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Brief of some unique settlements

The Settlement pattern of Dogadi is compact along the side of the road. The accessibility of the
road from Bamka Bazaar is throughout the settlement; however, regular transportation system is
a problem. There is sufficient cultivable land for the settlement but due to lack of irrigation
system, food insufficiency is a major issue. Settlement is prone to Liquefaction and river cutting
which can be maintained through engineering interventions. The economic condition is relatively
poor because of high unemployment, which is a major reason for migration to India in search of
work. The unique feature of this settlement is that the male to female ratio in household activity
is comparatively less.
The unique settlement can be seen in Tapra: compact Settlement, shared entry node with shared
front yard. Settlement is along central spine with radial alleyways. The accessibility of road can
be found; however, regular transportation system is a problem. The economic condition is
comparatively better in Tapra: strong political condition might be a reason. Lack of managed
irrigation system is a reason for food insufficiency. Among many settlements we visited, Tapra is
comparatively safe from natural hazards. The inequality in male and female in household activity
can been seen which is different from other settlements. Tapra can be a probable resettlement
area because of the abundance of basic infrastructure, cultivable land along with land for
resettlement, better economic condition and strong political condition.
Bajedi, a scattered settlement with a small cluster is prone to Landslide, River cutting and
Liquefaction. Guigad river is a major reason for Landslide and liquefaction due to which
cultivable land and even settlements are in danger hence, resettlement of Bajedi is a must. Lack
of transportation system, electricity, irrigation system, unemployment, proper education system
is the cause for poor economic condition. On a similar note, Kalapani is also prone to
Liquefaction and River cutting. Lack of accessibility of road is a major issue for market route.
Insufficient and unemployment are a major issue of every settlement we visited.
Another eye-catching settlement we visited was Amlish, Dahakot, a small cluster in a scattered
settlement aside of Amlish River, is a great opportunity for small industries. Inaccessible roads is
a problem for the export of Bhangra, a cloth made from Bhang plant. A market for the products
of this cottage industry can add a value to the economic condition of this settlement. The valley
like settlement is comparatively rich in production of cash crops as well as cereal crops. The
export of these crops is done to nearest settlements like Ghatmuna, Martadi, and even to
Dhangadi. While River cutting might be an issue in near future, Amilish can be considered safe
for the present.
The unique settlement pattern can be seen in Kimnigaun, Triveni Municipality. The entirety of
the settlement is situated on the base of natural stones and boulders and is prone to natural rock
fall. Earthquake might be an issue for the entire Kimnigaun settlement. Inaccessible roads,
insuffecient cultivable land, insufficient drinking water and trivial irrigation system are the major
reason for its backwardness. Accessibility of this settlement to market is only through foot trails
which makes the market route difficult.

An overview of Bajura
A visit to Bajura was a learning experience about the livelihood, infrastructure, terrain and the
struggles of people to make ends meet. The main occupation is Agriculture; but antiquated
irrigation system is the main reason for insufficient food production, which is the major problem
of Bajura district. Small cottage industry is an alternative along with agriculture and animal
husbandry in Amlish settlement. RAP-3 project in Bajura district has helped a lot for the local
employment and the people need such projects to stop migration of youths to India for foreign
A scattered settlement with a cluster of small settlements are commonly found. A compact
settlement along the side of road can be seen in settlements like Dogadi, Lamgaun, Bajedi. The
drainage system needs management to maintain the quality of road in settlements like Dogadi,
Bajedi, Ghatmuna, Dhugarsain Bazaar. The typical houses are made up of stone with slate
roofing with three stories. Basically, the ground floor is used as animal shed, the top floor as a
storage and middle story for personal use. Some Reinforced masonry buildings are in
construction phase.
Chaupadi is the major social issue in Bajura district; although Chaupadi shed is being removed
from various settlements. Along with Chaupadi, Caste discrimination, Polygamy, Alcoholism,
Smoking, and Blind Faith are also the major social issues. Gender discrimination is one of the
main reason of inequality. Male to female ratio in household activities are staggeringly low,
which displays the outrageous male entitlement.
Among the many settlements we visited, most of them were landslide prone, like Bajedi, Kanda,
Manakot, Dahakot, Simla, Pandhera, and Kailashmandu. Subsidence of settlements and river
cutting can be seen in Kalapani and Bajedi. Settlement as well as cultivable land are prone to
landslide and river cutting. Natural rockfall is the main issue in Kimnigaun. Wild animal attack
is a major problem in various settlements and some animals like porcupine, fox, monkeys, beer
are an issue for cultivable land.
Settlements like Martadi, Dogadi, Lamgaun, Surke Bazar, Tapra, Bajedi, Dhugarsain Bazaar and
Ghatmuna have access to road. Here, market is easily accessible. While, in the other settlements,
the foot trails can be found but import and export of grocery is difficult. The management of
physical infrastructure is must in health post and educational institutions.