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Chapter 4 Solutions for Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design 6th edition

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You are on page 1of 26

4-1 Figure P4-1 shows a simply supported beam and the cross-section at midspan. The

beam supports a uniform service (unfactored) dead load consisting of its own weight plus

1.4 kips/ft and a uniform service (unfactored) live load of 1.5 kip/ft. The concrete strength is

3500 psi, and the yield strength of the reinforcement is 60,000 psi. The concrete is normal-

weight concrete. Use load and strength reduction factors from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and

9.3. For the midspan section shown in part (b) of Fig. P4-1, compute M n and show that it

exceeds M u .

24 12

Weight/ft = 0.15 0.3 kips/ft

144

Factored load/ft: wu = 1.2(0.30 + 1.40) + 1.6(1.50) = 4.44 k/ft

M u wu 2

8 4.44 202 8 222 kips-ft

3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

A f

s y 3.00 60000

c 5.04 in.

0.85 f ' b 0.85 3500 12

1

c

For fc' 3500 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 5.04 5.93 in.

1 0.85

s

using Eq.(4-18)

d c

t c cu

21.5 5.93

5.93

0.003 0.00788

s

5.04

3.00 60000 21.5

2

M A f d 285 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

Since, t 0.00788 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9. Then,

M n 0.9 285 kip-ft 256 kip-ft. Clearly, M n M u

4-1

4-2 A cantilever beam shown in Fig. P4-2. The beam supports a uniform service

(unfactored) dead load of 1 kip/ft plus its own dead load and it supports a concentrated

service (unfactored) live load of 12 kips as shown. The concrete is normal-weight concrete

with f c' 4000 psi and the steel is Grade 60. Use load and strength-reduction factors form

ACI Code Section 9.2 and 9.3. For the end section shown in part (b) of Fig. P4-2, compute

M n and show it exceeds M u .

30 18

Weight/ft = 0.15 0.563 kips/ft

144

Factored distributed load/ft: wu = 1.2(0.563 + 1.0) = 1.88 k/ft

Factored live load is a concentrated load: Pu 1.6 12 19.2 kips

M u wu 2

2 Pu 1 1.88 102 2 19.2 9 267 k-ft

3. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

A f

s y 4.74 60000

c 2.79 in.

0.85 f ' b 0.85 4000 30

1

c

For fc 4000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 2.79

'

3.28 in.

1 0.85

s

using. Eq.(4-18)

d c

t c cu 3.28

15.5 3.28

0.003 0.011 > 0.0021

s

2.79

4.74 60000 15.5

2

M A f d 334 kip-ft

n s y 2 12000

Since, t 0.011 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9. Then,

M n 0.9 334 301 kip-ft 267 kip-ft. Clearly, M n M u

4-2

4-3 (a) Compare M n for singly reinforced rectangular beams having the following

properties. Use loads and strength reduction factors from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3.

Beam b d f c' fy

Bars

No. (in.) (in.) (psi) (psi)

1 12 22 3 No. 7 3,000 60,000

2 12 22 2 No. 9 plus 1 No. 8 3,000 60,000

3 12 22 3 No. 7 3,000 40,000

4 12 22 3 No. 7 4,500 60,000

5 12 33 3 No. 7 3,000 60,000

Beam No.1

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

A f

s y 3 0.60 60000

c 3.53 in.

0.85 f ' b 0.85 3000 12

1

c

For fc' 3000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 3.53 4.15 in.

1 0.85

s t d c c cu 224.15

4.15

0.003 0.013

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

3.53

0.9 3 0.60 60000 22

2

M A f d 164 kip-ft

n s y 2 12000

n

Beam No.2

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

c

A f

s y

2 1.00 0.79 60000 5.47

in.

1

0.85 f ' b 0.85 3000 12

c

For fc 3000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 5.47

'

6.44 in.

1 0.85

4-3

s t d c c cu 226.44

6.44

0.003 0.0072

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

5.47

0.9 2.79 60000 22

2

M A f d 242 kip-ft

n s y 2 12000

For Beam 2, M 242 kip-ft

n

Beam No.3

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

A f

s y 1.8 40000

c 2.35 in.

0.85 f b 0.85 3000 12

1 '

c

For fc 3000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 2.35

'

2.76 in.

1 0.85

s t d c c cu 222.76

2.76

0.003 0.021

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

2.35

0.9 1.8 40000 22

2

M A f d 113 kip-ft

n s y 2 12000

For Beam 3, M 113 kip-ft

n

Beam No.4

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

A f

s y 1.8 60000

c 2.35 in.

0.85 f b 0.85 4500 12

1 '

c

For fc 4500 psi, 1 0.825 . Therefore, c 2.35

'

2.85 in.

1 0.825

2.85

0.003 0.020

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

4-4

Since, t 0.005 the section is clearly tension-controlled and =0.9.

2.35

0.9 1.8 60000 22

2

M A f d 169 kip-ft

n s y 2 12000

For Beam 4, M 169 kip-ft

n

Beam No.5

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding.

A f

s y 1.8 60000

c 3.53 in.

0.85 f ' b 0.85 3000 12

1

c

For fc' 3000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 3.53 4.15 in.

1 0.85

s t d c c cu 334.15

4.15

0.003 0.021

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

3.53

0.9 1.8 60000 33

2

M A f d 253 kip-ft

n s y 2 12000

For Beam 5, M 253 kip-ft

n

(b) Taking beam 1 as the reference point, discuss the effects of changing As , f y ,

f c' , and d on M n . (Note that each beam has the same properties as beam 1 except for the

italicized quantity.)

Beam M

n

No. (kips-ft)

1 164

2 242

3 113

4 169

5 253

An increase of 55% in As (from 1.80 to 2.79 in.2) caused on increase of 48% in M n . It is clear

that increasing the tension steel area causes a proportional increase in the strength of the section,

4-5

with a loss of ductility. Note that in this case, the strength reduction factor was 0.9 for both

sections.

A decrease of 33% in f y caused a decreased of 31% in M n . A decrease in the steel yield

strength has essentially the same effect as decreasing the tension steel area.

An increase of 50% in f c' caused an increase of 3% in M n . It is clear that changes in the

concrete strength have a much smaller effect on moment strength compared with changes in the

tension steel area and steel yield strength.

An increase of 50% in d caused an increase of 54% in M n .It is clear that increasing the

effective flexural depth of the section increases the section moment strength (without decreasing

the section ductility).

(c) What is the most effective way of increasing M n ? What is the least effective

way?

Disregarding any other effects of increasing d , As or f y such as changes in cost, etc., the most

effective way to increase M n is the increase the effective flexural depth of the section, d ,

followed by increasing f y and As . Note that increasing f y and As too much may make the beam

over-reinforced and thus will result in a decrease in ductility.

The least effective way of increasing M n is to increase f c' .Note that increasing f c' will cause a

significant increase in curvature at failure.

4-6

4-4 A 12-ft-long cantilever supports its own dead load plus an additional uniform

service (unfactored) dead load of 0.5 kip/ft. The beam is made from normal-weight 4000-psi

concrete and has b 16 in., d 15.5 in., and h 18 in. It is reinforced with four No. 7 Grade-

60 bars. Compute the maximum service (unfactored) concentrated live load that can be

applied at 1ft from the free end of the cantilever. Use load and strength –reduction factors

from ACI Code Sections 9.2 and 9.3. Also check As ,min .

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Compute the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block, , assuming that tension steel is

yielding. From equilibrium (using Eq. (4-14)):

A f

s y 2.4 60000

c 2.65 in.

0.85 f ' b 0.85 4000 16

1

c

For fc' 4000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 2.65 3.1 in.

1 0.85

s

using Eq.(4-18)

d c

t c cu 3.1

15.5 3.1

0.003 0.012

s

2.65

2.4 60000 15.5

2

M A f d 170 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 170 kips-ft = 153 kips-ft

16 18

Weight/ft of beam = 0.15 0.3 kips/ft

144

Factored dead load = 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.96 kips/ft

Factored dead load moment = wl 2 2 0.96 122 2 69.1 kips-ft

Therefore the maximum factored live load moment is: 153 kips-ft – 69.1 kip-ft = 83.9 kips-ft

Maximum factored load at 1 ft from the tip = 83.9 kips-ft / 11 ft = 7.63 kips

Maximum concentrated service live load = 7.63 kips / 1.6 = 4.77 kips

4-7

3. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 189 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

200 200

As ,min bw d 16 15.5 0.82 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

4-8

4-5 Compute M n and check As ,min for the beam shown in Fig. P4-5. Use fc' 4500 psi

and f y 60,000 psi.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the

tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d 19 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16):

A f

s y 4.74 60000

1.55 in. h f 6 in. (o.k.)

0.85 f ' b e 0.85 4500 48

c

0.825 1

Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and d t , it is clear that

the tension steel strain, s , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of

the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, t , exceeds the limit for tension-controlled sections

(0.005). Thus, =0.9 and we can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

1.55

4.74 60000 19

2

M A f d 432 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 432 kips-ft = 389 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 201 psi, so use 3 f c' in the numerator:

3 f c' 201

As ,min bw d 12 19 0.76 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

4-9

4-6 Compute M n and check As ,min for the beam shown in Fig. P4-6. Use fc' 4000 psi

and f y 60,000 psi.

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers, where the distance from the

tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is given as d 18.5 in.

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16):

A f

s y 4.74 60000

4.18 in. h f 5 in. (o.k.)

0.85 f b e 0.85 4000 20

'

c

1 0.85

d c 18.5 4.95

using Eq.(4-18) 0.003 0.0082

s c cu 4.95

Thus, > 0.002 and it is clear that the steel is yielding in both layers of reinforcement.

s

It is also clear that the section is tension-controlled ( =0.9), but just for illustration the value

of can be calculated as:

t

d c 19.5 4.92

t 0.003 0.0089

t c cu 4.92

4.18

4.74 60000 18.5

2

M A f d 389 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 389 kips-ft = 350 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 190 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

200 200

As ,min bw d 12 18.5 0.74 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

4-10

4-7 Compute the negative-moment capacity, M n , and check As ,min for the beam shown

in Fig. P4-7. Use fc' 3500 psi and f y 40,000 psi.

1. Calculation of M n

This section is subjected to negative bending and tension will develop in the top flange and the

compression zone is at the bottom of the section. ACI Code Section 10.6.6 requires that a portion

of the tension reinforcement be distributed in the flange, so assuming that the No. 6 bars in the

flange are part of the tension reinforcement:

The depth of the Whitney stress block can be calculated using Eq. (4-16) , using b 12 in., since

the compression zone is at the bottom of the section:

A f

s y 2.64 40000

2.96 in.

0.85 f b e 0.85 3500 12

'

c

1 0.85

using Eq.(4-18) t 0.003 0.014

s c cu 3.48

Clearly, the steel is yielding

s y 0.00207 and this is tension-controlled

section t 0.005 .

2.96

2.64 40000 19.5

2

M A f d 159 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 159 kips-ft = 143 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The beam is subjected to negative bending and since the flanged portion of the beam section is in

tension, the value of As ,min will depend on the use of that beam.

Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the

minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal

to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

4-11

200 200

As ,min bw d 12 19.5 1.17 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 40,000

2bw 24 in. or be . Given that be is 48 in. for this beam section,

200 200

As ,min bw d 24 19.5 2.34 < As (o.k.)

fy 40,000

4-12

4-8 For the beam shown in Fig. P4-8, fc' 3500 psi and f y 60,000 psi.

The limits given in ACI Code Section 8.12 for determining the effective compression flange, be ,

for a flanged section that is part of a continuous floor system are:

4

be bw 2(8h f )

b 2(clear trans. distance)/2

w

Assuming that the columns are 18 in. 18 in. , the longitudinal span is approximated as:

18 in.

21 ft ft 22.5 ft

12 in.

ft

12 in.

The clear transverse distance for the 9 ft.-6 in. span is: 9.5 ft 8.5 ft

12 in.

ft

1 12 in. 18 in.

and for the 11 ft. span is: 11 ft 9.75 ft

2 12 in. 12 in.

ft ft

So, the average clear transverse distance is 9.125 ft

67.5 in.

4

be 12 in. 2 8 6 in. 108 in.

12 in. 2 9.125 ft 12 in./ft /2=122 in.

The first limit governs for this section, so be 67.5 in.

(b) Compute M n for the positive- and negative-moment regions and check

As ,min for both sections. At the supports, the bottom bars are in one layer; at midspan, the

No. 8 bars are in the bottom, the No. 7 bars in a second layer.

1. Calculation of M n

Tension steel area: As = 3 No. 8 bars + 2 No. 7 bars = 3 0.79 2 0.60 3.57 in.2

4-13

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will

include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme

tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, dt ,

can be calculated to be:

The minimum spacing required between layers of reinforcement is 1 in. (ACI Code Section

7.6.2). Thus the spacing between the centers of the layers is approximately 2 in. So the distance

from the tension edge to the centroid of the total tension reinforcement is:

3.57

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f 6 in. and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq.(4-

16):

A f

s y 3.57 60000

1.07 in. h f 6 in. (o.k.)

0.85 f ' b e 0.85 3500 67.5

c

0.85

1

Comparing the calculated depth to the neutral axis, c , to the values for d and d t , it is clear that

the tension steel strain, s , easily exceeds the yield strain (0.00207) and the strain at the level of

the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, t , exceeds the limit for tension-controlled sections

(0.005). Thus, =0.9 and we can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

1.07

3.57 60000 17.8

2

M A f d 308 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 308 kips-ft = 277 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The section is subjected to positive bending and tension is at the bottom of this section, so we

should use bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

4-14

200 200

As ,min bw d 12 17.8 0.71 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

The tension and compression reinforcement for this section is provided in single layers.

Assuming the section will include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the

distance from the extreme tension or compression edge of the section to the centroid of the

tension or compression layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

As' = 2 No. 8 bars = 2 0.79 1.58 in.2 , d ' 2.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding

and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

c d' 4.5 2.5

s' cu 0.003 0.00133

c 4.5

f s' E s s' 29,000 ksi 0.00133 38.6 ksi f y

C 's As' f s' 0.85 f c' 1.58 in.2 38.6 ksi 2.98 ksi 56.3 kips

Cc 0.85 fc'b1c 0.85 3.5 ksi 12 in. 0.85 4.5 in.=137 kips

T As f y 4.20 in.2 60 ksi 252 kips

Because T Cc C 's , we should increase c for the second trial.

s' 0.00173

f s' 50.2 ksi f y

C 's 74.6 kips

Cc 179 kips

T 254 kips Cc Cs 254 kips

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

d c 18.5 5.9

using Eq.(4-18) 0.003 0.0064

s c cu 5.9

Thus, the steel is yielding 0.00207 and it is a tension-controlled section t s 0.0102 .

s

So, using 1c 0.85 5.9 in. 5.0 in. , use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n .

n 2

M Cc d C 's d d ' 179 kips 16 in. 74.6 kips 16 in.

n

4-15

M n 0.9 338 kips-ft = 304 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of As ,min will depend on the

use of that beam. Since the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the

minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw in Eq. (4-11). Also, 3 f c' is equal

to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

200 200

As ,min bw d 12 18.5 0.74 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

4-16

4-9 Compute M n and check As ,min for the beam shown in Fig. P4-9. Use fc' 3500 psi

and f y 60, 000 psi, and

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

top flange, 5 in. and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16) with

b 30 in. :

A f

s y 4.74 60000

3.19 in. h f 5 in. (o.k.)

0.85 f ' b 0.85 3500 30

c

1 0.85

d c 32.5 3.76

using Eq.(4-18) t 0.003 0.023

s c cu 3.76

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

3.18

4.74 60000 32.5

2

M A f d 733 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 733 kips-ft = 659 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of As ,min will depend on the

use of that beam.

Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the

minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw 2 5 10 in. in Eq. (4-11). Also,

3 f c' is equal to 177 psi, so use 200 psi in the numerator:

200 200

As ,min bw d 10 32.5 1.08 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

4-17

However, for a statically determinate beam, bw should be replaced by the smaller of

2bw 20 in. or be . Given that be is 30 in. for this beam section,

200 200

As ,min bw d 20 32.5 2.17 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Assuming that the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than or equal to the thickness of the

compression flange, h f 5 in. and that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-

16) with b 30 in. :

A f

s y 7.11 60000

4.78 in. h f 5 in. (o.k.)

0.85 f b 0.85 3500 30

'

c

1 0.85

d c 32.5 5.62

using Eq.(4-18) t 0.003 0.014

s c cu 5.62

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

4.78

7.11 60000 32.5

2

M A f d 1070 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 1070 kips-ft = 963 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

4-18

4-10 Compute M n and check As ,min for the beam shown in Fig. P4-10. Use fc' 5000 psi

and f y 60,000 psi, and

1. Compute the nominal moment capacity of the beam, M n and the strength reduction factor, .

Tension will develop in the bottom flange and the compression zone is at the top of the section.

Thus, assuming that the tension steel is yielding, s y , in Eq. (4-16) we should use

b 2 6 12 in. and we find the depth of the Whitney stress block as:

A f

s y 4.8 60000

5.65 in.

0.85 f b 0.85 5000 12

'

c

For fc' 5000 psi, 1 0.80 . Therefore, c 5.65 7.06 in.

1 0.80

Check whether tension steel is yielding:

d c 23.5 7.06

using Eq.(4-18) t 0.003 0.007

s c cu 7.06

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

Since, t 0.005 the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

We can use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n :

5.65

4.8 60000 23.5

2

M A f d 496 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 496 kips-ft = 446 kips-ft

2. Check of As ,min

The flanged portion of the beam section is in tension and the value of As ,min will depend on the

use of that beam.

Assuming that the beam is part of a continuous, statically indeterminate floor system, the

minimum tension reinforcement should be calculated using bw 2 6 12 in. in Eq. (4-11). Also,

note that 3 f c' is equal to 212 psi:

212 212

As ,min bw d 12 23.5 1.00 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

However, for a statically determined beam, bw should be replaced by the smaller of

2bw 24 in. or be . Given that be is 42 in. for this beam section,

212 212

As ,min bw d 24 23.5 1.99 in.2 < As (o.k.)

fy 60,000

4-19

4-11 (a) Compute M n for the three beams shown in Fig. P4-11. In each case,

fc' 4000 psi and f y 60 ksi, b 12 in., d 32.5 in., and h 36 in.

Beam No. 1

The tension reinforcement for this section is provided in two layers. Assuming the section will

include a No. 3 or No. 4 stirrup, it is reasonable to assume that the distance from the extreme

tension edge of the section to the centroid of the lowest layer of steel is approximately 2.5 in.

Thus the distance from the top of the section to the extreme layer of tension reinforcement, dt ,

can be calculated to be:

Assuming that the tension steel is yielding, s y , using Eq. (4-16):

A f

s y 6.00 60000

8.82 in.

0.85 f b 0.85 4000 12

'

c

For fc' 4000 psi, 1 0.85 . Therefore, c 8.82 10.4 in.

1 0.85

d c 32.5 10.4

using Eq.(4-18) 0.003 0.0064

s c cu 10.4

Thus, > 0.002 and the steel is yielding ( f s f y ).

s

Also, clearly t 0.005 , the section is tension-controlled and =0.9.

8.82

6.00 60000 32.5

2

M A f d 843 kips-ft

n s y 2 12000

M n 0.9 843 kips-ft = 759 kips-ft

Beam No. 2

Compression steel area: As' = 2 No. 9 bars = 2 1.00 in.2 =2.00 in.2

As was discussed for beam No. 1, d 32 in., dt 33.5 in. and d ' is given as d ' 2.5 in.

4-20

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding

and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

Try c d 4 8 in.

c d' 8 2.5

s' cu 0.003 0.00206

c 8

f s' E s s' 29,000 ksi 0.00206 59.7 ksi f y

C 's As' f s' 0.85 f c' 2.00 in.2 59.7 ksi 3.4 ksi 113 kips

Cc 0.85 fc'b1c 0.85 4 ksi 12 in. 0.85 8 in.=277 kips

T As f y 6.00 in.2 60 ksi 360 kips

Because T Cc C 's , we should decrease c for the second trial.

s' 0.00199

f s' 57.7 ksi f y

C 's 109 kips

Cc 257 kips

T 360 kips Cc C 's 366 kips

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

d c 32.5 7.4

using Eq.(4-18) 0.003 0.0102

s c cu 7.4

Clearly, the steel is yielding 0.00207 and it is a tension-controlled section t s 0.0102 .

s

So, using 1c 0.85 7.4 in. 6.3 in. , use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n .

n 2

M Cc d C 's d d ' 257 kips 29.3 in. 108.6 kips 30 in.

n

M n 0.9 901 kips-ft = 811 kips-ft

Beam No. 3

Compression steel area: As' = 4 No. 9 bars = 4 1.00 in.2 =4.00 in.2

As was discussed for beam No. 1, d 32.5 in., and dt 33.5 in.

The compression reinforcement for this beam section is provided in two layers and d ' is given as

3.5 in.

4-21

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will the same procedure as for beam No. 2

(assuming that the tension steel is yielding).

The depth of the neutral axis for this section should be smaller compared with beam section No.

2, since the compression reinforcement is increased for this section.

Try c 7 in.

c d' 7 3.5

s' cu 0.003 0.0015

c 7

f s' E s s' 29, 000 ksi 0.0015 43.5 ksi f y

C 's As' f s' 0.85 fc' 4.00 in.2 43.5 ksi 3.4 ksi 160 kips

Cc 0.85 fc'b1c 0.85 4 ksi 12 in. 0.85 7 in.=243 kips

T As f y 6.00 in.2 60 ksi 360 kips

Because T Cc C 's , we should decrease c for the second trial.

Try c 6.3 in. (Note that both layers of the compression steel will actually be in the compression zone)

s' 0.00133

f s' 38.6 ksi f y

C 's 141 kips

Cc 218 kips

T 360 kips Cc Cs 359 kips

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

using Eq.(4-18) 0.003 0.012

s c cu 6.3

Clearly, the steel is yielding s 0.00207 and it is a tension-controlled

section t s 0.012 .

So, using 1c 0.85 6.3 in. 5.36 in. , use Eq. (4-21) to calculate M n .

n 2

M Cc d C 's d d ' 218 kips 29.8 in. 141 kips 29 in.

n

M n 0.9 882 kips-ft = 794 kips-ft

4-22

(b) From the results of part (a), comment on weather adding compression

reinforcement is a cost-effective way of increasing the strength, M n , of a beam.

Comparing the values of M n for the three beams, it is clear that for a given amount of tension

reinforcement, the addition of compression steel has little effect on the nominal moment capacity,

provided the tension steel yields in the beam without compression reinforcement. As a result,

adding compression reinforcement in not a cost effective way of increasing the nominal moment

capacity of a beam. However, adding compression reinforcement improves the ductility and

might be necessary when large amounts of tension reinforcement are used to change the mode of

failure.

4-23

4-12 Compute M n for the beam shown in Fig. P4-12. Use fc' 3500 psi and

f y 60,000 psi. Does the steel yield in this beam at nominal strength?

As = 6 No. 8 bars = 6 0.79 in.2 =4.74 in.2 , d 25 in. 2.5 in. 22.5 in.

As' = 2 No. 7 bars = 2 0.60 in.2 =1.2 in.2 , d ' 2.5 in.

Because this is a doubly reinforced section, we will initially assume the tension steel is yielding

and use the trial and error procedure described in Section 4-7 to find the neutral axis depth, c.

For fc' 3500 psi, 1 0.85 . Thus, 0.85 5.5 in. 4.68 in. 5.0 in.

Since the depth of the Whitney stress block is less than 5.0 in. , 5.0 in. ,the width of the

compression zone is constant and equal to 10 in., i.e. b 10 in.

s' cu 0.003 0.00164

c 5.5

f ' E ' 29,000 ksi 0.00164 47.6 ksi f

s s s y

C 's As' f s' 0.85 f c' 1.2 in.2 47.6 ksi 2.98 ksi 53.5 kips

Cc 0.85 fc'b1c 0.85 3.5 ksi 10 in. 0.85 5.5 in.=139 kips

T As f y 4.74 in.2 60 ksi 284 kips

Because T Cc C 's , we should increase c for the second trial.

and find 0.85 6.5 in. 5.53 in.> 5.0 in.

s' 0.00185

f s' 53.7 ksi f y

C 's 60.9 kips

In this case, the width of the compression zone is not constant. Using a similar reasoning as in the

case of flanged sections, where the depth of the Whitney stress block is in the web of the section,

the compression force can be calculated from the following equations (refer to Fig. S4-12):

Ccw 0.85 fc' 10 in. 0.85 3.5 ksi 10 in. 5.53 in.=165 kips

Ccf 0.85 f c' 20 10 in. 5 in. 0.85 3.5 ksi 10 in. 0.53 in. 15.8 kips

Cc 165 15.8 181 kips

T 284 kips > Cc C 's 242 kips , we should increase c for the third trial.

and find 0.85 7.2 in. 6.12 in.> 5.0 in.

s' 0.00196

4-24

f s' 56.8 ksi f y

C 's 64.6 kips

Ccw 182 kips

Ccf 33.3 kips

Cc 215 kips

T 284 kips Cc C 's 276 kips

With section equilibrium established, we must confirm the assumption that the tension steel is

yielding.

using Eq.(4-18) 0.003 0.00803

s c cu 6.12

Thus, the steel is yielding 0.00207 and it is a tension-controlled section t s 0.012 .

s

5

M Ccw d Ccf

n 2

d

2

5 C 's d d '

M 182 kips 19.4 in. 33.3 kips 16.9 in. + 64.6 kips 20 in.

n

M 3530 k-in. 563 k-in +1290 k-in 5385 k-in 449 k-ft

n

M n 0.9 500 kips-ft = 404 kips-ft

4-25

bw

0.85f'c

ht a

f's

d

h

f

fs=fy

b (assumed)

a) total beam section and stress distribution

bw

a/2 d' Cs

ht a

Ccw

d

h

T1

F

b

b) Part 1: web of section and corresponding internal forces

bw

ht a (a+ht)/2

Ccf

d

h

T2

F

b

c) Part 2: overhanging flanges and corresponding internal forces

Fig. S4-12.1 Beam section and internal forces for the case of ht .

4-26

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