snowball Sampling


 Potential sampling bias
The method is liable to various forms of sampling bias. People associate with and
nominate their peers who share very similar traits. This means that the researcher might
only be able to reach out to a small section of the population.

 Chance of lack of co-operation


Respondents may not be willing to co-operate citing ethical reasons or fear of danger to
their lives. The researcher has to gain the trust of the sample before they are willing to
recommend other potential subjects. This brings the biases of both the researcher and
the subject into play because how the individual researcher behaves affects the research
output.

 Peer network might not exist


If there is a communication gap among the population, the whole process gets halted.
For Example, Drugs users at their initial stage might not be interacting with other drug
users around them and thus might not be able to nominate anyone.

Quota sampling
Advantages:
Quota Sampling is widely adopted these days because of its many benefits. Some of the
advantages are stated below:

 Quota Sampling is an economic process. It saves time and money both at the same time
by giving us important information about how many samples of each group we need to
collect
 The extra information speeds up the sampling process
 We can get a high level of accuracy because quota sampling is scientific with a well
defined process

Disadvantages:
Nothing can have only positive aspects. Quota Sampling also has its pros and cons. As this
process sets criteria to choose samples, disadvantages are mainly due to its non-random
nature. Some of the disadvantages are as follows:

 Since quota sampling is a non-random sampling method, it is impossible to find the


sampling error.
 There is always a chance of sampling bias as well, since the surveyor can choose to
ignore certain important characteristics for ease of access and cost-saving. For example,
if we are selecting colour preferences based on age group, if the surveyor chooses
samples from arts colleges only, though it satisfied the quota based on the proportion of
age, the survey might be biased because the color choice might have been affected by
academic background as well.
 Some issues relating with those items which do not clearly fall in any of the groups are
understated.eg:
 Transgender and transsexual Issues
 Other issues related with items that can not be clearly categorized to certain groups