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Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainty and Measurements

Laboratory Report

Dennelyne Grace F. Soriano, Phil Justine C. Soriano,
Tristin Jahaira T. Soriano, Paz Eugenedil I. Soringa
Abstract familiarize the use of vernier caliper and
micrometer caliper and compare the accuracy
This experiment compared and of the devices
explored errors, uncertainties in measuring the
dimensions and height of the sphere and the 2. Theory
cylinder through the use of three devices. The
three instruments used are the ruler, vernier In measuring, mistakes or errors can
caliper, and the micrometer caliper. At the end happen due to incorrect calculations due to
of the experiment, results showed that the improper use of a formula. In every measuring
vernier caliper produced the least % error and instrument, there is a certain amount of
gave the most accurate measurement among uncertainty in it. One rule is that the
the three measuring devices while the uncertainty of a measuring device is 50%. One
micrometer caliper gave the most precise example that is used in the experiment is a
measurement. Vernier caliper which it has a 0.01 least count.
In computing for a certain
1. Introduction measurement, one should always follow a
certain formula in order to get its accurate
Physics is defined to be the study of measurement.
energy and forces. As science evolves, new
and various discoveries, theories and equations In computing for the volume of a
have been produced which explain events cylinder, the formula is:
around us. This is because of the recorded
measurements.
The purpose of measurement is to
provide information about a quantity. All
measurements have errors. There are two
different types of errors. They are referred to
as precision and accuracy. A measurement is
precise if it obtains similar results with
repeated measurement. A measurement is
accurate if it is close to the truth with repeated
measurement.
In this experiment, students are
expected to: (1) study errors and how they
propagate in simple experiments (2)

30 cm h = 5. The group used different formulas in getting the difference between the measurements of the given tools. Using a micrometer caliper Object Dimensions in cm Sphere d = 1.207 cm h = 5. Results and Discussion Table 1. Object Dimensions in cm and the known value. or also called as the Experimental value. the formula is: both the metal sphere and metal cylinder.08 cm Table 3. The group used three different measuring materials ( foot rule. The . The approximate percentage if the value from its original value is called the Percent Error. It Table 2. more commonly known Sphere d = 1. micrometer caliper. In computing for the volume of a diameter. Vernier caliper. metal cylinder and a metal sphere. Gram balance was also used to get the mass of the objects.24 cm h = 5. gram balance. The formula for the Percent Error is: Cylinder d = 1. Vernier caliper) to compare their accuracy and the objects to be measured are a metal cylinder and a metal sphere.58 cm as the Theoretical value. Using a ruler Object Dimensions in cm Sphere d = 1.08 cm 3. Using a Vernier caliper determines the difference between a measured value. and mass was measured on sphere. micrometer caliper. Methodology The group used a foot rule. height.00 cm When measuring objects with different devices. 4.619 cm Cylinder d = 1.60 cm Cylinder d = 1. it may result to minimal errors.

14 2. get the desired measurements of the objects by and percent error.63 6. The vernier caliper gave us using a ruler. 5. Conclusion We used the measurements we got A vernier caliper and a micrometer from the first three tables using the ruler.70 9% 1% 4% der num cm3 cm3 cm3 g/cm g/cm g/cm3 3 3 g/cm3 error and the vernier Table 4.3 g 6.1% 7% e cm3 cm3 cm3 g/cm g/cm g/cm3 3 3 g/cm3 Cylin alumi 16. the object must be placed properly 0.66 2. computed density.2 g 2.87 4% 0.81 2.46 2.1% error after measuring the sphere. Table 4 shows subsequent values obtained through computation. The micrometer caliper gives a more precise measurement than . Determining the density Table 1-3 shows the comparison of caliper gave us the lowest number of percent initial values obtained from using the ruler. it takes an effort to get the precise computed using the constant formula for the and accurate measurements desired.86 7. caliper are devices that are used to measure vernier caliper and micrometer caliper to internal and external distances more precisely. error. The do not check its calibration.30 7. when needed.06 2. It gave us a caliper. theoretical density. vernier caliper and micrometer caliper. We got estimations. In order to volume.57 7. We have to calibrate the instruments and the cylinder consecutively using the like the micrometer caliper before we start micrometer caliper.81 2.13 5. ruler gave us the highest number of percent Objec Type Mass Volume (cm3) Computed Density Theoret Percent Error t of (g) (g/cm3) ical Materi Density al R VC MC R VC MC (g/cm3) R VC MC Spher Iron 16. compute for the density in the last table. must be precise and 7% and 4% error after measuring the sphere sensible. We got a 4% and a 9% measuring because there is a greater chance of error after measuring the sphere and the having a higher rate of percentage error if we cylinder consecutively using the ruler. a vernier caliper and micrometer the least number of percent error. We However.22 7. and a before reading the measurement and that 1% error after measuring the cylinder.

in principle. Random errors . Errors of this type results in measured values that Post Laboratory Questions are consistently too high or 1.nmsu. affected by the least count of the observational. There are . is the an error in judgement of the difference between the observer to read the scale of the observed or approximately measuring device. recording a measurement.1% on the sphere and 1% on be too high and one-half to be the cylinder.the ruler and the vernier caliper. Application eliminated. forget a digit produces the measurement with the when reading a scale or least amount of uncertainty. The accuracy of a too low. but the vernier three types of errors according caliper gives a more accurate measurement. and have precision and accuracy. Systematic errors are due to identified causes and can. Which among the three measuring consistently too low.edu: systematic used are great measuring tools because they errors.Error. Possible sources of device because it provides the random errors are: extent of the device to read the Observational and most accurate measurement of an Environmental. environmental measuring device? and theoretical. The 2. A blunder is an object. to the website We therefore conclude that the instruments we physics. be 6. devices give you the least % error? Systematic errors may be of Is the accuracy of a measurement four kinds: instrumental. A person result to have the least % error is may record a wrong value. Sources of random measurement is greatly affected by errors cannot be always the least count of the measuring identified. Although the expected outright mistake. What do you mean by error? What group committed all kinds of are the types of errors? What are error. as defined by as too high but there was also dictionary. determined value and the true value of a quantity.Among the three measuring are positive and negative devices. blunders.com. or make similar blunder. random errors. The micrometer caliper the errors you encountered in this was not calibrated which experiment? resulted to the measured value . the vernier caliper gives us fluctuations that cause about the least % error which has an error one-half of the measurement to of 0. the micrometer caliper for it misread a scale.

is said to have once uses this conversion: 1 kg = 2. % Error = |Theoretical Value .2046 pounds.The expression foot-long means “a foot (12 inches) in length.05mm . The exact length varied according to whose arm was being used and could be from 18 to 22 inches.” A cubit was a measurement based on the forearm from elbow to fingertip. quantity of some dry measure. A student weigh himself using a measured in fathoms. Give other parts of the body that are being used for measurements even today. “hand” was a measurement of three inches. “the elbow. Fathom.) vernier caliper that reads 3. Miners use bathroom scale calibrated in the term to describe an area equal kilograms.2 been a formal unit of measure equal pounds? The standard kilogram is to one-forty-eighth of an inch.” The same is true of digit in modern English. Sketch a. In Latin.2046 – 2. digitus could mean either “finger” or “toe. What is the percentage according to the Online Etymology error in his reported weight if he Dictionary. Old English faethm. People use the digits of their hands to count to ten. was “the length of the outstretched arm” about six feet. 3.Experimental Value| X This measurement is still used to 100 reckon the height of horses. What are some properties to be a standard of measurement? b.2| X 100 2. A equal to 2. Water depth is 4. Handful is an indeterminate . Digit. from Latin cubitum.” Cubit.2046 = 0. in pounds. but now it is four inches. such .48cm Theoretical Value = |2.) a micrometer caliper that reads 7.2 % 5. Hairbreadth. He reported his weight to six square feet.

References Maddox. Again. to take rough measurements.org/en/modules/Activities/p Precision and accuracy are some 04/p04-error4.S. was “the distance between errors. Retrieved from the World Wide Web the thumb and little finger of an on February 5.U. Retrieved from .html 7.wisc.html] whose hand. (2005. that can be held in the http://www. (nd).” roughly nine [http://www. 2017. in Old N. M. it all depended on 0g/html/ERRORS.dailywritingtips. extended hand.com/body-parts- cupped hand. Span. 08 30). as grain. 2017.M. Body parts as tools for measurement. The expression rule Instrument uncertainty and least count.edu/lab/manual/no de4.physics. Retrieved from http://badger. Winokur.lepla. Thumb was probably the basis of the measurement now Lepla Org.htm] properties to be a standard of measurements. [http://www.edu/research/lab11 inches. A Greek word for as-tools-of-measurement/ “handful” is the origin of the Greek coin called a drachma.physics. M. (nd). of thumb probably originated with Retrieved from the World Wide Web on carpenters who used their thumbs February 5. (2014).nmsu. Errors and Statistics: called an inch. Errors and Uncertainties. Types of experimental English.