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Energy Procedia
Procedia 00
00 (2017)
(2017) 000–000


Procedia120 (2017) 000–000
00 (2017) 278–285

INFUB - 11th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers, INFUB-11

Numerical CFD Simulations for Optimizing a Biomass Gasifier and
Methanation Reactor Symposium
The 15th International Design and Operating
on District Conditions
Heating and Cooling
a, aa aa aa aa
V. Bogdanova *, E. George , N. Meynet , Y. Kara , A. Barba
Assessing the feasibility of using the heat demand-outdoor
R&T Division
Division –– 361,
361, avenue du
du Président
Président Wilson
Wilson –– 93211
93211 Saint Denis
Denis la
la Plaine
Plaine Cedex
Cedex –– France
temperature function
for aavenue long-term districtSaintheat demand forecast
Abstract I. Andrića,b,c*, A. Pinaa, P. Ferrãoa, J. Fournierb., B. Lacarrièrec, O. Le Correc
In thisa paper we present our investigations on biomass used as renewable energy. The numerical study of biomass gasification
this paper
IN+ wefor
Center present our investigations
Innovation, Technology andon biomass
Policy used
Research as renewable
- Instituto Superiorenergy.
Av. numerical
Rovisco Paisstudy of biomass
1, 1049-001 Lisbon,gasification
and methanation
methanation in in fluidized bed
bed was
fluidizedbVeoliawas carried
Recherche out in
in the
the framework
Innovation, 291 Avenueof
framework the
the GAYA
GAYA project
Daniel, supported by
Limay, France ADEME (French(French Agency
For Environmental
Environmental Protection
Département and
Protection Energy).
Energy). We
and Énergétiques Weethave developed
developed- aaIMT
have sharp expertise
sharp in
4 rue
expertise the
the modeling
in Alfred of
of the
Kastler, 44300
modeling hydrodynamic
theNantes, France of
hydrodynamic of single
or multiple
multiple phase
phase fluidized
fluidized beds.
beds. Indeed,
Indeed, specific
specific sub-models
sub-models have have been
been developed
developed to to represent
represent particles/particles
particles/particles and and
fluid/particles interactions.
interactions. Our
Our tools
tools areare now
now able
able toto help
help improving
improving an an industrial scale gasifier
industrial scale gasifier and
and methanation
methanation reactor
reactor unit
design by by defining
defining optimal
optimal operating
operating conditions
conditions andand instrumentations
instrumentations location.
© Abstract
2017 The
The Authors.
Authors. Published
Published by
by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.
© 2017 The Authors.
Peer-review under Published by
responsibility of Elsevier
the Ltd. committee of INFUB-11.
Peer-review under
under responsibility
responsibility of
of the
the organizing
organizing committee of
committee of INFUB-11.
District heating networks are commonly addressed in the literature as one of the most effective solutions for decreasing the
Keywords: gas emissions
Modelling; CFD;
Keywords: Modelling; from
CFD; Biomass; the building
Biomass; Biogas
Biogas sector. These systems require high investments which are returned through the heat
sales. Due to the changed climate conditions and building renovation policies, heat demand in the future could decrease,
prolonging the investment return period.
1. main scope of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using the heat demand – outdoor temperature function for heat demand
forecast. The district of Alvalade, located in Lisbon (Portugal), was used as a case study. The district is consisted of 665
Bioenergy that varya in both construction period and typology. Three weather scenarios (low, warming.
medium, high)the and threetime,
Bioenergy has has a substantial
substantial potential
potential to to substitute
substitute fossil
fossil energy
energy andand alleviate
alleviate global
global warming. At
renovation scenarios were developed (shallow, intermediate, deep). To estimate the error, obtained heat demand values were
At the same
same time, it it
is aa limited
limited resource,
resource, which
which should
should be
be used
used optimally
optimally from
from the
the environmental
environmental perspective.
perspective. The development
The development of of
with results from a dynamic heat demand model, previously developed and validated by the authors.
efficient processes
processes for
for biomass
biomass conversion is is currently one
one of the challenges for developing renewable energies in
The results showed that when onlyconversion
weather change currently
is considered, of
thethe challenges
margin of errorfor developing
could be acceptablerenewable
for someenergies in
Europe and
(the error reach
andinreach the
annualthe European
demand goal
was goal
thana sustainable
a sustainable development.
20% for all development.
weather scenarios The production
Theconsidered). of
productionHowever, second
of second generation
after introducingbiomethane
from biomass
scenarios, via
via steam
the error value gasification
steam increased up followed
gasification followed by
by aa methanation
to 59.5% (depending methanation reaction,
on the weather both in
in aa fluidized
renovation scenariosbed
fluidized bed is
is aa very
combination promising
very considered).
The value of slope coefficient increased on average within the range of 3.8% up to 8% per decade, that corresponds to the
The aim
decrease in the
aim of GAYA
of number heating (piloted
project by
hours of 22-139h
(piloted ENGIE) duringis to
isthe prove
to heating the
the feasibility
prove season (dependingof
feasibility ofonproducing
the combination
producing second
secondof generation
weather and
renovation and to
scenarios develop innovative
considered). On the technologies
other hand, and
function operational
intercept tools
increased to
biomethane and to develop innovative technologies and operational tools to support 2ndG biomethane production. support
for 2ndG
7.8-12.7% per biomethane
decade production.
(depending on the
To do
coupled so, a pilot
scenarios). plant
The was
valuesbuilt in
suggested St-Fons
could inbeLyon
used area.
to Commissioning
modify the function is expected
To do so, a pilot plant was built in St-Fons in Lyon area. Commissioning is expected to be due in early 2017 and to
for be
the due in
scenarios early 2017
considered, and
improve the accuracy of heat demand estimations.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and
** Corresponding
Corresponding author.
Cooling. author.
E-mail address:
E-mail address:
Keywords: Heat demand; Forecast; Climate change
1876-6102 ©
1876-6102 © 2017
2017 The
The Authors.
Authors. Published
Published by
by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under
under responsibility
responsibility of
of the
the organizing
organizing committee
committee of
of INFUB-11.

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling.
1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of INFUB-11

Bogdanova et al. George . optimized geometry and sizing of the reactor. N.280 m in width. The “2D-like” column dimensions are 0. better suited than those available in the commercial software. char).2 m in length. and a continuous approach based on continuum mechanics treating the two phases as interpenetrating continua (multi-fluid or Eulerian-Eulerian model). E. Y. 3D numerical simulations (reacting or not) of a bubbling gas-solid fluidized bed were then performed using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach to investigate the effect of secondary and/or ternary solid phases on the fluidized bed hydrodynamics (mixing and segregation effects of char and biomass). drag law for multi-size distribution has to be used during simulations. 2. optimal position of sensors used for its regulation (control command). has been made in terms of bed height and bubble size and shape. 6]. Mixing efficiency leading to secondary solid phase (char .or biomass itself) injection and operating conditions have been optimized using CFD by modifying both geometrical design aspects and operating conditions of the gasifier fluidized bed. CFD modelling strategy The numerical study of biomass gasification and methanation in fluidized bed refers to detailed physical modeling and complex geometrical specifications. Gasifier and methanation reactor units designs were initially based on empirical correlations. [1. The results are then used to confirm the pilot plant sizing and to guarantee the following parameters: efficient operation of the plant. 3. 2]. Moreover. The same methodology has been used for the methanation reactor. In this paper we present our investigations on biomass used as renewable energy for this specific pathway. Bogdanova . 1. Meynet. The experimental fluidized bed is a 2D Plexiglas rectangular shape column consisting of spherical glass beads of 250 µm with ambient air as the gas phase. chemical reactions and heat exchanger. 2. Results and Discussions 3. V. comparison between all relevant drag models and experimental snapshot. A. Figure 1a. 3.2 Application to gasifier and methanation reactor design A validated multi-fluid Eulerian model using ANSYS-Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is a useful tool to investigate the gas-solid behavior of a fluidized bed. The next sections will describe our step-by-step methodology from a simple 2D geometry for model validation to the full-size 3D reactor with full modeling. Kara . Pressure sensors give the size and the shape of the bubbles.2%. The granulometry of the catalyzer used in the fluidized bed of the methanation reactor is not monodispersed but follows a Gaussian distribution. The two advanced models Ruc and BVK [8] show the best results for simulating the bed height and pressure drop according to the experimental data from the University of Calgary [6]. Hence.1 Drag law validation : hydrodynamics Two different approaches have been used in early attempts to apply CFD modeling to gas-solid fluidized beds: a discrete method based on molecular dynamics (Lagrangian model).0254 m in depth. The considered experimental apparatus can be found in [3].1 2D numerical validation of drag law 2D computations have been performed on an experimental set-up to investigate the effect of using different drag correlations for modeling the momentum transfer between phases. Coupled 1D CFD studies validated by LGC conclude that the advanced BVK model is more . Several correlations [1. / Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 279 2 V. and 0. The calculations give a more realistic prediction of the global behavior of the system with the abovementioned drag laws. 2. and controlled heat exchange. The aim of our work is to perform a CFD validation of empirical correlations used for fluidized bed mobilization. have been tested. Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 tests will begin afterwards.obtained from biomass pyrolysis . several species of different particle sizes are present in the gasifier (olivine. Ambient air is uniformly injected into the column via a gas distributor which is a perforated plate with a hole to plate cross sectional area ratio of approximately 1.

. the second solid phase (biomass or char) behavior in the sand fluidized bed is studied with 3D numerical simulations. As the first level of validation has been achieved for drag functions. (b) pressure drop vs inlet air velocity. Figures show good correlation of experimental setup results (Calgary) and our simulations.1 Gasifier In this section. with the selected configuration in the gasifier. which are not discussed here. George . All those sub- models are now applied to the FICFB configuration (Figure 2b) that was settled in the framework of GAYA Project. frictional law.3 m) is calculated by applying both spatial and time averaging. BVK correlation for the evolution of pressure drop and bed expansion in the range of tested air inlet velocities. Bogdanova et al. 1: (a) Solid fraction fields for the “best” laws . Y. New sub-models. The time average pressure drop inside the bed between two specific elevations (i. The BVK drag law has been taken into account for all further CFD calculations with ANSYS-Fluent as a user-defined function (UDF). [9] :  Good hydrodynamics. Meynet. These 2D computations give a performant prediction of gas-solid and solid-solid drag tendencies with low CPU consumption.38 m/s because of the different approach: simulations take into account a pure 2D model. E. 3. heat transfer and gasifying process. (c) bed expansion vs inlet air velocity The BVK law [8] has been validated and is fully adapted to represent a poly-dispersed system in the targeted conditions. All those computations are based on 0D simulations presented before in this paper. 2c). 2c. 2) were simulated for over 40 seconds (Fig. a b c Fig. We are able to calculate residence time of olivine in any elementary volume of the FICFB. fig. Kara .2. / Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 V. Through this simulation we could prove the functioning of the fluidized bed media circulation throughout the FICFB for the considered operating conditions. further computations were performed. Computational transient results (Figure 2c) are used by the conception team of the research platform to optimize the biomass mixing in the olivine and air distribution in the combustor.e. The access to this dimensioning size is. The hydrodynamics of this FICFB (Fast Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed) gasifier (Fig. the biomass is well distributed between the center and the top of the fluidized bed. Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3 accurate in the prediction of the bubble shapes and fluctuating behavior of the free surface of the bed [3]. Bogdanova .  Assessment of the average olivine (fluidized bed media) residence time in different parts of the reactor.2 Hydrodynamics monitoring 3. have also been implemented in the CFD code : interactions between the different solid phases (symmetrical approach). 280 V. This specific sub-model represents the particles/particles and fluid/particles interactions. at this stage of model development. A deviation is observed for air velocities higher than 0. N.03 m and 0. 1c which represent the comparison experiments vs. the greatest added value to this type of calculation. 1b. This is illustrated in Fig. A. This 3D validation simulations lead to the following conclusions. The main point to optimize the FICFB is now the design of primary and secondary air inlet configuration in the combustor. whereas experimentations are done on a 2D extruded duct which produces 3D effects (mostly at high air velocity due to turbulence increase) that are not modelled in our modelling. 0. It appears that.

Bogdanova . The 3D CFD approach in a FICFB is a significant asset in selecting the fluidizing fluid. 2 (a) Geometry of the gasifier-combustor test facility. Kara . After t = 2s . transient simulation on 5 s with a time step of 0.  Highlight of areas that could be optimized.2. 3D simulations have been processed with the following parameters : Euler-Euler Multi Fluid modeling with 2 phases. a b c Fig. E. N. pressure 3 bar. took into account these results for the final design of the gasifier. A. This tool provided the necessary information for the reactor sizing and the thermal coding. Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000  Overview of the distribution of fluidizing means in the different elements of the reactor. fluidization is homogeneous: the volume fraction of catalyst slightly varies with height and is stable over time on straight sections at different heights. V. France. Meynet. 2].5 kg/h. / Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 281 4 V. Then it stabilizes at its final value after 1. Bogdanova et al.  Information associated to the mechanical holding of the equipment is provided The GAYA experimental platform in Saint-Fons.  The fluidized bed height increases with the gas injection.8 s. George . It could then be used as a quick predictive tool for further sizing. The aim of further processed 3D simulations is to validate PORTUGAS as a tool allowing the selection of favorable operating conditions before further time-consuming simulations. temperature 320°C.4a). The simulation lead to the following conclusions :  Fluidizing the catalyst is possible under nominal and maximal bed expansion conditions. right side combustor). Numerical identification of flow defects is now possible. gas flowrate 106. . The design of the GAYA reactor has been done with the help of the tool PORTUGAS [9]: a 0D/1D model (coupled bubble and dense phase as shown Figure 3 developed in ENGIE CRIGEN predicting the behavior of the reaction.025 s. fix particle size of 318 µm. (b) FICFB model for the GAYA platform (left side : gasifier. Y. and methanation reactor geometry (Fig.2 Methanation reactor Academic scale methanation reactor behavior data can be found in the Kopyscinski experimental thesis [1. (c) gasifier hydrodynamics 3D simulation 3.

(c) evolution of the fluidized bed height in the methanation reactor . Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 5  The height reached by the fluidized bed is within the range of the forecast sizing. The fluidized bed remains in the portion of smaller diameter of the methanation reactor and the catalyst is not led to the reactor outlet. / Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 V. George . Meynet. Y. (b) methanation reactor hydrodynamics 3D simulation. Kara . Bogdanova . A. Bogdanova et al.282 V. E. N. 4 : (a) methanator reactor design. Fig. 3: Illustration of PORTUGAS physics a b c Fig.

Consequently. Several correlations have been studied [4] :  Leva (1952). a CFD modelling of heat transfer coefficient is necessary to calculate correctly the Nusselt number.8 0.𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 1 = + 0.28 𝜀𝜀𝑠𝑠.05 ( ) (8). Currently available models in CFD software are not sufficiently well suited and sizing is made using empirical correlations that have to be verified.3 Thermal aspect for methanation reactor Methanation is a strongly exothermal chemical reaction. 𝐵𝐵3 ≡ 1 + 0.66 ℎ𝑐𝑐 𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝 𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝜌𝜌 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 = 3. E. here. Thus. To assess its effectiveness. is to guarantee that fluidized bed temperature is homogenous.75 𝑁𝑁𝑢𝑢𝑐𝑐 ≡ = 0. Bogdanova et al.3 [ ( ) 𝑈𝑈𝑒𝑒 ] (6) 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 −𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 𝑔𝑔 𝑈𝑈𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑔𝑔𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 1 2 2 𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 2 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 3 𝑈𝑈𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝐵𝐵2 ≡ 1 + 0. (11). The heat transfer coefficient h (W.m-2. (12) 𝐾𝐾𝑛𝑛 𝑃𝑃𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝 (2𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 −𝑅𝑅 ⁄𝑀𝑀𝑔𝑔 ) 𝑔𝑔𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝 (𝜀𝜀𝑏𝑏 −𝜀𝜀𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ) And 𝑤𝑤𝑝𝑝 = √ .K-1) is the main parameter of this part. 𝑈𝑈𝑒𝑒 ≡ 𝑈𝑈𝑔𝑔 − 𝑈𝑈𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 (9) 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 −𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 𝑔𝑔𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 𝑈𝑈𝑒𝑒  Martin (1984). ℎ𝑐𝑐 𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝 0.29 ( ) (3) 𝑅𝑅𝑏𝑏 𝑅𝑅𝑏𝑏  Molerus and al. 𝐵𝐵1 ≡ 1 + 33.07 + 3.𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑈𝑈𝑒𝑒 𝑈𝑈𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ( ) ( ) (7) .23 ( 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 ) ( 𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 ) ( 𝑠𝑠 ) 𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 for 10−2 ≤ 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒𝑝𝑝 ≤ 102 (2) 𝑟𝑟 𝑟𝑟 2 and with 𝐶𝐶𝑅𝑅 = 1. Y.165Pr 1⁄3 ( ) 1⁄3 ( ) (4) 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 𝐵𝐵1 [1+𝐵𝐵2 (𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 ⁄2𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝜇𝜇𝑔𝑔 )] 𝑔𝑔 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 − 𝜌𝜌𝑔𝑔 𝐵𝐵3 2 1 1 −1 𝜇𝜇𝑔𝑔 3 1 3 𝑈𝑈𝑒𝑒 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 3 Where 𝑙𝑙 = ( ) ( ) (5). 𝑁𝑁 ≅ 4(1 − 𝐾𝐾𝑛𝑛 ) ln (1 + ) − 4. (1995).51 × 10−4 𝐶𝐶𝑅𝑅 (1 − 𝜀𝜀)𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒𝑝𝑝0.525 (𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒𝑝𝑝 ) (1) 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔  Wender et Cooper (1958). George . Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 3. 𝑁𝑁 ℎ𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝 − 𝜌𝜌𝑠𝑠 𝑐𝑐𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝 𝑤𝑤𝑝𝑝 = 𝑍𝑍(1 − 𝜀𝜀𝑏𝑏 ) (1 − 𝑒𝑒 𝐶𝐶𝑐𝑐 𝑍𝑍 ) with 𝑍𝑍 ≡ (10) 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 6𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 1 1 4𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 (2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 ⁄𝑀𝑀𝑔𝑔 )2 For 𝑘𝑘𝑠𝑠 ≫ 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 . the steam flow circulating in the tubular exchanger has to be sufficient to extract enough heat from the reacting mixture to guarantee a stable temperature level in it. Kara . Chilling the reacting mixture is thus a major goal to evacuate the heat in order to ensure the normal reactor operation. one must look at the temperature homogeneity. in the right range of temperature and that the proposed chiller’s position and geometry (similar to a tubular exchanger) is the optimal one to remove the excess heat. ℎ𝑐𝑐 𝑙𝑙 0.43 0. 0.125𝜀𝜀𝑠𝑠. The issue. N. / Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 283 6 V. (13) 5(1−𝜀𝜀𝑏𝑏 )(1−𝜀𝜀𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 ) . V. Meynet. 𝐾𝐾𝑛𝑛 = . Bogdanova .04 ( ) − 3. A.

E. These simulations. Bogdanova et al. Then. Hydrodynamics and thermal aspects are now mastered. the multi-fluid Eulerian model implemented in ANSYS-Fluent CFD software became a useful tool to investigate the gas–solid behavior of a fluidized bed. The BVK law has demonstrated its capability to represent a poly- dispersed system in the targeted conditions. 5. we have illustrated our step-by-step methodology from a simple geometry for model validation to the real fluidized bed geometry with full modeling. Collected data during forthcoming tests would be very useful to improve chemical modeling of biomass conversion phenomena before its CFD implementation. Bogdanova . 5 : Example of PORTUGAS output draws (everything may be monitored to help the understanding of the process) 4. Meynet. Performed results on the pilot plant Developed and implemented models or tools are now available to predict the way of piloting the experimental gasifier and methanation reactor of the GAYA Project (i. location of the instrumentations and operating conditions). In this paper. George .5) improve the understanding of physical phenomena.e. a 3D numerical simulation (reacting or not) of a bubbling gas–solid fluidized bed has been performed using the . Y. The first 2D computations on an experimental set-up aimed to investigate the effect of drag correlations in modeling the momentum transfer between phases.284 V. compared with the results of the PORTUGAS tool (fig. Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 7 3D simulations are currently under progress to identify the best correlation for the evaluation of heat transfer on heat exchanger and temperature levels homogeneity in the methanation reactor. A. Based on this validation. This helps the better sizing and monitoring of the experimental platform. Kara . Fig. Conclusions and Outlook The numerical study of biomass gasification and methanation in fluidized bed refers to detailed physical modeling and complex geometrical specifications. N. / Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 V.

/ Energy Procedia 120 (2017) 278–285 285 8 V. B. Chem. N. M. N. Peureux. Bessières and G. 19-30. V. Schildhauer.. [3] E. The Canadian journal of engineering vol. B. 2009. J. and Biollaz. [7] Syamlal. Y. M. References [1] Kopyscinski. J. an innovative Austrian company which designed the industrial gasifier reactor operated at Güssing. A full 3D simulation of the methanation reactor in particular with reaction kinetics is the next step. Mixing efficiency leading to secondary solid phase (char (obtained from biomass pyrolysis) or biomass itself) injection and operating conditions have been optimized using CFD by modifying both geometrical aspects and operation conditions of the gasifier.. pp. A. Schildhauer. usually Cc = 2.m-1. Marchand. Bogdanova . M. Y. K. MFIX Documentation theory guide. Meynet.343 . 1993. M.. S.M.1016/j. T. Acknowledgements This study is carried out in the framework of the GAYA project supported by ADEME (French Agency For Environmental Protection and Energy). Kara.J. is also a partner of the GAYA project. Nguyen. Chem. J. The added value of the presented work is the numerical validation (CFD) of empirical correlations used to size FICFB from a reduced 2D-model to a full-size 3D model. 2009. 7. Fuel (2010) In Press. Nikoo. O’Brien. [8] Beetstra.B. Y. 257-274 [5] E.fuel. S. 87. The obtained results have then been used to confirm the sizing of the pilot plant. [9] Project GAYA ID : Development of PORTUGAS to study catalytic methanation of syngas in a fluidized bed reactor Nomenclature Cc dimensionless empiric parameter inversely proportional to the time of contact between the particle and the wall. J.6 dp fluidized bed particles size (m) FICFB Fast Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed kg gas thermal conductivity (W. Marchand. Ellis..A. of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center. A. J. Numerical study of segregation using a new drag force correlation for polydisperse systems derivated from lattice-Boltzmann simulations. CFD simulation of gas-solid bubbling fluidized bed : a new method for adjusting drag law. Bogdanova et al. Handbook of Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems. Kara . Kuipers. Numerical CFD Simulations for Understanding and Optimizing a Biomass Gasifier Reactor Set-Up.027. ICPS 2013 [4] Wan-Ching Yang. Eng. Nguyen. George . DOI: 10. pp. Production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from coal and dry biomass _ A technology review from 1950 to 2009. 246-255. 2006... Mahinpey.M. [2] Kopyscinski. Eng. M. F. Technol.. Dept. J. A.K-1) N dimensionless Nusselt number r pipe radial position R_b radius of the fluidized bed Rep dimensionless particle Reynolds number wp : average particles velocity under Maxwell distribution . Barba / Energy Procedia 00 (2017) 000–000 Eulerian–Eulerian approach to investigate the effect of secondary solid phases on the sand fluidized bed hydrodynamics. Galnares and O. R. vol 62. U. Thiery. Chapter 10. Kara.2010.. 6. Sc. George. pp. N.A. REPOTEC. 2010. George. Van Der Hoef. E. T. Numerical CFD Simulations for Optimizing a Biomass Gasifier Reactor Design and Operating Conditions. IGRC 2014 [6] Vejahati. T. J.01. Guerrini.. Employing Catalyst Fluidization to Enable Carbon Management in the Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Biomass..S. 32 pp. and Biollaz.