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CONTENTS

FOREWARD v
1. THE ROLE OF THE CIVIL ENGINEER IN HIGHWAY SAFETY 1
1.1 The Role 2
1.2 Identification of the Issues 3
1.3 The Three Es Concept 4
1.4 The Economic Assessment of Road Improvement Scheme 6
1.5 Cost-Benefit Analysis 7
1.6 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 7
1.7 Mathematical Programming 7
1.8 Risk Analysis 8
1.9 Civil Engineer’s Responsibility for Highway Safety 8
1.10 Integrating Safety into all Phases of Highway Engineering 10
1.11 Enhancing Safety through Highway Maintenance 12
2. TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS 15
2.1 General Considerations 16
2.2 Traffic-Flow Relationship 17
2.3 Factors Affecting Traffic Demand 19
2.4 Data Sources and Collection 20
2.5 Use of Models 22
2.6 Reliability of Traffic Forecasts 23
2.7 Average Daily Traffic (ADT) 24
2.8 Traffic Composition 25
2.9 Future Projection of Traffic Demands 26
2.10 Growth of Auto Sector 26
2.11 Vehicle Performance 29
2.12 Vehicular Pollution 30
2.13 Driver Performance 32
2.14 The Driving Task 32
2.15 Lane Placement and Road Following 33
2.16 Car Following 33
2.17 Overtaking and Passing 34
2.18 The Information System 34
2.19 Expectancy 35
2.20 Driver Error 35
2.21 Error Due to Situation Demands 36
2.22 Informing Drivers on Road Conditions with the Aid of Signs 36
3. SPEEDS 39
3.1 Factor of Speed 40
3.2 Operating Speed 40
3.3 Design Speeds 40
3.4 Running Speed 47
3.5 Measurement of Speeds and Journey Times 48
4. TRAFFIC CAPACITY 51
4.1 Capacity Considerations 52
4.2 Passenger Car Units 53
4.3 Thirtieth Highest Hourly Volume 55
4.4 The Busy Week 56
4.5 Capacity for Peak Hour Traffic 56
4.6 Economic Capacity 56
4.7 Speed/Flow Relationship 58
4.8 Factors Affecting Capacity and Service Volume 58
4.9 Design Standards of National Highway Board 60
4.10 Theoretical Capacity 61
4.11 Practical Capacity 62
5. HIGHWAY ACCIDENTS 64
5.1 Overview of Road Safety in Developing Countries 65
5.2 Road Accident Data Analysis Methods 67
5.3 Data Acquisition 68
5.4 Analysis 70
5.5 Driving Demands 73
5.6 Ways of Classifying Accidents 74
5.7 Fatal Accident Reporting System 77
5.8 Accident Studies Before and After Changes 79
5.8.1 Poisson Series 87
5.9 Highway Accidents Statistics of Pakistan 92
5.10 Dimensional Interaction 94
5.11 Public Transport, Goods Vehicles Blamed For 46 pc Road Deaths 95
6. BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES 101
6.1 Bicycling and Walking 102
6.2 Conflict of Pedestrian and Vehicles 103
6.3 Pedestrian way Concepts 104
6.4 The Transit Mall Concept 104
6.5 Multi-Modal Concept 105
6.6 Concept Lakewood 107
6.7 On-Street Versus Off-Street Facilities 110
6.8 Auto Speed and Separation 110
6.9 Intersection Movements 110
6.10 Bike/Pedestrian Conflicts 111
6.11 Innovation Approach 111
7. HIGHWAY SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS 113
7.1 Safety Concerns 114
7.2 Role of Traffic Police in Road Law Enforcement 114
7.3 The Legislative Process 115
7.4 Enforcement Techniques 115
7.5 Elements of Driver Testing and Training 116
7.6 Driver Testing 116
7.7 Police Duties 118
7.8 Traffic Enforcement System 119
7.9 Driver Training 119
7.10 Importance of Road Safety Education and Publicity 121
7.11 Methodology 121
7.12 A Framework for Management 123
7.13 Training of Road Safety Personnel 123
8. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT 126
8.1 Transport--a necessity of Life 127
8.2 The Research 127
8.3 Some Theoretical Fundamentals Influencing Road Safety 129
8.4 Upgrade Technical and Engineering Skills 132
8.5 Areas of Technology Upgrading 133
8.6 Methods of Training Various Categories of Personnel 134
8.7 The Strategy of HRD 134
8.8 Driver Education: Role of School 135
8.8.1 Educational Theory 136
8.8.2 Extension of Values 136
8.8.3 Implications For Laboratory Instruction 139
8.8.4 Cost-Benefit Effective Model 141
8.8.4.1 Conclusion 145
9. PUBLIC TRANSPORT 146
9.1 Current Concept 147
9.2 The Role of Bus Service 147
9.3 Estimating Public Transport Demand 149
9.4 The Conventional Four-Stage Process 149
9.4.1 Trip Generation 150
9.4.2 Trip Distribution 151
9.4.3 Modal Choice 151
9.4.4 Trip Assignment 151
9.5 Data Requirements 152
9.5.1 Other Obstacles 152
9.6 Light Rail Transit 153
9.7 Metros 154
9.7.1 Impact of Metro 155
9.7.2 Installing a new Metro 155
9.8 Terminals 156
9.9 Lay-bys and Bus Bays 157
9.10 Urban Passenger Transport 158
9.10.1 Bus Operation Sustainability 159
9.10.2 One Person Operation 160
9.10.3 Bus Fares 160
9.10.4 Reliability 161
9.10.5 Problems of Vehicle and Spares Availability 162
9.10.6 Appropriate Bus Configuration 162
9.11 Thought for Future 164
10. THE HIGHWAY CODE 166
10.1 General 167
10.2 The Road User on Foot 167
10.3 The Road User on Wheels 168
10.4 Lines and Lanes 170
10.5 Overtaking 171
10.6 Road Junctions and Channalizing Islands 172
10.7 Roundabouts and Flyovers 176
10.8 Reversing 180
10.9 Lamps 180
10.10 Waiting and Parking 180
10.11 Breakdowns and Accidents 181
10.12 Motorway Driving 182
10.13 Lane Discipline 182
10.14 Overtaking 183
10.15 Breakdowns 183
10.16 Stopping, Parking and Leaving the Motorway 183
10.17 Leaving the Motorway 184
10.18 Extra Rules for Cyclists 184
10.19 The Road User and Animals 184
10.20 The Road User and Railway Level Crossings 185
10.21 Penalties 204
10.22 Vehicle Security 207
10.23 First Aid 208
10.24 Speed Limits 208
10.25 Driver Licensing 210
10.26 Conclusion 210
CONCLUDING REMARKS 211

APPENDICES 216
APPENDIX-A (Values of x 2 ) 217
APPENDIX-B Road Distances (in KMS between main cities of Pakistan) 218

BIBLIOGRAPHY 219