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The Strategy & Tactics of World War II

Romania’s Role in
WWII
Number 11

German Airborne Ops

Savo Island:
Nighttime Cruiser
Duel

Afrikakorps
Decision in the Desert

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1940-42: Organizational & Tactical Factors Axis & Allied forces clash in the Western Desert as Erwin Rommel leads the Afrikakorps by Joseph Miranda 20 Romania in World War II Romania was Hitler’s most important. by George Larson 54 4 #11 WaW11 Issue. but they never perfected it. and most reluctant. 20 by Blaine Taylor Features 26 Savo Island: Night of the Cruisers The US Navy’s daylight dominance after Midway was chal- lenged at night off Guadalcanal.indd 4 2/11/10 4:26:34 PM . The Strategy & Tactics of World War II Number 11 Apr/May 2010 Features 6 6 Campaign in the Desert. by Kelly Bell 26 54 Overview & Analysis: World War II German Airborne Operations German airborne doctrine was revolutionary. ally in the war.

O. 46 mega feedback World at War (©2010) reserves all rights on the contents of this publication. letin board at www. World at War. Rearming the French.com World at War 5 WaW11 Issue. True Action Adventure: Eric Harvey & Dav Vandenbroucke. Write P. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to and The Battle of Matapan and more. Articles will include: additional mailing offices. PO Box 21598. The Battle of Yelnia from the Soviet Perspective. Nothing may be reproduced from it in whole or in part without Game edition Rules prior permission from the publisher. 1649 Elzworth St. Jon Cecil. HMS Li Wo David March Design • Graphics • Layout: Callie Cummins & Chris Cummins Mysteries Revealed Surprise Attack at Clark Field Map Graphics: Ken MacFarlane Meridian Mapping Behind the Lines Operations Island Dash & Body Snatch columns Roger Mason Advertising: Rates and specifications available on request. 1941-42 by Joseph Miranda World at War (USPS ______) is pub- lished bi-monthly by Decision Games. Bakersfield CA 93312. Bakersfield Have a question or comment for our editorial staff? Visit our free bul. Box 21598. Next Issue Application to mail at Periodical Postage Rates is pending at Bakersfield. Desert. CA 93390.indd 5 2/11/10 4:26:35 PM . CA and The feature will be: 1940: What If?.StrategyAndTacticsPress. #1. The Battle of Yelnia from the German Perspective. Box 21598. columns 18 Design Corner: Afrikakorps: Decision in the Desert Joseph Miranda Publisher: 38 Game preview: Christopher Cummins Guards Tank Senior Editor: Ty Bomba 39 Observation Post I Remember: Assistant Editor: Charles Darrow Joseph Miranda Andrew Hind Copy Editors: Jason Burnett.O. P. All correspondence should be sent Afrikakorps: Decision in the to World at War c/o Decision Games. All rights reserved. Bakersfield CA 93390. Bakersfield CA 93390.

Italy was neu- tral. the colonial administrations tended to favor Germany. Benito Mussolini brought Italy into the war. Several of the European powers had colonies or other holdings there—France in Morocco. Campaign in the Western Desert. those regions having petroleum resources vital to both the war effort and the maintenance of British power. one in which he could seize the Middle East as well as link up with Italian colonial forces in East Africa. Great Britain in Egypt and the Sudan. Farther east. however. In the summer of 1940.indd 6 2/11/10 4:26:37 PM . Libya’s western flank was covered. the situation appeared ripe for an Italian campaign in North Africa. Italy in Libya (actually two colonies. 1940-42: Organizational & Tactical Factors By Joseph Miranda As World War II broke out. Syria and Lebanon were French while the British held Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Algeria and Tunisia. turning its colonies from Allied bases into regions of neutrality and. Britain’s power was at its nadir following the evacuation of its army from Dunkirk and with the Luftwaffe assaulting the home island. Cyrenaica in the east and Tripolitania in the west). From Mussolini’s perspective. North Africa as well as the Middle East were the scenes of international interest. All that was needed was a drive by Libyan-based Italian forces into Egypt to take Alexandria and then Suez. When France collapsed beneath the German blitzkrieg in June 1940. Sicily and various small islands could negate that British sea power. France’s surrender changed the balance of power in the Mediterranean. and Germany lacked the navy to project power there. lifeline of the British Empire. the Italian high command believed its numerous airbases in southern Italy. the outbreak of World War II didn’t immediately involve fighting in North Africa. While the Royal Navy was still a factor in the Mediterranean. At the fulcrum of the Middle East was the Suez Canal. Despite all that. The British also had imperial interests in Iraq and Iran as well as throughout the Arabian peninsula. under the Vichy government installed in France. 6 #11 WaW11 Issue. With French North Africa out of the Allied lineup.

WDF again. Erwin Rommel central Mediterranean line of communication. and gets. Rommel pursues. A cancelled when Rommel requests. only to be stopped at Alam Halfa besiege Tobruk. The Axis prepare for an 3) January—March 1941: German Reinforcement. reinforced with air and ground units. Rich. Both sides build Vichy forces in Syria. 10) June-August 1942: Rommel Drives On. for his invasion of primary target of Luftwaffe attacks will be the island-fortress of Egypt the support of the Luftwaffe aircraft that would’ve otherwise Malta. British fall back on Tobruk and the Egyptian frontier. Bernard Law Montgom- 5) May—July: Middle East Ferment. forcing the British to retreat into Egypt. The airborne-amphibious assault to take Malta and thus secure their Germans send Luftwaffe units to Sicily while Gen. to Greece and East Africa.indd 7 2/11/10 4:26:39 PM . but the British. 7) November-December 1941: Operation Crusader. Tobruk Churchill pulls strong units out of North Africa for commitment falls to a quick Axis lunge in June. The British switch forces ery. outmaneuvers Tenth Army. O’Connor continues his offensive into Libya. but are unable to take it. re-equipped and renamed Eighth Army. launches an offensive into Egypt. Deep Into 4) March—May 1941: Rommel’s First Offensive. and it quickly Agheila. Rom- Italian formations. who fall back across Cyrenaica. This time they succeed in pushing Rommel back to El is an entirely mechanized/motorized formation. but superior German tactics repulse by the end of the year. The following months also see several British command Marshal Rodolfo Graziani. conducted in an attempt to find a general who can win a Italians advance to Sidi Barrani. Rommel is in retreat to Tunisia. retakes Cyrenaica. The Axis the pyramids and the Suez Canal. forces. where they stop and fortify. The operation is lands in Tripolitania with the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK). through at Gazala. He breaks at El Agheila as the WDF outruns its line of communications. forcing the surrender of numerous 8) January—June 1942: Rommel’s Second Offensive. win the race. 9) July 1942: Operation Hercules. 2) December 1940—February 1941: Operation Compass. 1) September 1940. by a revitalized Eighth Army under Gen. only stopping maneuvers the British. launches a counteroffensive out of Egypt. under command of them. closer to their Middle East bases. attack ard O’Connor. to suppress a pro-German coup in Iraq and to defeat pro-Axis 11) September-November 1942: El Alamein. The Course of the Campaign Numbers refer to the map. 6) June 1941: Operation Battleaxe. reinforced with some mobile Italian units. reinforced. The shake-ups. Meanwhile. British British Western Desert Force (WDF). Egypt. offensive against Rommel. mel. The Italo-German forces make a desperate attempt to reach Alexandria. World at War 7 WaW11 Issue. the British base for attacks on Axis trans-Mediterranean been committed against Malta. commanded by Gen. decisive victory. The British launch an Montgomery launches his great counteroffensive in October and. shipping. attacks and again out- taking the vital ports of Tobruk and Benghazi. DAK. up. Malta-based aircraft attack Axis shipping. With the British falling back in disorder. Italian Tenth Army.

Australia, New Zealand and other commonwealth na-
tions, colonies and protectorates, as well as various
contingents formed from volunteers who’d escaped
Axis-occupied Europe. Many of those forces had experi-
ence in fighting in desert environments, albeit in their
own countries with their own peculiarities.
The British also had the advantage of their indus-
trial base at home, as well as a relatively secure source
of petroleum in the Middle East. Both the industrial
capacity and the petroleum could be supplemented by
additional resources from the United States. While the
US was officially neutral until 7 December 1941, it
nonetheless already provided much industrial capacity
to the British war effort via the Lend-Lease program.
British forces in Egypt in mid-1940 amounted to
several divisions whose total numbers were fewer than
those maintained by the Italians in Libya. Nonetheless,
On to Suez: Erwin Rommel with German officers. those divisions were highly trained and had considerable
numbers of tanks. Transport was usually mechanized,
On 13 September 1940, Italian forces crossed the
including large numbers of trucks, armored cars, and even
frontier into Egypt. It was the beginning of over two
light tracked vehicles (the Universal or Bren carrier).
years of fighting in the Western Desert, a campaign
Those vehicles provided an advantage in mobility by
that would see the clash of Italian, British and German
allowing the infantry and support arms, at least in theory,
forces in vast sweeping maneuvers, desperate battles of
to keep up with the tanks. Just as critically, supplies
attrition, and reckless pursuits from El Agheila to the
could be moved forward rapidly, further enabling mobile
gates of Alexandria. It would also see the rise and fall
operations. The British also held an edge in that they
of the legend of the Deutsches Afrikakorps (German
were the only ones who had a fully organized armored
Africa Corps).
division in the theater at the outbreak of hostilities with
The British Army Italy.
The British went into the war in North Africa with On paper, the British armored division in 1940 ap-
several advantages. One was that they had the resources peared to be a powerful formation. It had two armored
of a vast empire on which to build their armed forces. brigades with six tank regiments (regiments in the British
They could bring in divisions from India, South Africa, system being the equivalent of a battalion, outside of

The Desert Fox is that way: Gen. Law Montgomery with British officers.
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the infantry). The divisional organization was based on
interwar theories of armored warfare. The idea was the
tanks would be committed en masse to fight the deci-
sive battle using their speed, protection and firepower.
Other arms were considered obsolete. The division
had a brigade-sized support group with some artillery,
infantry and other formations. While theoretically the
support group was supposed to work with the tanks,
in practice they trained separately and, as is the usual
case, armored divisions fought as they trained. In battle,
the tanks acted independently of the other arms. That
worked well enough against the ill-prepared Italians in
1940, but it proved disastrous when tried against the
Germans (and improved Italians) in 1941.
The British developed several types of tanks. The
“cruisers,” such as the Crusader, were fast and well
armed, and were expected to exploit gaps in the enemy
line, drive deep, and engage enemy armor. The “infantry
tanks,” such as the Valentine, were slower and heavily
armored. Their mission was to directly support the in-
fantry. That specialization of tanks for different missions
led to difficulties in the field. Cruisers were normally
issued only anti-tank ammunition on the theory they
were only there to fight enemy tanks; high explosive
rounds had to be specially requested. That meant the
cruisers were often caught short when forced to fight
‘soft’ enemy targets, such as infantry or anti-tank gun
positions.
Still, the armored division concept worked in the
1940 Compass offensive in which the 7th Armored Divi-
sion (nicknamed the “Desert Rats”) routed the Italians.
That outcome was, however, largely owing to the nature
of the Italian army in North Africa at the time: it was a
force made up almost entirely of foot-mobile infantry
divisions that lacked the armor to fight and the trucks to
move. Moreover, the 1940 British victory was also due
to their two well-trained and fully motorized infantry
divisions that ran rings around the relatively static Ital-
ians.
In 1941 the tables would turn, first in Rommel’s
spring offensive in Libya, and then during the disas-
trous British Operation Brevity and Battleaxe counter-
offensives, when they went up against a much better
prepared enemy. British tank units frequently sped ahead
of their supporting infantry and artillery, only to be shot
up when they ran into enemy anti-tank positions. The
British not only initially failed to appreciate the tactical
acumen the Germans brought to North Africa, they also
underestimated the Italians who, in 1941, managed to
commit two good mobile divisions.
One symptom of British organizational shortfalls
was the development of “Jock Columns” (named after
Lt. Col. “Jock” Campbell of 7th Armored Division).
Those units were originally formed from support
group elements as a means of giving them a combat
role while the tanks were fighting their own battle. A
typical Jock Column might have one or two companies See page 17 for unit symbol descriptions.
World at War 9

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dispensed with altogether and replaced with a proper
motorized infantry brigade plus an artillery group.
Tactics were also changed. While the one tank plus
one infantry brigade organization was maintained on
paper (being more efficient for logistics), training em-
phasized pairing up tank, motorized infantry and recon
units into task forces that fought as teams.
Another factor that improved British armored ef-
fectiveness in the desert was the appearance of large
numbers of US Lend-Lease tanks. They included the
M-3/5 Stuart, M-3 Grant (called the Lee by the British),
and the M-4 Sherman. One of the major advantages
of the American tanks was in their high level of me-
chanical reliability. They broke down less, and could be
maintained more easily, than British tanks. That made
Armor in the desert: Panzer IIIs advance. a critical difference in the desert where sandstorms,
dust and extreme weather played havoc with engines,
of truckborne infantry, one or two batteries of artillery, tracks and suspensions. The American tanks also had
some armored cars, engineers, and whatever else was the advantage of being issued with both anti-tank and
available. The columns would drive into the desert, find explosive ammunition. That meant they could be used
a ‘soft’ enemy unit, such as a truck column or infantry for both anti-armor and anti-infantry missions, thereby
detachment, harass it with fire, and then break off and overcoming the over-specialization of British tanks.
return to ‘laager’ before the enemy could counterattack. British infantry division organization remained
While those tactics did on occasion inflict losses on Axis generally consistent throughout the campaign, and that
forces, they were incapable of winning battles. They organization was standardized for all imperial forces,
also contributed to the dispersion of British strength, thereby enhancing command and logistics since higher
similar to the results of the brigade group concept (see headquarters and support echelons had to deal with only
next page). one type of formation. An infantry division consisted
The British command soon came to recognize their of three infantry brigades, divisional artillery, plus a
organization wasn’t working, and they sought to address plethora of support units.
the shortfall by reorganizing. The number of tank bri- One advantage the British had was a high level of
gades in the armored divisions was cut from two to one, motorization throughout their armed forces. Transport
while the infantry and artillery strength of the support and logistics were by trucks and other vehicles. A distinc-
group were increased, creating a better balance between tion the British made was to apply the term “motorized”
armor and the other arms. In 1942 the armored division to units that had sufficient organic vehicles to lift all its
was again reorganized, with the support group being components simultaneously.

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military’s needs on the back burner. frequently came from rural areas where illiteracy remained ian divisions and numerous air units had been actively widespread. also supposed to deal with the shortfalls in coordination caused by poor communication across vast desert spaces. making it difficult to concentrate divisional fires at decisive points. and Italian military system was unable to assimilate those les- given the Wehrmacht’s high demand. making the creation of a mechanized army impossible. while several Ital. in the longer run it proved inefficient. on bringing Italy into World War II in June 1940. should’ve produced a pool of veteran commanders. An Italian army hind the Air Force and Navy. etc. A concept the British used in 1941 was the “brigade group. While the brigade group concept looked good on paper. The Italians also failed in the Spanish Civil War. and it took the disaster of the British Compass offensive in the winter of 1940-41 to force change. recon. anti-tank. The rise of Benito Mussolini and fascism in the 1920s seemed to mobilize Italy in a new wave of militarism. a situation that did little to produce the technical engaged in the fighting on the side of the Nationalists personnel needed for a modern army. One of the innovations Montgomery implemented when he took command of Eighth Army in August 1942 was to abolish the groups and require the divisions to fight as divisions. the casualties and expenditures did much to psychologically and materially exhaust the nation. to produce a sustainable cadre of well-trained and experi- ing in terms not only of casualties. The idea was to place support units up front where the brigade commanders needed them. The result was. infantry recruits had conquered Ethiopia in 1935-36. As with the Jock Columns. engineers. that put the Italian sons. For example. There were insufficient motor vehicles to support mechanized operations. and Italian tanks were woefully under-armed and ill-designed. Added to all that was a lack of sufficient petroleum production and reserves. The Italians entered World War II with an army unprepared for the type of campaign it would fight in North Africa. but the Mussolini had to turn to Germany for petroleum. One came from the fact Italian industry wasn’t up to the demands inherent in sustaining modern armed forces. but also the spent enced junior officers and NCOs of the type who provided resources that otherwise could’ve been used to mod- World at War 11 WaW11 Issue. and training remained inadequate. Many of the Italians’ problems went back to World War I. racking up hundreds of thousands of casualties and gaining little in return. Theoretically. and while the Italians would rebuild and win a year later. but behind the façade there remained serious shortfalls. Soldiers of the 8th Bersaglieri Regiment with captured submachine The Italians guns after the Battle of Gazala (1942). By 1940 the wear was show. be- engagement in the preceding years. ernize. British divisions were capable of a wide range of missions. in theory. Then the Central Powers’ Caporetto offensive of 1917 shattered the Italian armies. it enhanced the trend toward the dispersion of power. Qualified personnel were held back by an antiquated Italy’s entry into World War II found its armed promotion system. The forces still recovering from several years of continuous Army was at the bottom of the priority list for recruits. the combat experiences of the 1930s Indeed. by the time of his El Alamein offensive in October. It was.” That consisted of the infantry battalions of the brigade plus divisional support units directly assigned to that brigade headquarters: artillery. Their armed forces and people had made an overwhelming effort in seemingly endless offensives on the Isonzo Front against Austria-Hungary.indd 11 2/11/10 4:26:46 PM . and did generate some local successes.

sance and armor support. British and US armies. which controlled the mechanized units. As a result.indd 12 2/11/10 4:26:48 PM . which were both lightly minimal combat support. and deployed as part of corps of several divisions. vehicles). tion shows it was a much less efficient organization. the Italians attempted to form a mobile XX Corps.500 personnel. The envisioned campaigns in the Alps. notably the Bersaglieri regiments. which limited their tactical operations. for mountain warfare. There were motorized. alpine (actually light infantry). Mechanical reliability was dismal. “auto-transport- There was also the matter of doctrine. the Balkans and in 1941 Italian organization lacked the extensive support East Africa. The panzer able” (trained to operate with trucks but lacking organic division was used as an assault and exploitation force. That included self-propelled guns. as well as Fascist Party militia for- serve and exploitation force. having been found to be flexible with their riveted armor often coming undone when hit in obstructing terrain. with only 6. The infantry divisions were generally organized That approach was. with the infantry divisions mations (“CCNN” camicie nere. such as an armored large infantry component and with a bewildering array of reconnaissance battalion. divisional types. was also improved. Pre-war Italian plans had only about half the size of its German counterpart. it proved disastrous. New legions: Italian machinegun team. colonial divisions. They were also poorly constructed. The infantry divisions were to be by enemy fire. Consequently. and The Italian armored division was intended to be a re. there was also some good motorized infantry. Italian infantry division organization suffered from For one thing. Equipment situation in North Africa in 1940. That organization was tailored armored and armed. breaking gaps in the enemy line that tanks would exploit. the unit. they built an army with a units the German divisions had. was army. the “blackshirts”). with two maneuver regiments and poor quality of Italian tanks. reconnais- desert war. That concept might have been By 1942 the Italian armored divisions had been feasible in a large-unit war in Europe. Their armored division appeared on paper similar able to make a major contribution to Rommel’s drive to the German panzer division. but in the mobile upgraded owing to the experience of 1941. infantry. was being set for the wrong war. Italian Nonetheless. 12 #11 WaW11 Issue. necessitated by the along binary lines. at least in part. into Egypt. at least until the Italians sent armored and motorized especially 90mm pieces that doubled as tank destroyers. but a closer examina. In addition. and the it was reliability that proved the critical factor in the corps echelon would provide the engineer. units in 1941. the foundation of the German.

however.indd 13 2/11/10 4:26:50 PM . thus a dependable mediocre tank was superior aircraft (flak) units. it was similar to the standard strength to the field and maintaining it during battle. at best. it had several advantageous in North Africa with an already proven mobile warfare characteristics. swiftly repaired them. That was critical in desert warfare. later called Jaegers. While the Panzer III seemed. combat. and then in North Africa. two motorized infantry and one artillery regiment. That meant the Germans organized armored and motorized formations. The 15th Panzer entered North Africa with a standard organization of one panzer. Standard German panzer division organization had two tank and four motorized infantry battalions (sometimes with a fifth motorcycle battalion).) The 5th Light was quickly followed by the 15th Panzer Division. There ability with an efficient tank recovery organization. The unit the Germans initially committed to North where the number of “runners” (operational vehicles) Africa was the 5th Leichte (Light) Division. including and environmental conditions often exceeded those in self-propelled anti-tank guns as well as numerous anti. which pulled damaged friendly and captured enemy meant for operating in rough terrain. and together they formed the Deutsches Afrika- korps (DAK). but with a smaller motorized infantry desert operations. since the infantry were vital to clear enemy anti-tank guns and hold terrain seized by the armor. World at War 13 WaW11 Issue. It was a general-purpose me- dium armored fighting vehicle (AFV). The Germans backed up that reli- that were found unsuitable and quickly dissolved. made the difference in terms of quickly bringing combat ganization diagram shows. equipped with a 50mm gun. generally referred to specially sent them back into combat. giving it a tactical zation. as well as an efficient panzer division organi. Germans The Germans had the advantage of entering the war a tank of average quality. were also light infantry divisions. The mainstay of German armor in the Western Desert was the Panzer III tank. anti-tank. One was that it carried both anti-tank doctrine. Another was that it was refined during the campaigns in Poland and the West. As that or. which meant the tank units were actually outnumbered by the infantry. plus divisional recon. Both the doctrine and the organization had been flexibility British tanks lacked. and high explosive ammunition. mechanically reliable. the Germans used the to a much better AFV that had a tendency to throw a term “light” for several types of formations: when the track or whose engine had to be regularly overhauled war opened they had some “Light” mechanized divisions in a rear area depot. and other units. That was found to be the optimal mix of maneuver arms. to be Rommel’s men: Afrikakorps soldiers pose for a photo. losses due to mechanical breakdowns component and enhanced divisional weapons. The term “light” tanks off the battlefield. pioneer (combat engineer). (Incidentally. In panzer division.

What gave the Afrikakorps panzer divisions their advantage wasn’t simply the dependability of their tanks. consisting of tank units accompanied by anti-tank. Those guns were superior to anything the Allies could field at the time. The on-paper organization was there mainly for logistics and administration. A critical aspect of German tactics came from the fact tanks weren’t expected to be the primary tank killers. or by having their infantry close in tank that was obsolete by 1941 but that was kept on and destroy them. Rather. flak. artillery and support units. (Optical equipment was long-barreled 75mm guns appeared. Their destruction would cause enemy combat forces on the front to collapse for lack of control and support. Divisions were trained to fight as complete entities. the divisional command would form battlegroups (Kamp- fgruppen) composed of mission-oriented task forces drawn from the various sub-units. It was infantry support role. The German system worked because they constantly trained for combined- arms warfare and had staffs who worked smoothly in that environment. a panzer division on the attack might organize itself as follows. all the others. infantry and pioneers. echelon and break through the enemy line.indd 14 2/11/10 4:26:52 PM . There were was the 88mm flak gun. with each arm supporting. That was originally an anti- also Panzer IVs. with reserves. They would attack the weak spots found by the reconnaissance 14 #11 WaW11 Issue. attacking command posts. their main mission was to open a gap in the enemy line and then drive into the enemy rear area. probing for weak spots in the enemy line. To give a general idea. A rear echelon. They were useful in forming a mobile anti-tank screen that engaged enemy armor. the rolls owing to a lack of sufficient numbers of other One of the more famed weapons of the Afrikakorps types. which would reinforce a successful attack or mop up enemy strongpoints. artillery positions and logistical units. but in 1941 they were equipped with aircraft weapon but was found useful as an anti-tank gun a short-barreled 75mm gun and intended for use in the when provided with the appropriate ammunition. though there were never enough to make a decisive difference. In 1942 some Panzer IVs with accurate and had good optics. A first wave. The Germans their foes’ combat power was weakening. The DAK brought some self-propelled anti-tank guns to Africa. The Germans used their anti-tank guns as their primary tank killers. A second wave. possibly similar to the first. armed with a 47mm gun. That gave the added advantage of keeping their own tanks from losing too many vehicles in engagements with enemy armor. a light fires from artillery. It was that the Germans specialized in combined arms tactics. the Pan- zerjaeger (tank hunter) Ib. and being supported by. dealt with enemy anti-tank guns by calling in suppressive Also present in North Africa were Panzer IIs. It was still useful as a recon vehicle. thereby reducing enemy could continue fighting at or near full strength while numbers prior to the main engagement. For combat. A reconnaissance echelon that would advance ahead of the rest of the division.

destroyers. at first also owing to the peculiarities of desert warfare. open nature of the battlefield required a higher propor. They were well suited to desert conditions. Another advantage the panzer divisions possessed was in their halftrack AFV. Their armor also allowed them to accompany the tanks on the offensive. armed with captured Soviet 76mm guns. One German practice was to Tank killer: German 88 ready for action. World at War 15 WaW11 Issue. a German specialty. though that simply recognized the practice in the field of putting flak in direct support of the panzers. especially anti-tank structure of three rifle and one heavy weapons company guns and flak pieces. effective in the open conditions of desert warfare. That was part of a general German up-gunning of units based on combat experience. then later the 90th Light Afrika. effective at negotiating the roadless tracts that were inhospitable to all-wheel vehicles. Rommel also organized a and the 15th switched their motorized infantry regiment motorized infantry division. both to support his panzers structure from two regiments of two battalions each to and fight in static situations such as the siege of Tobruk. one regiment of three battalions. anti-tank guns and flak pieces edge in both range and accuracy. The the Marder. Operations in 1941 demonstrated the usual infantry tion of heavy weapons than normal.) Its long range made it on halftracks to provide direct support to assault units. but quickly became a full-fledged division. The problem was there were never enough of them. where and 1942 saw the appearance of large numbers of tank they were often able to dominate the battlefield. and it gave their direct-fire guns an mount heavy weapons. Panzer divisions received an organic anti-aircraft battalion.indd 15 2/11/10 4:26:53 PM . and both it Over the summer of 1941. That was in part to It was initially formed from miscellaneous units in-the- make up for shortfalls in German manpower. Throughout 1941 and into 1942. recon vehicles. The Germans used their halftracks as infantry transports. 5th Light became the 21st Panzer Division. mobile command posts and ammunition carriers. but was ater. There was also an increase in the number of self-propelled guns. the Germans upgraded the Afrikakorps panzer divisions. The called the Afrika Division. which were self-propelled anti-tank guns The demands of the Western Desert campaign soon with added armor. per infantry battalion wasn’t optimal for desert warfare. In North Africa they were mainly lead Rommel to reorganize his panzer divisions.

finally settling on Montgomery. The DAK was initially the command for two panzer divisions. though over the course of the campaign it came to include several other units. The Italians would add their X Corps. In January 1942. The XXX Corps was added. whose span of control included North Africa. Eighth Army went through a series of command turnovers as the British attempted to find a winning general. Afrikakorps & Eighth Army The Germans entered the war in North Africa with the arrival of Gen. the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean. the latter a mechanized formation. which included both German and Italian formations: the DAK alongside Italian XXI and XX Corps. British forces in North Africa were initially under the Middle Eastern Command. and Eighth Army was made the higher command for the Western Desert in September 1941. The divisions in the 1940 campaign were designated the Western Desert Force (WDF). WDF later became XIII Corps. a corps-sized formation.indd 16 2/11/10 4:26:55 PM . In August. Rommel was appointed commander of Panzergruppe Afrika (Panzer Group Africa). The X Corps came in later. 16 #11 WaW11 Issue. Erwin Rommel and the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK) in the spring of 1941. Panzergruppe Afrika was upgraded to Panzerar- mee Afrika (Panzer Army Africa).

and there was also supposed to be a tank battalion assigned.indd 17 2/11/10 4:26:56 PM . Jack. making the 90th Light into what amounted to an anti-tank division. It covers the war from the ground. London. Forty. Rommel’s Afrika Korps. The Ital- ians made attempts to improve their organization and their weaponry. Desert Rats. Moreman. 1990. George. Oxford: Osprey. World at War 17 WaW11 Issue. This. Jack & Alessandro Massignani. too late to make a difference in the Western Desert campaign. Tessin. Pier. Paddy. 1977. This book is his take on various aspects of the North African campaign. and the reorganizations of the following year had further good effect. exploiting victories and keeping defeats from being turned into disasters. Vols. with lots of discussion of organizational and logistical factors. Rommel’s various commands in World War II. Verbande und Truppen die Deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS. The German organization maintained tactical ascendancy until well into 1942. 2007. Griffith. 1994. Cambridge: Da Capo. with lots of orders of battle and some good. So the battalions were reorganized into four uniform companies with plenty of heavy weapons. with a decent section on North Africa. I-IV. it didn’t arrive in North Africa until November 1942. The British official history. along with the Griffith and Moreman books. A look at the overall war in the Mediterranean. London: HMSO. World War II Desert Tactics. but they lacked the industrial capacity to create a modern mechanized army. Osprey has been publishing some excellent analyses of armed forces. the ebb and flow of victory and defeat in the Western Desert reflected the organizational strengths and weaknesses of the armies that fought there. History of the Second World War: The Mediterranean & Middle East. information on the air and naval aspects of the campaign. Tim. Oxford: Osprey. and the mobility engendered did much to enhance the DAK’s operations. if brief. The British initially held a large advantage over the Italians. Mare Nos- trum. All the armies learned as they fought. The Armies of Rommel. at Sources Battistelli. The Germans were already at high levels of efficiency in 1941. but it wasn’t enough to defeat the Germans in 1941. 1997. however. Epic work on the entire World War II German order of battle. George. 2006. air and naval perspectives. Rommel’s North African Campaign. The divisional recon battalion used the same organization as in the panzer division. 2008. North Africa was the only theater of operations in which the Germans fielded a force that was (more or less) entirely motorized. In Sum To no small degree. Alessandro Massignani & Ulrich Blennemann. The British learned the most and changed the most. Greene. provides lots of information on organization and the “nuts and bolts” of tactics. Jack Greene is a familiar name to wargamers. Arms & Armour. Osnabruck: Biblio Verlag. By late 1942 the British had improved their organization sufficiently to win at El Alamein and thus end the Axis threat to the Allied position in the Middle East. Oxford: Osprey. Greene. with some new perspectives on the Italian armed forces.

That creates a trade-off between cal factors I feel have been neglected in other front-line offensive capability and building up your wargames on the topic. on randomized factors. supply also in the Desert. or exactly when they’ll arrive. 1941-42 (AKDD) was to create a has to be used up for other functions. and they reorganized their forces accord- analysis. but special rules. also take Tobruk. isn’t how it works in Western Desert commanders: they have to make reality. generally. That. 1941-42 By Joseph Miranda One reason I designed Afrikakorps: Decision limited amount of it available. technique. perhaps units of upgraded armies increase their stacking limit 25 percent of the time was spent in major combat and can take advantage of combined-arms combat operations. Airpower proved decisive were always close by.indd 18 2/11/10 4:26:57 PM . the Royal Air Force was able to nated in They Died With Their Boots On. both quali- in the Western Desert campaign. as Rommel was I therefore ended up using the system I origi. As part of my design campaign. Command-con. gamers often know Design Corner a single system. other North Africa wargames. that fought in the Western Desert. The Germans. and that leads to a more realistic kind of decision ing the outcomes of various military operations making. What the armies mostly did was train. it puts players all their own future reinforcements as well as those of in the position of Rommel or the various British their opponent. of course. Chief among those was the overall order of battle. combat by random marker draws. there was the very nature of the armies nitty-gritty. Axis air reinforcements at that time gave him the I didn’t want to overwhelm players with a lot of combat power to not only push back the British. The answer was—not much. Further. limited intelligence. logistics combined to create a situation in which The air war has also often been a neglected part of the extremes of total victory and total disaster the North Africa campaign. Victory goes to the player who terparts. At the same time. driving into Egypt. That had to be shown in the game. without bogging down the players in procedural Finally. Those to allow Eighth Army to gather itself for a stand at El sub-commands are activated for movement and Alamein. That produces the desired chaotic nature of the whole thing. from the time tatively and quantitatively. The armies of 1942 were better. all in preparation for the next offensive. Again. Afrikakorps: Decision in the Desert. ing eliminated units. and there is always only a 18 #11 WaW11 Issue. Out uses simple mechanics to show complex processes: of a 100 or so weeks in the campaign. It divides slow him down by interdicting Axis logistics enough each army into several sub-commands. To use current US military going to be getting. players must expend supply. That also meant a design on at least two occasions. effect without a lot of detailed rules to force the situa- trol issues. such as replac- simulation of the campaign that reflected criti. and undependable tion. I looked at how much fighting was done ingly. Just like your historic coun- ing sands of war. Italians and British all learned lessons during the Take logistics as an example. refit and rebuild shattered units. this is an effects-based simulation. In order to activate a command. show. you don’t know exactly which units you’re best exploits the chaos. it at El Alamein. AKDD has sub-systems that at first seem odd. Later in 1942. Most importantly. jargon. One was when Rommel approach different from the systems used in those launched his counteroffensive starting in late 1941. That works to One of the things that has always bothered me smoothly integrate the aforementioned factors into about wargames is that. The reinforcement system in AKDD is based their plans on both the literal and figurative shift. and Rommel arrived to Montgomery’s final offensive that’s modeled via the game’s upgrade rule. than those of 1941.

AK is a two-player game of intermediate com- plexity. air transport. pursuit and pursuit combat. aerial supply. Rules cover such things as: high com- mand bulletins. 88s.98 sales tax. unit refits. fortified boxes. anti-aircraft fire. oases. port interdiction. meaning experienced players can finish the short scenario in about four hours. special forces and tactics. The game map shows the Egyptian/ Libyan coastal area as it was in 1941-42. battlefield salvage. off-map bases.5 miles (20 km).000 words. heavy armor. uses that system to simu- late the campaigns in the Western Desert in which Italo-German forces under the command of Erwin Rommel took on the forces of the British Empire. Send to: Decision Games ATTN: WaW Game Offer PO Box 21598 Bakersfield CA 93390 World at War 19 WaW11 Issue. amphibious landings.indd 19 2/11/10 4:27:00 PM . major operations. airborne assault. Each game turn represents one month. capture of the Western Desert Force headquarters. naval bombardment and transport. 1941-41 (AK). To purchase the game that covers the battles featured in this issue send your name and address along with: $30 US Customers $36 Canadian Customers All prices include postage for first class or airmail shipping. Each hexagon on the map represents 12. the Qattara De- pression. airpower. fog of war. Solitaire play is doable. unit upgrades. The rules contain about 15. supply. short (May-November 1941) and long (May 1941 to November 1942). and Malta. $38 Overseas Customers CA residents add $1. Decision in the Desert! The Afrika Korps: Decision in the Desert. reconnaissance. There are two scenarios. appeals to Berlin. coastal shipping.

Royal Romanian Army troops are seen in action on the eastern front. 20 #11 WaW11 Issue. Romania in World War II By Blaine Taylor Wearing their distinctive helmets.indd 20 2/11/10 4:27:02 PM .

the German defeat of France and neutralization of Brit- ish power in 1940 led to Romania joining the Tripartite Pact of Nazi Germany. Hitler ordered the airborne invasion of the Greek island of Crete to deny it to the British Royal Air Force as a base from which to potentially bomb Romania in May 1941. Despite that historic closeness to the Allies. German Field Marshal August von Mackensen defeated the Romanian field armies with a combined force of Germans. The end of the war in 1918 ultimately found Romania on the winning side and. without a doubt Romania was the single-most important to its overall war effort. which was also the year of Hitler’s birth. Thus Romania. out of practical necessity. In 1916. Romania had invaded and defeated Bulgaria. as a result. pro-German. the mistress of one of them. then rode in triumph through the streets of conquered Bucharest. all the countries the Third Reich controlled during the Second World War. In 1913.indd 21 2/11/10 4:27:05 PM . King Carol I ascended the throne as Romania’s first ruler in 1889. and a pro-Allied general destined ironically to become one of the Fuehrer’s close military confidantes.5 million tons a year.000 square miles of new territory as a reward. Austrians and Turks. the country’s main foreign policy goal was to retain those territorial gains. Transylvania was annexed on 11 January 1919. Germany got half to two-thirds of all its oil from Romania. against Imperial Germany. Indeed. After that war the country was expanded by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. To protect that vital source of oil. all in all. Romania had been formed from the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859. chose alliance with Hitler’s Reich instead of being divided up between Germany and the Soviet Union. The Kingdom of Romania had fought with the Allies in the First World War. while Bucharest’s takeover of Russian Bessarabia was recognized by treaty in October 1920. the year of the start of the Great War in Europe. There were five people who ultimately helped bring that about: two kings. however. she received 60. a strange and fascinating tale. World at War 21 WaW11 Issue. as well as grain and timber. a fascist party leader. Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan that autumn. Carol was the great-great uncle of the later King Michael V. The oil alone amounted to 1. It is. and the petroleum products derived from it. and was succeeded by King Ferdinand I. after which it won its independence from the Ottoman Turks in 1877. he died in 1914. while its rulers’ principal fear was that Romania—as happened to Poland in September 1939—would be partitioned between a resurgent Nazi Germany and a rapacious USSR. In the two decades between the World Wars.

On that same date. on 8 June the Western Allies declared war on Germany two days 1930. making Armand Calinescu opponent. Magda Lupescu. one of its operatives assassinated the prime minister. King Ferdinand I died and a regency was Peasant Party. Fearing the Soviets would next attack Romania. which had heralded the dismember- minister was then able to convince the ruling council ment of Czechoslovakia—Carol paid diplomatic visits to accept that refusal as Carol’s abdication. for what Carol wanted remaining there for three years as King Michael V. Despite that. Upon his father’s death.” which tilted even more toward Berlin and gave the Iron Guard a far larger political role domesti- cally. Prime Minister Vintila Bratianu. princess of Great Britain. Carol also agreed to meet with the Iron Guard’s leaders to formulate a new policy that favored the Axis. but of Greece. Meanwhile. to return to Premier. In 1925. Thus the support had come from Premier Juliu Maniu and his situation in Romania remained tense until the Russo- Finnish War of late 1939. then six. Feeling ever more isolated. and the prime the Munich Pact. Meanwhile. renouncing his rights to the campaign to push Carol toward the Third Reich. Regent Queen Helen. Guard political agitation continued to increase. When France fell to Germany. Stalin kept the Romanian gold reserves that responsible for bringing Romania into the First World had been sent to Imperial Russia during the Great War for War on the side of the Allies. Hitler invaded Poland and villa in the Parisian suburb of Neuilly. All three visits ended in failure. the Crown Prince’s wife divorced him. That he refused to do. Despite all that. the Crown Prince’s plane landed unexpectedly later. Carol was Carol to take dictatorial powers in February 1938 in a in Milan when he received a telegram from his political suddenly one-party state. assassinated Prime mother. Crown Prince Carol. leading and had several public mistresses. the king opened diplomatic relations passed over for the succession. safe keeping in 1916 as Field Marshal von Mackensen Carol was rebellious. 22 #11 WaW11 Issue. however. That marriage to Zizi Lambrino was annulled. After throne. she being the person largely however. Paris. Carol reluc- tantly agreed on 25 April. a man Reich Chancellor on 30 January. and then on to Hitler at the Berghof. Carol’s son Prince the Alpine chalet at Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps. Bucharest immediately and without bringing along his In November 1938—two months after the signing of latest mistress. In 1927. however. Bessarabia will remain Romanian. Carol felt forced to form a new “Party of the Nation. in accordance with King Carol II of Romania.” In March 1940. and also that the king declare a general amnesty for the imprisoned Iron Guardsmen. Michael ascended the Romanian throne on 7 July 1927. Their son Michael was born on 25 October simultaneously attempted to mollify it with the appoint- 1922. who were happy to depose the foreign- formed until his grandson Michael. When Antonescu refused to the secret provisions of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggres- kiss the hand of his Royal mistress. then. and he was then forced to marry the sister of the King Carol took punitive measures against the Guard. Despite the fact his premier was pro-Allied. when. ment of a new anti-Semitic premier. The situation fueled the Fascist Iron Guard’s Party’s mon Romanian officer. and the British Ex- peditionary Force recrossed the Channel to England in hasty flight. the Red Army marched into Bessarabia on 28 King fired him. War I. he and his mistress were living in a garden-enclosed On 1 September 1939. Then. left his regiment during World advanced on Bucharest. thus displacing both his royal son and the boy’s new war. and impulsively married the daughter of a com. to London. and he declared his country’s neutrality in the Carol II. Iron Carol was unfaithful to the Crown Princess. Hitler asked for a purchasing mo- nopoly on all Romanian foodstuffs. and also attempted a coup. His father. come of age to rule. and independence of his country. the sion Pact. Carol moved to curtail the Iron at Bucharest airdrome and he proclaimed himself King Guard. The new king’s main Minister Calinescu. would born Queen-Regent. The Iron Guard retaliated.indd 22 2/11/10 4:27:06 PM . Carol asserted: “Romania will fight as one living wall if we are invaded. The new policy was publicly endorsed by Iron Guard leader Horia Sima. Carol (1893-1953) was with the USSR following Hitler’s appointment as Ger- the son of Ferdinand and Queen Marie (1875-1938). In most he didn’t get: ironclad assurances for the security 1928. was In June 1933.

and he therefore began than a week later. Carol narrowly escaped Josef Gobbels at Berlin. and his second abdication followed less Romanian oilfields at Ploesti. however. a role similar As his majesty’s train. The general also froze the son Crown Prince Michael was biding his time. and ultimately reached Carol was thus caught in the unenviable middle. pating his return to the throne he’d lost at age eight a and prepared to place him on trial on the charge of hav- decade earlier. The next day. but who in Germany.743 square miles and over kovina to Stalin. Hungary’s government.) June 1940. his 18-year-old the Antonescu government. with Hitler at right. a man with strong pro-Nazi ties was publicly an Iron Guard sympathizer. ex-king’s financial holdings. to Hungary and a large strip of Southern Dobrudja to Hitler. neared the Yugoslav frontier. Prime Minister Tatarescu was Carol turned over his government to a man who replaced by Ion Gigurtu. conflicting territorial claims by the smaller Axis powers. Romania lost 92. to that of Nazi Germany’s Minister of Propaganda Dr. with other Iron Guardists also an assassination attempt by elements of the Iron Guard. as the new settlement came to be called. demanded his extradition. Thus. The arrival of His Majesty King Carol II of Romania at Hitler’s Obersalzberg mountain chalet. but not his life. The Iron Guard’s Horia Sima also entered remained pro-Allied in private: Gen. with his mistress also aboard. Carol’s loss of personal prestige ment of the Red Army ever closer to the all-important was too much. Otto Meissner (right. His 10-year reign pushing for a more fully pliant government in Bucharest. As a result. World at War 23 WaW11 Issue. Hitler did nothing to stop it. of course. exile in Franco’s Spain. Ion Antonescu. then began demanding Romania was forced to give two-thirds of Transylvania the cession to it of Transylvania. while the Iron Guard blamed Carol for 6 million people under the provisions of the infamous those territorial losses. ing “squandered public funds. As a result. the government as minister of culture. given key cabinet posts. where they then shortly found between Moscow’s Red Army on his borders and the themselves under house arrest at the formal request of fascist Iron Guard at home. and then moved on to Brazil where Vienna on 30 August 1940 to mediate all the various they married. on 4 July 1940. smelling Vienna Diktat. Following behind them are German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (left) and Reich Chancellery State Secretary Dr. Meanwhile. The couple survived. the Berghof.indd 23 2/11/10 4:27:06 PM . was at an end. on 6 September. antici. Romania officially ceded Bessarabia and Northern Bu. was severely vexed by the move. Bulgaria.” The couple eventually The German and Italian foreign ministers met in escaped to Portugal. Romanian blood in the water. The King is at center in the dark overcoat.

was visiting at the Berghof. and on 23 November he journeyed to Berlin to either conclude an armistice or to resign. it entered Bucharest in August 1944. Antonescu awarded rest of the country had also been liberated. The in the Iron Guard. break with Antonescu had served in the Romanian Army during the Germans. and.” thus Army. Michael had World War I. which made Romania part was announced by Michael in an address over Radio of Hitler’s grand design to invade the USSR. socialist and communist. who were deemed politically unreliable. The rule of Antonescu was about to end and the real reign of King Michael V to begin when. 24 #11 WaW11 Issue. During a secret meeting of plotters over 13-14 June 1944. but was finally made his decision to strike as a result of the forced by events to switch his allegiance to the Nazis. was a member of that movement.000 Romanian lives.indd 24 2/11/10 4:27:07 PM . As the resurgent Red Army had advanced on Roma- nia in March 1944. with 170. young King Michael V (left).” sought all at once to depose the marshal. an underground resistance movement began. His follow-on decision to move Romanian forces into Russia-proper was a policy that proved immediately controversial at home. and by then most of the port city of Odessa on 15 October. on the night of 23 August 1944. The king named Gen. and there began a new reference to Horia Sima and the Iron Guard: “I don’t war against the former Axis allies on the side of the Red need fanatics! I need a healthy Romanian Army. The coup to sign the Tripartite Pact. During that same period.000 Romanian soldiers fought against the Axis. King Michael V. he allowed German troops to enter and Antonescu’s arrest was made only when he refused his country. and he was initially pro-Allied. On 10 October 1940. summer 1941.000 Romanian troops in 16 divisions crossed the Czech-Hungarian frontier heading west. the removal of Antonescu and his government was decided upon by Michael. That meant Romania actually ended up fielding the fourth largest army that fought against the Nazis during the final phase of the war. he was told by Hitler. Allied air forces destroyed the oil refineries at Marshal Antonescu right (wearing cloth garrison cap) on military Ploesti. Constantin Sanatescu as the giving the Romanian dictator the moral authority to rein new chief of government and marshal of Romania. himself the baton of a marshal of Romania. On 18 December. Antonescu sent envoys to neutral Turkey to begin negotiations with the Allies. while Antonescu Hungary on the 25th. He was charged. after the disaster at Stalingrad (initially brought on by the collapse of Ro- manian arms on that front). who deposed him on 23 August 1944 and ordered his execution in June 1946. during the period 23 August 1944 through 8 May 1945. on 14 January 1941. On 6 October 1944. a joint Soviet-Romanian of- fensive liberated northwest Transylvania and Hungar- ian territory up to the Tisza River.000 officers and men killed or wounded. were arrested and The Romanian marshal (center) and his staff officers meet with deported to camps in the Soviet Union. new cabinet contained members of all three major leftist After the start of the German invasion of the USSR parties: liberal. and war was declared against Germany and As a reward. some 540. In May. even as the bulk of his troops were bottled up in the Crimea. The three-year war against the Soviets would cost 350. Following the capture of the Soviet Black Sea entered Bucharest on the 31st. The Red Army by 27 July. and switch sides in the war. in Thus the anti-Soviet war ended. Bucharest. His Majesty launched a coup that Born in Transylvania and nicknamed “Red Dog. An armistice later that June. August 1944 Red Army advance onto Romanian soil. though. all former Romanian territory was retaken was officially signed on 13 September. the only monarch in history to both precede and succeed his own father to a throne.000 Romanian soldiers and officers. In all. and the nascent peace negotiations broke down maneuvers with the Royal Romanian Army in the company of in July. 248. some 130. Deposed Marshal German Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist (second from right) on Antonescu was also turned over to the Red Army when the eastern front.

They moved against his ended. to Bucharest on 26 April 1992. and the fleeing Ceausescus were captured. 1942. aged 70. Forced to abdicate a second time. In 1989 that grew in membership from 35. It all became official on 3 January 1948. in London. and then immediately shot.831 in December 1947.800 in March 1945 to regime was overthrown by its own people as the Cold War 803. (waving at center) of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Sigmaringen. the Romanian Communist he was but 26. The the last ruler to come from the House of Hohenzollern- firing squad used automatic rifles. meanwhile. convicted. Michael thus became along with three of his associates. the Romanian communists ruled for many to see Red leader Ana Pauker speaking under their country with an iron hand. Romanian cavalry on the eastern front. mainly through longtime a giant portrait of the King. on 2 June 1946. when At Bucharest. that month to attend the wedding of his cousin. World at War 25 WaW11 Issue. hastily government when His Majesty left by rail on the 30th of tried. The return of King Michael V. and he exchanged the palace in Romania for Party also began its rise to power under the aegis of the a private residence in Switzerland. reign of King Michael V. and it was no doubt a shock From 1947 to 1989. The party dictator Nicolai Ceausescu and his wife Elena.indd 25 2/11/10 4:27:08 PM . Queen at Elizabeth II. tried. but not for long. and convicted of war crimes by the communists.

Archer Vandergriff’s firepower of Nimitz’s battleships in daylight. Yet one facet of that great US triumph as possible left little time for night training. one of the most significant battles the same time. 26 #11 WaW11 Issue. The fleet commanders vowed USN’s prewar core of seasoned men had been scattered the enemy would never again sneak up on throughout the far-flung fleet when wartime expansion them in that way. Adm. Islands.indd 26 2/11/10 4:27:12 PM . and they were also aware of the US deficiency. initial stages of the Guadalcanal campaign. and at first that resolve held true. Japan’s Navy had a long tradition the new doctrine of aircraft carrier dominance. but that of night fighting. That is. Getting the newcomers battle-ready as soon and sent reeling. where the flotilla providing critical offshore didn’t intend to send his warships into the pulverizing artillery support for Maj. The Pearl Harbor. The US Pacific Fleet’s forces were quickly learning On the other hand. that task force was Navy was taken horribly by surprise at less experienced than its Japanese counterpart. America’s was overlooked during the euphoria that followed: that sailors therefore simply didn’t know how to fight in clash was fought on and above a sun-washed seascape darkness. Savo Island: Night of the Cruisers By Kelly Bell It had been just nine months since the US Like the rest of the US Navy. Its men were meticulously trained in change distracted them from an older but still potent it. Their commander. just-landed Marines would be challenged—at night. Gen. At doctrine. the Japanese understood they were also of the war was shaping up off the contested Solomon outgunned. At created a need for those ‘old salts’ to train hordes of Midway it was the Japanese who were caught off-guard rookies. Isoroku Yamamoto. That shortcoming would cost them in the where visibility extended to the curved horizon.

It could push a 1. US tacticians still regarded a factor in the choice of tactics came from the advanced warship’s deck guns its main armament. their Type 93 “Long Lance” numbers. For a navy eager to sustain few successful attacks. and its sailors were expert in their use. their naval technicians had discarded the reach of enemy torpedoes. By contrast. another critical At the start of the war. warhead along a straight. World at War 27 WaW11 Issue. By 1933. 11-mile track at beginning of August 1942 was laden with vast stores 49 knots. The US torpedoes usually passed the momentum of its recent victories at Coral Sea and harmlessly under their targets.090 The Japanese fleet approaching Guadalcanal at the lb. torpedo was being mass produced. of the Type 93. but in their by pure oxygen. Midway. wakeless. The Americans had yet to then standard air-powered propulsion systems. Further. the US Mark XV torpedo had a far The US/Australian naval task force guarding the Ma- smaller warhead and was limited to just three miles at rine beachhead carried few torpedoes. Those they did 45 knots. and preached a state of some of their weaponry. They encounter the Long Lance. a disaster was in the works. its notoriously unreliable depth-setting have were of inferior quality and the seamen weren’t mechanism and magnetic influence exploder resulted in proficient in night combat.indd 27 2/11/10 4:27:16 PM . exploded prematurely. and those fearsome weapons instead began manufacturing torpedoes with engines fed would prove terrible not only in their effect. or failed to explode at all.s Apart from superior Japanese training. Following extensive doctrine of advancing to within firing range and open- post-World War I experimentation with various types ing accurate shellfire while still outside the presumed of torpedoes.

Mikawa decided the risk was acceptable. aboard his flagship. At that moment a twin-engine Hudson bomber buzzed the Japanese ships. or sounded the alarm only to have it somehow ignored. From Division VI’s heavy cruisers were a sharply honed team. land forces straining to shove the Marines from their Mikawa’s shortage of destroyers would leave his force tiny perimeter and back into the Pacific. Mark X its presence detected and betrayed by those undersea torpedoes that featured simple and dependable contact prowlers. Gunichi Mikawa began assembling his That was just one foreboding factor Mikawa had to Cruiser Division VI on 7 August. Chokai’s anti-aircraft gunners opened up and drove it away. When Munson put one of his torpedoes into were no other destroyers available. Imperial Japanese seapower: Furutaka class heavy cruiser. taking 373 with her. uncharacteristic move for the Japanese Navy. Moving his command to an out-of-the-way location east of Bouganville. The airmen also counted three heavy cruisers. consider before moving to battle with his main force. ers were joined by the elderly light cruisers Yubari and Another came from the fact that. It’s possible the airmen thought friendly vessels had mis- takenly fired on them. 28 #11 WaW11 Issue. His four heavy cruis. however. however. In what was an Meiyo Maru. That small troop vulnerable to the fate of Meiyo Maru. there simply detonators. a delighted Mikawa soon thereafter watched the onset of darkness without Victor through Seapower: Vice Adm. In a never-solved mystery. Also. the Hudson’s aircrew either didn’t report their sighting. Without those convoy chanced into Lt. having sighted any other enemy planes. Mikawa dispersed them and made ready to defend against torpedo planes. Commander Henry Munson’s smaller craft to screen the more ponderous vessels submarine S-38. That boat had been built in 1909 and from enemy subs. Those craft spotted more ships off Lunga Point. on the opposite side of Tulagi from the other vessels. Knowing his ships had been reported. the flotilla was susceptible to having was therefore armed with older. Apart from Yunagi. she sank swiftly. several destroyers and 13 cargo carriers moored off the small adjacent island of Tulagi. and would therefore soon be attacked. Mikawa the other ships in the hastily gathered assembly were had dispatched the old transports Meiyo Maru and Soya strangers to each other and were therefore unlikely with 519 rifle-armed sailors in hope of reinforcing the to perform harmoniously together in combat. On the morning of 8 August. the heavy cruiser Chokai. Either way. Gunichi Mikawa. he catapulted three floatplanes aloft later that same morning. Vice Adm. though the crews of Tenryu and the equally aged destroyer Yunagi. Japanese reconnaissance aircraft flying out of Rabaul located the US supply ship anchorage off Guadalcanal.indd 28 2/11/10 4:27:16 PM . but reliable.

patrolling above New Georgia Sound should time their The Catalinas and Fortresses were equipped with new searches so they reached the end of their outbound flights ASE surface-search radar sets. On paper it appeared the patterns the search planes were flying couldn’t help but cover the whole region. so on the afternoon of 8 August. all his warships were fully battle-ready. Frank Fletcher. Mikawa’s fleet World at War 29 WaW11 Issue. covered the One such skeptic. watching for any throughout the Allied command. believed the air net was adequate to scan all passages that sons flown by Royal Australian Air Force pilots from might accommodate an enemy strike force. com- south and southwest sectors.indd 29 2/11/10 4:27:18 PM . we shall engage the enemy in night battle. New Guinea. Vice Adm. Those technical failings were an open secret north and northwest of Guadalcanal. US Navy Catalina “flying boats” patrolled the sea malfunctioned. so not all commanders Japanese vessels that might approach from Truk. and though still troubled by his ignorance of the American aircraft carriers’ whereabouts. he made his approach into New Georgia Sound. there were still bugs their systems and they frequently however. and he sent a blinker signal to his crews: “In the finest tradition of the Imperial Navy. In practice. Those new devices could at dusk. Plotting the course: Rear Adm. Twenty 11th Bomb Group manding carrier Task Force 61. Nobody acted on Fletcher’s advice. Every man is expected to do his utmost.” The Americans and Australians had set up a multi- layered defense grid of long-range search aircraft and radar-equipped picket destroyers. the patterns proved half-blind. which would’ve allowed for both visual and ra- detect surface craft from as far away as 25 miles. but dar scans of the area. recommended the planes B-17 Flying Fortresses watched the western approaches. Turner. Hud. By 6:30 p.m. A mixed inner perimeter of cruisers and destroyers was also in place to provide a screen of floating artillery to shield the vulnerable beachhead and supply ships in case the Japa- nese should penetrate that far. airfields around Milne Bay. He also turned his fleet south at 24 knots.

they also seriously underestimated speed advance. and he ordered his carriers to withdraw southeast to a safe distance from air attack. leading Turner to conclude it likely p. They also wrought mayhem during the Battle of Coral Sea. Victor A. since the B-17 flight noted the Japanese flotilla churning down dispatch indicated the ships were moving at just 15 St. He assumed planes were thoroughly Yet another chance had been missed when the pilots patrolling this most likely route of approach. Crutchley positioned Australia. and sometime later a second time Turner got word of those sightings and.m. Lastly. when they sank the aircraft carrier Lexington. the Americans and Australians were caught unwary and vulnerable in the gathering twilight. which overflew the he received no reports of danger he believed there truly Japanese at 10:25 and 11:00 a. Most significant was a dispatch knots.indd 30 2/11/10 4:27:19 PM . As Mikawa’s cruisers began their high.m. 30 #11 WaW11 Issue. except for two he placed as additional sentinels west of the cruisers.m. Rear Adm. No one informed Guadalcanal’s Allied naval forces wasn’t even coming his way. then. the eluded Allied aerial reconnaissance. to broadcast immediate radio reports of their sight- Amazingly. Fletcher was also transports and their remaining guardians were even unaware his request for enhanced reconnaissance had more vulnerable to the coming assault. when of two Milne Bay-based Hudsons. It was dark by the from a raid on Rabaul. been ignored. respectively. and it was that tract Mikawa and Australia) to his flagship McCawley to discuss the used to make his final approach. commander. the conference meant every senior Allied commander was away from his unit. but their reports went Guinea to sound the alarm. With Fletcher already having departed with feared. Canberra night due to bad weather. The northern pas- sage was staked out by Vincennes.. Crutchley. He then also set out his nine destroyers as anti-submarine pickets seaward of the transports.C. failed was none. instead waiting until they landed back on New sighted Cruiser Division VI. and when they bagged the carrier Yorktown at Midway. the latter in command tor II” was left entirely uncovered by search planes that of Cruiser Task Force 44 (Hobart. the raiders neared their destination at 5:00 p. they were spotted by B-17s returning the speed of the vessels they’d seen. Americans had first come to dread those tor- pedo-carrying planes at Pearl Harbor. Japanese heavy cruiser Chokai. Canberra and Chicago to the south to watch for raiders that might approach from the west. and he had therefore made the most critical error of the many Allied miscues leading up to the battle. Precisely as Fletcher had situation. his carriers. As the Japanese steamed down Savo Sound. Richmond Kelly Turner. George’s Channel. an area the Americans called “Sec. several non-reconnaissance aircraft ings. of any Nevertheless. he calculated they wouldn’t reach Guadalcanal from S-38 about what had sounded to her skipper like that night.673 foot height of Savo Island. ficiently worrisome to summon Vandergrift and British At the same time. the airmen also got wrong the task two destroyers and three heavy cruisers passing by 7:42 force’s heading. Even when they did give unheeded. the overall situation struck him as suf- of those reports. With those flattops no longer present to provide air cover. Mikawa’s flagship. Quincy and Astoria. As the attack took shape. Rear Adm. Crutchley failed to make certain the captains of those northern and southern groups were aware of each other’s positions. Learning the feared “Betty” torpedo planes were prowling his vicinity unnerved Fletcher. their belated report. Chicago. still remaining undetected by hiding behind the 1. so. Early that afternoon Fletcher had received a report that twin-engine Japanese torpedo bombers had been spotted over Guadalcanal at noon.

He the fleet bearing down from the opposite direction. terns that weren’t synchronized with each other. the usual late-night thunderstorms order his captains to increase speed to 30 knots. with training. the Japanese strike force Furutaka and Aoba swiftly following. Mo- World at War 31 WaW11 Issue. further cloaking them Surging from a curtain of rain. chanced to cut directly having missed. just behind the destroyer Ralph Talbot. Savo Island. At 1:33. dependable range was just four to 10 miles. Chokai uncorked from aerial and shipboard spotters. the Japanese passed unnoticed effective detection range was really only 12 to 14 miles. That The Japanese had gone to full battle stations at mid- worked to leave gaps in the coverage the radar operators night. From Chokai. That trio also was thereby further blessed by fortunate weather. Mikawa led Aoba.m. and accelerated to 26 knots while moving into wouldn’t be able to scan. Close proximity to land caused false returns. an old picket destroyer. Kinugasa. Island. Tenryu. those mechanisms’ truly final attack formation. opened fire with their guns at the white-painted cruiser As the raiders hurtled down the passage the USS and quickly set her ablaze despite all their torpedoes Blue. in front of them. Mikawa broke radio silence to At 11:30 p. that area was further shrunk due the nearness of Savo Minutes before 1:00 a. When one of his staff told him the new radar sets’ ments later. but the lookouts were concentrating Seaman Burt Warren was four levels below Can- on navigation landmarks to the east and didn’t notice berra’s deck when she absorbed 24 direct hits. at 12:43 a. Yubari and Yunagi. In fact.m. one of the few Turner ordered his ships to make 6. but even Kako.indd 31 2/11/10 4:27:19 PM .m. on the morning of 9 August.. Furutaka. weaponry and tactics. then formed east of Savo Island and drifted directly into the yelled into his microphone: “All ships attack!” path of the onrushing attackers. torpedo-armed Allied ships in the area.5 mile patrol pat. but the squadron was still undetected as it passed south of that fact was unknown to their operators. Apart from superior four torpedoes at the Australian cruiser Canberra.

but then held to a static position west of the harbor that would trap their quarry between them in a killing as the fighting moved south. Chicago’s helmsman jerked her hard ern and northern cruiser anchorages. when he received a radio message from Crutchley Within five minutes Canberra was dead in the water.m. Searching their crippled and sinking victims to re-enter the storm. how. wildly for the still-invisible enemy. telling him to disengage and rendezvous with the Allied her crew decimated and her radios inoperable. still blazing.m.indd 32 2/11/10 4:27:20 PM . ing against her 30-degree starboard list. Yubari air was of prime importance. Chicago’s gunners Furutaka. failed to broadcast a radio report of the battle. At 1:48 a. destroyer contingent. smoke-filled. later recalled clambering up through the ship’s hellish Frank Walker. the southern group. The rainsquall was still roiling between the Allied south- At 1:46 a.. he crossfire. Even more puzzling. Howard Bode turned muzzle flashes and explosions when Mikawa assaulted his wounded ship west to face the Japanese and pres. by this time the Patterson’s skipper. Strain. The black. the survivors After just seven minutes. That unplanned rifles. but seconds later another torpedo ripped the raiders’ approach and masked the cannonades. open her starboard bow. Capt. but and Kinugasa. deeper into the harbor. pumping five-inchers at them until 2:10 to breathe. sweltering confines shouts of: “Warning! Warning! Strange ships entering were far more terrifying than anything could have been harbor!” on the exploding topside. had concealed approaching. That downpour. He said: “To get some fresh Walker’s gunners gamely cut loose on Tenryu.. Opening up with his five-inch file slightly west of their sister ships. Bode killed 23 of Tenryu’s sailors with a direct positioning placed the attackers on parallel courses hit. and Mikawa turned north.m. Turner’s southern cruiser watched in horror as their attackers sped past them.” a. To not only survive. As the Japanese moved away from ent them with the smallest possible target. Commander tubes on Vincennes and fired a four-shot spread from 32 #11 WaW11 Issue. Mikawa lined up his forward torpedo ever. to port to dodge two torpedoes lookouts had spotted with its incessant lightning and thunder. guns force was blazing wreckage.. Tenryu and Yubari became separated from the managed to discern some unfamiliar vessels attacking rest of the fleet and emerged from the weather in single the destroyer Patterson. was desperately filling the airwaves with interior.

” and verbally directed a final salvo. After just four minutes. power fizzled and she coasted to a halt.” but four minutes men killed or crippled.indd 33 2/11/10 4:27:20 PM . Moore or- bridge and asked Topper who’d given the order to fire. In another incredible fluke. of the oncoming strike force. so she turned her light on the burn. At 1:51 that trio began firing their main batteries on their startled victims. gunnery officer Lt. Vincennes. Truesdell independently ordered the Furutaka and Tenryu joined in the attack.” to align his ships across the sterns of their foes. stumbled half-asleep onto the sandwiched between two enemy columns. dered his helmsman to turn hard to starboard to avoid When his subordinate professed ignorance. Truesdell was near the main battery direc- tor when Mikawa’s first salvo roiled the water around the US cruiser. Moore and his bridge staff were killed by It was too late. electric power. Commander floor there that the sector would be forever after known Walter B. missing some information on the chaos and advice on what to their intended target but scoring a direct hit on Chokai do. Astoria’s skipper. Turning from the sinking Quincy. Seconds later Astoria’s secondary batteries. Greenman. earning her instant admiration from the Japanese ing!” for what they called her crew’s “great spirit. but his main battery wasn’t yet ready. her amidships Chokai joined in the shelling as Mikawa maneuvered an inferno of oily flame. Quincy was no trouble making out his opponent’s intention.” An instant later. wrecking calling for 20 knots. a direct hit. but watch supervisor Lt. Those shots missed. Truesdell came back over the At 2:04 a. Samuel Moore placing him in a position to cut loose full broadsides at didn’t hesitate to sound general quarters. Davidson climbed onto number two turret as “Iron Bottom Sound. the Al- lied warships were hurt and no longer in condition to retaliate.. Moore with their aft turrets. Capt. After struck by a blizzard of shellfire from Aoba. but seconds later Vincennes. Realizing from that aircraft’s fuel tank. time was waning. and most were still sleeping when Chokai fastened her spotlights on their ship. and Kako then shot at her with both main and ized. Cease fir. ers. Commander James R. first. Riefkohl had the gunners could get off their first shot. At 1:53 Kinugasa had trained her searchlight on behind her. and Capt. Truesdell instantly rang the bridge and US light cruiser Honolulu. By coincidence. who would in turn be unable to reply except searchlights stabbed through the blackness. Astoria’s crew remained unwary. He next yelled for his gunners to well deck and splattered the area with flaming gasoline fire on Kinugasa. Frederick L. while Moore’s gunners fired a final broad- commence firing!” side at Kako. 12. One round hit a floatplane in the 40 degrees to port. Before muzzle flashes. Kako and Aoba. a direct heading for the eastern group of Japanese cruis- Let’s not get too excited and act too hasty. also missed its intended mark and crashed into Chokai. and at 2:16 a torpedo from Aoba holed At 2:16 a. shouting: “For God’s sake give the word to into Quincy. recommended general quarters. As the enemy’s the Allies. making it difficult for both sides to tell friend from foe. Greenman then cryptically remarked: “Whether our Mikawa’s chartroom was destroyed and 36 more of his ships or not.. Quincy’s radio He was attempting the ancient naval tactic of “crossing operators had picked up Patterson’s wireless warning the T. At 2:10. With that the Japanese ceased firing be a threat. the gunners trained their five-inchers Riefkohl tried to raise Crutchley on the radio to get on Kinugasa and fired their ship’s last volley. and at 2:38 she sank bow her own position. That maneuver set Quincy on said: “Topper. killing or wounding 15. Just before the shelling started.m. he ordered his helmsman to turn her bridge and fantail. received radio orders to steam to 15 knots and fire on With the darkness by then fully banished by fire. had already passed since the Japanese had opened fire. trapping main batteries to begin firing.000 yards. and it was safe for Kinugasa to give away on the plainly sinking ship. Astoria was too badly damaged to still Quincy’s port side. two Long Lances from Tenryu slammed intercom. She became one of so many warships on the sea ing ship to make it easier to finish her. his eastern group to aft of the row of reeling Americans. The second US volley knocked out World at War 33 WaW11 Issue. Lt. flares and searchlights. Quincy in a three-pronged crossfire. Mikawa’s main battery turret was pulver. Commander William H. Realizing he was William G. Using the last of the Aboard Vincennes a befuddled Capt. Topper did nothing. I think we are firing on our own ships. the lights. we have to stop them. that salvo With shell splashes surrounding Astoria and Quincy. Quincy and Wilson were caught in the blind- ing rays of searchlights from Chokai. but by that time their attackers had begun to lose formation. Greenman colliding with Vincennes.m.

There was also the possibility friendly fire. the Japanese steering gear and convinced her crew to spotted the shadow beside them and wrecked her with switch off their searchlight. easily defeat the Marines even if the US transports were cers resumed closing toward the northeast. Further. eventually making her Still. Harukichi bottom. At 2:58 she slipped to the Army commander on Guadalcanal. 34 #11 WaW11 Issue. Riefkohl turned her squadron’s having sustained no serious damage. That confused the Japanese into thinking they use themselves as bait to coax the vengeful American were pummeling one of their own ships. While Yubari’s gunners were crippling the Talbot. Meanwhile on the beaches: US Marines land on Guadalcanal. At 2:18 the spared.indd 34 2/11/10 4:27:21 PM . killing every dive-bombers that had wrought such havoc at Midway man there and silencing her last operable battery. but the cruiser’s crew instantly surviving Allied heavy ships had quit the area and were steaming east at best speed. the Japanese pin. The spread of torpedoes. and Tenryu and Furutaka opened hour of darkness and. the dreaded Dauntless a torpedo into her number one fire room. Gen. Not that they really needed five direct hits. Only the storm saved the Talbot as she it anyway. Hyakutake’s main worry had been that Turner’s destroyer Ralph Talbot had slipped alongside Yubari offshore artillery would support the Americans fighting in hope of staying unnoticed long enough to loose a on the island. the attackers might hoisted. had assured Mikawa his land forces could After finishing that latest victim. for Vincennes was already burning violently. At 2:30 Riefkohl gave smashing victory. making them smaller lost formation. but by 2:13 Mikawa and his of torpedo planes based on Rabaul. it had totally up the savaged group of warships. and that threat had been eliminated. At 2:03 Yubari drilled already en route back to the area. Riefkohl had disrupted Mikawa’s T-crossing way to a shallow anchorage off Savo. Before Vincennes could get it would take two hours to re-assemble and deploy for underway. officers realized all their boats were accounted for and There was no disputing they had already won a resumed hammering Vincennes. That would leave only one her forward port hull. Riefkohl ordered a different set of colors that. a Long Lance from Chokai shattered an attack on the transports. would likely intercept the raiders before they could Still wondering if he was possibly coming under reach a safe distance. lurched under the cloud cover. stratagem. realizing what a conspicuous target his Mikawa gathered his command staff. For seven carrier commander into following them to within range minutes they ceased fire. though. Lt. Despite his flame-covered vessel had become. The admiral and his officers estimated than one fat. the overconfident Japanese the order to abandon ship. inviting target. At 1:55. and its to starboard and asked for 25 knots in an effort to split having plenty of ammunition remaining. if they departed right away. if the American carriers were fire on her with their deck guns. Hyakutake.

though. Aboard Chokai. The As Cruiser Division VI neared Kavieng on the morn. plies to sustain them until help could again arrive. The US carriers Mikawa had so feared kept a timid distance. citing his fear of enemy airpower from nearby Rabaul. and would almost certainly have lost Guadalcanal. When Jarvis went down later that morning. undersea explorers are still shocked wracked by explosions. At 2:20.. after 5:00 a. have had insufficient ammunition to defend themselves In the debris-choked waters around Savo Island. Though the aircraft carriers were long gone. on the 10th he turned over to Turner his position as Expeditionary Force Commander. he declined to come about to pursue the Japanese. the last of her men evacuated at the number of dead vessels littering the sea floor. Ten minutes later she rolled onto her port side and sank stern first. On that Sawa shot every one of his starboard torpedoes from their evening of 9 August. In November. The Japanese over-caution saved the Allies. He wasn’t swayed by arguments he could launch dive-bombers and torpedo planes against the withdrawing strike force while retaining most of his fighters in case Japanese aircraft appeared. Mikio Hayakawa men eastward. those Marines would wounded. Japanese land force engaged against them would soon ing of 10 August. Those half-full freighters were in safe distance of 130 miles southwest of Savo. it was intercepted by US submarine be defeated in battles at the Tenaru River and the heights S-44. she was attacked and sunk by 31 planes realized. Her presence distracted the Japanese from the come about and head west. Even after Fletcher finally saw the battle dispatches. More than a but internal fires continued to spread. which went down with all Though he grudgingly complied with the order to hands. large numbers of their along with 71 of her crew. Her combat dumped more hundreds of thousands of tons of blazing topside was largely extinguished by the storm.m. and relatively easy task of destroying the helpless zone and steamed to what her crew assumed to be the enemy supply flotilla. strangely refused to forward reports of the cruiser engagement to him until after it was over.m. Five minutes later she went down from the interior of the island. all the raiders had but they had just enough arms. dreamed their admiral would fail to perform the final. With her insides half-century later. Fletcher also refused to return to Guadalcanal to provide air cover for the continued unloading of the transports. so at 8:00 he had the wounded. Quincy and Vincennes were already on the bottom. for the hapless destroyer. Despite that setback. food and medical sup- regained formation and set out for home. the new commanding admiral made a gutsy decision to return Roar of guns: cruiser delivers a broadside.. cargo ships. Fletcher also disre- garded good advice from his officers. then. who’d never dangerously vulnerable to air attack. and their being spared would prove the omission from Mikawa’s 25th Air Flotilla.m. Lt. At 2:15 p. Though heavily damaged. she took with her 233 more. while another 700 were vessel was beyond salvaging. When the Japanese at- yards from Kako and pumped three old-model torpedoes tempted an offensive to assault the American perimeter into her at 9:10 a. Had so at a cost to his command of just 129 killed and 85 Mikawa finished his assignment. at 12:05 p. Capt.m.. Leigh Noyes. however. Mikawa ordered his fleet to withdraw. Commander John Moore stalked to just 700 overlooking Henderson Airfield. but Turner soon realized the mangled in the Battle of Savo Island. By 3:40 a. pleaded vainly with Mikawa to stay and destroy the Vandergriff’s Marines were now alone and encircled. ers despite his destroyers and remaining cruisers being That flabbergasted some of his captains. Jarvis escaped the combat vital. Kinugasa’s Capt. further sea The deluge also delayed Astoria’s last rites. Mikawa troops became lost in the jungle and wandered aimlessly had mauled the Allied naval force off Guadalcanal with until they succumbed to starvation and tropical diseases all the ferocity of a second Pearl Harbor. which were again crucially spared. It was actually a triumph that tilted the overall campaign against the Japanese. At 7:40 fact much more significant than Mikawa and Hyakutake a.077 Americans and Australians died pounding rain.m. fires on Canberra were held somewhat in check by the A total of 1. Adm. wrecked warships into Iron Bottom Sound. His subordinate. destroyer Ellet sink her with a torpedo. and furnish whatever protection he could to the freight- World at War 35 WaW11 Issue.m.indd 35 2/11/10 4:27:22 PM . Turner assembled the remnants of tubes in a futile effort to strike the transport anchorage his task force and shepherded the now-empty merchant- 13 miles away. and he’d done or were killed or captured by Vandergriff’s men. Masao transports. Like his Japanese counterpart.

only tardily learned to respect.” Sources He in turn blamed the fleet’s being taken unaware Ballard. and for not broadcasting radio reports of the developing attack. as was customary for an element’s command ship. Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific enemy. stunned to learn Yamamoto wasn’t pleased with his There would doubtless have been more were it not for incomplete triumph. Dell Publishing. Madison Publish- on its poor state of readiness for night combat. Arthur J. Mikawa could’ve reversed that while also securing the Solomons as a base of operations for resurgent Japanese air and sea offensives. Richard B. it made it impossible to strike back at the withdrawing Manchester. Nimitz.) Combat: Pacific Theater. at Off Savo Island. 1979. Yamamoto understood his navy’s the lessons the US Navy command ruefully learned that reverses in the recent battles of Coral Sea and Midway dark and stormy night. he was major Japanese naval victory of the Second World War. Hepburn also cited the Hammel. Bode had his gunners open fire on that ship after it failed to respond to three signals. Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Land- inadequate radar.indd 36 2/11/10 4:27:26 PM . mand structure’s failure to react to repeated sightings of Congdon. Guadalcanal: Starvation Island. late in the battle. Bode left Chicago moored behind Canberra. along with an over-reliance on obviously 1958. the com. Crown Publishers. Dell Publishing. William. 1987. Unwilling to face a court-martial. he summarized the overriding reason for the tragedy as: “The complete surprise achieved by the enemy. Following the battle. By not being at the head of the line. Savo Island was the last When a beaming Mikawa made it home. thus becoming the final casualty of the Battle of Savo Island. The US Navy thereafter grimly set to cautiously and resolutely defeating a determined. War. Bode was left in charge of the southern cruiser group. Random House. 1993. After his comprehensive review. ing. the US secretary of the navy ordered Adm. 36 #11 WaW11 Issue. Don (ed.. He wanted to avoid tricky nighttime maneuvering. Fortunately the salvo missed. and whose crew was too preoccupied to notice the signals from Chicago. enemy forces. Hepburn also castigated him for maintaining a static position west of Savo Island as the fighting moved south. Bode was unable to effectively com- mand his cruisers when the shooting started. Robert. ficient aerial reconnaissance. which was picking up survivors from Canberra. Bode misidentified a vessel he saw ahead of him as he moved Chicago into the combat zone. After Hepburn concluded his investigation and sub- mitted his findings to Adm. After Crutchley’s departure the evening before the battle. Goodbye. Eric. Bode’s sins became public knowledge. skilled enemy they’d Night action: muzzle blast illuminates the night. Rather than position his vessel Chicago at the head of the line of warships. Capt. Frank. Hepburn dug tirelessly into every aspect of the affair. had given the initiative and momentum to the Americans. The Lost Fleet of Guadalcanal. Mikawa’s raid worked to permanently banish the last vestiges of American complacency and overconfidence. 1990. Hepburn to convene a board of inquiry to clarify the causes for the humiliating defeat. Last. he committed suicide. It turned out to be the USS Patterson. and nobody had bothered to tell him Crutchley wouldn’t be returning. departure of the carriers as an inexcusable action in that Inc. inefficient communications and insuf- mark Battle.

© 2008 Ron Grecina Photography The Origins Awards. Oh © 2008 Ron Grecina Photography © 2009 Brian Dalrymple 4. & More! Home of the 36th Annual Origins Awards TM © 2009 Brian Dalrymple Recognizing Excellence in Game Design TM ORIGINS Where GaminG BeGins Play Games! Have Fun! TM presented by TM ORIGINS is the GAME MANUFACTURERS Players’ Convention ASSOCIATION OriginsGameFair.com World at War 37 WaW11 Issue. 2010 Columbus. CeLeBraTinG 35 Years! 5 Full Days of Gaming GAME FAIR Wednesday to Sunday 2010 TM June 23-27. Art Show.000 + Events Games. Tournaments.indd 37 2/11/10 4:27:27 PM .

weather. untried units. 38 #11 WaW11 Issue. There’s a nine-turn short scenario Individual units vary in organizational size from and a 13-turn long scenario.” represents a day. The rules weigh in at a companies to regiments. Here is your chance to easily doable. as the SS Panzer Corps Rules cover such items as: reinforcements. explore those interpretations. Some new East Front Battles Series (EFBS). World at War No. and solitaire play is offensive for strategic reasons. July 1943 more controversial battles of World War II. There are two general types of units in the Each hex in GT represents one kilometer (0. miles) from side to opposite side. Others say German losses will present operational simulations of medium-to. little under 14. designed by Joseph Miranda.indd 38 2/11/10 4:27:28 PM . airpower. the first of our still historical debate about its significance. command-control. certain units are classed as “armored. 13: Game Preview Guards Tank: The Battle of Prochorovka. offensive’s southern front. supply. Each game turn In addition. fog of Guards Tank Army. will be the claim German tank losses here made it the turning game appearing in issue number 13. There’s (GT). anti-tank fire. it was the Red Army that suffered large-sized battles fought on that front. Two experienced players The action in GT is focused on the Kursk can complete the short scenario in about four hours. The EFBS point of the war in the east. What followed was one of the war. ments. July 1943 Guards Tank: The Battle of Prochorovka. There will massively. and special tactics. first and second wave combat. adjacent held by elements of 6th Guards Army.62 counter-mix: maneuver (non-artillery) and artillery. zones of control. spearheads are then met by a counterattack from 5th suppression. and the Germans actually called off the be two players in each game. replace- breaks through the Soviet main line of resistance. were exaggerated. The German and ranged combat.000 words.

and you got into I think it prepared me and my the skies. the Allied aircraft had ended the so they gave me a new one. One time I returned from my school and was lucky enough to The attrition of war. so I was sent overseas as a “Sergeant Pilot. and was raised through the hard arrival on the scene in December You left your parachute in the times of the Depression. and was told by the ground crew my in Toronto. She was a lady to fly. but severe Squadron spent most of our time with blankets. there was out. Their danger. When World War II broke out Luftwaffe as a viable force. and we were used to sacrifice. The Spitfire was a beautiful aircraft. generation for the war that lay heavy bombers into every corner You took off. I Remember Charles Darrow I was born in Toronto in 1922 who I really respected. They also escorted the your plane when it was still dark. fighter opposition. planes could range all over Ger. scheduled to fly. I therefore then repeated the routine. When I returned again later. and still it managed to get me home. we weren’t pampered and of the Reich and back again. I didn’t see my first action un- til after D-Day. when 1943 changed everything. we of 416 had actually packed my first chute come a fighter pilot. England.” To my eternal joy. making parts for Tiger the over-whelming numbers of parachute needed to be repacked. A lot of that was due to the P-51 Mustang pilots of the US Army Air Force. We flew on alternating had stolen it during the night. I pilot program. Battle over Britain: Spitfires fly in formation. nice silk wedding dress. dive bombing and extremely valuable. I didn’t get a commission as an officer. returned for a quick ahead. ied machine shop in a technical hardly ever saw German fighters. the in 1939. but in many ways the ground and wiping them from before dawn. While I success- fully completed pilot training. By bathroom break and smoke. Moth trainers and other airplanes. Flying became a routine but. World at War 39 WaW11 Issue. and its maneuverability and ruggedness saved me more than a few times. It was a drained before the Air Force even though German aircraft were good thing I didn’t need to bail deemed me fit to fly and would rarely encountered. strafing Luftwaffe planes on ing you went for a briefing well were tough. the effects second mission of the day and get a job at DeHavilland Aircraft of round-the-clock bombing. The next morn- meal pancakes with butter. I was assigned to fly the Spitfires of 416 Squadron. by which time the Luftwaffe had been chased from the skies over France. Parachute silk was sinus trouble prevented me from patrolling.indd 39 2/11/10 4:27:29 PM . I immediately wanted Because of that lack of enemy ground crew told me someone to join the Air Force and be. That’s how solid the Spitfire was. generally three missions per imagine someone’s fiancé got a six months getting my sinuses day. the time I arrived. allow me to undergo the training still always a strong element of to get my wings. out of Bornemouth. Times many. Those cockpit the night before you were dinner often consisted of corn. I had to spend days. I had one shot to pieces. I stud. so someone initially being accepted into the strafing.

I saw the flashes from their tank. were moments of sheer terror that Despite hundreds of hours Serving in the Royal Canadian Air proved impossible to forget and of flight time. pithy articles for this column. flying which remain vivid to this day. since technically it was still when two anti-aircraft guns that bullet from my radio as a part of my “personal gear. Still. there closest I came to dying. and I was able to write revenge on him. The after the war ended. so we were the River Rhine and the French facing young and hastily trained border in the distance when my men. Their professional.000 words). but I reasoned were screaming around as I slid eventually retiring as a wing if everyone else could perform and jinked. at: nothing we could do about it. in one dogfight. and there was Wolfe 190s. We were escort. but also helped that I flew with some back up at 1. and I had just enough time of the mission. to have to bail out over German. and about past most of the fear. We could just see was almost drained. I joined a “destroyed in the attack. them as well. FYI editor. so it reserve squadron in Toronto and I’ll admit I was scared a lot was a hairy three minutes. those close-run experiences that time. I was part those great guys was something scared as hell. Our commander to react. and was no way I was going to do attack the guns. I called a warning and told him to return home and also turned into the enemy. I got to fly several jet despite their fear so could I. One of the ordered me to go back with him bullets hit my radio. little chance of catching Focke. off the ‘chute as having been was try to evade the artillery. as told to into Germany when the number toward them and were about to two aircraft in our formation engage when I saw the glint of Andrew Hind called and said he couldn’t switch six more 190s in the sun above to his main tank from his drop us. That was the about fighter aircraft. We turned for France and By that stage of the war. and we were eventu.000 feet we landed I made sure to extract chute. our airfield was man was going to go down nearby Despite the fear I felt at the strafed by German planes around and I didn’t want them to take time.” us on. but they never got commander. saw six Focke-Wolfe 190s in the ing American Marauder bombers clouds above us. it was yesterday. When I got home. It me. That motivation allowed me to get I kissed the ground. including the Voodoo. men whose heroism over another group of flak guns. the men with whom I served. Once again I was surrounded by simply one of the most beautiful ism and fearlessness made me a hail of bullets. so they fled after a few Tactics and Observation Post for World He was running on empty and moments. batteries opened up on us. If you’d like to try your hand losing altitude fast. during the war. contact Ty Bomba. when I flew nothing ever compared to the ex- intrepid guys. and it was near Spitfires. In fact.200 feet. When me to pay for the missing para. ally any aspect of WWII military his- ally forced to turn back when flak tory. the Air Force wanted Then things got a lot worse. since my wing.” guns had me in a crossfire. I still have it today. Their tactics were poor and Attention readers: We’re always look- wingman said: “I’m not going to they lacked the confidence to take ing for authors for FYI for Strategy & make it. just missing as escort. 40 #11 WaW11 Issue. I was just out of their range. We chased them over at War. and fighting alongside There was one time I was the end of the war. many years later.net. We climbed ~Charles Darrow. Worse. I was only ever Force during World War II. Thankfully. We were just under 1. WhiteRook@att.indd 40 2/11/10 4:27:29 PM . Ger- made for the quickest route out many’s pool of experienced pilots of Germany. but our Spitfires had at writing short (under 2. That meant he was going to machineguns as they opened fire run out of gas during the course on us. want to live up to their standards managed to get out of range of Even today. planes. in order to do the squadron proud. so all I could do didn’t sour me on flying. but I somehow planes of all time. I remember it like of a four-plane patrol when we I’d happily do again. my head. on virtu- controlled territory. perience of flying Spitfires. I didn’t want to souvenir of my only dogfight.” There opened up on us. Shells became its commanding officer. I’m still passionate about flying. that. It was inspired me. He was going Hamburg.

Eventually they landed on Baka that of HMS Li Wo. RNZNV. Shallow draught. setting a course Distinguished Service Medal The ship was given arma. True Action Adventure HMS Li Wo When recalling the fighting of The small steamer made a reported they saw Wilkinson still early 1942. The rest of the crew the Royal Navy and started firing Malaya RNVR. a native of Widnes. Lt. Arthur William Thompson re-commissioned as HMS Li Wo. four destroyers any further survivors. five Army and two Incredibly. Realizing escape was impos. He was made a sink it. six Chinese. Ronald G. she was a riverboat. The crew readily agreed. many of them civilians: no note of the little riverboat until Temp. the and in lifeboats.000. More specifically. such as at Java Sea. Lt. eventually officially recognized Li Wo had never been intended as sible. seldom merciful triumph of the Japanese as they forces heading to the island of Su. but not until after the Acting Chief Petty Officer Charles Halme of HMS Repulse and HMS Prince lead transport had taken a number Rogers. er then charged through Li Wo’s Most accounts don’t appreciate ers. together and told them he intend. she and her captain. One 24 hours by no fewer than 58 air. Leading Seaman William Dick of Wales. Sub-Lt. attempting to run down the gallantry of the Allied person. and survivors ~David March World at War 41 WaW11 Issue. who often rose far was already in poor shape. a ship in the Both the hull and superstructure Island. Leading Seaman Victor Spencer ment of a single four-inch gun steaming straight past the leading Distinguished Service Medal and two machineguns. Neverthe- nel thrown into those desperate and another 14 transports. Off the port bow they spot. and thus were able to ton passenger vessel designed to would’ve been hard-pressed to tell their tale after the end of the face the rapids of the Upper Yang. 10 Malayans and it unfurled the battle ensign of Temporary Sub Lieut. where the Japanese later wrong place at the wrong time. or the Philippines. RNR William Wilkinson. Tom the proper navy” and close with Victoria Cross Wilkinson. above what anyone could reason. Seven survived Wo. Able Seaman Albert Spendlove manned with an assortment of The Japanese seemed to take Mentioned in Despatches (Posthumously) people. 34 Europeans. he Lancashire. to a large piece of wreckage. cruiser Chokai. ued to fire at all those in the water and defeated ineffectual Allied ted a force of eight transports. at even the best of times. Li Wo less. The men of the Li Wo were tse Kiang River. to a POW camp. were pressed transport as he could and then Distinguished Service Order into service. eight survivors did get away. J. Thomas Wilkinson. Petherbridge. as they could. Temp. G. Off the starboard they saw the wreckage. and a complete an ocean-going vessel. been shot at during the previous along with three others who clung ably have expected of them. a 1. and the ship was boilers to as high a steam pressure Acting Petty Off. along with 19 other of direct hits and was set afire. war. Edgar Neil Derbridge. The lead destroy- navy units. having all crammed into one lifeboat. RNR temporary lieutenant in the Royal They worked frantically to get the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal Naval Reserve. and was escorts. contin- overran poorly protected colonies matra. Wilkinson called the crew for their bravery. cruiser Sendai and four destroy. Stanton. situations. and the captured them and sent them off Originally named the SS Li radio room was barely function. Even at the best of times they that ordeal. It was only then Palmer ships and services: some were the Japanese realized something Mentioned in Despatches from the disastrous reinforcement was up. meant to get as close to an enemy Temp. G. and the son of Capt. of those remarkable tales was craft during four separate attacks. make a successful run for it. powers. list of citations for the action is as pan declared war on the Western ed to do his duty as an “officer in follows. lasted an hour.indd 41 2/11/10 4:27:30 PM . one often thinks of the breakout from Singapore and was standing when the Li Wo was desperate struggles for Singapore traveling toward Australia when finally sunk by being rammed. the entire engagement RAF. the enemy. directly toward the lead transport. ing. were full of bullet holes. Wilding. When Ja. the inexorable it ran into two Japanese invasion The Japanese. Able Seaman Desmond was made up survivors from other its four-incher. Able Seaman John Smith Navy ratings.

pating they would be expendable heavy casualties on the Japanese pines as a protectorate following if war came. on Pearl Harbor. messages received from Hawaii hostile action thousands of miles Airpower advocates within the stating hostilities had begun.indd 42 2/11/10 4:27:30 PM . were dispatched to fly the new aircraft. As ten. MacArthur’s primary strike rearm and expand in 1940. despite lars and its soldiers’ blood to deter gine bombers became available. That mission accom- 1898. There were few High altitude raiders: B-17s and contrails. when new B-17 four-en- bombers on the ground. According to the if they attacked anywhere near the the Spanish-American War in American military’s “Rainbow” Philippines. Airfields were still be- ing lengthened even as the large bombers arrived. Japanese aircraft populace was isolationist and in That picture changed. the answer is woven into a President Roosevelt therefore from Philippine bases. B-17s were flown across the Pacific as fast as groups could be formed at the factories. and errors in judgment. with a minimum of forces. dispersal parking areas. protecting a territory that seemed after the US Navy had fought its eral hours after the surprise attack indefensible. Sev. and call for a change in strategy. ippines would hold out as long as islands to directly punish the ag- gressors. would World War II was the near total and Japan. the planes would then be defend them until their planned nese attack in the Pacific. The away from the homeland. Air Corps would be able to inflict Having acquired the Philip. for remote bases. in late 1941 a build-up of US aircraft in the Philippines was begun. Unfortunately. The latest-model radar sets were also sent. if conquered. the US was obligated to war plans. the majority of all heavy bombers in the US inventory were slated for service in the Philippines. Aircrews 42 #11 WaW11 Issue. plished. America’s leaders were later be the target of an amphibi- destruction of the Philippine Air confronted with the challenge of ous counteroffensive conducted Force on 8 December 1941. the Phil. finance. sent against the Japanese home independence in 1946. New fighters were crated and shipped to the islands on transport vessels. At one point during that build up. antici. Pilots. Accordingly. chose to garrison the Philippines henceforth expected the Army ego. vast areas of the Western Pacific ies. The force have been destroyed at there were few trained men and new idea called for the US to use almost no cost to the attackers? little modern equipment to spare the heavy bombers to dominate As with many historical myster. there was little infrastructure to support the new arrivals. It was complex web of politics. Mysteries Revealed Surprise Attack at Clark Field One of the many mysteries of sions mounted between the US possible and. ever. Further. in the event of a Japa. The American way back across the Pacific. fresh out of training school. how- caught US Army Air Corps no mood to spend millions of dol. military touted the new plane as question then arises: how could the US military had just begun to a weapon powerful enough to Gen.

There was then a second act loaded with fuel and bombs in to the battle: the Japanese fighters line for take off. even the ground. of. though. none Japanese air strike force that were able to reach the 20. clear of the field. avenge the destruction they’d wit- cific. airbases farther north. ers weren’t even test fired. Against 12 B-17s and 34 P- Most importantly. he had received just before noon. The the spring of 1942 before his new had just belatedly ordered. fighters landed and refueled.000-foot remained grounded by fog on altitude of the Japanese bomb- Formosa all that morning. chinegun ammo was so great the Philippines. picked up two Japanese recon. While some fighters tried therefore missed to catch the to take off during the attack. as it turned out. Starting the week Fields. him. which did the ground. they found wasn’t able to make decisions American planes crowding the prior to that time. Yet. MacArthur. their guns had been guns on the newly uncrated fight. though. sent to Gen. and up targets heading for Clark Field. fighters were dis. To their had to be billeted in tents in a bombers that were later caught on immediate dismay. but then the en. to take offensive counter-actions and he paced things accordingly. In a series of bungles. hoping to Gen. aircraft. waiting for the that had escorted the bombers to local weather to clear. Lewis Brereton. MacAr- for disaster. they might well have changed ers coming back from the south Air commander of the Philippines: the course of the opening round of pounced on them. That ers. Another radar warning was against the Japanese due to the Of course. Gen. The B. the tropical environment. That effective neutralization of their only a little over a month. the Japanese lost there was no urgency in day. Had the the target airfields were released B-17s been dispatched when the to strafe once the bombers got Pearl Harbor warning first came safely away. base on the ground but none in A golden opportunity was the air. seven Zeroes and one bomber. World at War 43 WaW11 Issue. their P-40s. Instead it was the American nessed on their airfield. the main American airbase in the Japanese pilots were skilled and. Some American fighters thur’s forces were thereby sud- prior to the Japanese attack. ~Ken MacFarlane ordered his planes to head south MacArthur wasn’t prepared to to protect Manila instead of the discuss the situation with Brere. were again sent aloft. The American fight- in. nance facilities were also turned new US-Philippine Air Force. The US fighters to the south force was made up of Imperial were recalled too late to catch the Japanese Navy (IJN) land-based bombers. the war in that part of the Pa. The radar had 40s destroyed. He 17s were then recalled to prepare to rubble and the only operational anticipated it would be at least for the attack mission MacArthur radar station was destroyed. It seems MacArthur was so When the Japanese arrived agitated by the news he simply over Clark Field. He also ton until five hours after that air failed to pass any warning to the force commander first went to see bomber group commander. emy wasn’t spotted. patched and bombers were sent tested. when the Pearl Harbor messages the interceptor group commander arrived on the day of that attack. American pilots discovered the little for morale.indd 43 2/11/10 4:27:31 PM . most of the Brereton had arrived on 4 Novem. The Americans thereby lost the ability command had to be combat ready. At the same time. which had been sent to report Americans’ hangers and mainte- ber 1941 to take command of the target weather conditions. but two denly and inescapably returned to ficial “war warnings” had been squadrons were held in reserve on the status of being expendable. of course. There were few When American radar picked Japanese Zeros were superior to anti-aircraft guns available. Lewis naissance planes from Formosa. was the main Japanese strike bases and the support structure for The setting was thus primed force heading for Clark and Iba launching such attacks. They also found the the shortage of 50 caliber ma. which were kept sitting. to-day operations.

burg. the Germans The Tannenberg memorial had were in full retreat. Eduard west. In the center of truck to the Baltic coast. Two days later. visited locations” in East Prussia had all Army honor guard. On the been destroyed. the re. and the German soldiers. with the bodies In 1933 the new Chancellor mission. Witnesses described a in the battle. guarded by 13 foot statues. the decision was made to again move the bodies. As the Soviets continued to advance. a living Tannenberg memorial in east guard was posted 24 hours a day. advance. Those locations included A crypt was built for Hinden- the headquarters at Rastenburg. cruiser Emden. Lt. those of Frederick William I and his son Frederick the Great. across surrounded by 20 foot mains of Hindenberg and his wife The convoy delivered the Hin- walls. Behind the Lines Operations Island Dash & Body Snatch On 20 November 1944.indd 44 2/11/10 4:27:32 PM . Inside. Prussia. 44 #11 WaW11 Issue. along with all the preserved Modern Monoliths: Rendering of the Memorial. commemorate that 1914 German sian border. in overall charge of the perilous voyage. Hitler facilities in the path of the Soviet ordered the monument altered. the entrance to which was the German Army headquarters guarded by two 13-foot statues of in the Steinnorter forest. After the death of prepare a plan to destroy strategic Field Marshall Hindenburg. In January 1945. he memorial into a shrine to National ordered Field Marshal Keitel to Socialism. The bodies were later moved by truck convoy to Potsdam. On 27 January ground was raised into a mound. Hauser. He took the occasion to Adolf Hitler left his eastern front evaluate the monument for future headquarters at Rastenburg for use. Operation Island victory over the Russians. Adolf Hitler. Eight 75-foot towers an. were disinterred and moved by denburgs into the custody of the chored each wall. (Operation Island Dash). and decided to expand the the last time. The plan for destruction Hindenburg was buried there in was codenamed Fall Inselsprung an elaborate ceremony in 1935. and were then stored at the Luftwaffe headquarters in Kurfurst. was destroyed by Army engineers. 20th a German Army convoy was the Red Army reached Rasten- with a stone octagon 325 feet dispatched to Tannenberg. burg. During Kriegsmarine near Danzig. the site. Gen. The the octagon was an underground the night of the 21st the memorial remains were placed on the light tomb holding the remains of un. reported the “special kept on deck watched over by an of Germany. A special unit was organized to take them. artifacts of Fredrick the Great. There they were joined by two other illustrious corpses. As the Soviets Tannenberg Memorial: Entrance been built in the mid-1920s to advanced across the East Prus. The two Fredericks had been removed from the Garrison Church in Pots- dam in order to protect them from Allied bombing raids. which steamed identified German soldiers killed On 25 January. The Dash was put into effect.

1943 to Frederick the Great. was scrawled on the coffin lids in ~Roger Mason red marker. ing through. After tunnel. Japanese Production Strategy henzollerns. On 13 March the convoy reached Bernterode in Thuringia. this time in Sanssouci Palace artifacts related to Frederick the outside Berlin. the closest relatives 15 Dec 10 Soft Underbelly: Italy. The somewhat Willie & Joe: Immortal Cartoons gruesome codename given to that Hurtgen: Vicious Forest Fight project was “Operation Body 14 Oct 10 What If: Pearl Harbor Invasion Snatch. where the congregation recently voted to discontinue maintain- The identification of each corpse ing a light shining on the Hindenburgs’ crypt due to rising utility costs. The Army thought Future issues of World at War it best to hand over jurisdic. Attention soon focused on a side tunnel that could be seen to have been freshly sealed. all lay in 7th Air Force in the Pacific the French and English zones of Spanish Division in Russia occupation. Lucius Clay. where the bodies and artifacts were stashed in a deep salt mine. and permission for 16 Feb 11 Partizan! The War in Yugoslavia reburial was denied by those mili- tary governors. The large salt mine com- plex outside Bernterode was soon discovered. Issue # Month Feature Articles tion to the State Department. The High Command: Tannenberg Memorial ceremony in 1938. In August World at War 45 WaW11 Issue. Church. military Arming the Free French governor of the US occupation zone. valuables or military secrets. and transport them by truck out of the Berlin area. Poland burial location related to the Ho. 1944 finally buried in St Elizabeth’s Battles for Malta Church in Marburg. The mine had over 14 miles of tunnels loaded with munitions and stolen treasure. As Allied forces overran Ger- many. The information about the discovery was transmitted up command channels all the way to Washington.” Greek Civil War: Prequel to Cold War The first plan was to find a Bzura Counteroffensive. 12 Jun 10 1940: What If Hitler Turned East? but the State Department passed Yelnia. Gen.indd 45 2/11/10 4:27:33 PM . care was taken to identify secret locations that might contain weapons. 1941: Two Analyses the responsibility back to the Matapan: Italian Naval Fiasco Army. US Army engineers discovered a large collection of 1991. 13 Aug 10 Red Armor at Kursk ficers to locate a suitable place to 1945 Manchurian Front rebury the coffins. The bodies were Sangshak: Bloodbath in India. Those British MI-5 in WW2 locations. the Fredericks were again reburied. however. The Hindenburgs remain in Marburg in St Elizabeth’s Great and four heavy lead coffins. therefore assigned three of.

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indd 47 2/11/10 4:27:33 PM . only once per category and use all six be working on for future issues of World at War. This survey paign. you will find six proposals per category. and would launch a major counteroffensive to reclaim them. Please rank the proposals from first to sixth. Javier Romero. Joseph Miranda. Each side will have its will determine what games will be going into issues own advantages: the Allies their fleets. Game Proposal Section In sections A through D. The game uses a beefed up Victory at Midway system with a special system to simulate submarine versus convoy escort battles. 18 South Seas Campaign a pocket of Germans trapped behind US lines nearby were the 19 Hardest Days target of relief attempts by German forces. 12 1940: What If? armor and artillery of German 19th Army in the rugged Vosges 13 Guards Tank (EFB#1) Mountains. the Germans. one soldier woke up in his foxhole to find a German sleeping next to him. Trapped behind enemy lines. Accolade. John Butterfield. corre- Please take a few minutes to review the game pro. As the US this: 7th Army advanced through southern France in the fall of 1944. and several others. the Battle of North Cape. In September 1943. artwork—there may be some changes to the schedule. So confused was the 20 Rhineland Crisis fighting. Ultimately it was the Japanese- 17 Leningrad ‘41 American Nisei of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team who broke through at tremendous cost. 300 15 Soft Underbelly men held out for almost a week. Amazingly. plus airborne forces. The games in issues 18 player conducts operations using naval. Map scale 500 meters 25 Race to the Reichstag per hex and 176 counters. air and land forces. There will be 228 medium-sized counters and two identical half-maps. We’re rankings. at the same time. in hopes of generating a stronger hand against the Soviets in the post-war Balkans. the Battle of the Barents Sea. Scenarios included are PQ-17. 24 Keren each representing one day of action. A2. they found themselves mired in a slugfest with the infantry. their last Mediterranean offensive.  The British player will attempt to withstand repeated attempts to dislodge those forces hanging on to the islands. Please use each rank- important source for determining what games we will ing. one through six. also seeking your input on additional ideas we’re con. A4. (mark 1 to 6) The World at War game line-up currently looks like A1. Norway 1940 will use the Red Dragon Rising system The games in issues 12 through 17 are printed and to simulate the German offensive into Norway in 1940. All that will produce fast and furious actions in which the victor won’t be known until the final Christopher “Doc” Cummins turn. as other US forces battled 16 Partizan! ferociously to relieve them. Publisher A3. sponding to the proposal you would most like to see published posals below and select the ones you would like to see being ranked first (1) and to the game you would least like to us publish in future issues.  Nothing exemplified the confusion and savagery of those battles more than the plight of the “Lost Battalion” of 14 Invasion Pearl Harbor the 36th Infantry Division.  German air and naval opera- tions. will be determined by chits. This feedback is the most see published being ranked sixth (6).  What he didn’t count on was Germany wasn’t prepared to concede the islands.” the seizure of the Italian-held Dodecanese Islands.  Accolade is a solitaire game simulating the German counterattack into the Dodecanese Islands in September and October 1943. The game is played in scenarios. despite the fact they’re left with limited air and sea forces due World at War 47 WaW11 Issue. West/Mediterranean Theater sidering. Each awaiting their magazines. Go For Broke! simulates that extraor- 21 Minsk (EFB #2) dinary situation using a new company-level system designed 22 Pacific Battles #1 for small unit actions over extended periods of time. through 25 are in various stages of development and alternating actions based on their level of command control. That will recreate the chaotic situation in the original cam- but those games are expected to appear. Go For Broke! Rescuing the Lost Battalion. as well as well as random events. Nordkapp will be a simulation of convoy battles in the Arctic in 1942-45. airpower 26 through 33. Scenarios 23 Sedan allow two players to focus on either relief effort or to play out an entire week of the campaign in multi-impulse game turns. Churchill launched “Op- eration Accolade. in which the Germans were able to seize Norway in the face of superior Allied sea power.

Extensive use A5. diverted to fight in Greece.indd 48 2/11/10 4:27:34 PM . capturing German supplies. The game map would go from Tobruk to his enlarging community of refugees by providing resources Tripoli. Festungs. One large-hex map. regiments and battlegroups. Vistula-Oder-Berlin will be a corps-army (for the So- tary operations against German forces. Midway Solitaire. but with a playing time of less than an hour. the player disastrous finale at Stalingrad later that year. Soviet break. at 12. after their Compass offensive objectives players must obtain that turn. It uses a chit system that randomly selects of supplies and air power. Budapest Bulge. the Last Battle several separated task forces. using chits to track army move. from raiding nearby farms.  The task is tricky but. Darin Leviloff. Units would be counters. The campaign came crashing to a and American forces close in on the Eastern Dorsal. position of controlling German forces. The map covers from value will be high. such as the Soviet Operation will be 228 medium counters. Tripoli ‘41 assumes Churchill instead ordered and mechanized cavalry corps-level formations. savage yet easy to play game. This solitaire game simulates the struggle as markers representing Rommel and O’Conner. There will be nine turns. British Soviet Caucasus oilfields. but before they had time to organize. such as the city of had cleared the Italians from the Western Desert in early 1941. novel and the subsequent movie. It would basically be a systemic and graphic update of dramatic day of fighting during the ground portion of the the first edition (published in S&T 118).  Navigating those challenges will be dif- and eastern Germany. Joseph Miranda. setting A6. The game would give players of VP cities before they’re occupied by the Western Allies. In the summer of 1942 the action with remnants of the famed Afrikakorps and relief troops Germans launched their great eastern offensive to seize the under the command of Gen. Axis units will be corps. the eastern front: the attack of the 6th SS Panzer Army around ing. and divisions for the Soviets and Romanians. Jackboots in the Caucasus. This will use Ty Bomba’s redesign of mega feedback of interesting possibilities. The Tigers are Burning. This design would cover firepower: a near-run thing. the Soviet player must conquer as certain number use to defeat the foe in detail. This design would use an evolution of the campaign for the Ukraine from July 1943 through April the First Blood system seen in S&T #248 to cover the most 1944. Others will provide Hitler and Stalin directives. Ty Bomba. Options include German jets. Stalingrad: The Pocket Battle. giving the Axis a reprieve in division breakdowns. the option of using advanced tactics.  The player will need to placate Soviet partisans by participating in acts of sabotage or mili- B1. flesh and fanaticism against steely American will and massive B3. The fight pitted Japanese victory. with the German player always through to Henderson Field across the geographic feature that just one step ahead (or maybe not) of a Soviet “sudden death” came to be known as Bloody Ridge. The action would be Guadalcanal campaign in 1942: the Japanese attempt to break fast and furious throughout. using a derivation of the system originally will allow the inclusion of the fictitious “Navarone” and its created for Command magazine’s Wave of Terror. since it wouldn’t have been shot than their historic predecessors. as well as additional airpower. attempting a holding B4. but they’re moving in sia. This redesign would model C2. The British would be approaching the Bulge system to simulate the last German offensive on Tripoli at the time Rommel and the Afrikakorps were arriv.”  The player attempts to maintain situation in Libya. with air strikes as well B6. while withstanding viets) and divisional (for the Germans) simulation of the last the inevitable Nazi “clearing operations” against a series of five months of the war in the east in Poland. vantage of superior intelligence from ULTRA. Beilski Otriad. Joseph Miranda brigades. with some mechanized the British halted their offensive. Rules will cover maskirovka. Ty Bomba. As Free French. fight for the flanks (clearing operations at Prus. There will be 228 medium up on Crete. Kriegsmarine naval support. von Arnim. replay ability and value are high. There will be 176 large-size iconic the pocket battle fought in and around Stalingrad in the autumn counters. Silesia and Pomerania. There would of Jewish partisans with the “Beilski Brothers” and their also be a random events table to show the outcome of other Byelorussian forest refuge. Memel to Dukla Pass. the replay to May 1945. which he can To win.  Optional rules and winter of 1942. as recently featured in the mo- operations in the Mediterranean that would impact on the tion picture “Defiance. B2. German in-depth defense. 228 Pacific Theater (mark 1 to 6) medium counters. Historically. The Japanese have superior offensive). system to model the great aircraft carrier battle of June 1942. The player would have the ad- (the final offensive on Berlin) and Race to Prague (May). Ty Bomba. 48 #11 WaW11 Issue. numbers of carriers and capital ships. Tripoli ‘41. C1. February-March). or Eastern Theater (mark 1 to 6) obtaining outside assistance. German units will be also receive additional units representing forces historically divisions. Darin Leviloff.   It uses a similar system to Victory Point after-action report on this campaign would be used to create a Games’ Israeli Independence.  The player is placed in the unusual would also be included. combat air patrol at different altitudes. This will use the Coral Sea Solitaire throughs. Soviet units will be infantry armies North Africa. the main Axis base in Libya. Stalingrad.5 miles to the hex. from January ficult. There will be a campaign game The player would control American forces. Units of formidable guns. as immortalized by the Alistair MacLean’s maneuver would be battalions and regiments for the Germans. but then the Germans would get Victory is via a point system in which players try to do better their 7th Airborne Division. Czechoslovakia relocating shelters. A what-if “Breakout Scenario” ment and random events. Certain chits will time under an hour. and from Lublin in southern Poland to Leipzig and Rostock in Germany. Darin Leviloff. to the simultaneous Salerno landings in Italy. Caucasus will must hold Allied advances long enough to secure permission use the They Died with Their Boots On system to simulate to evacuate North Africa. The WDF would Budapest and the Lake Ballatin oilfields. Soviets will be corps. while the game plus several scenarios: Red Storm on the Reich (the January system would run the Japanese. Bloody Ridge. That presents all kinds B5. Airpower is the Western Desert Force to continue its drive in order to take represented by air strike markers. Tunis 1943 is a solitaire game simulating the final Allied of data recently made available in the Red Army’s official drive on Tunis. Joseph Miranda. Joseph Miranda Tripoli. Uranus. Fuehrer orders.  There give players one time bonuses. with playing sub-commands for operational impulses. such as stacking their Javier Romero. while withstanding a deterioration this campaign.

D5. Units will be divisions and corps. though Other Proposals (mark 1 to 6) initially successful through the use of Matilda tanks. instead invade the USSR.StrategyAndTacticsPress. can be used for future scenarios. Units will be team-level. in Large hex-map and 176 large counters. This design would model historic topography. or they can examine the what-ifs inherent in the possibility of Russian intervention. British commando raid on Tobruk in September 1942. Planning 3 to 5 subs. deception and other the Japanese super-battleship Yamato during its final sortie things thing you can use to execute the mission. ers sunk approaching Leyte Gulf is also provided. This will be a solitaire game C5. Operation Coronet. the Hungarian coup of 1944. The Soviets are played using a simple www. Large-hex map with 176 large counters. David March  Please use the form on page 51 D2. Plan Gertrud. including air units.indd 49 2/11/10 4:27:34 PM . The system against US forces invading Okinawa in 1945. Joseph Miranda. down easily in the rocky shale of the area around Gallabat. consisting of old types of equipment and personnel to assign to his force and. The strategic town of Gallabat was attacked by the Allied interception efforts. C4. ships and air cover. about movement paths and when to surface ships during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. but they break conceived by OKW over fear Turkey might join the Allies. one will be published either eight or 12 issues later. or visit the online form at: The title comes from a night attack the Germans made at Rezhavets during the Battle of Kursk. as well as the island D4. Should this proposal be never-launched French push to the Ruhr that same month. however. from her supplies of vital materials while supporting invasions and Panzer Brigade 150 and the special units infiltrated into and sinking the surface combatants forces the US player to American lines during the Battle of the Bulge (the game will juggle different goals for the most gain. Variants players can play the historic German invasion of Poland in will be included allowing for alternate invasion sites and the September. The Japanese OOB. the game presumes the Germans actually attack Turkey. Individual tanks are used. could’ve defeated the Japanese Central Force of once the action begins. the Ital- ians then threw back by concentrating massed airpower and D1. and an attempt by the Japanese fantasy scenario of Skorzeny’s commandos driving American to force their way into the Gulf. the German player C6. ammunition. mins/Joe Youst. The assumption is the maps. include two of those operations). covering the or they can link the two scenarios for a combined what-if proposed April 1946 invasion of the Kanto Plain near Tokyo covering both. island of Kyushu. including battleships Musashi and Mutsu and the cruis. in November 1940 the British the player has won. threaten Syria and Iraq and open a southern front against the Caucusus oil fields. with the player in control of an armored column attempting to penetrate Soviet lines. Joseph Miranda. one for a blue water engagement and one of the Leyte Japanese decide to forego their offensive in the Pacific and Gulf area. great “what-ifs” of World War II. The game would engage in combat. This will be an update of the S&T classic soli. If the Yamato reaches Okinawa. Pacific Subs covers the WW2 US submarine campaign covering German commando Otto Skorzeny’s special opera- in the Pacific at the strategic level game. One of the forgotten battles of the Abyssinian to Okinawa while the system will generate various types of campaign. escort through with combat units. Continues 88 The scale will be division-level with support from the Italian navy as they can pass through the straight of the Dardanelles. Kommando Skorzeny. C3. Roger Mason. the replacing Kurita. At the start of a scenario. hex equals 16 miles. One of the would include 60 rectangular ships measuring 1x0. Complexity is low to force. limited ammunition for US ships. Two invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. The scales are one turn equals two days. Olympic. moderate. Rules starts you will have an array of weapons to utilize. Units are platoons and companies. This game forces. will be more accurate and provide players with and what-if campaigns of the first month of WWII. accepted. 1939: Hinge of Fate. training. Italians in July 1939.5 inches. Area movement map. 1942 is a two player “what if” simula- competent leadership. Gallabat. a sequel game. Last Voyage of the Yamato. The game will include a Strategic level game with counters equaling “wolf packs” of mini-map for each scenario.com agent-based system designed to react to the presence of enemy World at War 49 WaW11 Issue. will be critical. Kurita (25 October 1944). Two a more historical challenge than the original game. There will be different CRT to demonstrate taire game of the intended invasion of the southern Japanese Japanese and Soviet tactics. elite crews. Ghost Column is a tactical-level game with a twist. Doc Cum. David March order to relieve pressure on the Italians. Cutting Japan off tions: the rescue of Mussolini. The player will will respond by throwing up various obstacles the player will have operations points with which he can “purchase” various have to overcome by using operations markers or by fighting types of ship modifications. He then will sail from the Yamato’s base D6. Ugaki Meuse River by Rommel’s 7th Panzer Division in 1940. Counters D3. Ty Bomba. leadership effects such as Adm. Soviet and British as 10th relief forces may also appear in or- der to aid the Turks. but when the shooting the  Seventh Fleet forming a battle line near its entrance. The system would include air strikes. 10th Indian Infantry Brigade launched an attack that. battleships. Strike North: Japan Attacks the USSR. a hypothetical Japanese and smaller square counters for leaders and air strikes.  A more powerful Japanese tanks during the Battle of the Bulge. The game is solitaire. Originally air units are flights. the ability of US ships to fire on the Japa. Otto Reichardt. Stealth cover both a meeting engagement outside Leyte Gulf and and command decisions are emphasized. and a nese from within Leyte Gulf. Joseph Miranda. George Valaitis. The ground units are companies and the tion of a German invasion of Turkey during 1942. This will be a solitaire will expend Command points will be used to buy operations game in which the active player will be the commander of markers representing intelligence. The player will have to make decisions about what examines whether the US Seventh Fleet. including: the crossing of US radar advantages. Seventh Fleet vs.

The game would use Editions in World at War as well. The map covers the border to Moscow at 16 miles b) 2-3 times per year per hex. John Schettler d) Rarely or Never E5. F1. e) Never Boots Sicily will give additional chits for German Gen. Units will of Russian Civil War). third (3) fourth (4) and fifth (5) Please indicate which article types you would like to see choice. c) Once a year Akhtyrka and Lutchessa Valley. regiments and battalions. any game with two or more separate everyone else. game proposals The system uses chits to generate operations for individual sub-commands as well as various random events. giving the Axis player the opportunity to outmaneuver a) Two-map games only his much stronger Allied opponents. Can you take Moscow d) Rarely or Never before Hitler turns AGC south? Ty Bomba F4. Miranda Double Feature. Military Equipment E4. Famous a) Every issue Divisions is a new Quadri-game system featuring a specific b) 2-3 times per year division in battle against opponents at four points of WWII. quadri. table will also generate various levels of German response The first one will appear in S&T #267 (an update/expansion depending on how well the Soviets are doing. Race for Stalingrad c) Once a year would cover the Soviet double envelopment of Stalingrad in d) Rarely or Never the winter of 1942-43. Please answer as indicated in the questions. Famous a) Every issue Divisions is a new Quadri-game system featuring a specific division in battle against opponents at four points of WWII. Sidebars detailing unusual or interesting facts within sides. two shorter articles in lieu of one E6. Montgomery and Patton. using a modified form of the classic F5. with some specialized brigades/regiments. E2. Each player must race to be the first to reach his c) Once a year operational objectives on his side of the map. Shorter articles (i. Letters to the editor SPI Battle for Germany system. Random events will include everything from Allied airpower being diverted to attacking the mainland to e) Either is fine Patton’s famous soldier slapping incident. to allow for some larger the latest information about the Red Army in World War II. The second of the two games is Boots Sicily which will E1. Editions for World at War. and as it relates to a specific article Germans are multi-step. How often we should run Special Editions? use the They Died With Their Boots On system to model the a) Once a year Allied invasion of Sicily in the summer of 1943. This was a b) Once every other year remarkable campaign in which a German panzer corps fought c) Once every three years a successful delaying action against two Allied armies. Panzers East: Units are primarily divisions for both F3.e. airpower. Each would also command Axis forces facing the b) 2-3 times per year other player. d) Rarely or Never John Schettler F2. led d) Only when readership votes for specific by two of the best Allied generals. with some separate brigades. That maps. Topics/formats: Hube. Units will be regimen- b) Multiple scenarios (for example. Please indicate your interest in Special including the use of deception operations and their resurgent mobile warfare doctrine. and the Axis evacuation mega feedback d) Prefer multiple scenario but two-map is OK to the mainland. This would feature length article) be the proposal described in C4 done in one special edition. the Stalin Line. This would be two regular b) 2-3 times per year Miranda magazine games in one issue. Italian morale. thereby gaining d) Rarely or Never 50 #11 WaW11 Issue. special rules for Guderian. and how frequently. Operation Veritable and Bonning Hardt Ridge. b) 2-3 times per year Guards Armor scenarios include: Operation Goodwood. Gross Deutschland scenarios include: Kursk. Soviets are one-step with unknown a) Every issue strengths. Rollbahns. variable phase sequences. Allied c) Prefer two-map but multiple is OK deception operations. two counter sheets. c) Once a year Joe’s Bridge. No ZOC. c) Once a year Hitler’s interference. We are considering running Special be divisions and corps with airpower. f) No interest Sections F and G ask a few additional questions that will Please rank the Special Edition proposals in E3 through help guide us. WWII game topics. Special Editions recognition from the Kremlin. Gross Deutschland (Famous Divisions Series). maps) Special rules for airborne operations by both sides. as well as possible additional We are running Special Edition issues (games with two reinforcements all generated by a random events table. and 32 pages of rules) in S&T. Guards Armor (Famous Divisions Series). Leader profiles E3. second (2). Joseph Miranda. Each of the two players would command one wing of the Soviet forces racing to envelop the a) Every issue Sixth Army. supply at- tenuation. E7 as first (1). a) Every issue E7. Mischurin Rog. Operation Downfall: Olympic & Coronet. and divisions for games. tal-sized kampfgruppen for the Germans.indd 50 2/11/10 4:27:35 PM .

CA 93390-1598 Use the Online form at: 3 A3 C3 E3 www.com 4 A4 C4 E4 5 A5 C5 E5 6 A6 C6 E6 7 B1 D1 E7 8 B2 D2 F1 9 B3 D3 F2 10 B4 D4 F3 11 B5 D5 F4 12 B6 D6 F5 13 F6 14 #15 15 G) 16 Comments: 17 18 Name Address City/State/Zip Country email World at War 51 WaW11 Issue. F6.StrategyAndTacticsPress. b) 2-3 times per year c) Once a year d) Rarely or Never Feedback World at War #11-M Place your answer to the right of the number. 1 A1 C1 E1 Mail this form or a copy to: Strategy & Tactics Press 2 A2 C2 E2 PO Box 21598. Bakersfield. Please list any article topics you would like to see in a) Every issue future issues. Personal or First-person accounts G.indd 51 2/11/10 4:27:35 PM .

2Ghz recommended) 36 5 Australia RAM : 128 MB (256 MB recommended) Screen : Minimum resolution 1024x768. air. new setups. with autosend. F Multiple map overlays show the supply net. declare war on neutral nations. inbox. and zones of control. Play takes place on a 159x133 hex map of Europe and North Africa. sea and strategic forces of the Axis. F Select from 10 scenarios (shorter games focused on a single major offensive). War in the East (two. Naval power and air power are abstracted as points rather than on-map units. Asia OS : Windows 98/ME/NT/2000/XP/Vista (XP/Vista recommended) CPU : Pentium III 800Mhz (Pentium 4. 1. Signature PO Box 21598 Bakersfield CA 93390 Phone # 661/587-9633 • fax 661/587-5031 • www. 16 bit color Name HD : 50MB free space Windows Compatible Sound Card and Mouse Address City/State/Zip Country V/MC # Exp. F Fully featured game editor for creation of new scenarios and campaigns. air range. Allied and Soviet powers in order to change or recreate the events of the war.  There’s no computer/AI player in the game. create new units. Windows Edition War in Europe is a computer-moderated simulation of the European Theater of Operations in World War II. multiple customizable map sets and customizable icons. Soviets versus Axis). F Support for any screen resolution. The game is a division-level simulation.indd 52 2/11/10 4:27:38 PM . territory ownership. amphibious assault. $59. and War in Europe (three-player. or 16 campaigns (the whole war from a specified date through May ‘45 or the defeat of one side). South America.95 Shipping Charges (Rates are subject to change without notice. Axis versus Allies & Soviets). players make all the critical decisions.player. and control the ground.com 52 #11 WaW11 Issue. while also allowing one-click switching between areas of interest. browse mode and multiple file load/save tracking. tactical air and strategic bomber points. F A unique “tabbed” map display allows each player to define his own set of map views. including: surface fleet. and edit the data tables used in the game.) 1st unit Adt’l units Type of Service $12 $2 UPS Ground (USPS PM add $5) 24 3 Canada System requirements : 34 3 Europe. You decide on production schedules. F Battle on three fronts—War in the West (two-player. Allies versus Axis). with some brigade and corps-sized ground units. transport. U-Boat. F Fully integrated PBEM mode.decisiongames.

com World at War 53 WaW11 Issue.StrategyAndTacticsPress. CA 93390-1598 ph: (661) 587-9633 • Fax: (661) 587-5031 www.indd 53 2/11/10 4:27:42 PM .O. Box 21598 Bakersfield. P. Back Issues Available Complete list of available issues on our website including Strategy & Tactics issues.

indd 54 2/11/10 4:27:43 PM . Larson 54 #11 WaW11 Issue. Overview & Analysis: World War II German A By George A.

who became the most experienced German air- borne combat commander. forming the core of the Luftwaffe. stripped Germany of most of its armed forces. we will teach gliding as a sport to all young men. Second. we will create the skeleton of a military air force. And it’s by air power that we are going to recapture the German Empire. On 10 March 1935. After Hitler came to power in 1933. glider assault and the direct air landing of troops in transports.: n Airborne Operations The Treaty of Versailles. we will do three things. but by September 1939 it still only consisted of only two parachute rifle regiments. Third. which was an overt violation of the Treaty of Versailles. In October 1938. Article 198 completely for- bid them to have any kind of military air arm. The 22nd Infantry Division was soon converted into an “airlanding” formation in order to be able to assist 7AD in the second part of its mission. then. future commander of the Luftwaffe. summed up the Luftwaffe’s airborne assault doctrine as follows: In every landing there are two separate phases. First. once an initial airhead had had been established. Even so. General Kurt Student. on 28 June 1919. During the 1920s and 1930s. that proclamation elicited no response from either England or France. First. the objective of the air landing must be captured or held during the follow- ing ground battle. actually boasted to newspaper editors at the time how Germany was to throw off the military restrictions: Our future is in the air. Freiheer von de Heydte. we will build up German commercial aviation. commanded by Maj. Col. Second. he went the next step. officially announcing the existence of the Luftwaffe. the Weimar government began circumventing those restrictions by funding sports glider clubs. World at War 55 WaW11 Issue. To accomplish that. with an airhead established. glider pilots switched to powered aircraft. the 7th Flieger Division (7AD) was created as a paratroop unit. The 7AD’s overall role. the strip of terrain must be captured from the air. Herman Goring. It was to have been organized similarly to a standard German infantry division. was to capture objectives by parachute jump.indd 55 2/11/10 4:27:44 PM .

That 56 #11 WaW11 Issue. 5. The second form of airborne operation centered airborne troops were committed to the Netherlands to on the all-out assault of large areas.” during the attack on Norway. The 7AD was committed on the eastern front as an close air combat support strikes. He was held in the mountains east of Rome. all such operations in heavy losses. In a daring rescue operation. 7.000 feet above sea level. led by the infamous Otto Skorzeny. conducting a gliderborne assault tion included: Belgium. combat operations. and based on equipment failed one bridge short of the overall objective. Fourth. resulted match the assignment. German airborne operations came to be of two types. The invasion of France and the Low Countries began One form of attack involved sending an advance airborne with paratroops dropping on three Belgian bridges: unit to capture important terrain features. bypassing Vroenhoven and Veldwezelt (captured) and Schechter obstacles and holding against enemy counterattack until (destroyed by Belgian troops). without the assistance of con. Third. (Much the same as the Allies would the objectives to be seized in any airborne operation.) and training. Fifth. Dutch resistance and securing critical bridges to permit ventional ground forces. so as not to be targeted while unarmed and but were soon captured by Norwegian forces. among other firsts. German 1944. elite infantry unit where it was often used to stop Soviet breakthroughs. ing worked to reduce the number of trained airborne troops below the critical operational threshold. ideal size for an operation intended to seize limited and 6. estimated at 7. The operation involved using Ju-52 aircraft to make surprise landings at Olso’s 4. quickly subdued Mussolini’s guards and then flew out Airborne assault: German glider troops disembark. role. which was probably the men had any actual airborne training. That type of opera. thereby removing the center of 1941 and Leros in 1943. The 7AD also completed supporting ground troops arrived. in the Hotel Campo Imperatore.000 airborne troops committed. attempt during Operation Market Garden in 1944. a crucial operation. territory. That operation. drop at Narvik was made to reinforce ground troops at. in respect to numbers. arrange for follow-on supply drops and the arrival of reinforcements. Eventually 11 airborne divisions were formed. and porary. such as Crete in capture The Hague. accurate aerial reconnaissance. men. is needed to allow for 1. pre-launch surprise must be maintained its echo effects. acting as the “Fuehrer’s Fire- German use of airborne troops began in April 1940. Paratroops henceforth jumped carrying their personal Fornebu Airfield.indd 56 2/11/10 4:27:45 PM . Late in 1943 the Germans conducted two very differ- ent airborne operations. communications in and out of the airhead need to be 2.000+ committed some 500 Ju-52s. DFS-230s were released from Ju-52s and landed at an altitude of 6. the airborne force to be committed must The airborne invasion of Crete in May 1941. Denmark and against Fort Eben Emael that. as well as coordinated 3. A parachute retrieving airdropped weapons. advancing mechanized forces to spearhead the main There are many considerations when determining ground attack. weapons. 22. but by tacking that port. but First. the Netherlands. once airborne troops are on the ground. both before and during the operation. Corinth in 1941 and the Ardennes in inaugurated the combat use of the DFS-230.000 KIA or missing out of require at least local air superiority. Those paratroops. 8. Airborne replacements received a shortened training set up and maintained in order to be able to best direct cycle due to the worsening combat situation. the Luftwaffe the summer of 1944 only 30. No German parachute division-sized force was used the best use of terrain and the identification of enemy again as an integral combat unit in the airborne defenses. had the following major repercussions in order to protect airborne forces when they’re most for German airborne operations during the rest of the vulnerable: at the time of their insertion into enemy held war. Italy’s dictator Benito Mussolini was taken into custody by Italian troops who’d defected to the Allied cause. Training was somewhat expanded to include the operation of captured enemy weapons. even if only tem. Norway in 1940.000 of those 100. Paratroops were dropped at Dumbas. the dictator in a light reconnaissance aircraft. Constant commitment to conventional ground fight- specific objectives in support of a large ground force. The heavy attrition in the junior officer and NCO cadre reduced its close combat and independent command skills. Altogether in Norway. Second.

Two battalions in one regiment (standard organizational strength). May 1941 battalions). 3rd Parachute Regiment Four companies in one battalion (standard organi. One company consisted of 144 7th Anti-Tank Battalion men. 1st Parachute Regiment 2nd Parachute Rifle Regiment (consisting of two 2nd Parachute Regiment battalions). September 1939 7th Flieger for the Crete Airborne 1 Parachute Rifle Regiment (consisting of three st Invasion. 7th Flak Battalion One glider company consisted of 12 DFS-230s. 7th Flieger Division. Four glider companies were assigned Division Headquarters per battalion Parachute Signal Unit Parachute Medical Unit Parachute Supply Unit Attached: Sturm Regiment World at War 57 WaW11 Issue. That accounted for 120 glider troops per company.indd 57 2/11/10 4:27:47 PM . Machine Gun Battalion Each DFS-230 could carry one pilot and nine combat Pioneer Battalion (engineers to prepare for air landing troop aircraft/gliders) troops. 7th Artillery Battalion zational strength).

indd 58 2/11/10 4:27:47 PM .430 lbs. There the Germans first conducted an amphibi- ous operation. The Ju-52 The Ju-52 short-range tactical transport was used by the Luftwaffe from the Spanish Civil War to the end of the war in Europe.835 Operational at End of War 50 demonstrated the surprise effect a properly executed glider attack can have when used to capture a specific and limited objective via shock and unexpected offensive action. German airborne forces were committed using 112 Ju-52s in an early morning paradrop on 17 December 1944. and a company in Spain built another 170. followed by a drop of 400 paratroops from Ju-52s on 12 November 1943. Combat weight 23. who believed the Germans could no longer conduct such operations after their defeats in North Africa.000 feet Armament Three . however. Then came the Battle of the Bulge. The paratroops ended up scattered over a wide area. As part of the surprise winter counteroffensive against a lightly de- fended sector in the Ardennes. Interestingly.303 caliber machineguns Number Built 4. No force capable of mounting a cohesive Into the air: German paratroopers board a Ju-52.120 lbs. 58 #11 WaW11 Issue. German paratroops were to capture two bridges across the Meuse River and con- duct various disruptive operations in the American rear area. By 16 November the island had been secured by the combined amphibious and airdropped forces. It served in all combat theaters in all weathers. That was followed by the drop of another 400 paratroops the next day. In 1943. because of heavy cross winds and poor visibility. Cargo Combinations 8. an airborne operation was conducted to dislodge British troops from the island of Leros in the Aegean. The Leros battle surprised Allied planners. cutting the island into two and helping to secure the invasion beaches.000 lbs. or 18 fully equipped troops Tow capacity 1 DFS-230 glider 1 Go-0242 glider Crew 2 pilots 1 gunner/radio operator Power Plant 3 830 hp BMW 132T-2 nine cylinder air cooled engines Maximum Speed 183 mph Cruising Speed 142 mph Altitude 18. after the war a French aviation company built 400 more of them. Wingspan 95’ 11” Length 61’ 8” Tail height 14’ 9” Empty weight 14. Sicily and mainland Italy.

Crete showed the tactical force was inserted by gliders. jump-training among most to enemy ground fire.300 were landed in Ju-52s. learned at the time indicated that. they operation was Crete. slowed by it extra-large wing flaps. tion: Another doctrinal problem wrestled with by the Parachute landings are widely scattered. the airborne assault was to have been supported effectiveness of glider delivery of troops relative to by an amphibious landing. On experience with airborne operations had to do with the Crete. The Germans’ only large airborne as a unit. it was simply prevented it. Additional troops were flown in via air Kesselring commented on parachute versus glider inser. It had wheels for take-off. 5.600 lbs. except pistols and grenades. There were also no concrete plans likely ideal for an independent glider operation. though. especially for German troops in North Africa. but that was turned back by that of parachute entry. Its first flight was in 1937. Further. and Aerial armada: Luftwaffe Ju-52 transports fly in the wasted effort added little to the overall German at. as An issue never finally determined by the German was done during the invasion of the West in 1940. during World at War 59 WaW11 Issue. of cargo Maximum Tow Speed 180 mph Cruising Tow Speed 130 mph Maximum Glide Speed 112 mph ground attack managed to assemble on the ground. transport. the dropped airborne force was simply too small to affect weapons. Wingspan 72’ 1” Length 36’ 10” Tail Height 8’ 11” Empty Weight 1. formation. In larger for supporting or linking with the main German ground offensive operations.indd 59 2/11/10 4:27:48 PM . At the same time. be melded with some kind of outside troop support. though. tack. After Crete it was turned into a cargo transport. Cargo Combinations 1 pilot 9 fully equipped troops or 3. Many were abandoned on airfields overrun by Allied troops. Of the remaining airborne disadvantage of troops landing without their troops. Allies later referred to it a as a “modern-day Trojan Horse. provided an operation because Allied air superiority in clear weather would’ve was small enough (as in the Mussolini rescue). of the troops committed varied from non-existent to Another aspect of that question for airborne doc- merely inadequate. so Germans concerned the proper tactical mix of glider assembly takes time.500 lbs. Gliders can deliver men troops and paratroops. glider landings needed to force. where five percent of the airborne are written off… . The parachute drop or in independent actions? The lessons drop had to be made under those conditions. Luftwaffe Field Marshall Albert the Royal Navy. But once used.890 lbs. Combat Weight 5. ready for combat. the Ju-52 pilots were unable trine was: should gliders be used in conjunction with a to locate the drop zones due to the poor visibility. The DFS-230 Glider The DFS-230 was a light-weight combat glider that could be towed by the Ju-52. which then dropped off and the glider landed on skids.” delivering troops silently and unnoticed behind the lines. [having] the outcome of a battle the size of the one fought in the to locate dropped armaments [while] vulnerable Ardennes. Interestingly. Even had the German landing gone better.

ed. or ground covered oversized cargo and weapons could be delivered into a forward combat with tall grass. 133 of them were modified terrain with any amount of thick vegetation. The Concise Guide to American Aircraft of World War II. With a rear cargo door between twin-boom tails. or to deliver troops to North Africa. hedges or fences. Taylor. Buell. deliver troops at night.900 lbs. David... airborne forces were increasingly no longer in a position to commit to large glider operations because of the loss Cargo Combinations 21 troops or 7. World War II Album. Gliders were best used to historical photographic archives. and sandy area.H. Later. The Complete Chronicle of the World’s Greatest Conflict.5” would allow Ju-52s to bring in follow-on troops. swampy or wooded ground. It could be towed by either the Ju-52 transport or the Gliders were ideal for use in terrain consisting of He-111 bomber. New York: Crescent Books. Aerial workhorse: Gotha-242 glider The Go-242 the later assault on Leros no gliders were available for The Go-242 was designed and developed as a replacement for the Germans. once secured. German Combat Weight 14. 1990. into twin-engine supply transports. 1993. It wasn’t advisable to commit gliders to rocky Luftwaffe inventory.000 lbs. The Rand McNally Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft: 1914 to Present. New York: Galley Books.528 built. the DFS-230. Inc. ditches. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Pubs.000 lbs. into lightly or undefended areas of acceptable terrain. Mondey. the Go-244B-1. ed... small vehicle or one light artillery gun Crew 2 pilots at Maximum glide 180 mph speed Armament Four . Angelucci. New Jersey: Chartwell Books. of cargo or one of air superiority to the Allies.indd 60 2/11/10 4:27:49 PM . it was the most widely used glider in the ground. Janes Encyclopedia of Aviation. 1964. It was used extensively on the eastern front and or uneven ground. Photo: Luftwaffe stonewalls. Wing Span 80’ 4. 2002. Michael J. Inc.303 caliber machineguns Further Reading Enzo. as well as cleared cropland. With over 1. That same terrain. moderately soft ground with grass. ers once they were on the ground. After Crete. 60 #11 WaW11 Issue. They were most vulnerable to anti-aircraft and small Tail Height 14’ arms when the troops inside them were exiting the glid- Empty Weight 7. Length 51’ 10” German gliders were slow and easily hit targets. Hal.

The wheels were jettisoned on take-off. Victorious. Later a further modification was made. which Tail Height 33’ 4” was assisted by wing-mounted rockets for added lift due Length 92’ 4’ to heavy cargo weight. World at War 61 WaW11 Issue. adding six engines to the glider and thereby creating a large powered transport. along with a fifth engine Tow Speed 100 mph fastened between the two sections. The Ju-90 originally was originally intended Combat Weight 75. The Me-321 Gigant The Luftwaffe developed a heavy transport glider for supply operations on the eastern front. but at an extremely slow towing speed. to tow the glider. and Wing Span 180’ 5” nose-mounted clamshell doors that were opened from the inside. at least for now: German airborne troops after the capture of Eben Emael.300 lbs. with Combinations or 23 tons of cargo two He-111s joined together. That aircraft could get the large glider airborne. The next alternative attempted Crew 2 pilots was using three Me-110s.800 lbs. which proved dangerous for Cargo 130 fully equipped troops all involved. Many were shot down when trying to run supplies and troops to North Africa. but it was underpowered and proved to be an inadequate. problem. The final alternative was a hybrid. Towing this monster was a great Empty Weight 27.indd 61 2/11/10 4:27:49 PM . It had a framework of steel tubing covered with fabric.

Histori- cal Study Booklet. RAF: Eagle puts you in control of the Luftwaffe raiding England. Player Aid cards & display. radar. each hex equals 275 yards. The game controls the RAF response. free hunt. one inch equals 20 miles (32 kilometers). Units are companies for both sides. artillery. one controlling Fighter Command and the other the Luftwaffe. Historical Study Booklet. The game is for two playing cooperatively. responding to German raids. engineers and HQ. 3 34” x 22” Map. Each game turn equals 15 minutes in the basic game or 30minutes in the extended game. One 34x22” Full-Color Map. Each game turn equals a “raid day” with six two-hour segments. Beyond the Beach (four to five hours) picks up on the high ground and adds rules for German tactics. The game takes into account intangibles such as leadership under fire and the initiative of American GIs. 6 June 1944 D-Day at Omaha Beach recreates America’s most bloodiest day of World War II. and flak.indd 62 2/11/10 4:27:55 PM . New Solitaire Games RAF: The Battle of Britain. Units are British squadrons and German groups. The game’s system generates targets and forces. tension and play options with three complete games. the Observer Corps. Rules Booklet. D-Day at Omaha Beach. 1940 England stands alone against Germany. 165 Cards. 55 Event Cards. Rule booklets. You schedule raids and assign missions to your bombers and fight- ers. 2 Dice and Storage bags. Scenarios range from one day.” altitude advantage. defended only by the Royal Air Force. Contents: 352 5/8” Counters. each controlling a division. ace squadrons. which remain hidden until you commit your squadrons. day and night bombing. designer John Butterfield ramps up the historical accuracy. “big wings. Units include assault infantry. Features include: German priorities. Hitler orders his Luftwaffe to destroy the RAF in preparation for the invasion of England. 62 #11 WaW11 Issue. D-Day at Omaha Beach (seven hours) covers the entire day. tanks. squadron patrols. Contents: 176 Die cut counters. RAF: Lion puts you in control of Fighter Command. to the full cam- paign. The system controls the German defenders. The combat rules highlight unknown enemy deployments and the importance of the right tactics. playable in 12 hours. Event cards keep the action flowing while controlling German strategy. On the map. and Player Aid Cards. On the map. weather. RAF: 2-Player allows for two-players. ULTRA intercepts. attempting to deliver the knockout blow. you control the US 1st and 29th Divisions landing under fire and struggling to establish a beachhead. US forces that break through the beach defense must then contend with German mobile reinforcements in the hedgerows. close escort. rockets. In this solitaire game from the designer of RAF and Ambush. Scenarios: The First Wave (two to three hour playing time) introduces the basics in a recreation of the initial assault. the Channel Patrol. taking an hour to complete. Improving on his award-winning solitaire classic. You command the RAF or Luftwaffe in history’s greatest air campaign—the Battle of Britain.

and still expand and bring new glory through discovery. as well as technological. South America. Contents: 176 Die cut counters. invaders and alien forces. That empire exists for millennia. alliances become federations. Loyalties switch back and forth. Communi- ties of worlds form alliances. Struggle for the Galactic Empire In the far future. You assume leadership of the empire as it strives to maintain and expand while fighting the forces of chaos. Rule booklet. Other rules allow you to use psychosocial warfare and propaganda to repress rebellions. independent empires. a human wave extends across the galaxy. keep the empire stable. and eventually a galactic empire is born. when mankind has gained the means to transit space. 1 Die and Storage Bags. all is not well. Over the long millennia. You also launch expeditions to gain new knowledge and technology.decisiongames. 24 3 Canada Signature 34 3 Europe.indd 63 2/11/10 4:27:58 PM .com Address City/State/Zip Shipping Charges (Rates are subject to change without notice. economic. You make decisions to deal with threats. colo- nization and conquest. even the form of man is taking a new shape with genetic engineering. though. Weapons destroy the enemy. those who want to create empires of their own. Player Aid cards. social. usurpers. political and military events. growing and consolidating. 1 34” x 22” Map. Production creates starships and other weapons. including: rebels. and aliens of every imaginable form. Struggle for the Galactic Empire is a solitaire science fiction game. usurpers.) Country 1st unit Adt’l units Type of Service $12 $2 UPS Ground (USPS PM add $5) V/MC # Exp. Asia Phone # 36 5 Australia World at War 63 WaW11 Issue. Despite its size and apparent success. Threats are generated by chaos markers. Units have two com- bat values: weapons and morphogenetic systems. QTY Title Price Total RAF: Battle fo Britain $75 D-Day at Omaha Beach $55 Struggle Galactic Empire $50 Shipping Total PO Box 21598 Bakersfield CA 93390 Name 661/587-9633 • fax 661/587-5031 • www. There are rebels. while morphogenetic systems change them into friends. The map shows the entire galaxy divided into sectors. bringing most of the inhabited worlds under its control.

The articles focus on the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of war. diagrams and photos. Use the subscription card or order online.com 64 #11 WaW11 Issue.O.StrategyAndTacticsPress. Turning the Pages of History Strategy & Tactics magazine covers all of military history and its future possibilities. and are richly illustrated with maps. CA 93390-1598 ph: (661) 587-9633 • Fax: (661) 587-5031 www.indd 64 2/11/10 4:28:01 PM . Box 21598 Bakersfield. Don’t miss a single issue! In-Depth Analysis Detailed Maps Orders of Battle P.